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Sample records for neural circuitry involving

  1. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  2. Neural circuitry for rat recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E.C.; Brown, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the roles of different brain regions in recognition memory processes is reviewed. The review concentrates on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rats, including memory for single objects, locations, object–location associations and temporal order. Particular emphasis is given to the potential roles of different regions in the circuit of interacting structures involving the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and medial dorsal thalamus in recognition memory for the association of objects and places. It is concluded that while all structures in this circuit play roles critical to such memory, these roles can potentially be differentiated and differences in the underlying synaptic and biochemical processes involved in each region are beginning to be uncovered. PMID:25315129

  3. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-01

    This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  4. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  5. A computational framework for ultrastructural mapping of neural circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Anderson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network requires synaptic resolution, canonical region coverage, and robust neuronal classification. Though transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains the optimal tool for network mapping, the process of building large serial section TEM (ssTEM image volumes is rendered difficult by the need to precisely mosaic distorted image tiles and register distorted mosaics. Moreover, most molecular neuronal class markers are poorly compatible with optimal TEM imaging. Our objective was to build a complete framework for ultrastructural circuitry mapping. This framework combines strong TEM-compliant small molecule profiling with automated image tile mosaicking, automated slice-to-slice image registration, and gigabyte-scale image browsing for volume annotation. Specifically we show how ultrathin molecular profiling datasets and their resultant classification maps can be embedded into ssTEM datasets and how scripted acquisition tools (SerialEM, mosaicking and registration (ir-tools, and large slice viewers (MosaicBuilder, Viking can be used to manage terabyte-scale volumes. These methods enable large-scale connectivity analyses of new and legacy data. In well-posed tasks (e.g., complete network mapping in retina, terabyte-scale image volumes that previously would require decades of assembly can now be completed in months. Perhaps more importantly, the fusion of molecular profiling, image acquisition by SerialEM, ir-tools volume assembly, and data viewers/annotators also allow ssTEM to be used as a prospective tool for discovery in nonneural systems and a practical screening methodology for neurogenetics. Finally

  6. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard D Caroline

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding

  7. The role of BDNF in depression on the basis of its location in the neural circuitry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YU; Zhe-yu CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Most attention in the field has focused on hippocampal and frontal cortical regions for their roles in depression and antidepressant action. While these regions no doubt play important roles in the mental illness, there is compelling evi-dence that other brain regions are also involved. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is broadly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain and has been implicated in development, neural regeneration, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently BDNF has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, however there are con-troversial reports about the effects of BDNF on depression. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge concerning BDNF actions and associated intracellular signaling in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala as their rela-tion to depression.

  8. Group Membership Modulates the Neural Circuitry Underlying Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morese, Rosalba; Rabellino, Daniela; Sambataro, Fabio; Perussia, Felice; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior. Finally, exploratory analysis during anti-social punishment behavior showed brain activation recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with altered regulation of emotions.

  9. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S

    2016-04-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidurally over the posterior aspect of the lumbar spinal cord below a paralyzing injury. Current understanding is that such stimulation activates large-to-medium-diameter sensory fibers within the posterior roots. Those fibers then trans-synaptically activate various spinal reflex circuits and plurisegmentally organized interneuronal networks that control more complex contraction and relaxation patterns involving multiple muscles. The induced change in responsiveness of this spinal motor circuitry to any residual supraspinal input via clinically silent translesional neural connections that have survived the injury may be a likely explanation for rudimentary volitional control enabled by epidural stimulation in otherwise paralyzed muscles. Technological developments that allow dynamic control of stimulation parameters and the potential for activity-dependent beneficial plasticity may further unveil the remarkable capacity of spinal motor processing that remains even after severe spinal cord injuries.

  10. A CREB-Sirt1-Hes1 Circuitry Mediates Neural Stem Cell Response to Glucose Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Fusco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis plays increasingly recognized roles in brain homeostasis and repair and is profoundly affected by energy balance and nutrients. We found that the expression of Hes-1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1 is modulated in neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs by extracellular glucose through the coordinated action of CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and Sirt-1 (Sirtuin 1, two cellular nutrient sensors. Excess glucose reduced CREB-activated Hes-1 expression and results in impaired cell proliferation. CREB-deficient NSCs expanded poorly in vitro and did not respond to glucose availability. Elevated glucose also promoted Sirt-1-dependent repression of the Hes-1 promoter. Conversely, in low glucose, CREB replaced Sirt-1 on the chromatin associated with the Hes-1 promoter enhancing Hes-1 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, the glucose-regulated antagonism between CREB and Sirt-1 for Hes-1 transcription participates in the metabolic regulation of neurogenesis. : Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, Fusco et al. find that excess glucose impairs the self-renewal capacity of neural stem cells through a molecular circuit that involves the transcription factor CREB and Sirtuin 1. The authors suggest that this circuitry may link nutrient excess with neurodegeneration and brain aging. Keywords: neural stem cells, adult neurogenesis, CREB, Sirt-1, nutrients, metabolism, diabetes

  11. Retina neural circuitry seen with particle detector technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Using particle physics techniques, high energy physics researchers have recently provided new insight into neural circuits inside the retina. After uncovering a new type of retinal cell and mapping how the retina deals with colours, the team from Santa Cruz (US), Krakow and Glasgow is now turning its attention to more complex issues such as how the retina gets wired up and how the brain deals with the signals it receives from the retina. All this using technology derived from high-density, multistrip silicon detectors…   Seen from the point of view of a particle physicist, eyes are image detectors that can gather many different types of data: light and dark, different colours, motion, etc. In particular, the retina, a thin tissue that lines the back of the eye, is a biological pixel detector that detects light and converts it to electrical signals that travel through the optic nerve to the brain. Neurobiologists know that many different cell types are involved in these processes, but they...

  12. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Montoya, E.R.; Hermans, E.; Keysers, C.; Honk, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  13. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, C.; van Honk, Jack

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  14. Development switch in neural circuitry underlying odor-malaise learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and a 30-min peppermint-odor exposure. Conditioning groups included: Paired odor-LiCl, Paired odor-LiCl-Nursing, LiCl, and odor-saline. Results showed that Paired LiCl-odor conditioning induced a learned odor aversion in postnatal day (PN) 7, 12, and 23 pups. Odor-LiCl Paired Nursing induced a learned odor preference in PN7 and PN12 pups but blocked learning in PN23 pups. 14C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography indicated enhanced olfactory bulb activity in PN7 and PN12 pups with odor preference and avoidance learning. The odor aversion in weanling aged (PN23) pups resulted in enhanced amygdala activity in Paired odor-LiCl pups, but not if they were nursing. Thus, the neural circuit supporting malaise-induced aversions changes over development, indicating that similar infant and adult-learned behaviors may have distinct neural circuits.

  15. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  16. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks requires analog circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-03-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been experimentally shown to be quite effective in many applications. This success has led researchers to undertake a rigorous analysis of the mathematical properties that enable them to perform so well. It has generated two directions of research: (i) to find existence/constructive proofs for what is now known as the universal approximation problem; (ii) to find tight bounds on the size needed by the approximation problem (or some particular cases). The paper will focus on both aspects, for the particular case when the functions to be implemented are Boolean.

  17. Neural circuitry of abdominal pain-related fear learning and reinstatement in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icenhour, A; Langhorst, J; Benson, S; Schlamann, M; Hampel, S; Engler, H; Forsting, M; Elsenbruch, S

    2015-01-01

    Altered pain anticipation likely contributes to disturbed central pain processing in chronic pain conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the learning processes shaping the expectation of pain remain poorly understood. We assessed the neural circuitry mediating the formation, extinction, and reactivation of abdominal pain-related memories in IBS patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in a differential fear conditioning paradigm. During fear acquisition, predictive visual cues (CS(+)) were paired with rectal distensions (US), while control cues (CS(-)) were presented unpaired. During extinction, only CSs were presented. Subsequently, memory reactivation was assessed with a reinstatement procedure involving unexpected USs. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, group differences in neural activation to CS(+) vs CS(-) were analyzed, along with skin conductance responses (SCR), CS valence, CS-US contingency, state anxiety, salivary cortisol, and alpha-amylase activity. The contribution of anxiety symptoms was addressed in covariance analyses. Fear acquisition was altered in IBS, as indicated by more accurate contingency awareness, greater CS-related valence change, and enhanced CS(+)-induced differential activation of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. IBS patients further revealed enhanced differential cingulate activation during extinction and greater differential hippocampal activation during reinstatement. Anxiety affected neural responses during memory formation and reinstatement. Abdominal pain-related fear learning and memory processes are altered in IBS, mediated by amygdala, cingulate cortex, prefrontal areas, and hippocampus. Enhanced reinstatement may contribute to hypervigilance and central pain amplification, especially in anxious patients. Preventing a 'relapse' of learned fear utilizing extinction-based interventions may be a promising treatment goal in IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Neural Basis of and a Common Neural Circuitry in Different Types of Pro-social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors. In this review, we summarize the research on the neural basis of various kinds of pro-social behaviors and describe a common shared neural circuitry of these pro-social behaviors. We introduce several general ways in which experimental economics and neuroscience can be combined to develop important contributions to understanding social decision-making and pro-social behaviors. Future research should attempt to explore the neural circuitry between the frontal lobes and deeper brain areas.

  19. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W. Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidur...

  20. Understanding overbidding: using the neural circuitry of reward to design economic auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mauricio R; Schotter, Andrew; Ozbay, Erkut Y; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-26

    We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response. Leveraging these neuroimaging results, we design a behavioral experiment that demonstrates that framing an experimental auction to emphasize loss increases overbidding. These results highlight a role for the contemplation of loss in understanding the tendency to bid "too high." Current economic theories suggest overbidding may result from either "joy of winning" or risk aversion. By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, we find that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions.

  1. Placebo neural systems: nitric oxide, morphine and the dopamine brain reward and motivation circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Gregory; Stefano, George B

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the placebo response is related to the tonic effects of constitutive nitric oxide in neural, vascular and immune tissues. Constitutive nitric oxide levels play a role in the modulation of dopamine outflow in the nigrostriatal movement and the mesolimbic and mesocortical reward and motivation circuitries. Endogenous morphine, which stimulates constitutive nitric oxide, may be an important signal molecule working at mu receptors on gamma aminobutyric acid B interneurons to disinhibit nigral and tegmental dopamine output. We surmise that placebo induced belief will activate the prefrontal cortex with downstream stimulatory effects on these dopamine systems as well as on periaqueductal grey opioid output neurons. Placebo responses in Parkinson's disease, depression and pain disorder may result. In addition, mesolimbic/mesocortical control of the stress response systems may provide a way for the placebo response to benefit other medical conditions.

  2. Dynamic neural network models of the premotoneuronal circuitry controlling wrist movements in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M A; Shupe, L E; Fetz, E E

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic recurrent neural networks were derived to simulate neuronal populations generating bidirectional wrist movements in the monkey. The models incorporate anatomical connections of cortical and rubral neurons, muscle afferents, segmental interneurons and motoneurons; they also incorporate the response profiles of four populations of neurons observed in behaving monkeys. The networks were derived by gradient descent algorithms to generate the eight characteristic patterns of motor unit activations observed during alternating flexion-extension wrist movements. The resulting model generated the appropriate input-output transforms and developed connection strengths resembling those in physiological pathways. We found that this network could be further trained to simulate additional tasks, such as experimentally observed reflex responses to limb perturbations that stretched or shortened the active muscles, and scaling of response amplitudes in proportion to inputs. In the final comprehensive network, motor units are driven by the combined activity of cortical, rubral, spinal and afferent units during step tracking and perturbations. The model displayed many emergent properties corresponding to physiological characteristics. The resulting neural network provides a working model of premotoneuronal circuitry and elucidates the neural mechanisms controlling motoneuron activity. It also predicts several features to be experimentally tested, for example the consequences of eliminating inhibitory connections in cortex and red nucleus. It also reveals that co-contraction can be achieved by simultaneous activation of the flexor and extensor circuits without invoking features specific to co-contraction.

  3. Neural alterations of fronto-striatal circuitry during reward anticipation in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, S; Spengler, S; Willert, A; Mohnke, S; Herold, D; Erk, S; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N; Quinlivan, E; Hindi-Attar, C; Banzhaf, C; Wackerhagen, C; Romund, L; Garbusow, M; Stamm, T; Heinz, A; Walter, H; Bermpohl, F

    2016-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD), with the hallmark symptoms of elevated and depressed mood, is thought to be characterized by underlying alterations in reward-processing networks. However, to date the neural circuitry underlying abnormal responses during reward processing in BD remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether euthymic BD is characterized by aberrant ventral striatal (VS) activation patterns and altered connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in response to monetary gains and losses. During functional magnetic resonance imaging 20 euthymic BD patients and 20 age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls completed a monetary incentive delay paradigm, to examine neural processing of reward and loss anticipation. A priori defined regions of interest (ROIs) included the VS and the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). Psychophysiological interactions (PPIs) between these ROIs were estimated and tested for group differences for reward and loss anticipation separately. BD participants, relative to healthy controls, displayed decreased activation selectively in the left and right VS during anticipation of reward, but not during loss anticipation. PPI analyses showed decreased functional connectivity between the left VS and aPFC in BD patients compared with healthy controls during reward anticipation. This is the first study showing decreased VS activity and aberrant connectivity in the reward-processing circuitry in euthymic, medicated BD patients during reward anticipation. Our findings contrast with research supporting a reward hypersensitivity model of BD, and add to the body of literature suggesting that blunted activation of reward processing circuits may be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders.

  4. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  5. Trigeminal-Rostral Ventromedial Medulla circuitry is involved in orofacial hyperalgesia contralateral to tissue injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies have shown that complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced masseter inflammation and microinjection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β into the subnucleus interpolaris/subnucleus caudalis transition zone of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vi/Vc can induce contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia in rat models. We have also shown that contralateral hyperalgesia is attenuated with a lesion of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, a critical site of descending pain modulation. Here we investigated the involvement of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry in mediating contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia after an injection of CFA into the masseter muscle. Results Microinjection of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (5 nmol, n=6 into the ipsilateral Vi/Vc attenuated the CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia but not the ipsilateral hyperalgesia. Intra-RVM post-treatment injection of the NK1 receptor antagonists, RP67580 (0.5-11.4 nmol and L-733,060 (0.5-11.4 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced bilateral hyperalgesia and IL-1β induced bilateral hyperalgesia. Serotonin depletion in RVM neurons prior to intra-masseter CFA injection prevented the development of contralateral hyperalgesia 1–3 days after CFA injection. Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in the contralateral Vi/Vc with direct microinjection of the select 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, Y-25130 (2.6-12.9 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia. Lesions to the ipsilateral Vc prevented the development of ipsilateral hyperalgesia but did not prevent the development of contralateral hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that the development of CFA-induced contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia is mediated through descending facilitatory mechanisms of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry.

  6. Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction-error (PE learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning

  7. Effects of Direct Social Experience on Trust Decisions and Neural Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Chang, Luke J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2012-01-01

    The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms. PMID:23087604

  8. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  9. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition

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    Ambar Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  10. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL) is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL) in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit) is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  11. In Vitro Restoration of an Amyloid-Beta Altered Network Circuitry in a 'Mutated Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase' Memristor/Memcapacitor Neural Prosthesis

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    John THORNTON

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases involve the ysregulation of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE causing inappropriate production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACH. Study of how the ACH actually restores a life threatening neural circuitry damage will provide valuable information for study Alzhermer’s disease. An artificial neuronal device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic mutated ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips having memristor/memcapacitor’s characteristics, served as a model for damaged brain circuitry prosthesis, compared before and after ACH treatments, for in vitro evaluation of the memory restoration in the presence of Amyloid-beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in NIST human serum. The results are presented in three categories in “Energy-Sensory” images. Before ACH treatments, images showed four stages of circuitry damages from non symptomatic to life threatening. After a 15 nM ACH treatment, the circuitry was restored due to the ACH removed Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO center during Slow- Waving Sleeping (SWS. After the prosthesis increased hydrophobicity, the High Frequency Oscillation (HFO was created. Results were compared between the recovered and the “normal brain”: 0.14 vs. 0.47 pJ/bit/µm3 for long-term and 14.0 vs.7.0 aJ/bit/µm3 for short-term memory restoration, respectively. The ratio of Rmax/Rmin value is 6.3-fold higher after the treatment of ACH compared without the treatment in the presence of Ab and the reentry sensitivity increased by 613.8- fold.

  12. Brain circuitries involved in semantic interference by demands of emotional and non-emotional distractors.

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    Natalia Chechko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that the processes leading to the resolution of emotional and non-emotional interference conflicts are unrelated, involving separate networks. It is also known that conflict resolution itself suggests a considerable overlap of the networks. Our study is an attempt to examine how these findings may be related. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study neural responses of 24 healthy subjects to emotional and non-emotional conflict paradigms involving the presentation of congruent and incongruent word-face pairs based on semantic incompatibility between targets and distractors. In the emotional task, the behavioral interference conflict was greater (compared to the non-emotional task and was paralleled by involvement of the extrastriate visual and posterodorsal medial frontal cortices. In both tasks, we also observed a common network including the dorsal anterior cingulate, the supplemental motor area, the anterior insula and the inferior prefrontal cortex, indicating that these brain structures are markers of experienced conflict. However, the emotional task involved conflict-triggered networks to a considerably higher degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that responses to emotional and non-emotional distractors involve the same systems, which are capable of flexible adjustments based on conflict demands. The function of systems related to conflict resolution is likely to be adjusted on the basis of an evaluation process that primarily involves the extrastriate visual cortex, with target playing a significant role.

  13. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  14. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

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    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

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    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  16. Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise.

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    Antoine Lutz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during the meditation and comparison periods. Our main hypothesis was that the concern for others cultivated during this form of meditation enhances affective processing, in particular in response to sounds of distress, and that this response to emotional sounds is modulated by the degree of meditation training. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices during meditation (versus rest. During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups. These results support the role of the limbic circuitry in emotion sharing. The comparison between meditation vs. rest states between experts and novices also showed increased activation in amygdala, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS in response to all sounds, suggesting, greater detection of the emotional sounds, and enhanced mentation in response to emotional human vocalizations for experts than novices during meditation. Together these data indicate that the mental expertise to cultivate positive emotion alters the activation of circuitries previously linked to empathy and theory of mind in

  17. Differences between otolith- and semicircular canal-activated neural circuitry in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Yoshio; Kushiro, Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    In the last two decades, we have focused on establishing a reliable technique for focal stimulation of vestibular receptors to evaluate neural connectivity. Here, we summarize the vestibular-related neuronal circuits for the vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulocollic reflex, and vestibulospinal reflex arcs. The focal stimulating technique also uncovered some hidden neural mechanisms. In the otolith system, we identified two hidden neural mechanisms that enhance otolith receptor sensitivity. The first is commissural inhibition, which boosts sensitivity by incorporating inputs from bilateral otolith receptors, the existence of which was in contradiction to the classical understanding of the otolith system but was observed in the utricular system. The second mechanism, cross-striolar inhibition, intensifies the sensitivity of inputs from both sides of receptive cells across the striola in a single otolith sensor. This was an entirely novel finding and is typically observed in the saccular system. We discuss the possible functional meaning of commissural and cross-striolar inhibition. Finally, our focal stimulating technique was applied to elucidate the different constructions of axonal projections from each vestibular receptor to the spinal cord. We also discuss the possible function of the unique neural connectivity observed in each vestibular receptor system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. On the connection between level of education and the neural circuitry of emotion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenescu, Liliana R.; Stan, Adrian; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Through education, a social group transmits accumulated knowledge, skills, customs, and values to its members. So far, to the best of our knowledge, the association between educational attainment and neural correlates of emotion processing has been left unexplored. In a retrospective analysis of The

  19. On the connection between level of education and the neural circuitry of emotion perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ramona Demenescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Through education, a social group transmits accumulated knowledge, skills, customs, and values to its members. So far, to the best of our knowledge, the association between educational attainment and neural correlates of emotion processing has been left unexplored. In a retrospective analysis of the NESDA fMRI study, we compared two groups of fourteen healthy volunteers with intermediate and high educational attainment, matched for age and gender. The data concerned event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain activation during perception of facial emotional expressions. The region of interest analysis showed stronger right amygdala activation to facial expressions in participants with lower relative to higher educational attainment. The psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that participants with higher educational attainment exhibited stronger right amygdala – right insula connectivity during perception of emotional and neutral facial expressions. This exploratory study suggests the relevance of educational attainment on the neural mechanism of facial expression processing.

  20. Lighting up the brain's reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    The brain's reward circuit is critical for mediating natural reward behaviors including food, sex, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse take over this circuit and produce persistent molecular and cellular alterations in the brain regions and their neural circuitry that make up the reward pathway. Recent use of optogenetic technologies has provided novel insights into the functional and molecular role of the circuitry and cell subtypes within these circuits that constitute this pathway. This perspective will address the current and future use of light-activated proteins, including those involved in modulating neuronal activity, cellular signaling, and molecular properties in the neural circuitry mediating rewarding stimuli and maladaptive responses to drugs of abuse. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Neural circuitry of emotional and cognitive conflict revealed through facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2011-03-09

    Neural systems underlying conflict processing have been well studied in the cognitive realm, but the extent to which these overlap with those underlying emotional conflict processing remains unclear. A novel adaptation of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), a stimulus-response incompatibility paradigm, was examined that permits close comparison of emotional and cognitive conflict conditions, through the use of affectively-valenced facial expressions as the response modality. Brain activity was monitored with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the emotional AX-CPT. Emotional conflict was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis, by requiring contextually pre-cued facial expressions to emotional probe stimuli (IAPS images) that were either affectively compatible (low-conflict) or incompatible (high-conflict). The emotion condition was contrasted against a matched cognitive condition that was identical in all respects, except that probe stimuli were emotionally neutral. Components of the brain cognitive control network, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), showed conflict-related activation increases in both conditions, but with higher activity during emotion conditions. In contrast, emotion conflict effects were not found in regions associated with affective processing, such as rostral ACC. These activation patterns provide evidence for a domain-general neural system that is active for both emotional and cognitive conflict processing. In line with previous behavioural evidence, greatest activity in these brain regions occurred when both emotional and cognitive influences additively combined to produce increased interference.

  2. Dopamine prediction errors in reward learning and addiction: from theory to neural circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiflin, Ronald; Janak, Patricia H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are proposed to signal reward prediction error (RPE), a fundamental parameter in associative learning models. This RPE hypothesis provides a compelling theoretical framework for understanding DA function in reward learning and addiction. New studies support a causal role for DA-mediated RPE activity in promoting learning about natural reward; however, this question has not been explicitly tested in the context of drug addiction. In this review, we integrate theoretical models with experimental findings on the activity of DA systems, and on the causal role of specific neuronal projections and cell types, to provide a circuit-based framework for probing DA-RPE function in addiction. By examining error-encoding DA neurons in the neural network in which they are embedded, hypotheses regarding circuit-level adaptations that possibly contribute to pathological error-signaling and addiction can be formulated and tested. PMID:26494275

  3. Dopamine Prediction Errors in Reward Learning and Addiction: From Theory to Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiflin, Ronald; Janak, Patricia H

    2015-10-21

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are proposed to signal reward prediction error (RPE), a fundamental parameter in associative learning models. This RPE hypothesis provides a compelling theoretical framework for understanding DA function in reward learning and addiction. New studies support a causal role for DA-mediated RPE activity in promoting learning about natural reward; however, this question has not been explicitly tested in the context of drug addiction. In this review, we integrate theoretical models with experimental findings on the activity of DA systems, and on the causal role of specific neuronal projections and cell types, to provide a circuit-based framework for probing DA-RPE function in addiction. By examining error-encoding DA neurons in the neural network in which they are embedded, hypotheses regarding circuit-level adaptations that possibly contribute to pathological error signaling and addiction can be formulated and tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry.

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    Keiko Ikeda

    Full Text Available The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG and the pre-Bötzinger complex group (preBötC. The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN, which was originally identified in adult cats and rats. Part of the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG serves as central chemoreceptor neurons and the CO2 sensitive Pre-I neurons express homeobox gene Phox2b. Phox2b encodes a transcription factor and is essential for the development of the sensory-motor visceral circuits. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause congenital hypoventilation syndrome, which is characterized by blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Here we describe the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg rat harboring fluorescently labeled Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG. In addition, the Tg rat showed fluorescent signals in autonomic enteric neurons and carotid bodies. Because the Tg rat expresses inducible Cre recombinase in PHOX2B-positive cells during development, it is a potentially powerful tool for dissecting the entire picture of the respiratory neural network during development and for identifying the CO2/O2 sensor molecules in the adult central and peripheral nervous systems.

  5. Neural circuitry governing anxious individuals' mis-allocation of working memory to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Daniel M; Shackman, Alexander J; Pedersen, Walker S; Miskovich, Tara A; Larson, Christine L

    2017-08-18

    Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults. Results revealed widespread evidence of mis-allocation. This was evident in both face-selective regions of the fusiform cortex and domain-general regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This bias was exaggerated among individuals with a more anxious disposition. Mediation analyses provided compelling evidence that anxious individuals' tendency to mis-allocate WM resources to threat-related distracters is statistically explained by heightened amygdala reactivity. Collectively, these results provide a neurocognitive framework for understanding the pathways linking anxious phenotypes to the development of internalizing psychopathology and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.

  6. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K

    2013-11-01

    Narrative comprehension is a perinatal linguistic ability which is more intuitive than reading activity. Whether there are specific shared brain regions for narrative comprehension and reading that are tuned to reading proficiency, even before reading is acquired, is the question of the current study. We acquired fMRI data during a narrative comprehension task at two age points, when children are age 5-7 (K-2nd grade) and later when the same children were age 11 (5th-7th grade). We then examined correlations between this fMRI data and reading and reading comprehension scores from the same children at age 11. We found that greater frontal and supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) activation in narrative comprehension at the age of 5-7 years old was associated with better word reading and reading comprehension scores at the age of 11. A shift towards temporal and occipital activation was found when correlating their narrative comprehension functional data at age 11, with reading scores at the same age point. We suggest that increased reliance on executive functions and auditory-visual networks when listening to stories before reading is acquired, facilitates reading proficiency in older age and may be a biomarker for future reading ability. Children, who rely on use of imagination/visualization as well as auditory processing for narrative comprehension when they reach age 11, also show greater reading abilities. Understanding concordant neural pathways supporting auditory narrative and reading comprehension might be guide for development of effective tools for reading intervention programs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Role of Autism Susceptibility Gene, CNTNAP2, in Neural Circuitry for Vocal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the underlying cause of the action poten- tial attenuation is a global decrease in synaptic transmis- sion. Both excitatory and inhibitory evoked...Alfonsi, M., Mohn, A., Cerbo, R., Guanciali Franchi , P., Fantasia, D., . . . Palka, G. (2012). Mosaic 7q31 deletion involving FOXP2 gene associated...language deficits, accompanied by more global changes in cognitive abilities (Carr et al. 2010; Hamdan et al. 2010; Horn et al. 2010; Pariani et al

  8. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuro Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG, and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1 the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t cell and (2 the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  9. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Etsuro; Otsuka, Emi; Hama, Noriyuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG), and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1) the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell and (2) the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  10. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala–BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants’ self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala–BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. PMID:29126127

  12. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala-BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S; Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants' self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala-BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. rsfMRI effects of KB220Z™ on Neural Pathways in Reward Circuitry of Abstinent Genotyped Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yarong; Zhang, Yi; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Smolen, Andrew; Febo, Marcelo; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Gold, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Willuhn et al. reported that cocaine use and even non-substance related addictive behavior, increases, as dopaminergic function is reduced. Chronic cocaine exposure has been associated with decreases in D2/D3 receptors, also associated with lower activation to cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum in a recent PET study from Volkow’s group. Therefore, treatment strategies, like dopamine agonist therapy, that might conserve dopamine function may be an interesting approach to relapse prevention in psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z™ on reward circuitry of ten heroin addicts undergoing protracted abstinence, an average 16.9 months. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of KB220Z™ five subjects completed a triple blinded–experiment in which the subject, the person administering the treatment and the person evaluating the response to treatment were blinded as to which treatment any particular subject was receiving. In addition, nine subjects total were genotyped utilizing the GARSRX™ test. We preliminarily report that KB220Z ™ induced an increase in BOLD activation in caudate-accumbens-dopaminergic pathways compared to placebo following one-hour acute administration. Furthermore, KB220Z™ also reduced resting state activity in the putamen of abstinent heroin addicts. In the second phase of this pilot study of all ten abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, three brain regions of interest (ROIs) we observed to be significantly activated from resting state by KB220Z compared to placebo (P addiction by direct or indirect dopaminergic interaction. Due to small sample size, we caution definitive interpretation of these preliminary results and confirmation with additional research and ongoing rodent and human studies of KB220Z, is required. PMID:25526228

  14. The Advantages of Human Milk Recognize the Spatiotemporal Locations of Toxins and Intelligently Bypass Them by Forming a Hummingbird-Like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Based on an Organic Biomimetic Choline Acetyltransferase Memristor/Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. CHEN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a unique approach to study human milk’s advantage in promoting and protecting infant early brain cognitive development by recognizing toxins and intelligently bypassing the toxin by forming high frequency oscillation (HFO in the brain circuitry when compared with organic cow milk samples based on an organic memristor/memcapacitor biomimetic Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT neural network circuitry prosthesis along with a 3D Energy-sensory dynamic mapping method under antibody- free, radiolabeling-free, and reagent-less conditions. We also demonstrated cow milk is unfit for infant cognitive development, and it is actually harmful in terms of mutating infant brain synapse circuitry conformation, current flow direction, and energy output that lead to multiple Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations, and further, it led to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS based on our prediction.

  15. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The

  16. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth with bipolar disorder (BD and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N = 20, SMD (N = 18, and HV (N = 22 during “Aware” and “Non-aware” priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval appeared (187 ms before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms, followed by a mask (170 ms, and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  17. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Bones, Brian L; Chen, Gang; Rosen, Brooke H; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. How plastic are human spinal cord motor circuitries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Perez, Monica A

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal studies have documented that neural circuitries in the spinal cord show adaptive changes caused by altered supraspinal and/or afferent input to the spinal circuitry in relation to learning, immobilization, injury and neurorehabilitation. Reversible adaptations following, e.g. the...

  19. Identification of neural structures involved in stuttering using vibrotactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Oliver; Sorger, Clarissa; Howell, Peter

    Feedback delivered over auditory and vibratory afferent pathways has different effects on the fluency of people who stutter (PWS). These features were exploited to investigate the neural structures involved in stuttering. The speech signal vibrated locations on the body (vibrotactile feedback, VTF). Eleven PWS read passages under VTF and control (no-VTF) conditions. All combinations of vibration amplitude, synchronous or delayed VTF and vibrator position (hand, sternum or forehead) were presented. Control conditions were performed at the beginning, middle and end of test sessions. Stuttering rate, but not speaking rate, differed between the control and VTF conditions. Notably, speaking rate did not change between when VTF was delayed versus when it was synchronous in contrast with what happens with auditory feedback. This showed that cerebellar mechanisms, which are affected when auditory feedback is delayed, were not implicated in the fluency-enhancing effects of VTF, suggesting that there is a second fluency-enhancing mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disturbance in the neural circuitry underlying positive emotional processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatzko, Alexander; Schmitt, Andrea; Demirakca, Traute; Weimer, Erik; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the circuitry underlying movie-induced positive emotional processing in subjects with chronic PTSD. Ten male subjects with chronic PTSD and ten matched controls were studied. In an fMRI-paradigm a sequence of a wellknown Walt Disney cartoon with positive emotional valence was shown. PTSD subjects showed an increased activation in the right posterior temporal, precentral and superior frontal cortex. Controls recruited more emotion-related regions bilateral in the temporal pole and areas of the left fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus. This pilot study is the first to reveal alterations in the processing of positive emotions in PTSD possibly reflecting a neuronal correlate of the symptom of emotional numbness in PTSD.

  1. Reward Circuitry in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Robison, A J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving. The ability to observe and manipulate neuronal activity within specific cell types and circuits has led to new insight into not only the basic connections between brain regions, but also the molecular changes within these specific microcircuits, such as neurotrophic factor and GTPase signaling or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function, that underlie synaptic and structural plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse. Excitingly, these insights from preclinical rodent work are now being translated into the clinic, where transcranial magnetic simulation and deep brain stimulation therapies are being piloted in human cocaine dependence. Thus, this review seeks to summarize current understanding of the major brain regions implicated in drug-related behaviors and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to altered connectivity between these regions, with the postulation that increased knowledge of the plasticity within the drug reward circuit will lead to new and improved treatments for addiction.

  2. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) reveals brain circuitry involved in responding to an acute novel stress in rats with a history of repeated social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Lee, Catherine S; Cook, Philip A; Gee, James C; Bhatnagar, Seema; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-10-02

    Responses to acute stressors are determined in part by stress history. For example, a history of chronic stress results in facilitated responses to a novel stressor and this facilitation is considered to be adaptive. We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure of rats to the resident-intruder model of social stress results in the emergence of two subpopulations that are characterized by different coping responses to stress. The submissive subpopulation failed to show facilitation to a novel stressor and developed a passive strategy in the Porsolt forced swim test. Because a passive stress coping response has been implicated in the propensity to develop certain psychiatric disorders, understanding the unique circuitry engaged by exposure to a novel stressor in these subpopulations would advance our understanding of the etiology of stress-related pathology. An ex vivo functional imaging technique, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), was used to identify and distinguish brain regions that are differentially activated by an acute swim stress (15 min) in rats with a history of social stress compared to controls. Specifically, Mn(2+) was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to swim stress and brains were later imaged ex vivo to reveal activated structures. When compared to controls, all rats with a history of social stress showed greater activation in specific striatal, hippocampal, hypothalamic, and midbrain regions. The submissive subpopulation of rats was further distinguished by significantly greater activation in amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and septum, suggesting that these regions may form a circuit mediating responses to novel stress in individuals that adopt passive coping strategies. The finding that different circuits are engaged by a novel stressor in the two subpopulations of rats exposed to social stress implicates a role for these circuits in determining individual strategies for responding to stressors

  3. New approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babloyantz, A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Zrelov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for the detection of slight changes in the form of the ECG signal is proposed. It is based on the approximation of raw ECG data inside each RR-interval by the expansion in polynomials of special type and on the classification of samples represented by sets of expansion coefficients using a layered feed-forward neural network. The transformation applied provides significantly simpler data structure, stability to noise and to other accidental factors. A by-product of the method is the compression of ECG data with factor 5

  4. Neural circuits involved in the renewal of extinguished fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaqing; Li, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The last 10 years have witnessed a substantial progress in understanding the neural mechanisms for the renewal of the extinguished fear memory. Based on the theory of fear extinction, exposure therapy has been developed as a typical cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the fear memory can be extinguished by repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus, the fear memory is not erased and tends to relapse outside of extinction context, which is referred to as renewal. Therefore, the renewal is regarded as a great obstruction interfering with the effect of exposure therapy. In recent years, there has been a great deal of studies in understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of fear renewal. These offer a foundation upon which novel therapeutic interventions for the renewal may be built. This review focuses on behavioral, anatomical and electrophysiological studies that interpret roles of the hippocampus, prelimbic cortex and amygdala as well as the connections between them for the renewal of the extinguished fear. Additionally, this review suggests the possible pathways for the renewal: (1) the prelimbic cortex may integrate contextual information from hippocampal inputs and project to the basolateral amygdala to mediate the renewal of extinguished fear memory; the ventral hippocampus may innervate the activities of the basolateral amygdala or the central amygdala directly for the renewal. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):470-478, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance.

  6. Evidence of substance P autocrine circuitry that involves TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2 in endogenous pyrogen-induced fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Haissa Oliveira; Barbosa, Felipe L; Reis, Renata Cristiane Dos; Fraga, Daniel; Borges, Beatriz S; Franco, Celia R C; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto

    2016-04-15

    Substance P (SP) is involved in fever that is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by interleukin-1β or macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist SR140333B in rats reduced fever that was induced by an i.c.v. injection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and morphine (MOR). Furthermore, an i.c.v. injection of SP induced a febrile response that was inhibited by indomethacin concomitant with an increase in PGE2 levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Lipopolysaccharide and PGE2 caused higher expression and internalization of NK1 receptors in the hypothalamus which were prevented by SR140333B. These data suggest that SP is an important mediator of fever, in which it induces a prostaglandin-dependent response and is released after TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, CRF, endogenous opioids, and ET-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping and signaling of neural pathways involved in the regulation of hydromineral homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antunes-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several forebrain and brainstem neurochemical circuitries interact with peripheral neural and humoral signals to collaboratively maintain both the volume and osmolality of extracellular fluids. Although much progress has been made over the past decades in the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine control of hydromineral homeostasis, several issues still remain to be clarified. The use of techniques such as molecular biology, neuronal tracing, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and microinfusions has significantly improved our ability to identify neuronal phenotypes and their signals, including those related to neuron-glia interactions. Accordingly, neurons have been shown to produce and release a large number of chemical mediators (neurotransmitters, neurohormones and neuromodulators into the interstitial space, which include not only classic neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, amines (noradrenaline, serotonin and amino acids (glutamate, GABA, but also gaseous (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide and lipid-derived (endocannabinoids mediators. This efferent response, initiated within the neuronal environment, recruits several peripheral effectors, such as hormones (glucocorticoids, angiotensin II, estrogen, which in turn modulate central nervous system responsiveness to systemic challenges. Therefore, in this review, we shall evaluate in an integrated manner the physiological control of body fluid homeostasis from the molecular aspects to the systemic and integrated responses.

  9. Cost-benefit decision circuitry: proposed modulatory role for acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura C; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to select which action should be taken, an animal must weigh the costs and benefits of possible outcomes associate with each action. Such decisions, called cost-benefit decisions, likely involve several cognitive processes (including memory) and a vast neural circuitry. Rodent models have allowed research to begin to probe the neural basis of three forms of cost-benefit decision making: effort-, delay-, and risk-based decision making. In this review, we detail the current understanding of the functional circuits that subserve each form of decision making. We highlight the extensive literature by detailing the ability of dopamine to influence decisions by modulating structures within these circuits. Since acetylcholine projects to all of the same important structures, we propose several ways in which the cholinergic system may play a local modulatory role that will allow it to shape these behaviors. A greater understanding of the contribution of the cholinergic system to cost-benefit decisions will permit us to better link the decision and memory processes, and this will help us to better understand and/or treat individuals with deficits in a number of higher cognitive functions including decision making, learning, memory, and language. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disrupted Working Memory Circuitry in Adolescent Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eckfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ consistently show deficits in spatial working memory (WM and associated atypical patterns of neural activity within key WM regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC and parietal cortices. However, little research has focused on adolescent psychosis (AP and potential age-associated disruptions of WM circuitry that may occur in youth with this severe form of illness. Here we utilized each subject’s individual spatial WM capacity to investigate task-based neural dysfunction in 17 patients with AP (16.58 ± 2.60 years old as compared to 17 typically developing, demographically comparable adolescents (18.07 ± 3.26 years old. AP patients showed lower behavioral performance at higher WM loads and lower overall WM capacity compared to healthy controls. Whole-brain activation analyses revealed greater bilateral precentral and right postcentral activity in controls relative to AP patients, when controlling for individual WM capacity. Seed-based psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses revealed significantly greater co-activation between the left dlPFC and left frontal pole in controls relative to AP patients. Significant group-by-age interactions were observed in both whole-brain and PPI analyses, with AP patients showing atypically greater neural activity and stronger coupling between WM task activated brain regions as a function of increasing age. Additionally, AP patients demonstrated positive relationships between right dlPFC neural activity and task performance, but unlike healthy controls, failed to show associations between neural activity and out-of-scanner neurocognitive performance. Collectively, these findings are consistent with atypical WM-related functioning and disrupted developmental processes in youth with AP.

  11. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  12. I think therefore I am: Rest-related prefrontal cortex neural activity is involved in generating the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruberger, M; Levkovitz, Y; Hendler, T; Harel, E V; Harari, H; Ben Simon, E; Sharon, H; Zangen, A

    2015-05-01

    The sense of self has always been a major focus in the psychophysical debate. It has been argued that this complex ongoing internal sense cannot be explained by any physical measure and therefore substantiates a mind-body differentiation. Recently, however, neuro-imaging studies have associated self-referential spontaneous thought, a core-element of the ongoing sense of self, with synchronous neural activations during rest in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the medial and lateral parietal cortices. By applying deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human PFC before rest, we disrupted activity in this neural circuitry thereby inducing reports of lowered self-awareness and strong feelings of dissociation. This effect was not found with standard or sham TMS, or when stimulation was followed by a task instead of rest. These findings demonstrate for the first time a critical, causal role of intact rest-related PFC activity patterns in enabling integrated, enduring, self-referential mental processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  14. A systematic review of the neural bases of psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; Stein, Dan J

    2015-09-01

    Brain imaging studies over two decades have delineated the neural circuitry of anxiety and related disorders, particularly regions involved in fear processing and in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The neural circuitry of fear processing involves the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and insular cortex, while cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry plays a key role in obsessive-compulsive disorder. More recently, neuroimaging studies have examined how psychotherapy for anxiety and related disorders impacts on these neural circuits. Here we conduct a systematic review of the findings of such work, which yielded 19 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies examining the neural bases of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in 509 patients with anxiety and related disorders. We conclude that, although each of these related disorders is mediated by somewhat different neural circuitry, CBT may act in a similar way to increase prefrontal control of subcortical structures. These findings are consistent with an emphasis in cognitive-affective neuroscience on the potential therapeutic value of enhancing emotional regulation in various psychiatric conditions.

  15. Neural responses to ambiguity involve domain-general and domain-specific emotion processing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Maital; Kelley, William M; Whalen, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    Extant research has examined the process of decision making under uncertainty, specifically in situations of ambiguity. However, much of this work has been conducted in the context of semantic and low-level visual processing. An open question is whether ambiguity in social signals (e.g., emotional facial expressions) is processed similarly or whether a unique set of processors come on-line to resolve ambiguity in a social context. Our work has examined ambiguity using surprised facial expressions, as they have predicted both positive and negative outcomes in the past. Specifically, whereas some people tended to interpret surprise as negatively valenced, others tended toward a more positive interpretation. Here, we examined neural responses to social ambiguity using faces (surprise) and nonface emotional scenes (International Affective Picture System). Moreover, we examined whether these effects are specific to ambiguity resolution (i.e., judgments about the ambiguity) or whether similar effects would be demonstrated for incidental judgments (e.g., nonvalence judgments about ambiguously valenced stimuli). We found that a distinct task control (i.e., cingulo-opercular) network was more active when resolving ambiguity. We also found that activity in the ventral amygdala was greater to faces and scenes that were rated explicitly along the dimension of valence, consistent with findings that the ventral amygdala tracks valence. Taken together, there is a complex neural architecture that supports decision making in the presence of ambiguity: (a) a core set of cortical structures engaged for explicit ambiguity processing across stimulus boundaries and (b) other dedicated circuits for biologically relevant learning situations involving faces.

  16. A feedback regulatory loop involving microRNA-9 and nuclear receptor TLX in neural stem cell fate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunnian; Sun, GuoQiang; Li, Shengxiu; Shi, Yanhong

    2009-04-01

    MicroRNAs have been implicated as having important roles in stem cell biology. MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is expressed specifically in neurogenic areas of the brain and may be involved in neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. We showed previously that the nuclear receptor TLX is an essential regulator of neural stem cell self-renewal. Here we show that miR-9 suppresses TLX expression to negatively regulate neural stem cell proliferation and accelerate neural differentiation. Introducing a TLX expression vector that is not prone to miR-9 regulation rescued miR-9-induced proliferation deficiency and inhibited precocious differentiation. In utero electroporation of miR-9 in embryonic brains led to premature differentiation and outward migration of the transfected neural stem cells. Moreover, TLX represses expression of the miR-9 pri-miRNA. By forming a negative regulatory loop with TLX, miR-9 provides a model for controlling the balance between neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Evaluation of the cranial base in amnion rupture sequence involving the anterior neural tube: implications regarding recurrence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Robinson, Luther K; Benirschke, Kurt

    2006-09-01

    Amniotic bands can cause disruption of the cranial end of the developing fetus, leading in some cases to a neural tube closure defect. Although recurrence for unaffected parents of an affected child with a defect in which the neural tube closed normally but was subsequently disrupted by amniotic bands is negligible; for a primary defect in closure of the neural tube to which amnion has subsequently adhered, recurrence risk is 1.7%. In that primary defects of neural tube closure are characterized by typical abnormalities of the base of the skull, evaluation of the cranial base in such fetuses provides an approach for making a distinction between these 2 mechanisms. This distinction has implications regarding recurrence risk. The skull base of 2 fetuses with amnion rupture sequence involving the cranial end of the neural tube were compared to that of 1 fetus with anencephaly as well as that of a structurally normal fetus. The skulls were cleaned, fixed in 10% formalin, recleaned, and then exposed to 10% KOH solution. After washing and recleaning, the skulls were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for bleaching and photography. Despite involvement of the anterior neural tube in both fetuses with amnion rupture sequence, in Case 3 the cranial base was normal while in Case 4 the cranial base was similar to that seen in anencephaly. This technique provides a method for determining the developmental pathogenesis of anterior neural tube defects in cases of amnion rupture sequence. As such, it provides information that can be used to counsel parents of affected children with respect to recurrence risk.

  18. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Juhyun [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun, E-mail: jelee@yuhs.ac [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression.

  19. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression

  20. Bilateral primary motor cortex circuitry is modulated due to theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex and bimanual training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-08-27

    Motor preparatory and execution activity is enhanced after a single session of bimanual visuomotor training (BMT). Recently, we have shown that increased primary motor cortex (M1) excitability occurs when BMT involves simultaneous activation of homologous muscles and these effects are enhanced when BMT is preceded by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (lPMd). The neural mechanisms underlying these modulations are unclear, but may include interhemispheric interactions between homologous M1s and connectivity with premotor regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible intracortical and interhemispheric modulations of the extensor carpi radials (ECR) representation in M1 bilaterally due to: (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to lPMd, and (3) iTBS to lPMd followed by BMT. This study tests three related hypotheses: (1) BMT will enhance excitability within and between M1 bilaterally, (2) iTBS to lPMd will primarily enhance left M1 (lM1) excitability, and (3) the combination of these interventions will cause a greater enhancement of bilateral M1 excitability. We used single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to quantify M1 circuitry bilaterally. The results demonstrate the neural mechanisms underlying the early markers of rapid functional plasticity associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd primarily relate to modulations of long-interval inhibitory (i.e. GABAB-mediated) circuitry within and between M1s. This work provides novel insight into the underlying neural mechanisms involved in M1 excitability changes associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd. Critically, this work may inform rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical plasticity after brain injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Involvement of Atm and Trp53 in neural cell loss due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jusik; Choi, Inseo; Lee, Youngsoo

    2017-11-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity is one of the critical features for proper neurodevelopment and inhibition of neurological diseases. The signals from both ATM and ATR to TP53 are well-known mechanisms to remove neural cells with DNA damage during neurogenesis. Here we examined the involvement of Atm and Atr in genomic instability due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development. Selective inactivation of Terf2 in neural progenitors induced apoptosis, resulting in a complete loss of the brain structure. This neural loss was rescued partially in both Atm and Trp53 deficiency, but not in an Atr-deficient background in the mouse. Atm inactivation resulted in incomplete brain structures, whereas p53 deficiency led to the formation of multinucleated giant neural cells and the disruption of the brain structure. These giant neural cells disappeared in Lig4 deficiency. These data demonstrate ATM and TP53 are important for the maintenance of telomere homeostasis and the surveillance of telomere dysfunction during neurogenesis.

  2. Neural Plasticity Is Involved in Physiological Sleep, Depressive Sleep Disturbances, and Antidepressant Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Qi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, which is characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood and anhedonia, greatly impacts patients, their families, and society. The associated and recurring sleep disturbances further reduce patient’s quality of life. However, therapeutic sleep deprivation has been regarded as a rapid and robust antidepressant treatment for several decades, which suggests a complicated role of sleep in development of depression. Changes in neural plasticity are observed during physiological sleep, therapeutic sleep deprivation, and depression. This correlation might help us to understand better the mechanism underlying development of depression and the role of sleep. In this review, we first introduce the structure of sleep and the facilitated neural plasticity caused by physiological sleep. Then, we introduce sleep disturbances and changes in plasticity in patients with depression. Finally, the effects and mechanisms of antidepressants and therapeutic sleep deprivation on neural plasticity are discussed.

  3. Readout from iconic memory and selective spatial attention involve similar neural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christian C; Kristjánsson, Arni; Driver, Jon

    2007-10-01

    Iconic memory and spatial attention are often considered separately, but they may have functional similarities. Here we provide functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for some common underlying neural effects. Subjects judged three visual stimuli in one hemifield of a bilateral array comprising six stimuli. The relevant hemifield for partial report was indicated by an auditory cue, administered either before the visual array (precue, spatial attention) or shortly after the array (postcue, iconic memory). Pre- and postcues led to similar activity modulations in lateral occipital cortex contralateral to the cued side. This finding indicates that readout from iconic memory can have some neural effects similar to those of spatial attention. We also found common bilateral activation of a fronto-parietal network for postcue and precue trials. These neuroimaging data suggest that some common neural mechanisms underlie selective spatial attention and readout from iconic memory. Some differences were also found; compared with precues, postcues led to higher activity in the right middle frontal gyrus.

  4. Social discounting involves modulation of neural value signals by temporoparietal junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombach, Tina; Weber, Bernd; Hangebrauk, Zsofia; Kenning, Peter; Karipidis, Iliana I.; Tobler, Philippe N.; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Most people are generous, but not toward everyone alike: generosity usually declines with social distance between individuals, a phenomenon called social discounting. Despite the pervasiveness of social discounting, social distance between actors has been surprisingly neglected in economic theory and neuroscientific research. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural basis of this process to understand the neural underpinnings of social decision making. Participants chose between selfish and generous alternatives, yielding either a large reward for the participant alone, or smaller rewards for the participant and another individual at a particular social distance. We found that generous choices engaged the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). In particular, the TPJ activity was scaled to the social-distance–dependent conflict between selfish and generous motives during prosocial choice, consistent with ideas that the TPJ promotes generosity by facilitating overcoming egoism bias. Based on functional coupling data, we propose and provide evidence for a biologically plausible neural model according to which the TPJ supports social discounting by modulating basic neural value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to incorporate social-distance–dependent other-regarding preferences into an otherwise exclusively own-reward value representation. PMID:25605887

  5. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  6. Anatomical Recruitment of Spinal V2a Interneurons into Phrenic Motor Circuitry after High Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V; Karliner, Jordyn S; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Lane, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown. Using a transgenic Chx10-eGFP mouse line (Strain 011391-UCD), the present study is the first to demonstrate the recruitment of excitatory interneurons into injured phrenic circuitry after a high cervical SCI. Diaphragm electromyography and anatomical analysis were used to confirm lesion-induced functional deficits and document extent of the lesion, respectively. Transneuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to identify interneurons within the phrenic circuitry. There was a robust increase in the number of PRV-labeled V2a interneurons ipsilateral to the C2 hemisection, demonstrating that significant numbers of these excitatory spinal interneurons were anatomically recruited into the phrenic motor pathway two weeks after injury, a time known to correspond with functional phrenic plasticity. Understanding this anatomical spinal plasticity and the neural substrates associated with functional compensation or recovery post-SCI in a controlled, experimental setting may help shed light onto possible cellular therapeutic candidates that can be targeted to enhance spontaneous recovery.

  7. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  8. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  9. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  10. The Involvement of Endogenous Neural Oscillations in the Processing of Rhythmic Input: More Than a Regular Repetition of Evoked Neural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoefel, Benedikt; ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2018-01-01

    It is undisputed that presenting a rhythmic stimulus leads to a measurable brain response that follows the rhythmic structure of this stimulus. What is still debated, however, is the question whether this brain response exclusively reflects a regular repetition of evoked responses, or whether it also includes entrained oscillatory activity. Here we systematically present evidence in favor of an involvement of entrained neural oscillations in the processing of rhythmic input while critically pointing out which questions still need to be addressed before this evidence could be considered conclusive. In this context, we also explicitly discuss the potential functional role of such entrained oscillations, suggesting that these stimulus-aligned oscillations reflect, and serve as, predictive processes, an idea often only implicitly assumed in the literature. PMID:29563860

  11. Serotonergic Regulation of Prefrontal Cortical Circuitries Involved in Cognitive Processing: A Review of Individual 5-HT Receptor Mechanisms and Concerted Effects of 5-HT Receptors Exemplified by the Multimodal Antidepressant Vortioxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Steven C; Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Dale, Elena; Smagin, Gennady; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-07-15

    It has been known for several decades that serotonergic neurotransmission is a key regulator of cognitive function, mood, and sleep. Yet with the relatively recent discoveries of novel serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes, as well as an expanding knowledge of their expression level in certain brain regions and localization on certain cell types, their involvement in cognitive processes is still emerging. Of particular interest are cognitive processes impacted in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical to normal cognitive processes, including attention, impulsivity, planning, decision-making, working memory, and learning or recall of learned memories. Furthermore, serotonergic dysregulation within the PFC is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders associated with prominent symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Thus, it is important to better understand the overall makeup of serotonergic receptors in the PFC and on which cell types these receptors mediate their actions. In this Review, we focus on 5-HT receptor expression patterns within the PFC and how they influence cognitive behavior and neurotransmission. We further discuss the net effects of vortioxetine, an antidepressant acting through multiple serotonergic targets given the recent findings that vortioxetine improves cognition by modulating multiple neurotransmitter systems.

  12. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  13. Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline indirectly increases the proliferation of adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursors: an involvement of astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuken Boku

    Full Text Available Antidepressants increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult dentate gyrus (DG, which is considered to be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants. However, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. By using cultured adult rat DG-derived neural precursors (ADP, we have already shown that antidepressants have no direct effects on ADP. Therefore, antidepressants may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG via unknown indirect mechanism. We have also shown that amitriptyline (AMI, a tricyclic antidepressant, induces the expressions of GDNF, BDNF, FGF2 and VEGF, common neurogenic factors, in primary cultured astrocytes (PCA. These suggest that AMI-induced factors in astrocytes may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of AMI-induced factors and conditioned medium (CM from PCA treated with AMI on ADP proliferation. The effects of CM and factors on ADP proliferation were examined with BrdU immunocytochemistry. AMI had no effect on ADP proliferation, but AMI-treated CM increased it. The receptors of GDNF, BDNF and FGF2, but not VEGF, were expressed in ADP. FGF2 significantly increased ADP proliferation, but not BDNF and GDNF. In addition, both of a specific inhibitor of FGF receptors and anti-FGF2 antibody significantly counteracted the increasing effect of CM on ADP proliferation. In addition, FGF2 in brain is mainly derived from astrocytes that are key components of the neurogenic niches in adult DG. These suggest that AMI may increase ADP proliferation indirectly via PCA and that FGF2 may a potential candidate to mediate such an indirect effect of AMI on ADP proliferation via astrocytes.

  14. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  15. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  16. Involvement of extracellular factors in maintaining self-renewal of neural stem cell by nestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chun Guang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Jia, Lei; Liu, Jun Feng; Lahn, Bruce T; Ma, Bao Feng

    2014-07-09

    Nestin knockout leads to embryonic lethality and self-renewal deficiency in neural stem cells (NSCs). However, how nestin maintains self-renewal remains uncertain. Here, we used the dosage effect of nestin in heterozygous mice (Nes+/-) to study self-renewal of NSCs. With existing extracellular signaling in vivo or in vitro, nestin levels do not affect proliferation ability or apoptosis when compared between Nes+/- and Nes+/+ NSCs. However, self-renewal ability of Nes+/- NSCs is impaired when plated at a low cell density and completely lost at a clonal density. This deficiency in self-renewal at a clonal density is rescued using a medium conditioned by Nes+/+ NSCs. In addition, the Akt signaling pathway is altered at low density and reversed by conditioned medium. Our data show that secreted factors contribute toward maintaining self-renewal of NSCs by nestin, potentially through Akt signaling.

  17. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jarred; Aron, Arthur; Parke, Sara; Chatterjee, Neil; Mackey, Sean

    2010-10-13

    The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain. Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship. Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1) viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2) viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3) a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain. The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain.

  18. The neural network involved in a bimanual tactile-tactile matching discrimination task: a functional imaging study at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel A. [UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Hopital des Quinze-Vingts, Paris (France)

    2007-08-15

    The cerebral and cerebellar network involved in a bimanual object recognition was studied in blood oxygenation dependent level functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nine healthy right-handed volunteers were scanned (1) while performing bilateral finger movements (nondiscrimination motor task), and (2) while performing a bimanual tactile-tactile matching discrimination task using small chess pieces (tactile discrimination task). Extensive activations were specifically observed in the parietal (SII, superior lateral lobule), insular, prefrontal, cingulate and neocerebellar cortices (HVIII), with a left predominance in motor areas, during the tactile discrimination task in contrast to the findings during the nondiscrimination motor task. Bimanual tactile-tactile matching discrimination recruits multiple sensorimotor and associative cerebral and neocerebellar networks (including the cerebellar second homunculus, HVIII), comparable to the neural circuits involved in unimanual tactile object recognition. (orig.)

  19. High glucose alters the expression of genes involved in proliferation and cell-fate specification of embryonic neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Tay, S S W; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2006-05-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects during embryogenesis. Since the neural tube is derived from neural stem cells (NSCs), it is hypothesised that in diabetic pregnancy neural tube defects result from altered expression of developmental control genes, leading to abnormal proliferation and cell-fate choice of NSCs. Cell viability, proliferation index and apoptosis of NSCs and differentiated cells from mice exposed to physiological or high glucose concentration medium were examined by a tetrazolium salt assay, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling and immunocytochemistry. Expression of developmental genes, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), neurogenin 1/2 (Neurog1/2), achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Ascl1), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1), oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2), hairy and enhancer of split 1/5 (Hes1/5) and delta-like 1 (Dll1), was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Proliferation index and neuronal specification in the forebrain of embryos at embryonic day 11.5 were examined histologically. High glucose decreased the proliferation of NSCs and differentiated cells. The incidence of apoptosis was increased in NSCs treated with high glucose, but not in the differentiated cells. High glucose also accelerated neuronal and glial differentiation from NSCs. The decreased proliferation index and early differentiation of neurons were evident in the telencephalon of embryos derived from diabetic mice. Exposure to high glucose altered the mRNA expression levels of Shh, Bmp4, Neurog1/2, Ascl1, Hes1, Dll1 and Olig1 in NSCs and Shh, Dll1, Neurog1/2 and Hes5 in differentiated cells. The changes in proliferation and differentiation of NSCs exposed to high glucose are associated with altered expression of genes that are involved in cell-cycle progression and cell-fate specification during neurulation. These changes may form the

  20. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCraig-Mcquaide

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its aetiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia. Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence that stuttering of structural and functional changes in the basal ganglia in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal basal ganglia cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation (DBS for other indications is presented in order to emphasise the role of basal ganglia in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation.

  1. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig-McQuaide, Anna; Akram, Harith; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Tripoliti, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence of structural and functional changes in the BG in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal BG cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation for other indications is presented in order to emphasize the role of BG in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation. PMID:25452719

  2. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

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    Mueller, Jutta L; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Ono, Kentaro; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

  4. Disentangling the neural mechanisms involved in Hinduism- and Buddhism-related meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Chiesa, Alberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-10-01

    The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled. While mindfulness is the focus of Buddhist meditation reached by focusing sustained attention on the body, on breathing and on the content of the thoughts, reaching an ineffable state of nothigness accompanied by a loss of sense of self and duality (Samadhi) is the main focus of Hinduism-inspired meditation. It is possible that these different practices activate separate brain networks. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The network related to Buddhism-inspired meditation (16 experiments, 263 subjects, and 96 activation foci) included activations in some frontal lobe structures associated with executive attention, possibly confirming the fundamental role of mindfulness shared by many Buddhist meditations. By contrast, the network related to Hinduism-inspired meditation (8 experiments, 54 activation foci and 66 subjects) triggered a left lateralized network of areas including the postcentral gyrus, the superior parietal lobe, the hippocampus and the right middle cingulate cortex. The dissociation between anterior and posterior networks support the notion that different meditation styles and traditions are characterized by different patterns of neural activation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Neural Networks Involved in Adolescent Reward Processing: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

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    Silverman, Merav H.; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: 1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents’ reward processing, 2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and 3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing (Liu et al., 2011) reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  6. Overlap in the functional neural systems involved in semantic and episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajah, M N; McIntosh, A R

    2005-03-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data suggest that episodic and semantic memory may be mediated by distinct neural systems. However, an alternative perspective is that episodic and semantic memory represent different modes of processing within a single declarative memory system. To examine whether the multiple or the unitary system view better represents the data we conducted a network analysis using multivariate partial least squares (PLS ) activation analysis followed by covariance structural equation modeling (SEM) of positron emission tomography data obtained while healthy adults performed episodic and semantic verbal retrieval tasks. It is argued that if performance of episodic and semantic retrieval tasks are mediated by different memory systems, then there should differences in both regional activations and interregional correlations related to each type of retrieval task, respectively. The PLS results identified brain regions that were differentially active during episodic retrieval versus semantic retrieval. Regions that showed maximal differences in regional activity between episodic retrieval tasks were used to construct separate functional models for episodic and semantic retrieval. Omnibus tests of these functional models failed to find a significant difference across tasks for both functional models. The pattern of path coefficients for the episodic retrieval model were not different across tasks, nor were the path coefficients for the semantic retrieval model. The SEM results suggest that the same memory network/system was engaged across tasks, given the similarities in path coefficients. Therefore, activation differences between episodic and semantic retrieval may ref lect variation along a continuum of processing during task performance within the context of a single memory system.

  7. Neural circuits containing olfactory neurons are involved in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats

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    Haichen eNiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with abnormalities in the function of the olfactory system and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities are related is unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether inhibiting olfactory sensory input via the infusion of zinc sulfate (ZnE, 0.17 M, 0.5 ml into the olfactory naris disrupts PPI. Furthermore, lidocaine/MK801 was bilaterally microinjected into the olfactory bulb (OB to examine whether the blockade of olfactory sensory input impairs PPI. To identify the neural projections that connect the olfaction- and PPI-related areas of the CNS, trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV was performed. Our results demonstrated that blocking olfactory sensory input altered olfaction-related behavior. At the functional level, we demonstrated that the inhibition of olfactory sensory input impaired PPI of the startle response subsequent to a decrease in c-fos expression in relevant brain regions. Furthermore, the results of a similar and more robust experiment indicated that blocking olfactory sensory input via the microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 into the OB impaired PPI. At the circuit level, based on trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using PRV, we demonstrated that a large portion of the labeled neurons in several regions of the olfactory cortices connected to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. Thus, these data suggest that the olfactory system participates in the regulation of PPI and plays a role in the effect of PPI on the startle response in rats.

  8. Mapping the neural substrates involved in maternal responsiveness and lamb olfactory memory in parturient ewes using Fos imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Meurisse, Maryse; Lévy, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    In sheep, recognition of the familiar lamb by the mother depends on the learning of its olfactory signature after parturition. The authors quantified Fos changes in order to identify brain regions activated during lamb odor memory formation. Brain activation was compared with those measured in anosmic ewes displaying maternal behavior but not individual lamb recognition. In intact ewes, parturition induced significant increase in Fos expression in olfactory cortical regions and in cortical amygdala, whereas in anosmic mothers, Fos expression was very low. In contrast, no difference was observed between intact and anosmic ewes in hypothalamic areas and medial amygdala, suggesting a differentiation between the neural network controlling maternal responsiveness and that involved in olfactory lamb memory.

  9. Neural Signatures of the Reading-Writing Connection: Greater Involvement of Writing in Chinese Reading than English Reading.

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    Fan Cao

    Full Text Available Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.

  10. Neural Signatures of the Reading-Writing Connection: Greater Involvement of Writing in Chinese Reading than English Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.

  11. The influence of group membership on the neural correlates involved in empathy.

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    Robert eEres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy involves affective, cognitive and emotion regulative components. The affective component relies on the sharing of emotional states with others and is discussed here in relation to the human Mirror System. On the other hand, the cognitive component is related to understanding the mental states of others and draws upon literature surrounding Theory of Mind. The final component, emotion regulation depends on executive function and is responsible for managing the degree to which explicit empathic responses are made. This mini-review provides information on how each of the three components is individually affected by group membership and how this leads to in-group bias.

  12. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

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    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  13. Role of the Brain's Reward Circuitry in Depression: Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an important role for the brain's reward circuitry in controlling mood under normal conditions and contributing importantly to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of a range of mood disorders, such as depression. Here we focus on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry, in depression and other stress-related disorders. The prominence of anhedonia, reduced motivation, and decreased energy level in most individuals with depression supports the involvement of the NAc in these conditions. We concentrate on several transcription factors (CREB, ΔFosB, SRF, NFκB, and β-catenin), which are altered in the NAc in rodent depression models--and in some cases in the NAc of depressed humans, and which produce robust depression- or antidepressant-like effects when manipulated in the NAc in animal models. These studies of the NAc have established novel approaches toward modeling key symptoms of depression in animals and could enable the development of antidepressant medications with fundamentally new mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

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    Krasiński Marcin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships. Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2], then it is re-trained (calibrated with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

  15. Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Kosuke; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nouchi, Rui; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakaki, Kohei; Sasaki, Yukako; Magistro, Daniele; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant differences in change of performance of measures of cognitive functions or second language skills after training with TCSSL compared with that of the active control group. However, compared with the active control group, training with TCSSL was associated with increased fALFF, RSFC, and FA and decreased rGMV involving areas in the left STG. These results lacked evidence of a far transfer effect of time-compressed speech training on a wide range of cognitive functions and second language skills in young adults. However, these results demonstrated effects of time-compressed speech training on gray and white matter structures as well as on resting-state intrinsic activity and connectivity involving the left STG, which plays a key role in listening comprehension.

  16. Functional Maps of Neocortical Local Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alex M.; Lamy, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided. This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized. PMID:18982117

  17. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural overlap in processing music and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. PMID:25646513

  19. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

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    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  20. Heterogeneity of neuroblastoma cell identity defined by transcriptional circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, Valentina; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Peltier, Agathe; Durand, Simon; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; Raynal, Virginie; Etchevers, Heather C; Thomas, Sophie; Lermine, Alban; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Geoerger, Birgit; Orth, Martin F; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Diaz, Elise; Ducos, Bertrand; Surdez, Didier; Carcaboso, Angel M; Medvedeva, Irina; Deller, Thomas; Combaret, Valérie; Lapouble, Eve; Pierron, Gaelle; Grossetête-Lalami, Sandrine; Baulande, Sylvain; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Barillot, Emmanuel; Rohrer, Hermann; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, derived from multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs). To define core regulatory circuitries (CRCs) controlling the gene expression program of neuroblastoma, we established and analyzed the neuroblastoma super-enhancer landscape. We discovered three types of identity in neuroblastoma cell lines: a sympathetic noradrenergic identity, defined by a CRC module including the PHOX2B, HAND2 and GATA3 transcription factors (TFs); an NCC-like identity, driven by a CRC module containing AP-1 TFs; and a mixed type, further deconvoluted at the single-cell level. Treatment of the mixed type with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enrichment of NCC-like cells. The noradrenergic module was validated by ChIP-seq. Functional studies demonstrated dependency of neuroblastoma with noradrenergic identity on PHOX2B, evocative of lineage addiction. Most neuroblastoma primary tumors express TFs from the noradrenergic and NCC-like modules. Our data demonstrate a previously unknown aspect of tumor heterogeneity relevant for neuroblastoma treatment strategies.

  1. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  2. Lessons from sleeping flies: insights from Drosophila melanogaster on the neuronal circuitry and importance of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Sheetal; Sheeba, Vasu

    2013-06-01

    Sleep is a highly conserved behavior whose role is as yet unknown, although it is widely acknowledged as being important. Here we provide an overview of many vital questions regarding this behavior, that have been addressed in recent years using the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster in several laboratories around the world. Rest in D. melanogaster has been compared to mammalian sleep and its homeostatic and circadian regulation have been shown to be controlled by intricate neuronal circuitry involving circadian clock neurons, mushroom bodies, and pars intercerebralis, although their exact roles are not entirely clear. We draw attention to the yet unanswered questions and contradictions regarding the nature of the interactions between the brain regions implicated in the control of sleep. Dopamine, octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin are the chief neurotransmitters identified as functioning in different limbs of this circuit, either promoting arousal or sleep by modulating membrane excitability of underlying neurons. Some studies have suggested that certain brain areas may contribute towards both sleep and arousal depending on activation of specific subsets of neurons. Signaling pathways implicated in the sleep circuit include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (EGFR-ERK) signaling pathways that operate on different neural substrates. Thus, this field of research appears to be on the cusp of many new and exciting findings that may eventually help in understanding how this complex physiological phenomenon is modulated by various neuronal circuits in the brain. Finally, some efforts to approach the "Holy Grail" of why we sleep have been summarized.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis Of Purified Embryonic Neural Stem Cells From Zebrafish Embryos Reveals Signalling Pathways Involved In Glycine-dependent Neurogenesis

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    Eric eSAMARUT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available How is the initial set of neurons correctly established during the development of the vertebrate central nervous system? In the embryo, glycine and GABA are depolarizing due the immature chloride gradient, which is only reversed to become hyperpolarizing later in post-natal development. We previously showed that glycine regulates neurogenesis via paracrine signalling that promotes calcium transients in neural stem cells (NSCs and their differentiation into interneurons within the spinal cord of the zebrafish embryo. However, the subjacent molecular mechanisms are not yet understood. Our previous work suggests that early neuronal progenitors were not differentiating correctly in the developing spinal cord. As a result, we aimed at identifying the downstream molecular mechanisms involved specifically in NSCs during glycine-dependent embryonic neurogenesis. Using a gfap:GFP transgenic line, we successfully purified NSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS from whole zebrafish embryos and in embryos in which the glycine receptor was knocked down. The strength of this approach is that it focused on the NSC population while tackling the biological issue in an in vivo context in whole zebrafish embryos. After sequencing the transcriptome by RNA-sequencing, we analyzed the genes whose expression was changed upon disruption of glycine signalling and we confirmed the differential expression by independent RTqPCR assay. While over a thousand genes showed altered expression levels, through pathway analysis we identified 14 top candidate genes belonging to five different canonical signalling pathways (signalling by calcium, TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog, Wnt and p53-related apoptosis that are likely to mediate the promotion of neurogenesis by glycine.

  4. Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Involves Activation of the Wnt5a/JNK Signalling

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    Sujeong Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of ß-catenin and GSK3ß. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased. Thus, this study shows for the first time how a single Wnt5a ligand can activate the neural differentiation pathway through the activation of Wnt5a/JNK pathway by binding Fzd3 and Fzd5 and directing Axin/GSK-3ß in hADSCs.

  5. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

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    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  6. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

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    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  7. Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsen, Laura M; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Blum, Justine; Ko, Eunice; Makris, Nikos; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of food motivation circuitry dysfunction in individuals with anorexia nervosa. However, methodological limitations present challenges to the development of a cohesive neurobiological model of anorexia nervosa. Our goal was to investigate the neural circuitry of appetite dysregulation across states of hunger and satiety in active and weight-restored phases of anorexia nervosa using robust methodology to advance our understanding of potential neural circuitry abnormalities related to hedonic and nonhedonic state and trait. We scanned women with active anorexia nervosa, weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and healthy-weight controls on a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance scanner while they viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and objects before (premeal) and after (postmeal) eating a 400 kcal meal. We enrolled 12 women with active disease, 10 weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and 11 controls in our study. Compared with controls, both weight-restored women and those with active disease demonstrated hypoactivity premeal in the hypothalamus, amygdala and anterior insula in response to high-calorie foods (v. objects). Postmeal, hypoactivation in the anterior insula persisted in women with active disease. Percent signal change in the anterior insula was positively correlated with food stimuli ratings and hedonic and nonhedonic appetite ratings in controls, but not women with active disease. Our findings are limited by a relatively small sample size, which prevented the use of an analysis of variance model and exploration of interaction effects, although our substantial effect sizes of between-group differences suggest adequate power for our statistical analysis approach. Participants taking psychotropic medications were included. Our data provide evidence of potential state and trait hypoactivations in food motivation regions involved in the assessment of food's reward value and integration of these with

  8. Different Neural Networks are Involved in Cross-Modal Non-Spatial Inhibition of Return (IOR: The Effect of the Sensory Modality of Behavioral Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We employed a novel cross-modal non-spatial inhibition of return (IOR paradigm with fMRI to investigate whether object concept is organized by supramodal or modality-specific systems. A precue-neutral cue-target sequence was presented and participants were asked to discriminate whether the target was a dog or a cat. The precue and the target could be either a picture or vocalization of a dog or a cat. The neutral cue (bird was always from the same modality as the precue. Behaviorally, for both visual and auditory targets, the main effect of cue validity was the only significant effect, p<0.01, with equivalent effects for within- and cross-modal IOR. Neurally, for visual targets, left inferior frontal gyrus and left medial temporal gyrus showed significantly higher neural activity in cued than uncued condition, irrespective of the precue-target relationship, indicating that the two areas are involved in inhibiting a supramodal representation of previously attended object concept. For auditory targets, left lateral occipital gyrus and right postcentral gyrus showed significantly higher neural activity in uncued than cued condition irrespective of the cue-target relationship, indicating that the two areas are involved in creating a new supramodal representation when a novel object concept appears.

  9. Nanocantilever based mass sensor integrated with cmos circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Abadal, G.; Campabadal, F.

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated the successful integration of a cantilever based mass detector with standard CMOS circuitry. The purpose of the circuitry is to facilitate the readout of the cantilever's deflection in order to measure resonant frequency shifts of the cantilever. The principle and design...... of the mass detector are presented showing that miniaturization of such cantilever based resonant devices leads to highly sensitive mass sensors, which have the potential to detect single molecules. The design of the readout circuitry used for the first electrical characterization of an integrated cantilever...... with CMOS circuitry is demonstrated. The electrical characterization of the device shows that the resonant behavior of the cantilever depends on the applied voltages, which corresponds to theory....

  10. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  11. Prion replication occurs in endogenous adult neural stem cells and alters their neuronal fate: involvement of endogenous neural stem cells in prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Relaño-Ginès

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases, leading to severe incapacity and death. They are characterized in the brain by prion amyloid deposits, vacuolisation, astrocytosis, neuronal degeneration, and by cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. There is no treatment for these disorders and stem cell therapy therefore represents an interesting new approach. Gains could not only result from the cell transplantation, but also from the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC or by the combination of both approaches. However, the development of such strategies requires a detailed knowledge of the pathology, particularly concerning the status of the adult neurogenesis and endogenous NSC during the development of the disease. During the past decade, several studies have consistently shown that NSC reside in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS and that adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle or the Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult NSC are believed to constitute a reservoir for neuronal replacement during normal cell turnover or after brain injury. However, the activation of this system does not fully compensate the neuronal loss that occurs during neurodegenerative diseases and could even contribute to the disease progression. We investigated here the status of these cells during the development of prion disorders. We were able to show that NSC accumulate and replicate prions. Importantly, this resulted in the alteration of their neuronal fate which then represents a new pathologic event that might underlie the rapid progression of the disease.

  12. HIV-1 proteins dysregulate motivational processes and dopamine circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sarah J; Mactutus, Charles F; Harrod, Steven B; Moran, Landhing M; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2018-05-18

    Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC 50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor. Cocaine-maintained responding was attenuated in HIV-1 Tg rats (FR1 0.33 mg/kg/infusion and PR 1.0 mg/kg/infusion). Dose-response tests (PR) revealed that HIV-1 Tg animals responded significantly less than F344 control rats and failed to earn significantly more infusions of cocaine as the unit dose increased. When choosing between cocaine and sucrose, control rats initially chose sucrose but with time shifted to a cocaine preference. In contrast, HIV-1 disrupted choice behaviors. DAT function was altered in the striatum of HIV-1 Tg rats; however, prior cocaine self-administration produced a unique effect on dopamine homeostasis in the HIV-1 Tg striatum. These findings of altered goal directed behaviors may determine neurobiological mechanisms of apathy in HIV-1+ patients.

  13. Thin Film Transistor Control Circuitry for MEMS Acoustic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robin

    This work seeks to develop a practical solution for short range ultrasonic communications and produce an integrated array of acoustic transmitters on a flexible substrate. This is done using flexible thin film transistor (TFT) and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal is to develop a flexible system capable of communicating in the ultrasonic frequency range at a distance of 10-100 meters. This requires a great deal of innovation on the part of the FDC team developing the TFT driving circuitry and the MEMS team adapting the technology for fabrication on a flexible substrate. The technologies required for this research are independently developed. The TFT development is driven primarily by research into flexible displays. The MEMS development is driving by research in biosensors and micro actuators. This project involves the integration of TFT flexible circuit capabilities with MEMS micro actuators in the novel area of flexible acoustic transmitter arrays. This thesis focuses on the design, testing and analysis of the circuit components required for this project.

  14. Adolescent girls' neural response to reward mediates the relation between childhood financial disadvantage and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romens, Sarah E; Casement, Melynda D; McAloon, Rose; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Guyer, Amanda E; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-11-01

    Children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at heightened risk for developing depression; however, little is known about neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood may confer risk for depression through its stress-related effects on the neural circuitry associated with processing monetary rewards. In a prospective study, we examined the relationships among the number of years of household receipt of public assistance from age 5-16 years, neural activation during monetary reward anticipation and receipt at age 16, and depression symptoms at age 16 in 123 girls. Number of years of household receipt of public assistance was positively associated with heightened response in the medial prefrontal cortex during reward anticipation, and this heightened neural response mediated the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and current depression symptoms, controlling for past depression. Chronic exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood may alter neural circuitry involved in reward anticipation in adolescence, which in turn may confer risk for depression. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Neural and sympathetic activity associated with exploration in decision-making: Further evidence for involvement of insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eOhira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that sympathetic activity was associated with exploration in decision-making indexed by entropy, which is a concept in information theory and indexes randomness of choices or the degree of deviation from sticking to recent experiences of gains and losses, and that activation of the anterior insula mediated this association. The current study aims to replicate and to expand these findings in a situation where contingency between options and outcomes is manipulated. Sixteen participants performed a stochastic decision-making task in which we manipulated a condition with low uncertainty of gain/loss (contingent-reward condition and a condition with high uncertainty of gain/loss (random-reward condition. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET, and cardiovascular parameters and catecholamine in the peripheral blood were measured, during the task. In the contingent-reward condition, norepinephrine as an index of sympathetic activity was positively correlated with entropy indicating exploration in decision-making. Norepinephrine was negatively correlated with neural activity in the right posterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsal pons, suggesting neural bases for detecting changes of bodily states. Furthermore, right anterior insular activity was negatively correlated with entropy, suggesting influences on exploration in decision-making. By contrast, in the random-reward condition, entropy correlated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices but not with sympathetic activity. These findings suggest that influences of sympathetic activity on exploration in decision-making and its underlying neural mechanisms might be dependent on the degree of uncertainty of situations.

  16. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Norman, Meghan B; Lemon, Christian H

    2010-05-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5-15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste.

  17. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (P<.001 for all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest frequency and HIT-6 values after the intervention. The application of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option. The underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that findings i–iii can be explained by the dopaminergic representation of temporal-difference reward-prediction error (TD-RPE), whose mechanisms have now become clarified, if (1) the synaptic strengths storing the values of actions mildly decay in time and (2) the obtained-reward-representing excitatory input to dopamine neurons increases after dopamine depletion. The former is potentially caused by background neural activity–induced weak synaptic plasticity, and the latter is assumed to occur through post-depletion increase of neural activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus, where neurons representing obtained reward exist and presumably send excitatory projections to dopamine neurons. We further show that finding iv, which is nontrivial given the suggested distinct functions of the D1 and D2 corticostriatal pathways, can also be explained if we additionally assume a proposed mechanism of TD-RPE calculation, in which the D1 and D2 pathways encode the values of actions with a temporal difference. These results suggest a possible circuit mechanism for the involvements of dopamine in effort-related choices and, simultaneously, provide implications for the mechanisms of TD-RPE calculation. PMID:29468191

  19. The Medial Ventrothalamic Circuitry: Cells Implicated in a Bimodal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vega-Zuniga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous avian thalamic studies have shown that the medial ventral thalamus is composed of several nuclei located close to the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Although the general connectivity is known, detailed morphology and connectivity pattern in some regions are still elusive. Here, using the intracellular filling technique in the chicken, we focused on two neural structures, namely, the retinorecipient neuropil of the n. geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv, and the adjacent n. intercalatus thalami (ICT. We found that the GLv-ne cells showed two different neuronal types: projection cells and horizontal interneurons. The projection cells showed variable morphologies and dendritic arborizations with axons that targeted the n. lentiformis mesencephali (LM, griseum tectale (GT, ICT, n. principalis precommissuralis (PPC, and optic tectum (TeO. The horizontal cells showed a widespread mediolateral neural process throughout the retinorecipient GLv-ne. The ICT cells, on the other hand, had multipolar somata with wide dendritic fields that extended toward the lamina interna of the GLv, and a projection pattern that targeted the n. laminaris precommissuralis (LPC. Together, these results elucidate the rich complexity of the connectivity pattern so far described between the GLv, ICT, pretectum, and tectum. Interestingly, the implication of some of these neural structures in visuomotor and somatosensory roles strongly suggests that the GLv and ICT are part of a bimodal circuit that may be involved in the generation/modulation of saccades, gaze control, and space perception.

  20. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  1. Development and aging of human spinal cord circuitries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    development and to what extent they are shaped according to the demands of the body that they control and the environment that the body has to interact with. We also discuss how ageing processes and physiological changes in our body are reflected in adaptations of activity in the spinal cord motor circuitries....... The complex, multi-facetted connectivity of the spinal cord motor circuitries allow that they can be used to generate vastly different movements and that their activity can be adapted to meet new challenges imposed by bodily changes or a changing environment. There are thus plenty of possibilities...

  2. Theoretical exploration of the neural bases of behavioural disinhibition, apathy and executive dysfunction in preclinical Alzheimer's disease in people with Down's syndrome: potential involvement of multiple frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S L; Holland, A J; Watson, P C; Huppert, F A

    2010-04-01

    planning, response inhibition and working memory) and an object memory task, (also thought to place high demands on working memory), while 'apathy' score significantly predicted performance on two different tasks, those measuring spatial reversal and prospective memory (p decline was associated only with performance on a delayed recall task while antidepressant medication use was associated with better performance on a working memory task (p underlying neural circuitry and supports the involvement of multiple frontal-subcortical circuits in the early stages of DAT in DS. However, the prominence of disinhibition in the behavioural profile (which more closely resembles that of disinhibited subtype of DFT than that of AD in the general population) leads us to postulate that the serotonergically mediated orbitofrontal circuit may be disproportionately affected. A speculative theory is developed regarding the biological basis for observed changes and discussion is focused on how this understanding may aid us in the development of treatments directly targeting underlying abnormalities.

  3. The music of your emotions: neural substrates involved in detection of emotional correspondence between auditory and visual music actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Petrini

    Full Text Available In humans, emotions from music serve important communicative roles. Despite a growing interest in the neural basis of music perception, action and emotion, the majority of previous studies in this area have focused on the auditory aspects of music performances. Here we investigate how the brain processes the emotions elicited by audiovisual music performances. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, and in Experiment 1 we defined the areas responding to audiovisual (musician's movements with music, visual (musician's movements only, and auditory emotional (music only displays. Subsequently a region of interest analysis was performed to examine if any of the areas detected in Experiment 1 showed greater activation for emotionally mismatching performances (combining the musician's movements with mismatching emotional sound than for emotionally matching music performances (combining the musician's movements with matching emotional sound as presented in Experiment 2 to the same participants. The insula and the left thalamus were found to respond consistently to visual, auditory and audiovisual emotional information and to have increased activation for emotionally mismatching displays in comparison with emotionally matching displays. In contrast, the right thalamus was found to respond to audiovisual emotional displays and to have similar activation for emotionally matching and mismatching displays. These results suggest that the insula and left thalamus have an active role in detecting emotional correspondence between auditory and visual information during music performances, whereas the right thalamus has a different role.

  4. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  5. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  6. The origin of behavioral bursts in decision-making circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sorribes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From ants to humans, the timing of many animal behaviors comes in bursts of activity separated by long periods of inactivity. Recently, mathematical modeling has shown that simple algorithms of priority-driven behavioral choice can result in bursty behavior. To experimentally test this link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, we have turned to Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that the statistics of intervals between activity periods in endogenous activity-rest switches of wild-type Drosophila are very well described by the Weibull distribution, a common distribution of bursty dynamics in complex systems. The bursty dynamics of wild-type Drosophila walking activity are shown to be determined by this inter-event distribution alone and not by memory effects, thus resembling human dynamics. Further, using mutant flies that disrupt dopaminergic signaling or the mushroom body, circuitry implicated in decision-making, we show that the degree of behavioral burstiness can be modified. These results are thus consistent with the proposed link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, and highlight the importance of using simple experimental systems to test general theoretical models of behavior. The findings further suggest that analysis of bursts could prove useful for the study and evaluation of decision-making circuitry.

  7. The morphology of the sella turcica in velocardiofacial syndrome suggests involvement of a neural crest developmental field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Kirsten; Boers, Maria; Kjaer, Inger

    2010-01-01

    . The deviations were mostly in the posterior part of the dorsum sellae. Individuals with VCFS had increased cranial base angles. The results of this study combined with the information in the literature on the main defects in VCFS (palatal abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia......, hypothyroidism, and posterior brain abnormality), suggest involvement of a specific developmental field....

  8. Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids Involved in Neuroprotection and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Involved in Neuroprotection and Recovery PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hee-Yong Kim CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the...O’Dell DM, Lyeth BG, Jenkins LW (1994) The rotarod test: an evaluation of its effectiveness in assessing motor deficits following traumatic brain injury

  9. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  10. High throughput analysis reveals dissociable gene expression profiles in two independent neural systems involved in the regulation of social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Tyler J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of contextually appropriate social behaviors involves integrated activity across many brain regions. Many songbird species produce complex vocalizations called ‘songs’ that serve to attract potential mates, defend territories, and/or maintain flock cohesion. There are a series of discrete interconnect brain regions that are essential for the successful production of song. The probability and intensity of singing behavior is influenced by the reproductive state. The objectives of this study were to examine the broad changes in gene expression in brain regions that control song production with a brain region that governs the reproductive state. Results We show using microarray cDNA analysis that two discrete brain systems that are both involved in governing singing behavior show markedly different gene expression profiles. We found that cortical and basal ganglia-like brain regions that control the socio-motor production of song in birds exhibit a categorical switch in gene expression that was dependent on their reproductive state. This pattern is in stark contrast to the pattern of expression observed in a hypothalamic brain region that governs the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Subsequent gene ontology analysis revealed marked variation in the functional categories of active genes dependent on reproductive state and anatomical localization. HVC, one cortical-like structure, displayed significant gene expression changes associated with microtubule and neurofilament cytoskeleton organization, MAP kinase activity, and steroid hormone receptor complex activity. The transitions observed in the preoptic area, a nucleus that governs the motivation to engage in singing, exhibited variation in functional categories that included thyroid hormone receptor activity, epigenetic and angiogenetic processes. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal patterns of gene expression

  11. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  12. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  13. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  15. A sleep state in Drosophila larvae required for neural stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuperak, Milan; Churgin, Matthew A; Borja, Austin J; Raizen, David M; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required. Using real-time behavioral monitoring in a closed-loop sleep deprivation system, we find that sleep loss in larvae impairs cell division of neural progenitors. This work establishes a system uniquely suited for studying sleep during nascent periods, and demonstrates that sleep in early life regulates neural stem cell proliferation. PMID:29424688

  16. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Capgras delusion (CD patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and the inferior longitudinal (ILF. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia.

  17. dp53 Restrains ectopic neural stem cell formation in the Drosophila brain in a non-apoptotic mechanism involving Archipelago and cyclin E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshi Ouyang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor-initiating stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs possibly originating from normal stem cells may be the root cause of certain malignancies. How stem cell homeostasis is impaired in tumor tissues is not well understood, although certain tumor suppressors have been implicated. In this study, we use the Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs called neuroblasts as a model to study this process. Loss-of-function of Numb, a key cell fate determinant with well-conserved mammalian counterparts, leads to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts and a tumor phenotype in the larval brain. Overexpression of the Drosophila tumor suppressor p53 (dp53 was able to suppress ectopic neuroblast formation caused by numb loss-of-function. This occurred in a non-apoptotic manner and was independent of Dacapo, the fly counterpart of the well-characterized mammalian p53 target p21 involved in cellular senescence. The observation that dp53 affected Edu incorporation into neuroblasts led us to test the hypothesis that dp53 acts through regulation of factors involved in cell cycle progression. Our results show that the inhibitory effect of dp53 on ectopic neuroblast formation was mediated largely through its regulation of Cyclin E (Cyc E. Overexpression of Cyc E was able to abrogate dp53's ability to rescue numb loss-of-function phenotypes. Increasing Cyc E levels by attenuating Archipelago (Ago, a recently identified transcriptional target of dp53 and a negative regulator of Cyc E, had similar effects. Conversely, reducing Cyc E activity by overexpressing Ago blocked ectopic neuroblast formation in numb mutant. Our results reveal an intimate connection between cell cycle progression and NSC self-renewal vs. differentiation control, and indicate that p53-mediated regulation of ectopic NSC self-renewal through the Ago/Cyc E axis becomes particularly important when NSC homeostasis is perturbed as in numb loss-of-function condition. This has

  18. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  19. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  20. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  1. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bobrek, Miljko [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  2. Neural signals of vicarious extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Haaker, Jan; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Social transmission of both threat and safety is ubiquitous, but little is known about the neural circuitry underlying vicarious safety learning. This is surprising given that these processes are critical to flexibly adapt to a changeable environment. To address how the expression of previously learned fears can be modified by the transmission of social information, two conditioned stimuli (CS + s) were paired with shock and the third was not. During extinction, we held constant the amount of direct, non-reinforced, exposure to the CSs (i.e. direct extinction), and critically varied whether another individual-acting as a demonstrator-experienced safety (CS + vic safety) or aversive reinforcement (CS + vic reinf). During extinction, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) responses to the CS + vic reinf increased but decreased to the CS + vic safety This pattern of vmPFC activity was reversed during a subsequent fear reinstatement test, suggesting a temporal shift in the involvement of the vmPFC. Moreover, only the CS + vic reinf association recovered. Our data suggest that vicarious extinction prevents the return of conditioned fear responses, and that this efficacy is reflected by diminished vmPFC involvement during extinction learning. The present findings may have important implications for understanding how social information influences the persistence of fear memories in individuals suffering from emotional disorders. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Signal processing circuitry for CMOS-based SAW gas sensors with low power and area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd-Yasin, F.; Tye, K.F.; Reaz, M.B.I.

    2009-06-01

    The design and development of interface circuitries for CMOS-based SAW gas sensor is presented in this paper. The SAW gas sensor devices typically run at RF, requiring most designs to have complex signal conditioning circuitry. The proposed approach attempts to design a simple architecture with reduced power consumption. The SAW gas sensors operate at 354MHz. Simulation data show that the interface circuitries are ten times smaller with lower power supply, comparing to existing work. (author)

  4. Intranasal insulin modulates intrinsic reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Frank, Sabine; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Veit, Ralf; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that food consumption is controlled by a wide range of brain circuits outside of the homeostatic system. Activation in these brain circuits may override the homeostatic system and also contribute to the enormous increase of obesity. However, little is known about the influence of hormonal signals on the brain's non-homeostatic system. Thus, selective insulin action in the brain was investigated by using intranasal application. We performed 'resting-state' functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 healthy lean female subjects to assess intrinsic brain activity by fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) before, 30 and 90 min after application of intranasal insulin. Here, we showed that insulin modulates intrinsic brain activity in the hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, we could show that the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex response to insulin is associated with body mass index. This demonstrates that hormonal signals as insulin may reduce food intake by modifying the reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain, thereby potentially decreasing the rewarding properties of food. Due to the alarming increase in obesity worldwide, it is of great importance to identify neural mechanisms of interaction between the homeostatic and non-homeostatic system to generate new targets for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  6. Stimulation of entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sanghee; Reynolds, Ryan P; Petrof, Iraklis; White, Alicia; Rivera, Phillip D; Segev, Amir; Gibson, Adam D; Suarez, Maiko; DeSalle, Matthew J; Ito, Naoki; Mukherjee, Shibani; Richardson, Devon R; Kang, Catherine E; Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C; Soler, Ivan; Chetkovich, Dane M; Kourrich, Saïd; Coulter, Douglas A; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-04-16

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered a 'circuitopathy', and brain stimulation therapies hold promise for ameliorating MDD symptoms, including hippocampal dysfunction. It is unknown whether stimulation of upstream hippocampal circuitry, such as the entorhinal cortex (Ent), is antidepressive, although Ent stimulation improves learning and memory in mice and humans. Here we show that molecular targeting (Ent-specific knockdown of a psychosocial stress-induced protein) and chemogenetic stimulation of Ent neurons induce antidepressive-like effects in mice. Mechanistically, we show that Ent-stimulation-induced antidepressive-like behavior relies on the generation of new hippocampal neurons. Thus, controlled stimulation of Ent hippocampal afferents is antidepressive via increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings emphasize the power and potential of Ent glutamatergic afferent stimulation-previously well-known for its ability to influence learning and memory-for MDD treatment.

  7. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  8. Focusing on optic tectum circuitry through the lens of genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Linda M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The visual pathway is tasked with processing incoming signals from the retina and converting this information into adaptive behavior. Recent studies of the larval zebrafish tectum have begun to clarify how the 'micro-circuitry' of this highly organized midbrain structure filters visual input, which arrives in the superficial layers and directs motor output through efferent projections from its deep layers. The new emphasis has been on the specific function of neuronal cell types, which can now be reproducibly labeled, imaged and manipulated using genetic and optical techniques. Here, we discuss recent advances and emerging experimental approaches for studying tectal circuits as models for visual processing and sensorimotor transformation by the vertebrate brain.

  9. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. TQUID Magnetometer and Artificial Neural Circuitry Based on a Topological Kondo Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    samples are leached out in sodium hydroxide solution. The surfaces of these crystals were carefully etched using an equal mixture of hydrochloric acid...Dopants using EDS Left: EDS data of a 3% Ce doped SmB6 sample and right: SEM image of the sample (with 4 gold wires for transport measurements

  11. Disrupted Structural and Functional Connectivity in Prefrontal-Hippocampus Circuitry in First-Episode Medication-Naïve Adolescent Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Geng

    Full Text Available Evidence implicates abnormalities in prefrontal-hippocampus neural circuitry in major depressive disorder (MDD. This study investigates the potential disruptions in prefrontal-hippocampus structural and functional connectivity, as well as their relationship in first-episode medication-naïve adolescents with MDD in order to investigate the early stage of the illness without confounds of illness course and medication exposure.Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data were acquired from 26 first-episode medication-naïve MDD adolescents and 31 healthy controls (HC. Fractional anisotropy (FA values of the fornix and the prefrontal-hippocampus functional connectivity was compared between MDD and HC groups. The correlation between the FA value of fornix and the strength of the functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC region showing significant differences between the two groups was identified.Compared with the HC group, adolescent MDD group had significant lower FA values in the fornix, as well as decreased functional connectivity in four PFC regions. Significant negative correlations were observed between fornix FA values and functional connectivity from hippocampus to PFC within the HC group. There was no significant correlation between the fornix FA and the strength of functional connectivity within the adolescent MDD group.First-episode medication-naïve adolescent MDD showed decreased structural and functional connectivity as well as deficits of the association between structural and functional connectivity shown in HC in the PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry. These findings suggest that abnormal PFC-hippocampus neural circuitry may present in the early onset of MDD and play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD.

  12. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  13. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.

    2016-01-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental…

  14. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  15. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates the hippocampus and other regions involved in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Yang, Julia; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank; Ma, Yeming; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Panayotis K; Fowler, Joanna S

    2006-10-17

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying overeating in obesity are not understood. Here, we assessed the neurobiological responses to an Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS), which induces stomach expansion via electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to identify the brain circuits responsible for its effects in decreasing food intake. Brain metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in seven obese subjects who had the IGS implanted for 1-2 years. Brain metabolism was evaluated twice during activation (on) and during deactivation (off) of the IGS. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was obtained to measure the behavioral components of eating (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). The largest difference was in the right hippocampus, where metabolism was 18% higher (P drug craving in addicted subjects (orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum) suggests that similar brain circuits underlie the enhanced motivational drive for food and drugs seen in obese and drug-addicted subjects, respectively.

  16. Food cues and ghrelin recruit the same neuronal circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plasse, G.; Merkestein, M.; Luijendijk, M.C.M.; van der Roest, M.; Westenberg, H.G.M.; Mulder, A.B.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cues that are associated with the availability of food are known to trigger food anticipatory activity (FAA). This activity is expressed as increased locomotor activity and enables an animal to prepare for maximal utilization of nutritional resources. Although the exact neural network

  17. Transcrition factor c-Myb is involved in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the avian neural crest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karafiát, Vít; Dvořáková, Marta; Krejčí, E.; Králová, Jarmila; Pajer, Petr; Šnajdr, P.; Mandíková, Sonja; Bartůněk, Petr; Grim, M.; Dvořák, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 21 (2005), s. 2516-2525 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0463; GA AV ČR IAA5052309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : c-myb gene * epithelial-mesenchymal transition * neural crest Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.582, year: 2005

  18. Neural bases of congenital amusia in tonal language speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Peng, Gang; Shao, Jing; Wang, William S-Y

    2017-03-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia. To investigate this question, we examined the neural circuitries sub-serving the processing of relative pitch interval in pitch-matched Cantonese level tone and musical stimuli in 11 Cantonese-speaking amusics and 11 musically intact controls. Cantonese-speaking amusics exhibited abnormal brain activities in a widely distributed neural network during the processing of lexical tone and musical stimuli. Whereas the controls exhibited significant activation in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the lexical tone condition and in the cerebellum regardless of the lexical tone and music conditions, no activation was found in the amusics in those regions, which likely reflects a dysfunctional neural mechanism of relative pitch processing in the amusics. Furthermore, the amusics showed abnormally strong activation of the right middle frontal gyrus and precuneus when the pitch stimuli were repeated, which presumably reflect deficits of attending to repeated pitch stimuli or encoding them into working memory. No significant group difference was found in the right IFG in either the whole-brain analysis or region-of-interest analysis. These findings imply that the neural deficits in tonal language speakers might differ from those in non-tonal language speakers, and overlap partly with the

  19. Dentate Gyrus circuitry features improve performance of sparse approximation algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis C Petrantonakis

    Full Text Available Memory-related activity in the Dentate Gyrus (DG is characterized by sparsity. Memory representations are seen as activated neuronal populations of granule cells, the main encoding cells in DG, which are estimated to engage 2-4% of the total population. This sparsity is assumed to enhance the ability of DG to perform pattern separation, one of the most valuable contributions of DG during memory formation. In this work, we investigate how features of the DG such as its excitatory and inhibitory connectivity diagram can be used to develop theoretical algorithms performing Sparse Approximation, a widely used strategy in the Signal Processing field. Sparse approximation stands for the algorithmic identification of few components from a dictionary that approximate a certain signal. The ability of DG to achieve pattern separation by sparsifing its representations is exploited here to improve the performance of the state of the art sparse approximation algorithm "Iterative Soft Thresholding" (IST by adding new algorithmic features inspired by the DG circuitry. Lateral inhibition of granule cells, either direct or indirect, via mossy cells, is shown to enhance the performance of the IST. Apart from revealing the potential of DG-inspired theoretical algorithms, this work presents new insights regarding the function of particular cell types in the pattern separation task of the DG.

  20. Circuitry for use with an ionizing-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H. III; Harrington, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    An improved system of circuitry for use in combination with an ionizing-radiation detector over a wide range of radiation levels includes a current-to-frequency converter together with a digital data processor for respectively producing and measuring a pulse repetition frequency which is proportional to the output current of the ionizing-radiation detector, a dc-to-dc converter for providing closely regulated operating voltages from a rechargeable battery and a bias supply for providing high voltage to the ionization chamber. The ionizing-radiation detector operating as a part of this system produces a signal responsive to the level of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of the detector, and this signal is converted into a pulse frequency which will vary in direct proportion to such level of ionizing-radiation. The data processor, by counting the number of pulses from the converter over a selected integration interval, provides a digital indication of radiation dose rate, and by accumulating the total of all such pulses provides a digital indication of total integrated dose. Ordinary frequency-to-voltage conversion devices or digital display techniques can be used as a means for providing audible and visible indications of dose and dose-rate levels

  1. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Stress Influences Neural Circuits of Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Porcelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions under aversive conditions such as acute stress. Yet, less is known about the process in which acute stress can influence decision-making. A growing body of research has established that reward-related information associated with the outcomes of decisions exerts a powerful influence over the choices people make and that an extensive network of brain regions, prominently featuring the striatum, is involved in the processing of this reward-related information. Thus, an important step in research on the nature of acute stress’ influence over decision-making is to examine how it may modulate responses to rewards and punishments within reward-processing neural circuitry. In the current experiment, we employed a simple reward processing paradigm – where participants received monetary rewards and punishments – known to evoke robust striatal responses. Immediately prior to performing each of two task runs, participants were exposed to acute stress (i.e., cold pressor or a no stress control procedure in a between-subjects fashion. No stress group participants exhibited a pattern of activity within the dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex consistent with past research on outcome processing – specifically, differential responses for monetary rewards over punishments. In contrast, acute stress group participants’ dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex demonstrated decreased sensitivity to monetary outcomes and a lack of differential activity. These findings provide insight into how neural circuits may process rewards and punishments associated with simple decisions under acutely stressful conditions.

  3. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  4. Response of neural reward regions to food cues in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Carissa J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One hypothesis for the social deficits that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD is diminished neural reward response to social interaction and attachment. Prior research using established monetary reward paradigms as a test of non-social reward to compare with social reward may involve confounds in the ability of individuals with ASD to utilize symbolic representation of money and the abstraction required to interpret monetary gains. Thus, a useful addition to our understanding of neural reward circuitry in ASD includes a characterization of the neural response to primary rewards. Method We asked 17 children with ASD and 18 children without ASD to abstain from eating for at least four hours before an MRI scan in which they viewed images of high-calorie foods. We assessed the neural reward network for increases in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal in response to the food images Results We found very similar patterns of increased BOLD signal to these images in the two groups; both groups showed increased BOLD signal in the bilateral amygdala, as well as in the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Direct group comparisons revealed that the ASD group showed a stronger response to food cues in bilateral insula along the anterior-posterior gradient and in the anterior cingulate cortex than the control group, whereas there were no neural reward regions that showed higher activation for controls than for ASD. Conclusion These results suggest that neural response to primary rewards is not diminished but in fact shows an aberrant enhancement in children with ASD.

  5. Neural evidence that human emotions share core affective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-06-01

    Research on the "emotional brain" remains centered around the idea that emotions like fear, happiness, and sadness result from specialized and distinct neural circuitry. Accumulating behavioral and physiological evidence suggests, instead, that emotions are grounded in core affect--a person's fluctuating level of pleasant or unpleasant arousal. A neuroimaging study revealed that participants' subjective ratings of valence (i.e., pleasure/displeasure) and of arousal evoked by various fear, happiness, and sadness experiences correlated with neural activity in specific brain regions (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, respectively). We observed these correlations across diverse instances within each emotion category, as well as across instances from all three categories. Consistent with a psychological construction approach to emotion, the results suggest that neural circuitry realizes more basic processes across discrete emotions. The implicated brain regions regulate the body to deal with the world, producing the affective changes at the core of emotions and many other psychological phenomena.

  6. Bilingualism yields language-specific plasticity in left hemisphere's circuitry for learning to read in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, K K; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Petitto, L A

    2017-04-01

    How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26). Spanish offers consistent sound-to-print correspondences ("phonologically transparent" or "shallow"); such correspondences are more opaque in French and even more opaque in English (which has both transparent and "phonologically opaque" or "deep" correspondences). Consistent with our hypothesis, both French- and Spanish-English bilinguals showed hyperactivation in left posterior temporal regions associated with direct sound-to-print phonological analyses and hypoactivation in left frontal regions associated with assembled phonology analyses. Spanish, but not French, bilinguals showed a similar effect when reading Irregular words. The findings inform theories of bilingual and cross-linguistic literacy acquisition by suggesting that structural characteristics of bilinguals' two languages and their orthographies have a significant impact on children's neuro-cognitive architecture for learning to read. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  8. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  9. Optogenetic deconstruction of sleep-wake circuitry in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Adamantidis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain regulate the sleep-wake cycle? What are the temporal codes of sleep- and wake-promoting neural circuits? How do these circuits interact with each other across the light/dark cycle? Over the past few decades, many studies from a variety of disciplines have made substantial progress in answering these fundamental questions. For example, neurobiologists have identified multiple, redundant wake-promoting circuits in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain. Sleep-promoting circuits have been found in the preoptic area and hypothalamus. One of the greatest challenges in recent years has been to selectively record and manipulate these sleep-wake centers in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution. Recent developments in microbial opsin-based neuromodulation tools, collectively referred to as “optogenetics,” have provided a novel method to demonstrate causal links between neural activity and specific behaviors. Here, we propose to use optogenetics as a fundamental tool to probe the necessity, sufficiency, and connectivity of defined neural circuits in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  10. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Do cognitive measures and brain circuitry predict outcomes of exercise in Parkinson Disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Peterson, D S; Mancini, M; Carlson-Kuhta, P; Fling, B W; Smulders, K; Nutt, J G; Dale, M; Carter, J; Winters-Stone, K M; Horak, F B

    2015-10-24

    There is emerging research detailing the relationship between balance/gait/falls and cognition. Imaging studies also suggest a link between structural and functional changes in the frontal lobe (a region commonly associated with cognitive function) and mobility. People with Parkinson's disease have important changes in cognitive function that may impact rehabilitation efficacy. Our underlying hypothesis is that cognitive function and frontal lobe connections with the basal ganglia and brainstem posture/locomotor centers are responsible for postural deficits in people with Parkinson's disease and play a role in rehabilitation efficacy. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine if people with Parkinson's disease can improve mobility and/or cognition after partaking in a cognitively challenging mobility exercise program and 2) determine if cognition and brain circuitry deficits predict responsiveness to exercise rehabilitation. This study is a randomized cross-over controlled intervention to take place at a University Balance Disorders Laboratory. The study participants will be people with Parkinson's disease who meet inclusion criteria for the study. The intervention will be 6 weeks of group exercise (case) and 6 weeks of group education (control). The exercise is a cognitively challenging program based on the Agility Boot Camp for people with PD. The education program is a 6-week program to teach people how to better live with a chronic disease. The primary outcome measure is the MiniBESTest and the secondary outcomes are measures of mobility, cognition and neural imaging. The results from this study will further our understanding of the relationship between cognition and mobility with a focus on brain circuitry as it relates to rehabilitation potential. This trial is registered at clinical trials.gov (NCT02231073).

  13. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Met Allele Load on Declarative Memory Related Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, Chris M.; Henson, Richard N.; Suckling, John; Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Lawrence, Phil; Bentley, Graham; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew; Miller, Sam R.; McHugh, Simon; Bullmore, Edward T.; Nathan, Pradeep J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including...

  14. United in Diversity : A Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Subpopulations in the Basal Ganglia Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Viereckel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia consist of a number of different nuclei that form a diverse circuitry of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. This complex network is further organized in subcircuits that govern limbic and motor functions in humans and other vertebrates. Due to the interconnection of the individual structures, dysfunction in one area or cell population can affect the entire network, leading to synaptic and molecular alterations in the circuitry as a whole. The studies in this ...

  15. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  16. The effect of pulsed electric fields on the electrotactic migration of human neural progenitor cells through the involvement of intracellular calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Edin, Fredrik; Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are required for the physiological control of the central nervous system development. Application of the direct current EFs to neural stem cells has been studied for the possibility of stem cell transplantation as one of the therapies for brain injury. EFs generated within the nervous system are often associated with action potentials and synaptic activity, apparently resulting in a pulsed current in nature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed EF, which can reduce the cytotoxicity, on the migration of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). We applied the mono-directional pulsed EF with a strength of 250mV/mm to hNPCs for 6h. The migration distance of the hNPCs exposed to pulsed EF was significantly greater compared with the control not exposed to the EF. Pulsed EFs, however, had less of an effect on the migration of the differentiated hNPCs. There was no significant change in the survival of hNPCs after exposure to the pulsed EF. To investigate the role of Ca 2+ signaling in electrotactic migration of hNPCs, pharmacological inhibition of Ca 2+ channels in the EF-exposed cells revealed that the electrotactic migration of hNPCs exposed to Ca 2+ channel blockers was significantly lower compared to the control group. The findings suggest that the pulsed EF induced migration of hNPCs is partly influenced by intracellular Ca 2+ signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  18. Corticospinal tract insult alters GABAergic circuitry in the mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Russ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal development, corticospinal tract (CST projections into the spinal cord help refine spinal circuitry. Although the normal developmental processes that are controlled by the arrival of corticospinal input are becoming clear, little is known about how perinatal cortical damage impacts specific aspects of spinal circuit development, particularly the inhibitory microcircuitry that regulates spinal reflex circuits. In this study, we sought to determine how ischemic cortical damage impacts the synaptic attributes of a well-characterized population of inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons, called GABApre neurons, which modulates the efficiency of proprioceptive sensory terminals in the sensorimotor reflex circuit. We found that putative GABApre interneurons receive CST input and, using an established mouse model of perinatal stroke, that cortical ischemic injury results in a reduction of CST density within the intermediate region of the spinal cord, where these interneurons reside. Importantly, CST alterations were restricted to the side contralateral to the injury. Within the synaptic terminals of the GABApre interneurons, we observed a dramatic upregulation of the 65-isoform of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. In accordance with the CST density reduction, GAD65 was elevated on the side of the spinal cord contralateral to cortical injury. This effect was not seen for other GABApre synaptic markers or in animals that received sham surgery. Our data reveal a novel effect of perinatal stroke that involves severe deficits in the architecture of descending spinal pathways, which in turn appear to promote molecular alterations in a specific spinal GABAergic circuit.

  19. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  20. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Disrupts Infant Neural Markers of Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin; Campbell, Alana; Belger, Aysenil; Grewen, Karen

    2017-08-17

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) from maternal cigarette-smoking is linked to developmental deficits, including impaired auditory processing, language, generalized intelligence, attention and sleep. Fetal brain undergoes massive growth, organization and connectivity during gestation, making it particularly vulnerable to neurotoxic insult. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are extensively involved in growth, connectivity and function of developing neural circuitry and neurotransmitter systems. Thus, PNE may have long-term impact on neurobehavioral development. The purpose of this study was to compare the auditory K-complex, an event-related potential reflective of auditory gating, sleep preservation and memory consolidation during sleep, in infants with and without PNE and to relate these neural correlates to neurobehavioral development. We compared brain responses to an auditory paired-click paradigm in 3 to 5-month-old infants during Stage 2 sleep, when the K-complex is best observed. We measured component amplitude and delta activity during the K-complex. PNE may impair auditory sensory gating, which may contribute to disrupted sleep and to reduced auditory discrimination and learning, attention re-orienting and/or arousal during wakefulness reported in other studies. Links between PNE and reduced K-complex amplitude and delta power may represent altered cholinergic and GABAergic synaptic programming, and possibly reflect early neural bases for PNE-linked disruptions in sleep quality and auditory processing. These may pose significant disadvantage for language acquisition, attention, and social interaction necessary for academic and social success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  2. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  3. Illuminating the multifaceted roles of neurotransmission in shaping neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Haruhisa; Hoon, Mrinalini; Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Della Santina, Luca; Wong, Rachel O L

    2014-09-17

    Across the nervous system, neurons form highly stereotypic patterns of synaptic connections that are designed to serve specific functions. Mature wiring patterns are often attained upon the refinement of early, less precise connectivity. Much work has led to the prevailing view that many developing circuits are sculpted by activity-dependent competition among converging afferents, which results in the elimination of unwanted synapses and the maintenance and strengthening of desired connections. Studies of the vertebrate retina, however, have recently revealed that activity can play a role in shaping developing circuits without engaging competition among converging inputs that differ in their activity levels. Such neurotransmission-mediated processes can produce stereotypic wiring patterns by promoting selective synapse formation rather than elimination. We discuss how the influence of transmission may also be limited by circuit design and further highlight the importance of transmission beyond development in maintaining wiring specificity and synaptic organization of neural circuits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and metabolism: role of hypothalamic neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Asya; Schaich Borg, Jana; de Lecea, Luis

    2010-10-01

    Sleep and metabolism are intertwined physiologically and behaviorally, but the neural systems underlying their coordination are still poorly understood. The hypothalamus is likely to play a major role in the regulation sleep, metabolism, and their interaction. And increasing evidence suggests that hypocretin cells in the lateral hypothalamus may provide particularly important contributions. Here we review: 1) direct interactions between biological arousal and metabolic systems in the hypothalamus, and 2) indirect interactions between these two systems mediated by stress or reward, emphasizing the role of hypocretins. An increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions may provide novel approaches for the treatment of patients with sleep disorders and obesity, as well as suggest new therapeutic strategies for symptoms of aging, stress, or addiction. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Visual motion imagery neurofeedback based on the hMT+/V5 complex: evidence for a feedback-specific neural circuit involving neocortical and cerebellar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Sousa, Teresa; Catarina Duarte, Isabel; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Current approaches in neurofeedback/brain-computer interface research often focus on identifying, on a subject-by-subject basis, the neural regions that are best suited for self-driven modulation. It is known that the hMT+/V5 complex, an early visual cortical region, is recruited during explicit and implicit motion imagery, in addition to real motion perception. This study tests the feasibility of training healthy volunteers to regulate the level of activation in their hMT+/V5 complex using real-time fMRI neurofeedback and visual motion imagery strategies. Approach. We functionally localized the hMT+/V5 complex to further use as a target region for neurofeedback. An uniform strategy based on motion imagery was used to guide subjects to neuromodulate hMT+/V5. Main results. We found that 15/20 participants achieved successful neurofeedback. This modulation led to the recruitment of a specific network as further assessed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. This specific circuit, including hMT+/V5, putative V6 and medial cerebellum was activated for successful neurofeedback runs. The putamen and anterior insula were recruited for both successful and non-successful runs. Significance. Our findings indicate that hMT+/V5 is a region that can be modulated by focused imagery and that a specific cortico-cerebellar circuit is recruited during visual motion imagery leading to successful neurofeedback. These findings contribute to the debate on the relative potential of extrinsic (sensory) versus intrinsic (default-mode) brain regions in the clinical application of neurofeedback paradigms. This novel circuit might be a good target for future neurofeedback approaches that aim, for example, the training of focused attention in disorders such as ADHD.

  6. Task instructions influence the cognitive strategies involved in line bisection judgements: evidence from modulated neural mechanisms revealed by fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, G.R.; Marshall, J.C.; Weiss, P.H.; Toni, I.; Zilles, K.

    2002-01-01

    Manual line bisection and a perceptual variant thereof (the Landmark test) are widely used to assess visuospatial neglect in neurological patients, but little is known about the cognitive strategies involved. In the Landmark test, one could explicitly compare the lengths of the left and right line

  7. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  8. Neural activity in the medial temporal lobe reveals the fidelity of mental time travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, James E; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M

    2015-02-18

    Neural circuitry in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critically involved in mental time travel, which involves the vivid retrieval of the details of past experience. Neuroscientific theories propose that the MTL supports memory of the past by retrieving previously encoded episodic information, as well as by reactivating a temporal code specifying the position of a particular event within an episode. However, the neural computations supporting these abilities are underspecified. To test hypotheses regarding the computational mechanisms supported by different MTL subregions during mental time travel, we developed a computational model that linked a blood oxygenation level-dependent signal to cognitive operations, allowing us to predict human performance in a memory search task. Activity in the posterior MTL, including parahippocampal cortex, reflected how strongly one reactivates the temporal context of a retrieved memory, allowing the model to predict whether the next memory will correspond to a nearby moment in the study episode. A signal in the anterior MTL, including perirhinal cortex, indicated the successful retrieval of list items, without providing information regarding temporal organization. A hippocampal signal reflected both processes, consistent with theories that this region binds item and context information together to form episodic memories. These findings provide evidence for modern theories that describe complementary roles of the hippocampus and surrounding parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices during the retrieval of episodic memories, shaping how humans revisit the past. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352914-13$15.00/0.

  9. Neuroanatomical circuitry between kidney and rostral elements of brain: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ting; He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Tao-Tao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Ding-Yu; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex. These divisions included the preoptic area (POA), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), periventricular hypothalamus (PeH), and rostral and caudal subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). PRV-614/Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled cells were found within DMH, Arc, SCN, PeH, PVN, the anterodorsal and medial POA. A subset of neurons in PVN that participated in regulating sympathetic outflow to kidney was catecholaminergic or serotonergic. PRV-614 infected neurons within the PVN also contained arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. These data demonstrate the rostral elements of brain innervate the kidney by the neuroanatomical circuitry.

  10. Neural response to alcohol taste cues in youth : Effects of the OPRM1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E.; Baas, Frank; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variations in the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene have been related to high sensitivity to rewarding effects of alcohol. The current study focuses on the neural circuitry underlying this phenomenon using an alcohol versus water taste-cue reactivity paradigm in a young sample at relatively

  11. Neural response to alcohol taste cues in youth : effects of the OPRM1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korucuoglu, O.; Gladwin, T.E.; Baas, F.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Ruhé, H.G.; Groot, P.F.C.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variations in the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene have been related to high sensitivity to rewarding effects of alcohol. The current study focuses on the neural circuitry underlying this phenomenon using an alcohol versus water taste-cue reactivity paradigm in a young sample at relatively

  12. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  13. DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chih-Feng; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Agarwal, Vinay; Sonkusale, Sameer; Kim, Taehoon; Busnaina, Ahmed; Chen, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We present integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry as nanoscale chemical sensors. SWNTs were assembled onto CMOS circuitry via a low voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) process. Besides, bare SWNTs are reported to be sensitive to various chemicals, and functionalization of SWNTs with biomolecular complexes further enhances the sensing specificity and sensitivity. After decorating ss-DNA on SWNTs, we have found that the sensing response of the gas sensor was enhanced (up to ∼ 300% and ∼ 250% for methanol vapor and isopropanol alcohol vapor, respectively) compared with bare SWNTs. The SWNTs coupled with ss-DNA and their integration on CMOS circuitry demonstrates a step towards realizing ultra-sensitive electronic nose applications.

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Circuitry in Response to Neuromodulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagna Pathak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a public health problem worldwide. There is increasing interest in using non-invasive therapies such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to treat MDD. However, the changes induced by rTMS on neural circuits remain poorly characterized. The present study aims to test whether the brain regions previously targeted by deep brain stimulation (DBS in the treatment of MDD respond to rTMS, and whether functional connectivity measures can predict clinical response.Methods: rTMS (20 sessions was administered to five MDD patients at the left-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC over 4 weeks. Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS assessments were acquired before, during and after treatment. Our primary measures, obtained with MEG source imaging, were changes in power spectral density (PSD and changes in functional connectivity as measured using coherence.Results: Of the five patients, four met the clinical response criterion (40% or greater decrease in MADRS after four weeks of treatment. An increase in gamma power at the L-DLPFC was correlated with improvement in symptoms. We also found that increases in delta band connectivity between L-DLPFC/amygdala and L-DLPFC/pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC, and decreases in gamma band connectivity between L-DLPFC/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, were correlated with improvements in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-invasive intervention techniques, such as rTMS, modulate the ongoing activity of depressive circuits targeted for DBS, and that MEG can capture these changes. Gamma oscillations may originate from GABA-mediated inhibition, which increases synchronization of large neuronal populations, possibly leading to increased long-range functional connectivity. We postulate that responses to rTMS could provide valuable insights into early evaluation

  15. Design and implementation of high-precision and low-jitter programmable delay circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Cui Ke; Zhang Hongfei; Luo Chunli; Yang Dongxu; Liang Hao; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    A programmable delay circuit design which has characteristics of high-precision, low-jitter, wide-programmable-range and low power is introduced. The delay circuitry uses the scheme which has two parts: the coarse delay and the fine delay that could be controlled separately. Using different coarse delay chip can reach different maximum programmable range. And the fine delay programmable chip has the minimum step which is down to 10 ps. The whole circuitry jitter will be less than 100 ps. The design has been successfully applied in Quantum Key Distribution experiment. (authors)

  16. Topographic and functional neuroanatomical study of GABAergic disinhibitory striatum-nigral inputs and inhibitory nigrocollicular pathways: neural hodology recruiting the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, for the modulation of the neural activity in the inferior colliculus involved with panic-like emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan-Baldan, Lissandra; da Costa Kawasaki, Mateus; Ribeiro, Sandro José; Calvo, Fabrício; Corrêa, Vani Maria Alves; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-01

    Considering the influence of the substantia nigra on mesencephalic neurons involved with fear-induced reactions organized in rostral aspects of the dorsal midbrain, the present work investigated the topographical and functional neuroanatomy of similar influence on caudal division of the corpora quadrigemina, addressing: (a) the neural hodology connecting the neostriatum, the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter and inferior colliculus (IC) neural networks; (b) the influence of the inhibitory neostriatonigral-nigrocollicular GABAergic links on the control of the defensive behavior organized in the IC. The effects of the increase or decrease of activity of nigrocollicular inputs on defensive responses elicited by either electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC were also determined. Electrolytic or chemical lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), decreased the freezing and escape behaviors thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC, and increased the behavioral responses evoked by the GABAA blockade in the same sites of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) electrically stimulated. These findings were corroborated by similar effects caused by microinjections of the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol in the SNpr, followed by electrical and chemical stimulations of the IC. The GABAA blockade in the SNpr caused a significant increase in the defensive behavior thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC and a decrease in the mean incidence of panic-like responses induced by microinjections of bicuculline in the mesencephalic tectum (inferior colliculus). These findings suggest that the substantia nigra receives GABAergic inputs that modulate local and also inhibitory GABAergic outputs toward the IC. In fact, neurotracing experiments with fast blue and iontophoretic microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine either into the inferior colliculus or in the reticular division of the substantia nigra demonstrated a neural link

  17. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  18. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  19. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  20. Enhanced statistical damage identification using frequency-shift information with tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Tang, J; Wang, K W

    2008-01-01

    The frequency-shift-based damage detection method entertains advantages such as global detection capability and easy implementation, but also suffers from drawbacks that include low detection accuracy and sensitivity and the difficulty in identifying damage using a small number of measurable frequencies. Moreover, the damage detection/identification performance is inevitably affected by the uncertainty/variations in the baseline model. In this research, we investigate an enhanced statistical damage identification method using the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry. The tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can lead to much enriched information on frequency shift (before and after damage occurrence). The circuitry elements, meanwhile, can be directly and accurately measured and thus can be considered uncertainty-free. A statistical damage identification algorithm is formulated which can identify both the mean and variance of the elemental property change. Our analysis indicates that the integration of the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can significantly enhance the robustness of the frequency-shift-based damage identification approach under uncertainty and noise

  1. Synaptic defects in the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Y Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMNΔ7. In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs in hindlimb muscles of SMNΔ7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciting muscle contraction, despite a modest reduction in quantal content. In the spinal circuitry, we observed a ∼28% loss of synapses onto spinal motoneurons in the lateral column of lumbar segments 3-5, and a significant reduction in proprioceptive sensory neurons, which may contribute to the 50% reduction in vesicular glutamate transporter 1(VGLUT1-positive synapses onto SMNΔ7 motoneurons. In addition, there was an increase in the association of activated microglia with SMNΔ7 motoneurons. Together, our results present a novel concept that synaptic defects occur at multiple levels of the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in SMNΔ7 mice, and that proprioceptive spinal synapses could be a potential target for SMA therapy.

  2. Analysis and simulation of the SLD WIC [Warm Iron Calorimeter] PADS hybrid preamplifier circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Horelick, D.

    1990-10-01

    The SLD PADS electronics consist of over 9000 channels of charge-sensitive preamplifiers followed by integrated sample/hold data storage, digitizing, and readout circuitry. This paper uses computer simulation techniques to analyze critical performance parameters of the preamplifier hybrid including its interactions with the detector system. Simulation results are presented and verified with measured performance. 6 refs., 9 figs

  3. Chemical wiring and soldering toward all-molecule electronic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Yuji; Mandal, Swapan K; Hu, Chunping; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Goedecker, Stefan; Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-06-01

    Key to single-molecule electronics is connecting functional molecules to each other using conductive nanowires. This involves two issues: how to create conductive nanowires at designated positions, and how to ensure chemical bonding between the nanowires and functional molecules. Here, we present a novel method that solves both issues. Relevant functional molecules are placed on a self-assembled monolayer of diacetylene compound. A probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is then positioned on the molecular row of the diacetylene compound to which the functional molecule is adsorbed, and a conductive polydiacetylene nanowire is fabricated by initiating chain polymerization by stimulation with the tip. Since the front edge of chain polymerization necessarily has a reactive chemical species, the created polymer nanowire forms chemical bonding with an encountered molecular element. We name this spontaneous reaction "chemical soldering". First-principles theoretical calculations are used to investigate the structures and electronic properties of the connection. We demonstrate that two conductive polymer nanowires are connected to a single phthalocyanine molecule. A resonant tunneling diode formed by this method is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Have we been ignoring the elephant in the room? Seven arguments for considering the cerebellum as part of addiction circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Marta; Vazquez-Sanroman, Dolores; Carbo-Gas, María; Gil-Miravet, Isis; Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Carulli, Daniela; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction involves alterations in multiple brain regions that are associated with functions such as memory, motivation and executive control. Indeed, it is now well accepted that addictive drugs produce long-lasting molecular and structural plasticity changes in corticostriatal-limbic loops. However, there are brain regions that might be relevant to addiction other than the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In addition to these circuits, a growing amount of data suggests the involvement of the cerebellum in many of the brain functions affected in addicts, though this region has been overlooked, traditionally, in the addiction field. Therefore, in the present review we provide seven arguments as to why we should consider the cerebellum in drug addiction. We present and discuss compelling evidence about the effects of drugs of abuse on cerebellar plasticity, the involvement of the cerebellum in drug-induced cue-related memories, and several findings showing that the instrumental memory and executive functions also recruit the cerebellar circuitry. In addition, a hypothetical model of the cerebellum's role relative to other areas within corticostriatal-limbic networks is also provided. Our goal is not to review animal and human studies exhaustively but to support the inclusion of cerebellar alterations as a part of the physiopathology of addiction disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inherently stochastic spiking neurons for probabilistic neural computation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-04-01

    Neuromorphic engineering aims to design hardware that efficiently mimics neural circuitry and provides the means for emulating and studying neural systems. In this paper, we propose a new memristor-based neuron circuit that uniquely complements the scope of neuron implementations and follows the stochastic spike response model (SRM), which plays a cornerstone role in spike-based probabilistic algorithms. We demonstrate that the switching of the memristor is akin to the stochastic firing of the SRM. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed neuron circuit satisfies a neural computability condition that enables probabilistic neural sampling and spike-based Bayesian learning and inference. Our findings constitute an important step towards memristive, scalable and efficient stochastic neuromorphic platforms. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro eJinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  7. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shelton, Jacob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios when human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments because of the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is a report of the activities involving Task 3 of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays [1]. Evaluation of the performance of the system for both pre- and post-irradiation as well as operation at elevated temperature will be performed. Detailed performance of the system will be documented to ensure the design meets requirements prior to any extended evaluation. A suite of tests will be developed which will allow evaluation before and after irradiation and during temperature. Selection of the radiation exposure facilities will be determined in the early phase of the project. Radiation exposure will consist of total integrated dose (TID) up to 200 kRad or above with several intermediate doses during test. Dose rates will be in various ranges determined by the facility that will be used with a target of 30 kRad/hr. Many samples of the pre-commercial devices to be used will have been tested in previous projects to doses of at least 300 kRad and temperatures up to 125C. The complete systems will therefore be tested for performance at intermediate doses. Extended temperature testing will be performed up to the limit of the commercial sensors. The test suite performed at each test point will consist of operational testing of the three basic

  8. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activatio...

  9. Parallel consensual neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benediktsson, J A; Sveinsson, J R; Ersoy, O K; Swain, P H

    1997-01-01

    A new type of a neural-network architecture, the parallel consensual neural network (PCNN), is introduced and applied in classification/data fusion of multisource remote sensing and geographic data. The PCNN architecture is based on statistical consensus theory and involves using stage neural networks with transformed input data. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are used as if they were independent inputs. The independent inputs are first classified using the stage neural networks. The output responses from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a consensual decision. In this paper, optimization methods are used in order to weight the outputs from the stage networks. Two approaches are proposed to compute the data transforms for the PCNN, one for binary data and another for analog data. The analog approach uses wavelet packets. The experimental results obtained with the proposed approach show that the PCNN outperforms both a conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network and conventional statistical methods in terms of overall classification accuracy of test data.

  10. Stitching Codeable Circuits: High School Students' Learning About Circuitry and Coding with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Breanne K.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lui, Debora A.; Walker, Justice T.; Widman, Sari A.

    2017-10-01

    Learning about circuitry by connecting a battery, light bulb, and wires is a common activity in many science classrooms. In this paper, we expand students' learning about circuitry with electronic textiles, which use conductive thread instead of wires and sewable LEDs instead of lightbulbs, by integrating programming sensor inputs and light outputs and examining how the two domains interact. We implemented an electronic textiles unit with 23 high school students ages 16-17 years who learned how to craft and code circuits with the LilyPad Arduino, an electronic textile construction kit. Our analyses not only confirm significant increases in students' understanding of functional circuits but also showcase students' ability in designing and remixing program code for controlling circuits. In our discussion, we address opportunities and challenges of introducing codeable circuit design for integrating maker activities that include engineering and computing into classrooms.

  11. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  12. Adaptive Supply Voltage Management for Low Power Logic Circuitry Operating at Subthreshold

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in demand of portable hand held devices and with the rise in application of wireless sensor networks and RFID reduction of total power consumption has become a necessity. To save power we operate the logic circuitry of our devices at sub-threshold. In sub-threshold the drain current is exponentially dependent on the threshold voltage hence the threshold variation causes profound variation of ION and IOFF the ratio of which affect the speed of a circuit drastically. S...

  13. Sex differences in the development of emotion circuitry in adolescents at risk for substance abuse: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Jillian E; Cope, Lora M; Munier, Emily C; Welsh, Robert C; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-06-01

    There is substantial evidence for behavioral sex differences in risk trajectories for alcohol and substance use, with internalizing factors such as negative affectivity contributing more to female risk. Because the neural development of emotion circuitry varies between males and females across adolescence, it represents a potential mechanism by which underlying neurobiology contributes to risk for substance use. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in males and females (n = 18 each) with a family history of alcohol use disorders starting at ages 8-13 years. Participants performed an affective word task during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1- to 2-year intervals, covering the age range of 8.5-17.6 years (3-4 scans per participant). Significant age-related sex differences were found in the right amygdala and right precentral gyrus for the negative vs neutral word condition. Males showed a significant decrease in both amygdala and precentral gyrus activation with age, whereas the response in females persisted. The subjective experience of internalizing symptomatology significantly increased with age for females but not for males. Taken together, these results reveal sex differences in negative affect processing in at-risk adolescents, and offer longitudinal neural evidence for female substance use risk through internalizing pathways. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  15. Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Joo Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins, widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI. Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC, where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function.

  16. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Damiano, Cara A; Allen, John A

    2012-07-06

    This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  17. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  18. Stress, trauma and PTSD: translational insights into the core synaptic circuitry and its modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence is considered as to whether behavioral criteria for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are applicable to that of traumatized animals and whether the phenomena of acquisition, extinction and reactivation of fear behavior in animals are also successfully applicable to humans. This evidence suggests an affirmative answer in both cases. Furthermore, the deficits in gray matter found in PTSD, determined with magnetic resonance imaging, are also observed in traumatized animals, lending neuropsychological support to the use of animals to probe what has gone awry in PTSD. Such animal experiments indicate that the core synaptic circuitry mediating behavior following trauma consists of the amygdala, ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, all of which are modulated by the basal ganglia. It is not clear if this is the case in PTSD as the observations using fMRI are equivocal and open to technical objections. Nevertheless, the effects of the basal ganglia in controlling glutamatergic synaptic transmission through dopaminergic and serotonergic synaptic mechanisms in the core synaptic circuitry provides a ready explanation for why modifying these mechanisms delays extinction in animal models and predisposes towards PTSD. In addition, changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the core synaptic circuitry have significant effects on acquisition and extinction in animal experiments with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BDNF gene predisposing to PTSD.

  19. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  20. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  1. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  2. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  3. Diversity in the Neural Circuitry of Cold Sensing Revealed by Genetic Axonal Labeling of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Takashima, Yoshio; Daniels, Richard L.; Knowlton, Wendy; Teng, James; Liman, Emily R.; McKemy, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory nerves detect an extensive array of somatosensory stimuli, including environmental temperatures. Despite activating only a small cohort of sensory neurons, cold temperatures generate a variety of distinct sensations that range from pleasantly cool to painfully aching, prickling, and burning. Psychophysical and functional data show that cold responses are mediated by both C- and Aδ-fibers with separate peripheral receptive zones, each of which likely provides one or more of these disti...

  4. Tricky Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Teaching children about circuits and the way electricity works is a "tricky business" because it is invisible. Just imagine all eyes are on the teacher as he or she produces for the class what looks like a ping-pong ball and then, with a wave of their hand, the incredible happens! This wonderful white sphere begins to glow red and a…

  5. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  6. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort

  7. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  8. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Kolling, Nils; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Mars, Rogier B; Rushworth, Matthew FS

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural economic studies, involving limited numbers of choices, have provided key insights into neural decision-making mechanisms. By contrast, animals’ foraging choices arise in the context of sequences of encounters with prey/food. On each encounter the animal chooses to engage or whether the environment is sufficiently rich that searching elsewhere is merited. The cost of foraging is also critical. We demonstrate humans can alternate between two modes of choice, comparative decision-ma...

  10. Establishing neural crest identity: a gene regulatory recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a stem/progenitor cell population that contributes to a wide variety of derivatives, including sensory and autonomic ganglia, cartilage and bone of the face and pigment cells of the skin. Unique to vertebrate embryos, it has served as an excellent model system for the study of cell behavior and identity owing to its multipotency, motility and ability to form a broad array of cell types. Neural crest development is thought to be controlled by a suite of transcriptional and epigenetic inputs arranged hierarchically in a gene regulatory network. Here, we examine neural crest development from a gene regulatory perspective and discuss how the underlying genetic circuitry results in the features that define this unique cell population. PMID:25564621

  11. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  12. The Neural Border: Induction, Specification and Maturation of the territory that generates Neural Crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Patrick; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-28

    The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest. Collectively, these studies allow building a complex neural border and early neural crest gene regulatory network, mostly composed by transcriptional regulations but also, more recently, including novel signaling interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  14. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  15. SpiCAD: Integrated environment for circuitry simulation with SPICE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amore, D; Padovini, G; Santomauro, M [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dip. di Elettronica

    1991-11-01

    SPICE is one of the most commonly used programs for the simulation of the behaviour of electronic circuits. This article describes in detail the key design characteristics and capabilities of a computer environment called SpiCAD which integrates all the different phases of SPICE based circuitry simulation on a personal computer, i.e., the tracing of the electronics scheme, simulation and visualization of the results so as to help define semiconductor device models, determine input signals, construct macro-models and convert design sketches into formats acceptable to graphic systems.

  16. Circuitry for monitoring a high direct current voltage supply for an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement to measure the voltage of the supply and a switching means controlled by this is described. The voltage measurer consists of first and second signal coupling means, the input of the second (connected to the voltage supply) is connected in series with the output of the first. An ionization chamber with this circuitry may be used to monitor the radiation output of a particle accelerator more accurately. Faulty measurements of the dose output, caused by voltages in the earth circuit, are avoided. (U.K.)

  17. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Circuitry and plasticity of the dorsal horn--toward a better understanding of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S J; Bannister, K; Dickenson, A H; Bennett, D L

    2015-08-06

    Maladaptive plasticity within the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is a key substrate for development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Advances in genetic engineering, tracing techniques and opto-genetics are leading to a much better understanding of the complex circuitry of the spinal DH and the radical changes evoked in such circuitry by nerve injury. These changes can be viewed at multiple levels including: synaptic remodeling including enhanced excitatory and reduced inhibitory drive, morphological and electrophysiological changes which are observed both to primary afferent inputs as well as DH neurons, and ultimately circuit-level rewiring which leads to altered connectivity and aberrant processing of sensory inputs in the DH. The DH should not be seen in isolation but is subject to important descending modulation from the brainstem, which is further dysregulated by nerve injury. Understanding which changes relate to specific disease-states is essential, and recent work has aimed to stratify patient populations in a mechanistic fashion. In this review we will discuss how such pathophysiological mechanisms may lead to the distressing sensory phenomena experienced by patients suffering neuropathic pain, and the relationship of such mechanisms to current and potential future treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  20. Biomaterial applications in neural therapy and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harmanvir Ghuman; Michel Modo

    2017-01-01

    The use of biomaterials,such as hydrogels,as a scaffold to deliver cells and drugs is becoming increasingly common to treat neurological conditions,including stroke.With a limited intrinsic ability to regenerate after injury,innovative tissue engineering strategies have shown the potential of biomaterials in facilitating neural tissue regeneration and functional recovery.Using biomaterials can not only promote the survival and integration of transplanted cells in the existing circuitry,but also support controlled site specific delivery of therapeutic drugs.This review aims to provide the reader an understanding of the brain tissue microenvironment after injury,biomaterial criteria that support tissue repair,commonly used natural and synthetic biomaterials,benefits of incorporating cells and neurotrophic factors,as well as the potential of endogenous neurogenesis in repairing the injured brain.

  1. [Neural activity related to emotional and empathic deficits in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder who survived the L'Aquila (Central Italy) 2009 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tempesta, Daniela; Catalucci, Alessia; Masciocchi, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. The continued efforts to control the distressing memories by traumatized individuals, together with the reduction of responsiveness to the outside world, are called Emotional Numbing (EN). The EN is one of the central symptoms in PTSD and it plays an integral role not only in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic symptomatology, but also in the disability of emotional regulation. This disorder shows an abnormal response of cortical and limbic regions which are normally involved in understanding emotions since the very earliest stages of the development of processing ability. Patients with PTSD exhibit exaggerated brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli. Identifying the neural correlates of emotion regulation in these subjects is important for elucidating the neural circuitry involved in emotional and empathic dysfunction. We showed that PTSD patients, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, have a higher sensitivity to negative emotion and lower empathy levels. These emotional and empathic deficits are accompanied by neural brain functional correlates. Indeed PTSD subjects exhibit functional abnormalities in brain regions that are involved in stress regulation and emotional responses. The reduced activation of the frontal areas and a stronger activation of the limbic areas when responding to emotional stimuli could lead the subjects to enact coping strategies aimed at protecting themselves from the re-experience of pain related to traumatic events. This would result in a dysfunctional hyperactivation of subcortical areas, which may cause emotional distress and, consequently, impaired social relationships often reported by PTSD patients.

  2. Games in the Brain: Neural Substrates of Gambling Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, W Spencer; Clark, Luke

    2016-10-01

    As a popular form of recreational risk taking, gambling games offer a paradigm for decision neuroscience research. As an individual behavior, gambling becomes dysfunctional in a subset of the population, with debilitating consequences. Gambling disorder has been recently reconceptualized as a "behavioral addiction" in the DSM-5, based on emerging parallels with substance use disorders. Why do some individuals undergo this transition from recreational to disordered gambling? The biomedical model of problem gambling is a "brain disorder" account that posits an underlying neurobiological abnormality. This article first delineates the neural circuitry that underpins gambling-related decision making, comprising ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dopaminergic midbrain, and insula, and presents evidence for pathophysiology in this circuitry in gambling disorder. These biological dispositions become translated into clinical disorder through the effects of gambling games. This influence is better articulated in a public health approach that describes the interplay between the player and the (gambling) product. Certain forms of gambling, including electronic gambling machines, appear to be overrepresented in problem gamblers. These games harness psychological features, including variable ratio schedules, near-misses, "losses disguised as wins," and the illusion of control, which modulate the core decision-making circuitry that is perturbed in gambling disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  5. A CMOS IC–based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuit (IC chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA, and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs were used to extracellularly measure the activity of cultured rat cortical neurons and mouse cortical slices. The MEA had 64 bidirectional (stimulation and recording electrodes. In addition, the CMOS IC chip was equipped with dedicated analog filters, amplification stages, and a stimulation buffer. Signals from the electrodes were sampled at 15.6 kHz with 16-bit resolution. The measured input-referred circuitry noise was 10.1 μV root mean square (10 Hz to 100 kHz, which allowed reliable detection of neural signals ranging from several millivolts down to approximately 33 μVpp. Experiments were performed involving the stimulation of neurons with several spatiotemporal patterns and the recording of the triggered activity. An advantage over current MEAs, as demonstrated by our experiments, includes the ability to stimulate (voltage stimulation, 5-bit resolution spatiotemporal patterns in arbitrary subsets of electrodes. Furthermore, the fast stimulation reset mechanism allowed us to record neuronal signals from a stimulating electrode around 3 ms after stimulation. We demonstrate that the system can be directly applied to, for example, auditory neural prostheses in conjunction with an acoustic sensor and a sound processing system.

  6. NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 Regulatory Circuitry in Skeletal Myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huating; Garzon, Ramiro; Sun, Hao; Ladner, Katherine J.; Singh, Ravi; Dahlman, Jason; Cheng, Alfred; Hall, Brett M.; Qualman, Stephen J.; Chandler, Dawn S.; Croce, Carlo M.; Guttridge, Denis C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies support the importance of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe the regulation and function of miR-29 in myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Results demonstrate that in myoblasts miR-29 is repressed by NF-κB acting through YY1 and the Polycomb. During myogenesis, NF-κB and YY1 downregulation causes derepression of miR-29, which in turn accelerates differentiation by targeting its repressor YY1. However, in RMS cells and primary tumors that possess impaired differentiation, miR-29 is epigenetically silenced by an activated NF-κB-YY1 pathway. Reconstitution of miR-29 in RMS in mice inhibits tumor growth and stimulates differentiation, suggesting that miR-29 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-myogenic function. Together, results identify a NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 regulatory circuit whose disruption may contribute to RMS. SIGNIFICANCE MicroRNAs regulate skeletal myogenesis, but their impact in muscle diseases is not well understood. Here we describe miR-29 as an enhancer of myogenic differentiation and a suppressor of RMS. We find that miR-29 exists in a regulatory circuit involving NF-κB and YY1. In myoblasts NF-B acts through YY1 to epigenetically suppress miR-29, while during differentiation miR-29 is induced to facilitate myogenesis by a negative feedback on YY1. Significantly, RMS tumors lose miR-29 due to an elevation in NF-B and YY1, and readjustment of miR-29 levels in RMS stimulates differentiation. Thus, myogenesis is dependent on NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 circuitry whose dysfunction may contribute to RMS pathogenesis. Such findings offer potential avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of muscle relevant cancers. PMID:18977326

  7. Neural correlates of RDoC reward constructs in adolescents with diverse psychiatric symptoms: A Reward Flanker Task pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Freed, Rachel D; Stern, Emily R; Gabbay, Vilma

    2017-07-01

    There has been growing interest under the Research Domain Criteria initiative to investigate behavioral constructs and their underlying neural circuitry. Abnormalities in reward processes are salient across psychiatric conditions and may precede future psychopathology in youth. However, the neural circuitry underlying such deficits has not been well defined. Therefore, in this pilot, we studied youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms and examined the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation, attainment, and positive prediction error (PPE, unexpected reward gain). Clinically, we focused on anhedonia, known to reflect deficits in reward function. Twenty-two psychotropic medication-free youth, 16 with psychiatric symptoms, exhibiting a full range of anhedonia, were scanned during the Reward Flanker Task. Anhedonia severity was quantified using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses were false discovery rate corrected for multiple comparisons. Anticipation activated a broad network, including the medial frontal cortex and ventral striatum, while attainment activated memory and emotion-related regions such as the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, but not the ventral striatum. PPE activated a right-dominant fronto-temporo-parietal network. Anhedonia was only correlated with activation of the right angular gyrus during anticipation and the left precuneus during PPE at an uncorrected threshold. Findings are preliminary due to the small sample size. This pilot characterized the neural circuitry underlying different aspects of reward processing in youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms. These results highlight the complexity of the neural circuitry underlying reward anticipation, attainment, and PPE. Furthermore, this study underscores the importance of RDoC research in youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering nucleic acid structures for programmable molecular circuitry and intracellular biocomputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Green, Alexander A.; Yan, Hao; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-11-01

    Nucleic acids have attracted widespread attention due to the simplicity with which they can be designed to form discrete structures and programmed to perform specific functions at the nanoscale. The advantages of DNA/RNA nanotechnology offer numerous opportunities for in-cell and in-vivo applications, and the technology holds great promise to advance the growing field of synthetic biology. Many elegant examples have revealed the potential in integrating nucleic acid nanostructures in cells and in vivo where they can perform important physiological functions. In this Review, we summarize the current abilities of DNA/RNA nanotechnology to realize applications in live cells and then discuss the key problems that must be solved to fully exploit the useful properties of nanostructures. Finally, we provide viewpoints on how to integrate the tools provided by DNA/RNA nanotechnology and related new technologies to construct nucleic acid nanostructure-based molecular circuitry for synthetic biology.

  9. Modeling disease risk through analysis of physical interactions between genetic variants within chromatin regulatory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradin, Olivia; Cohen, Andrea J; Luppino, Jennifer M; Bayles, Ian M; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scacheri, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    SNPs associated with disease susceptibility often reside in enhancer clusters, or super-enhancers. Constituents of these enhancer clusters cooperate to regulate target genes and often extend beyond the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks containing risk SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified 'outside variants', defined as SNPs in weak LD with GWAS risk SNPs that physically interact with risk SNPs as part of a target gene's regulatory circuitry. These outside variants further explain variation in target gene expression beyond that explained by GWAS-associated SNPs. Additionally, the clinical risk associated with GWAS SNPs is considerably modified by the genotype of outside variants. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential model in which outside variants and GWAS SNPs that physically interact in 3D chromatin collude to influence target transcript levels as well as clinical risk. This model offers an additional hypothesis for the source of missing heritability for complex traits.

  10. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  11. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  12. Got Rhythm? Better Inhibitory Control Is Linked with More Consistent Drumming and Enhanced Neural Tracking of the Musical Beat in Adult Percussionists and Nonpercussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Ashley, Richard; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Musical rhythm engages motor and reward circuitry that is important for cognitive control, and there is evidence for enhanced inhibitory control in musicians. We recently revealed an inhibitory control advantage in percussionists compared with vocalists, highlighting the potential importance of rhythmic expertise in mediating this advantage. Previous research has shown that better inhibitory control is associated with less variable performance in simple sensorimotor synchronization tasks; however, this relationship has not been examined through the lens of rhythmic expertise. We hypothesize that the development of rhythm skills strengthens inhibitory control in two ways: by fine-tuning motor networks through the precise coordination of movements "in time" and by activating reward-based mechanisms, such as predictive processing and conflict monitoring, which are involved in tracking temporal structure in music. Here, we assess adult percussionists and nonpercussionists on inhibitory control, selective attention, basic drumming skills (self-paced, paced, and continuation drumming), and cortical evoked responses to an auditory stimulus presented on versus off the beat of music. Consistent with our hypotheses, we find that better inhibitory control is correlated with more consistent drumming and enhanced neural tracking of the musical beat. Drumming variability and the neural index of beat alignment each contribute unique predictive power to a regression model, explaining 57% of variance in inhibitory control. These outcomes present the first evidence that enhanced inhibitory control in musicians may be mediated by rhythmic expertise and provide a foundation for future research investigating the potential for rhythm-based training to strengthen cognitive function.

  13. System-Level Design of a 64-Channel Low Power Neural Spike Recording Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Darie, Angela; Soto-Sanchez, Cristina; Fernandez-Jover, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated 64-channel neural spike recording sensor, together with all the circuitry to process and configure the channels, process the neural data, transmit via a wireless link the information and receive the required instructions. Neural signals are acquired, filtered, digitized and compressed in the channels. Additionally, each channel implements an auto-calibration algorithm which individually configures the transfer characteristics of the recording site. The system has two transmission modes; in one case the information captured by the channels is sent as uncompressed raw data; in the other, feature vectors extracted from the detected neural spikes are released. Data streams coming from the channels are serialized by the embedded digital processor. Experimental results, including in vivo measurements, show that the power consumption of the complete system is lower than 330 μW.

  14. Neural representation of expected value in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Galván, Adriana

    2014-01-28

    Previous work shows that the adolescent reward system is hyperactive, but this finding may be confounded by differences in how teens value money. To address this, we examined the neural ontogeny of objective value representation. Adolescent and adult participants performed a monetary gambling task in which they chose to accept or reject gambles of varying expected value. Increasing expected value had a stronger influence over gambling choices in adolescents relative to adults, an effect that was paralleled by greater activation in the ventral striatum in adolescents. This unique adolescent ventral striatum response remained even after matching groups on acceptance behavior. These behavioral and neural data suggest that the value of available options has a greater influence in adolescent versus adult choices, even when objective value and subjective choice are held constant. This research provides further evidence that hyperactivation of reward circuitry in adolescence may be a normative ontogenetic shift that is due to greater valuation in the adolescent brain.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  17. Neural Mechanisms of Circadian Regulation of Natural and Drug Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. DePoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated near 24-hour variations of physiological and behavioral functions. In humans, disruptions to the circadian system are associated with negative health outcomes, including metabolic, immune, and psychiatric diseases, such as addiction. Animal models suggest bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse, whereby desynchrony, misalignment, or disruption may promote vulnerability to drug use and the transition to addiction, while exposure to drugs of abuse may entrain, disrupt, or perturb the circadian timing system. Recent evidence suggests natural (i.e., food and drug rewards may influence overlapping neural circuitry, and the circadian system may modulate the physiological and behavioral responses to these stimuli. Environmental disruptions, such as shifting schedules or shorter/longer days, influence food and drug intake, and certain mutations of circadian genes that control cellular rhythms are associated with altered behavioral reward. We highlight the more recent findings associating circadian rhythms to reward function, linking environmental and genetic evidence to natural and drug reward and related neural circuitry.

  18. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  19. Investigating Circadian Rhythmicity in Pain Sensitivity Using a Neural Circuit Model for Spinal Cord Processing of Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crodelle, Jennifer; Piltz, Sofia Helena; Booth, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Primary processing of painful stimulation occurs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In this article, we introduce mathematical models of the neural circuitry in the dorsal horn responsible for processing nerve fiber inputs from noxious stimulation of peripheral tissues and generating the resu......Primary processing of painful stimulation occurs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In this article, we introduce mathematical models of the neural circuitry in the dorsal horn responsible for processing nerve fiber inputs from noxious stimulation of peripheral tissues and generating...... the resultant pain signal. The differential equation models describe the average firing rates of excitatory and inhibitory interneuron populations, as well as the wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons whose output correlates with the pain signal. The temporal profile of inputs on the different afferent nerve fibers...

  20. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  1. Synaptic reorganization of inhibitory hilar interneuron circuitry after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robert F.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Smith, Bret N.

    2011-01-01

    Functional plasticity of synaptic networks in the dentate gyrus has been implicated in the development of posttraumatic epilepsy and in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury, but little is known about potentially pathogenic changes in inhibitory circuits. We examined synaptic inhibition of dentate granule cells and excitability of surviving GABAergic hilar interneurons 8–13 weeks after cortical contusion brain injury in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in granule cells revealed a reduction in spontaneous and miniature IPSC frequency after head injury; no concurrent change in paired-pulse ratio was found in granule cells after paired electrical stimulation of the hilus. Despite reduced inhibitory input to granule cells, action potential and EPSC frequencies were increased in hilar GABA neurons from slices ipsilateral to the injury, versus those from control or contralateral slices. Further, increased excitatory synaptic activity was detected in hilar GABA neurons ipsilateral to the injury after glutamate photostimulation of either the granule cell or CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Together, these findings suggest that excitatory drive to surviving hilar GABA neurons is enhanced by convergent input from both pyramidal and granule cells, but synaptic inhibition of granule cells is not fully restored after injury. This rewiring of circuitry regulating hilar inhibitory neurons may reflect an important compensatory mechanism, but it may also contribute to network destabilization by increasing the relative impact of surviving individual interneurons in controlling granule cell excitability in the posttraumatic dentate gyrus. PMID:21543618

  2. Taste Reward Circuitry Related Brain Structures Characterize Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. Here we assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which might be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. Method We used structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in individuals with restricting type currently ill (n = 19) or recovered-anorexia nervosa (n = 24), bulimia nervosa (n= 19) and healthy control women (n=24). Results All eating disorder groups showed increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manually tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and predicted taste pleasantness across all groups. The analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories: Ill and recovered-anorexia nervosa had increased right, while bulimia nervosa had increased left antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes compared to controls. Furthermore, dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in recovered-anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and predicted sensitivity to reward in the eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas when compared to healthy controls. Notably, the results held when controlling for a range of covariates (e.g., age, depression, anxiety, medications). Conclusion Brain structure in medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. PMID:23680873

  3. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  4. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  5. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  6. Assessing Ink Transfer Performance of Gravure-Offset Fine-Line Circuitry Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Chie; Chen, You-Wei; Chen, Wen-Hwa; Lu, Su-Tsai; Lin, Shih-Ming

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the printing mechanism and performance of gravure-offset fine-line circuitry printing technology are investigated in terms of key printing parameters through experimental and theoretical analyses. First, the contact angles of the ink deposited on different substrates, blankets, and gravure metal plates are experimentally determined; moreover, their temperature and solvent content dependences are analyzed. Next, the ink solvent absorption and evaporation behaviors of the blankets at different temperatures, times, and numbers of printing repetitions are characterized by conducting experiments. In addition, while printing repeatedly, the surface characteristics of the blankets, such as the contact angle, vary with the amount of absorbed ink solvent, further affecting the ink transfer performance (ratio) and printing quality. Accordingly, the surface effect of the blanket due to ink solvent absorption on the ink contact angle is analyzed. Furthermore, the amount of ink transferred from the gravure plate to the blanket in the "off process" and from the blanket to the substrate in the "set process" is evaluated by conducting a simplified plate-to-plate experiment. The influences of loading rate (printing velocity), temperature, and solvent content on the ink transfer performance are addressed. Finally, the ink transfer mechanism is theoretically analyzed for different solvent contents using Surface Evolver. The calculation results are compared with those of the experiment.

  7. Neural networks with discontinuous/impact activations

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmet, Marat

    2014-01-01

    This book presents as its main subject new models in mathematical neuroscience. A wide range of neural networks models with discontinuities are discussed, including impulsive differential equations, differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, and models of mixed type. These models involve discontinuities, which are natural because huge velocities and short distances are usually observed in devices modeling the networks. A discussion of the models, appropriate for the proposed applications, is also provided. This book also: Explores questions related to the biological underpinning for models of neural networks\\ Considers neural networks modeling using differential equations with impulsive and piecewise constant argument discontinuities Provides all necessary mathematical basics for application to the theory of neural networks Neural Networks with Discontinuous/Impact Activations is an ideal book for researchers and professionals in the field of engineering mathematics that have an interest in app...

  8. Antenna analysis using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary). A comparison between the simulated and actual W-L techniques is shown for a triangular-shaped pattern. Dolph-Chebyshev is a different class of synthesis technique in that D-C is used for side lobe control as opposed to pattern

  9. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  10. First realization of a tracking detector for high energy physics experiments based on Josephson digital readout circuitry

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, S; Esposito, A P; Mukhanov, O; Rylov, S

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype of a high energy particle microstrip detector with Josephson readout circuits. The key features of this device are: minimum ionizing particle sensitivity, due to the use of semiconductive sensors, fast speed and radiation hardness, due to the use of superconductive circuitry, and current discrimination, which allows the use of several types of semiconductors as detector (Si, GaAs, CVD-diamond) without loss in performances. The Josephson circuitry, made by a combination of RSFQ and latching logic gates, realizes an 8-bit current discriminator and parallel to serial converter and can be directly interfaced to room temperature electronics. This device, which is designed for application as vertex detector for the Compass and LHC-B accelerator experiments, has been tested with small radioactive sources acid will undergo to a test beam at the CERN SPS facility with 24 GeV/c protons. Current results and future perspectives will be reported. (11 refs).

  11. Neurophysiology and neural engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Arthur

    2017-08-01

    Neurophysiology is the branch of physiology concerned with understanding the function of neural systems. Neural engineering (also known as neuroengineering) is a discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties and functions of neural systems. In most cases neural engineering involves the development of an interface between electronic devices and living neural tissue. This review describes the origins of neural engineering, the explosive development of methods and devices commencing in the late 1950s, and the present-day devices that have resulted. The barriers to interfacing electronic devices with living neural tissues are many and varied, and consequently there have been numerous stops and starts along the way. Representative examples are discussed. None of this could have happened without a basic understanding of the relevant neurophysiology. I also consider examples of how neural engineering is repaying the debt to basic neurophysiology with new knowledge and insight. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. High-Density Liquid-State Machine Circuitry for Time-Series Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Alomar, Miquel L; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni; Canals, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNN) are the last neural network generation that try to mimic the real behavior of biological neurons. Although most research in this area is done through software applications, it is in hardware implementations in which the intrinsic parallelism of these computing systems are more efficiently exploited. Liquid state machines (LSM) have arisen as a strategic technique to implement recurrent designs of SNN with a simple learning methodology. In this work, we show a new low-cost methodology to implement high-density LSM by using Boolean gates. The proposed method is based on the use of probabilistic computing concepts to reduce hardware requirements, thus considerably increasing the neuron count per chip. The result is a highly functional system that is applied to high-speed time series forecasting.

  13. Optics in neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Michael John

    In all attempts to emulate the considerable powers of the brain, one is struck by both its immense size, parallelism, and complexity. While the fields of neural networks, artificial intelligence, and neuromorphic engineering have all attempted oversimplifications on the considerable complexity, all three can benefit from the inherent scalability and parallelism of optics. This thesis looks at specific aspects of three modes in which optics, and particularly volume holography, can play a part in neural computation. First, holography serves as the basis of highly-parallel correlators, which are the foundation of optical neural networks. The huge input capability of optical neural networks make them most useful for image processing and image recognition and tracking. These tasks benefit from the shift invariance of optical correlators. In this thesis, I analyze the capacity of correlators, and then present several techniques for controlling the amount of shift invariance. Of particular interest is the Fresnel correlator, in which the hologram is displaced from the Fourier plane. In this case, the amount of shift invariance is limited not just by the thickness of the hologram, but by the distance of the hologram from the Fourier plane. Second, volume holography can provide the huge storage capacity and high speed, parallel read-out necessary to support large artificial intelligence systems. However, previous methods for storing data in volume holograms have relied on awkward beam-steering or on as-yet non- existent cheap, wide-bandwidth, tunable laser sources. This thesis presents a new technique, shift multiplexing, which is capable of very high densities, but which has the advantage of a very simple implementation. In shift multiplexing, the reference wave consists of a focused spot a few millimeters in front of the hologram. Multiplexing is achieved by simply translating the hologram a few tens of microns or less. This thesis describes the theory for how shift

  14. Neural substrate expansion for the restoration of brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chiao Isaac Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring neurological and cognitive function in individuals who have suffered brain damage is one of the principal objectives of modern translational neuroscience. Electrical stimulation approaches, such as deep-brain stimulation, have achieved the most clinical success, but they ultimately may be limited by the computational capacity of the residual cerebral circuitry. An alternative strategy is brain substrate expansion, in which the computational capacity of the brain is augmented through the addition of new processing units and the reconstitution of network connectivity. This latter approach has been explored to some degree using both biological and electronic means but thus far has not demonstrated the ability to reestablish the function of large-scale neuronal networks. In this review, we contend that fulfilling the potential of brain substrate expansion will require a significant shift from current methods that emphasize direct manipulations of the brain (e.g., injections of cellular suspensions and the implantation of multi-electrode arrays to the generation of more sophisticated neural tissues and neural-electric hybrids in vitro that are subsequently transplanted into the brain. Drawing from neural tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and neural interface technologies, this strategy makes greater use of the manifold techniques available in the laboratory to create biocompatible constructs that recapitulate brain architecture and thus are more easily recognized and utilized by brain networks.

  15. Differentiating neural reward responsiveness in autism versus ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kohls

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD share certain neurocognitive characteristics, it has been hypothesized to differentiate the two disorders based on their brain's reward responsiveness to either social or monetary reward. Thus, the present fMRI study investigated neural activation in response to both reward types in age and IQ-matched boys with ADHD versus ASD relative to typically controls (TDC. A significant group by reward type interaction effect emerged in the ventral striatum with greater activation to monetary versus social reward only in TDC, whereas subjects with ADHD responded equally strong to both reward types, and subjects with ASD showed low striatal reactivity across both reward conditions. Moreover, disorder-specific neural abnormalities were revealed, including medial prefrontal hyperactivation in response to social reward in ADHD versus ventral striatal hypoactivation in response to monetary reward in ASD. Shared dysfunction was characterized by fronto-striato-parietal hypoactivation in both clinical groups when money was at stake. Interestingly, lower neural activation within parietal circuitry was associated with higher autistic traits across the entire study sample. In sum, the present findings concur with the assumption that both ASD and ADHD display distinct and shared neural dysfunction in response to reward.

  16. Neural Plasticity Associated with Hippocampal PKA-CREB and NMDA Signaling Is Involved in the Antidepressant Effect of Repeated Low Dose of Yueju Pill on Chronic Mouse Model of Learned Helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilu Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yueju pill is a traditional Chinese medicine formulated to treat syndromes of mood disorders. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of repeated low dose of Yueju in the animal model mimicking clinical long-term depression condition and the role of neural plasticity associated with PKA- (protein kinase A- CREB (cAMP response element binding protein and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate signaling. We showed that a single low dose of Yueju demonstrated antidepressant effects in tests of tail suspension, forced swim, and novelty-suppressed feeding. A chronic learned helplessness (LH protocol resulted in a long-term depressive-like condition. Repeated administration of Yueju following chronic LH remarkably alleviated all of depressive-like symptoms measured, whereas conventional antidepressant fluoxetine only showed a minor improvement. In the hippocampus, Yueju and fluoxetine both normalized brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and PKA level. Only Yueju, not fluoxetine, rescued the deficits in CREB signaling. The chronic LH upregulated the expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, which were all attenuated by Yueju. Furthermore, intracerebraventricular administration of NMDA blunted the antidepressant effect of Yueju. These findings supported the antidepressant efficacy of repeated routine low dose of Yueju in a long-term depression model and the critical role of CREB and NMDA signaling.

  17. Neural Plasticity Associated with Hippocampal PKA-CREB and NMDA Signaling Is Involved in the Antidepressant Effect of Repeated Low Dose of Yueju Pill on Chronic Mouse Model of Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhilu; Chen, Yin; Shen, Qinqin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuxuan; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Yueju pill is a traditional Chinese medicine formulated to treat syndromes of mood disorders. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of repeated low dose of Yueju in the animal model mimicking clinical long-term depression condition and the role of neural plasticity associated with PKA- (protein kinase A-) CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) signaling. We showed that a single low dose of Yueju demonstrated antidepressant effects in tests of tail suspension, forced swim, and novelty-suppressed feeding. A chronic learned helplessness (LH) protocol resulted in a long-term depressive-like condition. Repeated administration of Yueju following chronic LH remarkably alleviated all of depressive-like symptoms measured, whereas conventional antidepressant fluoxetine only showed a minor improvement. In the hippocampus, Yueju and fluoxetine both normalized brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and PKA level. Only Yueju, not fluoxetine, rescued the deficits in CREB signaling. The chronic LH upregulated the expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, which were all attenuated by Yueju. Furthermore, intracerebraventricular administration of NMDA blunted the antidepressant effect of Yueju. These findings supported the antidepressant efficacy of repeated routine low dose of Yueju in a long-term depression model and the critical role of CREB and NMDA signaling.

  18. Neural Elements for Predictive Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart SHIPP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backwards in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many ‘illusory’ instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc is unduly influenced by what is expected, based on past experience. This simple conception, the hierarchical exchange of prediction and prediction error, confronts a rich cortical microcircuitry that is yet to be fully documented. This article presents the view that, in the current state of theory and practice, it is profitable to begin a two-way exchange: that predictive coding theory can support an understanding of cortical microcircuit function, and prompt particular aspects of future investigation, whilst existing knowledge of microcircuitry can, in return, influence theoretical development. As an example, a neural inference arising from the earliest formulations of predictive coding is that the source populations of forwards and backwards pathways should be completely separate, given their functional distinction; this aspect of circuitry – that neurons with extrinsically bifurcating axons do not project in both directions – has only recently been confirmed. Here, the computational architecture prescribed by a generalized (free-energy formulation of predictive coding is combined with the classic ‘canonical microcircuit’ and the laminar architecture of hierarchical extrinsic connectivity to produce a template schematic, that is further examined in the light of (a updates in the microcircuitry of primate visual cortex, and (b rapid technical advances made

  19. Neural Elements for Predictive Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc.) is unduly influenced by what is expected, based on past experience. This simple conception, the hierarchical exchange of prediction and prediction error, confronts a rich cortical microcircuitry that is yet to be fully documented. This article presents the view that, in the current state of theory and practice, it is profitable to begin a two-way exchange: that predictive coding theory can support an understanding of cortical microcircuit function, and prompt particular aspects of future investigation, whilst existing knowledge of microcircuitry can, in return, influence theoretical development. As an example, a neural inference arising from the earliest formulations of predictive coding is that the source populations of forward and backward pathways should be completely separate, given their functional distinction; this aspect of circuitry - that neurons with extrinsically bifurcating axons do not project in both directions - has only recently been confirmed. Here, the computational architecture prescribed by a generalized (free-energy) formulation of predictive coding is combined with the classic 'canonical microcircuit' and the laminar architecture of hierarchical extrinsic connectivity to produce a template schematic, that is further examined in the light of (a) updates in the microcircuitry of primate visual cortex, and (b) rapid technical advances made possible by transgenic neural

  20. Neural networks, D0, and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, C.; Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.A.; Sornborger, A.T.; Johnson, C.T.; Zeller, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    We outline several exploratory studies involving neural network simulations applied to pattern recognition in high energy physics. We describe the D0 data acquisition system and a natual means by which algorithms derived from neural networks techniques may be incorporated into recently developed hardware associated with the D0 MicroVAX farm nodes. Such applications to the event filtering needed by SSC detectors look interesting. 10 refs., 11 figs

  1. Dopaminergic circuitry and risk/reward decision making: implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopper, Colin M; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal reinforcement learning and representations of reward value are present in schizophrenia, and these impairments can manifest as deficits in risk/reward decision making. These abnormalities may be due in part to dopaminergic dysfunction within cortico-limbic-striatal circuitry. Evidence from studies with laboratory animal have revealed that normal DA activity within different nodes of these circuits is critical for mediating dissociable processes that can refine decision biases. Moreover, both phasic and tonic dopamine transmission appear to play separate yet complementary roles in these processes. Tonic dopamine release within the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, serves as a "running rate-meter" of reward and reflects contextual information such as reward uncertainty and overt choice behavior. On the other hand, manipulations of outcome-related phasic dopamine bursts and dips suggest these signals provide rapid feedback to allow for quick adjustments in choice as reward contingencies change. The lateral habenula is a key input to the DA system that phasic signals is necessary for expressing subjective decision biases; as suppression of activity within this nucleus leads to catastrophic impairments in decision making and random patterns of choice behavior. As schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in using positive and negative feedback to appropriately guide decision making, these findings suggest that these deficits in these processes may be mediated, at least in part, by abnormalities in both tonic and phasic dopamine transmission. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Long-term potentiation in hilar circuitry modulates gating by the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brandon J; Jackson, Meyer B

    2014-07-16

    The dentate gyrus serves as a gateway to the hippocampus, filtering and processing sensory inputs as an animal explores its environment. The hilus occupies a strategic position within the dentate gyrus from which it can play a pivotal role in these functions. Inputs from dentate granule cells converge on the hilus, and excitatory hilar mossy cells redistribute these signals back to granule cells to transform a pattern of cortical input into a new pattern of output to the hippocampal CA3 region. Using voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices, we explored how long-term potentiation (LTP) of different excitatory synapses modifies the flow of information. Theta burst stimulation of the perforant path potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, but left responses in the CA3 region unchanged. By contrast, theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, as well as in the CA3 region. Theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated CA3 responses not only to granule cell layer stimulation but also to perforant path stimulation. Potentiation of responses in the CA3 region reflected NMDA receptor-dependent LTP of upstream synapses between granule cells and mossy cells, with no detectable contribution from NMDA receptor-independent LTP of local CA3 mossy fiber synapses. Potentiation of transmission to the CA3 region required LTP in both granule cell→mossy cell and mossy cell→granule cell synapses. This bidirectional plasticity enables hilar circuitry to regulate the flow of information through the dentate gyrus and on to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349743-11$15.00/0.

  3. Hyperleptinemia in Neonatally Overfed Female Rats Does Not Dysregulate Feeding Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Ziko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake. Female rats that are overfed during the first weeks of their life experience similar changes in circulating leptin levels as well as in their body weight. However, it has not yet been studied whether these metabolic changes are associated with the same central effects as observed in males. Here, we hypothesized that hyperleptinemia associated with neonatal overfeeding would lead to changes in central feeding circuitry in females as it does in males. We assessed hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, and POMC gene expression and immunoreactivity at 7, 12, or 14 days of age, as well as neuronal activation in response to exogenous leptin in neonatally overfed and control female rats. Neonatally overfed female rats were hyperleptinemic and were heavier than controls. However, these metabolic changes were not mirrored centrally by changes in hypothalamic NPY, AGRP, and POMC fiber density. These findings are suggestive of sex differences in the effects of neonatal overfeeding and of differences in the ability of the female and male central systems to respond to changes in the early life nutritional environment.

  4. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  5. Flexible thin film circuitry enabling ubiquitous electronics via post-fabrication customization (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the electronics industry has been accurately described by Moore's Law, where the march towards increasing density and smaller feature sizes has enabled continuous cost reductions and performance improvements. With flexible electronics, this perpetual scaling is not foreseen to occur. Instead, the industry will be dominated by Wright's Law, first proposed in 1936, where increasing demand for high volumes of product will drive costs down. We have demonstrated thin film based circuitry compatible with flexible substrates with high levels of functionality designed for such a high volume industry. This includes a generic 8-bit microprocessor totaling more than 3.5k TFTs operating at 2.1 kHz. We have also developed a post fabrication programming technique via inkjet printing of conductive spots to form a one-time programmable instruction generator, allowing customization of the processor for a specific task. The combination demonstrates the possibility to achieve the high volume production of identical products necessary to reap the benefits promised by Wright's Law, while still retaining the individualization necessary for application differentiation. This is of particular importance in the area of item level identification via RFID, where low cost and individualized identification are necessary. Remotely powered RFID tags have been fabricated using an oxide semiconductor based TFT process. This process is compatible with the post-fabrication printing process to detail individual identification codes, with the goal of producing low cost, high volume flexible tags. The goal is to produce tags compatible with existing NFC communication protocols in order to communicate with readers that are already ubiquitous in the market.

  6. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  7. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  8. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  9. Neural tissue-spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Johansen, Mathias; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2007-01-01

    By combining new and established protocols we have developed a procedure for isolation and propagation of neural precursor cells from the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of newborn rats. Small tissue blocks of the SVZ were dissected and propagated en bloc as free-floating neural tissue...... content, thus allowing experimental studies of neural precursor cells and their niche...

  10. Neural electrical activity and neural network growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafarov, F M

    2018-05-01

    The development of central and peripheral neural system depends in part on the emergence of the correct functional connectivity in its input and output pathways. Now it is generally accepted that molecular factors guide neurons to establish a primary scaffold that undergoes activity-dependent refinement for building a fully functional circuit. However, a number of experimental results obtained recently shows that the neuronal electrical activity plays an important role in the establishing of initial interneuronal connections. Nevertheless, these processes are rather difficult to study experimentally, due to the absence of theoretical description and quantitative parameters for estimation of the neuronal activity influence on growth in neural networks. In this work we propose a general framework for a theoretical description of the activity-dependent neural network growth. The theoretical description incorporates a closed-loop growth model in which the neural activity can affect neurite outgrowth, which in turn can affect neural activity. We carried out the detailed quantitative analysis of spatiotemporal activity patterns and studied the relationship between individual cells and the network as a whole to explore the relationship between developing connectivity and activity patterns. The model, developed in this work will allow us to develop new experimental techniques for studying and quantifying the influence of the neuronal activity on growth processes in neural networks and may lead to a novel techniques for constructing large-scale neural networks by self-organization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cracking the Neural Code for Sensory Perception by Combining Statistics, Intervention, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D; Piasini, Eugenio; Latham, Peter E; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-02-08

    The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information. We show how this framework leads to a new statistical analysis of neural activity recorded during behavior that can identify such neural codes, and we discuss how to combine intersection-based analysis of neural recordings with intervention on neural activity to determine definitively whether specific neural activity features are involved in a task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel method combining cellular neural networks and the coupled nonlinear oscillators' paradigm involving a related bifurcation analysis for robust image contrast enhancement in dynamically changing difficult visual environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedjou, Jean Chamberlain; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that a machine vision-based analysis of a dynamic scene, for example in the context of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), does require real-time processing capabilities. Therefore, the system used must be capable of performing both robust and ultrafast analyses. Machine vision in ADAS must fulfil the above requirements when dealing with a dynamically changing visual context (i.e. driving in darkness or in a foggy environment, etc). Among the various challenges related to the analysis of a dynamic scene, this paper focuses on contrast enhancement, which is a well-known basic operation to improve the visual quality of an image (dynamic or static) suffering from poor illumination. The key objective is to develop a systematic and fundamental concept for image contrast enhancement that should be robust despite a dynamic environment and that should fulfil the real-time constraints by ensuring an ultrafast analysis. It is demonstrated that the new approach developed in this paper is capable of fulfilling the expected requirements. The proposed approach combines the good features of the 'coupled oscillators'-based signal processing paradigm with the good features of the 'cellular neural network (CNN)'-based one. The first paradigm in this combination is the 'master system' and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are (a) the so-called 'van der Pol oscillator' and (b) the so-called 'Duffing oscillator'. It is then implemented or realized on top of a 'slave system' platform consisting of a CNN-processors platform. An offline bifurcation analysis is used to find out, a priori, the windows of parameter settings in which the coupled oscillator system exhibits the best and most appropriate behaviours of interest for an optimal resulting image processing quality. In the frame of the extensive bifurcation analysis carried out, analytical formulae have been derived, which are capable of determining the various

  13. Neural Networks in Mobile Robot Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Janglová

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a path planning and intelligent control of an autonomous robot which should move safely in partially structured environment. This environment may involve any number of obstacles of arbitrary shape and size; some of them are allowed to move. We describe our approach to solving the motion-planning problem in mobile robot control using neural networks-based technique. Our method of the construction of a collision-free path for moving robot among obstacles is based on two neural networks. The first neural network is used to determine the “free” space using ultrasound range finder data. The second neural network “finds” a safe direction for the next robot section of the path in the workspace while avoiding the nearest obstacles. Simulation examples of generated path with proposed techniques will be presented.

  14. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Landeau, B; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2009-07-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neuroimaging data, the musical lexicon (and most widely musical semantic memory) appears to be sustained by a temporo-prefrontal cerebral network involving right and left cerebral regions.

  15. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  17. The effects of intranasal oxytocin on reward circuitry responses in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, R K; Spanos, M; Alderman, C; Walsh, E; Bizzell, J; Mosner, M G; Kinard, J L; Stuber, G D; Chandrasekhar, T; Politte, L C; Sikich, L; Dichter, G S

    2018-03-27

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has been shown to improve social communication functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and, thus, has received considerable interest as a potential ASD therapeutic agent. Although preclinical research indicates that OT modulates the functional output of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that processes rewards, no clinical brain imaging study to date has examined the effects of OT on this system using a reward processing paradigm. To address this, we used an incentive delay task to examine the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT, versus placebo (PLC), on neural responses to social and nonsocial rewards in children with ASD. In this placebo-controlled double-blind study, 28 children and adolescents with ASD (age: M = 13.43 years, SD = 2.36) completed two fMRI scans, one after intranasal OT administration and one after PLC administration. During both scanning sessions, participants completed social and nonsocial incentive delay tasks. Task-based neural activation and connectivity were examined to assess the impact of OT relative to PLC on mesocorticolimbic brain responses to social and nonsocial reward anticipation and outcomes. Central analyses compared the OT and PLC conditions. During nonsocial reward anticipation, there was greater activation in the right nucleus accumbens (NAcc), left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), left superior frontal cortex, and right frontal pole (FP) during the OT condition relative to PLC. Alternatively, during social reward anticipation and outcomes, there were no significant increases in brain activation during the OT condition relative to PLC. A Treatment Group × Reward Condition interaction revealed relatively greater activation in the right NAcc, right caudate nucleus, left ACC, and right OFC during nonsocial relative to social reward anticipation during the OT condition relative to PLC. Additionally, these analyses revealed

  18. Involvement of 5-HT(2) serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis complex neural networks in the antinociceptive phenomenon that follows the post-ictal immobility syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Ferreira, Célio Marcos Dos Reis; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-09-01

    The post-ictal immobility syndrome is followed by a significant increase in the nociceptive thresholds in animals and men. In this interesting post-ictal behavioral response, endogenous opioid peptides-mediated mechanisms, as well as cholinergic-mediated antinociceptive processes, have been suggested. However, considering that many serotonergic descending pathways have been implicated in antinociceptive reactions, the aim of the present work is to investigate the involvement of 5-HT(2)-serotonergic receptor subfamily in the post-ictal antinociception. The analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in seven or eight Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by statistically significant increase in the tail-flick latencies (TFL), at least for 120 min of the post-ictal period. Male Wistar rats were submitted to stereotaxic surgery for introduction of a guide-cannula in the rhombencephalon, aiming either the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or the gigantocellularis complex. In independent groups of animals, these nuclei were neurochemically lesioned with a unilateral microinjection of ibotenic acid (1.0 microg/0.2 microL). The neuronal damage of either the NRM or nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis complex decreased the post-ictal analgesia. Also, in other independent groups, central administration of ritanserin (5.0 microg/0.2 microL) or physiological saline into each of the reticular formation nuclei studied caused a statistically significant decrease in the TFL of seizing animals, as compared to controls, in all post-ictal periods studied. These results indicate that serotonin input-connected neurons of the pontine and medullarly reticular nuclei may be involved in the post-ictal analgesia.

  19. Neural correlates of improved executive function following erythropoietin treatment in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Vinberg, M.; Glerup, L.

    2016-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of EPO on neural circuitry activity during working memory (WM) performance. METHOD: Patients with treatment-resistant major depression, who were moderately depressed, or with BD in partial remission, were randomized to eight weekly infusions...... of EPO (40 000 IU) (N = 30) or saline (N = 26) in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Patients underwent fMRI, mood ratings and blood tests at baseline and week 14. During fMRI patients performed an n-back WM task. RESULTS: EPO improved WM accuracy compared with saline (p = 0.045). Whole...

  20. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  1. Amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis circuitry: Implications for addiction-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Alice M; Sparta, Dennis R; Jennings, Joshua H; McElligott, Zoe A; Decot, Heather; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-01-01

    Complex motivated behavioral processes, such as those that can go awry following substance abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders, are mediated by a distributive network of neurons that reside throughout the brain. Neural circuits within the amygdala regions, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and downstream targets such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), are critical neuroanatomical structures for orchestrating emotional behavioral responses that may influence motivated actions such as the reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Here, we review the functional neurocircuitry of the BLA and the BNST, and discuss how these circuits may guide maladaptive behavioral processes such as those seen in addiction. Thus, further study of the functional connectivity within these brain regions and others may provide insight for the development of new treatment strategies for substance use disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  3. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species

  4. Circuitry Linking the Catabolite Repression and Csr Global Regulatory Systems of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuri, Archana; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Zere, Tesfalem; McGibbon, Louise C; Edwards, Adrianne N; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) and CsrA are the principal regulators of the catabolite repression and carbon storage global regulatory systems, respectively. cAMP-CRP controls the transcription of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and other processes in response to carbon nutritional status, while CsrA binds to diverse mRNAs and regulates translation, RNA stability, and/or transcription elongation. CsrA also binds to the regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC, which antagonize its activity. The BarA-UvrY two-component signal transduction system (TCS) directly activates csrB and csrC (csrB/C) transcription, while CsrA does so indirectly. We show that cAMP-CRP inhibits csrB/C transcription without negatively regulating phosphorylated UvrY (P-UvrY) or CsrA levels. A crp deletion caused an elevation in CsrB/C levels in the stationary phase of growth and increased the expression of csrB-lacZ and csrC-lacZ transcriptional fusions, although modest stimulation of CsrB/C turnover by the crp deletion partially masked the former effects. DNase I footprinting and other studies demonstrated that cAMP-CRP bound specifically to three sites located upstream from the csrC promoter, two of which overlapped the P-UvrY binding site. These two proteins competed for binding at the overlapping sites. In vitro transcription-translation experiments confirmed direct repression of csrC-lacZ expression by cAMP-CRP. In contrast, cAMP-CRP effects on csrB transcription may be mediated indirectly, as it bound nonspecifically to csrB DNA. In the reciprocal direction, CsrA bound to crp mRNA with high affinity and specificity and yet exhibited only modest, conditional effects on expression. Our findings are incorporated into an emerging model for the response of Csr circuitry to carbon nutritional status. Csr (Rsm) noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli use molecular mimicry to sequester the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA) away from lower

  5. Impaired fear extinction in adolescent rodents: Behavioural and neural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Bisby, Madelyne A; Richardson, Rick

    2016-11-01

    Despite adolescence being a developmental window of vulnerability, up until very recently there were surprisingly few studies on fear extinction during this period. Here we summarise the recent work in this area, focusing on the unique behavioural and neural characteristics of fear extinction in adolescent rodents, and humans where relevant. A prominent hypothesis posits that anxiety disorders peak during late childhood/adolescence due to the non-linear maturation of the fear inhibition neural circuitry. We discuss evidence that impaired extinction retention in adolescence is due to subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala mediating fear inhibition being underactive while other subregions that mediate fear expression are overactive. We also review work on various interventions and surprising circumstances which enhance fear extinction in adolescence. This latter work revealed that the neural correlates of extinction in adolescence are different to that in younger and older animals even when extinction retention is not impaired. This growing body of work highlights that adolescence is a unique period of development for fear inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, Thomas J; Ackermann, D Michael; Kilgore, Kevin L; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  7. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Foutz

    Full Text Available The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  8. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. EDITORIAL: Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiel, Hillel J.; Thomas, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    in part on his own work in this area. This is a very small glimpse of a much larger literature; these mathematical themes recur throughout this issue. Practitioners of neural engineering who want to explore the language and role of dynamics further can find accessible introductions to the key ideas in works such as Strogatz (1994) and Izhikevich (2006). In this special issue of Journal of Neural Engineering, we provide a sample of the vigor and excitement of the recent developments in the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to the understanding and control of the nervous system. Four of the papers demonstrate the power of dynamical systems theory to analyze and understand neural systems, both in isolation and within a neuromechanical context (Coggan et al 2011, Nadim et al 2011, Spardy et al 2011a, 2011b). One paper focuses on the importance of noise and delay in dynamical systems for control (Milton 2011). Two papers focus on the dynamics of ion channels—in one paper, new approaches for estimating their parameters are described (Meng et al 2011), and in a second, the time courses of sodium ion channels are used to understand conduction block due to high-frequency stimulation (Ackermann et al 2011). Two papers focus on the use of optimal control theory to develop approaches for understanding (deWolf and Eliasmith 2011) and controlling (Nabi and Moehlis 2011) the nervous system. Finally, two papers begin to explore longer time scale neural dynamics through a combination of modeling and experiments, examining how animals learn to reduce the time required to forage for food at multiple sites (de Jong et al 2011), and how the dynamics of the respiratory system change with development (Fietkiewicz et al 2011). The first four papers of this special issue illustrate the use of dynamical systems theory to analyze and understand neural circuitry and neuromechanical systems. The first of these papers uses the phase response curve (PRC) of an oscillator, which

  10. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  11. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  12. A neural flow estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur; Bruun, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to estimate the flow in a micromechanical flow channel. A neural network is used to estimate the delay of random temperature fluctuations induced in a fluid. The design and implementation of a hardware efficient neural flow estimator is described. The system...... is implemented using switched-current technique and is capable of estimating flow in the μl/s range. The neural estimator is built around a multiplierless neural network, containing 96 synaptic weights which are updated using the LMS1-algorithm. An experimental chip has been designed that operates at 5 V...

  13. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  14. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  15. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  16. Secondary Sensory Area SII is Crucially Involved in the Preparation of Familiar Movements Compared to Movements Never Made Before

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beudel, M.; Zijlstra, S.; Mulder, Th.; Zijdewind, I.; de Jong, B. M.

    Secondary sensorimotor regions are involved in sensorimotor integration and movement preparation. These regions take part in parietal-premotor circuitry that is not only active during motor execution but also during movement observation and imagery. This activation particularly occurs when observed

  17. Role of SDF1/CXCR4 Interaction in Experimental Hemiplegic Models with Neural Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Suzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused on neural cell transplantation because of its promising clinical applications. We have reported that embryonic stem (ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation significantly improved motor functions in a hemiplegic mouse model. It is important to understand the molecular mechanisms governing neural regeneration of the damaged motor cortex after the transplantation. Recent investigations disclosed that chemokines participated in the regulation of migration and maturation of neural cell grafts. In this review, we summarize the involvement of inflammatory chemokines including stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1 in neural regeneration after ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation in mouse stroke models.

  18. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  19. Neural Networks: Implementations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, E.; Veelenturf, L.P.J.; Jain, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, also called neural networks, have been used successfully in many fields including engineering, science and business. This paper presents the implementation of several neural network simulators and their applications in character recognition and other engineering areas

  20. Volatile solvents as drugs of abuse: focus on the cortico-mesolimbic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Jacob T; Woodward, John J

    2013-12-01

    Volatile solvents such as those found in fuels, paints, and thinners are found throughout the world and are used in a variety of industrial applications. However, these compounds are also often intentionally inhaled at high concentrations to produce intoxication. While solvent use has been recognized as a potential drug problem for many years, research on the sites and mechanisms of action of these compounds lags behind that of other drugs of abuse. In this review, we first discuss the epidemiology of voluntary solvent use throughout the world and then consider what is known about their basic pharmacology and how this may explain their use as drugs of abuse. We next present data from preclinical and clinical studies indicating that these substances induce common addiction sequelae such as dependence, withdrawal, and cognitive impairments. We describe how toluene, the most commonly studied psychoactive volatile solvent, alters synaptic transmission in key brain circuits such as the mesolimbic dopamine system and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that are thought to underlie addiction pathology. Finally, we make the case that activity in mPFC circuits is a critical regulator of the mesolimbic dopamine system's ability to respond to volatile solvents like toluene. Overall, this review provides evidence that volatile solvents have high abuse liability because of their selective effects on critical nodes of the addiction neurocircuitry, and underscores the need for more research into how these compounds induce adaptations in neural circuits that underlie addiction pathology.

  1. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  2. Podocalyxin Is a Novel Polysialylated Neural Adhesion Protein with Multiple Roles in Neural Development and Synapse Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitureira, Nathalia; Andrés, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Esther; Martínez, Albert; Bribián, Ana; Blasi, Juan; Chelliah, Shierley; López-Doménech, Guillermo; De Castro, Fernando; Burgaya, Ferran; McNagny, Kelly; Soriano, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Neural development and plasticity are regulated by neural adhesion proteins, including the polysialylated form of NCAM (PSA-NCAM). Podocalyxin (PC) is a renal PSA-containing protein that has been reported to function as an anti-adhesin in kidney podocytes. Here we show that PC is widely expressed in neurons during neural development. Neural PC interacts with the ERM protein family, and with NHERF1/2 and RhoA/G. Experiments in vitro and phenotypic analyses of podxl-deficient mice indicate that PC is involved in neurite growth, branching and axonal fasciculation, and that PC loss-of-function reduces the number of synapses in the CNS and in the neuromuscular system. We also show that whereas some of the brain PC functions require PSA, others depend on PC per se. Our results show that PC, the second highly sialylated neural adhesion protein, plays multiple roles in neural development. PMID:20706633

  3. Race modulates neural activity during imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; Iacoboni, Marco; Martin, Alia; Cross, Katy A.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Imitation plays a central role in the acquisition of culture. People preferentially imitate others who are self-similar, prestigious or successful. Because race can indicate a person's self-similarity or status, race influences whom people imitate. Prior studies of the neural underpinnings of imitation have not considered the effects of race. Here we measured neural activity with fMRI while European American participants imitated meaningless gestures performed by actors of their own race, and two racial outgroups, African American, and Chinese American. Participants also passively observed the actions of these actors and their portraits. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas were differentially activated while participants imitated actors of different races. More activity was present when imitating African Americans than the other racial groups, perhaps reflecting participants' reported lack of experience with and negative attitudes towards this group, or the group's lower perceived social status. This pattern of neural activity was not found when participants passively observed the gestures of the actors or simply looked at their faces. Instead, during face-viewing neural responses were overall greater for own-race individuals, consistent with prior race perception studies not involving imitation. Our findings represent a first step in elucidating neural mechanisms involved in cultural learning, a process that influences almost every aspect of our lives but has thus far received little neuroscientific study. PMID:22062193

  4. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  5. Critical Branching Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical…

  6. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is...

  7. The neural circuit basis of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kaifosh William John

    The astounding capacity for learning ranks among the nervous system's most impressive features. This thesis comprises studies employing varied approaches to improve understanding, at the level of neural circuits, of the brain's capacity for learning. The first part of the thesis contains investigations of hippocampal circuitry -- both theoretical work and experimental work in the mouse Mus musculus -- as a model system for declarative memory. To begin, Chapter 2 presents a theory of hippocampal memory storage and retrieval that reflects nonlinear dendritic processing within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. As a prelude to the experimental work that comprises the remainder of this part, Chapter 3 describes an open source software platform that we have developed for analysis of data acquired with in vivo Ca2+ imaging, the main experimental technique used throughout the remainder of this part of the thesis. As a first application of this technique, Chapter 4 characterizes the content of signaling at synapses between GABAergic neurons of the medial septum and interneurons in stratum oriens of hippocampal area CA1. Chapter 5 then combines these techniques with optogenetic, pharmacogenetic, and pharmacological manipulations to uncover inhibitory circuit mechanisms underlying fear learning. The second part of this thesis focuses on the cerebellum-like electrosensory lobe in the weakly electric mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii, as a model system for non-declarative memory. In Chapter 6, we study how short-duration EOD motor commands are recoded into a complex temporal basis in the granule cell layer, which can be used to cancel Purkinje-like cell firing to the longer duration and temporally varying EOD-driven sensory responses. In Chapter 7, we consider not only the temporal aspects of the granule cell code, but also the encoding of body position provided from proprioceptive and efference copy sources. Together these studies clarify how the cerebellum-like circuitry of the

  8. Morphological evidence for novel enteric neuronal circuitry in guinea pig distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolilo, D J; Costa, M; Hibberd, T J; Wattchow, D A; Spencer, Nick J

    2018-07-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is unique compared to all other internal organs; it is the only organ with its own nervous system and its own population of intrinsic sensory neurons, known as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). How these IPANs form neuronal circuits with other functional classes of neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is incompletely understood. We used a combination of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the topographical distribution of specific classes of neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon, including putative IPANs, with other classes of enteric neurons. These findings were based on immunoreactivity to the neuronal markers, calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase. We then correlated the varicose outputs formed by putative IPANs with subclasses of excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. We revealed that calbindin-immunoreactive varicosities form specialized structures resembling 'baskets' within the majority of myenteric ganglia, which were arranged in clusters around calretinin-immunoreactive neurons. These calbindin baskets directly arose from projections of putative IPANs and represent morphological evidence of preferential input from sensory neurons directly to a select group of calretinin neurons. Our findings uncovered that these neurons are likely to be ascending excitatory interneurons and excitatory motor neurons. Our study reveals for the first time in the colon, a novel enteric neural circuit, whereby calbindin-immunoreactive putative sensory neurons form specialized varicose structures that likely direct synaptic outputs to excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. This circuit likely forms the basis of polarized neuronal pathways underlying motility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  10. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  11. Effect of GABRA2 Genotype on Development of Incentive-Motivation Circuitry in a Sample Enriched for Alcoholism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Villafuerte, Sandra; Weiland, Barbara J; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Burmeister, Margit; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Heightened reactivity of the incentive-motivation system has been proposed to underlie adolescent-typical risky behaviors, including problem alcohol involvement. However, even in adolescence considerable individual variation in these behaviors exists, which may have genetic underpinnings and be related to variations in risk for later alcohol use disorder (AUD). Variants in GABRA2 have been associated with adult alcohol dependence as well as phenotypic precursors, including impulsiveness and externalizing behaviors. We investigated the impact of GABRA2 on the developmental trajectory of nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation during anticipation of monetary reward from childhood to young adulthood. Functional MRI during a monetary incentive delay task was collected in 175 participants, with the majority (n=151) undergoing repeated scanning at 1- to 2-year intervals. One group entered the study at age 8–13 years (n=76) and another entered at age 18–23 years (n=99). Most participants were children of alcoholics (79%) and thus at heightened risk for AUD. A total of 473 sessions were completed, covering ages 8–27 years. NAcc activation was heightened during adolescence compared with childhood and young adulthood. GABRA2 genotype (SNP rs279858) was associated with individual differences in NAcc activation specifically during adolescence, with the minor allele (G) associated with greater activation. Furthermore, NAcc activation mediated an effect of genotype on alcohol problems (n=104). This work demonstrates an impact of GABRA2 genotype on incentive-motivation neurocircuitry in adolescence, with implications for vulnerability to alcoholism. These findings represent an important step toward understanding the genetic and neural basis of individual differences in how risk for addiction unfolds across development. PMID:24975023

  12. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Chan, Pak Kwan; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach. The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. Main results. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. Significance. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  13. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Kwan Chan, Pak; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  14. Interactions between entorhinal axons and target hippocampal neurons: a role for glutamate in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Lee, R E; Adams, M E; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-11-01

    A coculture system consisting of input axons from entorhinal cortex explants and target hippocampal pyramidal neurons was used to demonstrate that glutamate, released spontaneously from afferent axons, can influence both dendritic geometry of target neurons and formation of presumptive synaptic sites. Dendritic outgrowth was reduced in hippocampal neurons growing on entorhinal axons when compared with neurons growing off the axons. Presumptive presynaptic sites were observed in association with hippocampal neuron dendrites and somas. HPLC analysis showed that glutamate was released from the explants in an activity- and Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The general glutamate receptor antagonist D-glutamylglycine significantly increased dendritic outgrowth in pyramidal neurons associated with entorhinal axons and reduced presumptive presynaptic sites. Tetrodotoxin and reduction of extracellular Ca2+ also promoted dendritic outgrowth and reduced the formation of presumptive synaptic sites. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play important roles in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

  15. In search of the next memory inside the circuitry from the oldest to the emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This book provides students and practicing chip designers with an easy-to-follow yet thorough, introductory treatment of the most promising emerging memories under development in the industry. Focusing on the chip designer rather than the end user, this book offers expanded, up-to-date coverage of emerging memories circuit design. After an introduction on the old solid-state memories and the fundamental limitations soon to be encountered, the working principle and main technology issues of each of the considered technologies (PCRAM, MRAM, FeRAM, ReRAM) are reviewed and a range of topics related to design is explored: the array organization, sensing and writing circuitry, programming algorithms and error correction techniques are reviewed comparing the approach followed and the constraints for each of the technologies considered. Finally the issue of radiation effects on memory devices has been briefly treated. Additionally some considerations are entertained about how emerging memories can find a place in the...

  16. Dynamics of neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2007-05-01

    Synchronization of neural networks has been used for public channel protocols in cryptography. In the case of tree parity machines the dynamics of both bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning is driven by attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. Thus it can be described well by a random walk model for the overlap between participating neural networks. For that purpose transition probabilities and scaling laws for the step sizes are derived analytically. Both these calculations as well as numerical simulations show that bidirectional interaction leads to full synchronization on average. In contrast, successful learning is only possible by means of fluctuations. Consequently, synchronization is much faster than learning, which is essential for the security of the neural key-exchange protocol. However, this qualitative difference between bidirectional and unidirectional interaction vanishes if tree parity machines with more than three hidden units are used, so that those neural networks are not suitable for neural cryptography. In addition, the effective number of keys which can be generated by the neural key-exchange protocol is calculated using the entropy of the weight distribution. As this quantity increases exponentially with the system size, brute-force attacks on neural cryptography can easily be made unfeasible.

  17. Dynamics of neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization of neural networks has been used for public channel protocols in cryptography. In the case of tree parity machines the dynamics of both bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning is driven by attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. Thus it can be described well by a random walk model for the overlap between participating neural networks. For that purpose transition probabilities and scaling laws for the step sizes are derived analytically. Both these calculations as well as numerical simulations show that bidirectional interaction leads to full synchronization on average. In contrast, successful learning is only possible by means of fluctuations. Consequently, synchronization is much faster than learning, which is essential for the security of the neural key-exchange protocol. However, this qualitative difference between bidirectional and unidirectional interaction vanishes if tree parity machines with more than three hidden units are used, so that those neural networks are not suitable for neural cryptography. In addition, the effective number of keys which can be generated by the neural key-exchange protocol is calculated using the entropy of the weight distribution. As this quantity increases exponentially with the system size, brute-force attacks on neural cryptography can easily be made unfeasible

  18. Dynamics of neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2007-05-01

    Synchronization of neural networks has been used for public channel protocols in cryptography. In the case of tree parity machines the dynamics of both bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning is driven by attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. Thus it can be described well by a random walk model for the overlap between participating neural networks. For that purpose transition probabilities and scaling laws for the step sizes are derived analytically. Both these calculations as well as numerical simulations show that bidirectional interaction leads to full synchronization on average. In contrast, successful learning is only possible by means of fluctuations. Consequently, synchronization is much faster than learning, which is essential for the security of the neural key-exchange protocol. However, this qualitative difference between bidirectional and unidirectional interaction vanishes if tree parity machines with more than three hidden units are used, so that those neural networks are not suitable for neural cryptography. In addition, the effective number of keys which can be generated by the neural key-exchange protocol is calculated using the entropy of the weight distribution. As this quantity increases exponentially with the system size, brute-force attacks on neural cryptography can easily be made unfeasible.

  19. Obesity is associated with high serotonin 4 receptor availability in the brain reward circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, M. E.; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, K.

    2012-01-01

    in food intake, and that pharmacological or genetic manipulation of the receptor in reward-related brain areas alters food intake.Here, we used positron emission tomography in humans to examine the association between cerebral 5-HT4Rs and common obesity.We found in humans a strong positive association......The neurobiology underlying obesity is not fully understood. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is established as a satiety-generating signal, but its rewarding role in feeding is less well elucidated. From animal experiments there is now evidence that the 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) is involved......'s food intake. They also suggest that pharmacological stimulation of the cerebral 5-HT4R may reduce reward-related overeating in humans....

  20. NRC Information No. 87-24: Operational experience involving losses of electrical inverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC case study report identified three potential failure mechanisms for inverters. One of these involves relatively high ambient temperature and/or humidity within inverter enclosures. This condition appears to result in accelerated aging of components that form a part of the inverter circuitry causing a significant reduction in component life expectancy and inverter loss. Another mechanism for inverter failure involves the electrical interconnecting and physical arrangements for the inverter circuitry components. In some installations, these arrangements are such that when certain components fail, other components also may fail or degrade. The third failure mechanism involves voltage spikes and perturbations. Many of the electrical loads in a plant have inductive characteristics. During plant operations that involve energizing and deenergizing these loads, voltage spikes and perturbations are generated. The solid-state devices in the inverter circuitry are sensitive to these voltage spikes, and this has resulted in component failure, blown fuses, and inverter losses. Additionally, secondary voltage perturbations caused by lighting strikes or switching surges can have an adverse effect on inverter operation

  1. AKT signaling displays multifaceted functions in neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittewelle, Méghane; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-31

    AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many studies in mouse embryos have clearly implicated AKT signaling in the differentiation of several neural crest derivatives, information on AKT functions during the earliest steps of neural crest development had remained relatively scarce until recently. However, recent studies on known and novel regulators of AKT signaling demonstrate that this pathway plays critical roles throughout the development of neural crest progenitors. Non-mammalian models such as fish and frog embryos have been instrumental to our understanding of AKT functions in neural crest development, both in neural crest progenitors and in the neighboring tissues. This review combines current knowledge acquired from all these different vertebrate animal models to describe the various roles of AKT signaling related to neural crest development in vivo. We first describe the importance of AKT signaling in patterning the tissues involved in neural crest induction, namely the dorsal mesoderm and the ectoderm. We then focus on AKT signaling functions in neural crest migration and differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ANT Advanced Neural Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador, I.; Carrasco, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a practical introduction to the use of Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Nets are often used as an alternative to the traditional symbolic manipulation and first order logic used in Artificial Intelligence, due the high degree of difficulty to solve problems that can not be handled by programmers using algorithmic strategies. As a particular case of Neural Net a Multilayer Perception developed by programming in C language on OS9 real time operating system is presented. A detailed description about the program structure and practical use are included. Finally, several application examples that have been treated with the tool are presented, and some suggestions about hardware implementations. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. ANT Advanced Neural Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador, I.; Carrasco, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a practical introduction to the use of Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Nets are often used as an alternative to the traditional symbolic manipulation and first order logic used in Artificial Intelligence, due the high degree of difficulty to solve problems that can not be handled by programmers using algorithmic strategies. As a particular case of Neural Net a Multilayer Perception developed by programming in C language on OS9 real time operating system is presented. A detailed description about the program structure and practical use are included. Finally, several application examples that have been treated with the tool are presented, and some suggestions about hardware implementations. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Pax7 lineage contributions to the mammalian neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Murdoch

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells are vertebrate-specific multipotent cells that contribute to a variety of tissues including the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and craniofacial bones and cartilage. Abnormal development of the neural crest is associated with several human maladies including cleft/lip palate, aggressive cancers such as melanoma and neuroblastoma, and rare syndromes, like Waardenburg syndrome, a complex disorder involving hearing loss and pigment defects. We previously identified the transcription factor Pax7 as an early marker, and required component for neural crest development in chick embryos. In mammals, Pax7 is also thought to play a role in neural crest development, yet the precise contribution of Pax7 progenitors to the neural crest lineage has not been determined.Here we use Cre/loxP technology in double transgenic mice to fate map the Pax7 lineage in neural crest derivates. We find that Pax7 descendants contribute to multiple tissues including the cranial, cardiac and trunk neural crest, which in the cranial cartilage form a distinct regional pattern. The Pax7 lineage, like the Pax3 lineage, is additionally detected in some non-neural crest tissues, including a subset of the epithelial cells in specific organs.These results demonstrate a previously unappreciated widespread distribution of Pax7 descendants within and beyond the neural crest. They shed light regarding the regionally distinct phenotypes observed in Pax3 and Pax7 mutants, and provide a unique perspective into the potential roles of Pax7 during disease and development.

  5. Requirement of mouse BCCIP for neural development and progenitor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Multiple DNA repair pathways are involved in the orderly development of neural systems at distinct stages. The homologous recombination (HR pathway is required to resolve stalled replication forks and critical for the proliferation of progenitor cells during neural development. BCCIP is a BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein implicated in HR and inhibition of DNA replication stress. In this study, we determined the role of BCCIP in neural development using a conditional BCCIP knock-down mouse model. BCCIP deficiency impaired embryonic and postnatal neural development, causing severe ataxia, cerebral and cerebellar defects, and microcephaly. These development defects are associated with spontaneous DNA damage and subsequent cell death in the proliferative cell populations of the neural system during embryogenesis. With in vitro neural spheroid cultures, BCCIP deficiency impaired neural progenitor's self-renewal capability, and spontaneously activated p53. These data suggest that BCCIP and its anti-replication stress functions are essential for normal neural development by maintaining an orderly proliferation of neural progenitors.

  6. Neural Network Classifiers for Local Wind Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Ralf; Eckert, Pierre; Cattani, Daniel; Eggimann, Fritz

    2004-05-01

    This paper evaluates the quality of neural network classifiers for wind speed and wind gust prediction with prediction lead times between +1 and +24 h. The predictions were realized based on local time series and model data. The selection of appropriate input features was initiated by time series analysis and completed by empirical comparison of neural network classifiers trained on several choices of input features. The selected input features involved day time, yearday, features from a single wind observation device at the site of interest, and features derived from model data. The quality of the resulting classifiers was benchmarked against persistence for two different sites in Switzerland. The neural network classifiers exhibited superior quality when compared with persistence judged on a specific performance measure, hit and false-alarm rates.

  7. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  8. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  9. Neural substrates of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Y; Herrera Jiménez, L F; Omar-Martínez, E

    2016-06-01

    Decision-making is the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has traditionally been considered the key neural structure in decision-making process. However, new studies support the hypothesis that describes a complex neural network including both cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on the anatomical structures underlying the decision-making process, considering new findings that support the existence of a complex neural network that gives rise to this complex neuropsychological process. Current evidence shows that the cortical structures involved in decision-making include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This process is assisted by subcortical structures including the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. Findings to date show that both cortical and subcortical brain regions contribute to the decision-making process. The neural basis of decision-making is a complex neural network of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections which includes subareas of the PFC, limbic structures, and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural codes of seeing architectural styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-10

    Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture.

  11. Active Neural Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplot, Devendra Singh; Parisotto, Emilio; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Localization is the problem of estimating the location of an autonomous agent from an observation and a map of the environment. Traditional methods of localization, which filter the belief based on the observations, are sub-optimal in the number of steps required, as they do not decide the actions taken by the agent. We propose "Active Neural Localizer", a fully differentiable neural network that learns to localize accurately and efficiently. The proposed model incorporates ideas of tradition...

  12. Neural cryptography with feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  13. Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

  14. Copper is an endogenous modulator of neural circuit spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sheel C; Firl, Alana; Chan, Jefferson; Nam, Christine I; Aron, Allegra T; Onak, Carl S; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Paek, Jaeho; Webster, Corey M; Feller, Marla B; Chang, Christopher J

    2014-11-18

    For reasons that remain insufficiently understood, the brain requires among the highest levels of metals in the body for normal function. The traditional paradigm for this organ and others is that fluxes of alkali and alkaline earth metals are required for signaling, but transition metals are maintained in static, tightly bound reservoirs for metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. Here we show that copper is an endogenous modulator of spontaneous activity, a property of functional neural circuitry. Using Copper Fluor-3 (CF3), a new fluorescent Cu(+) sensor for one- and two-photon imaging, we show that neurons and neural tissue maintain basal stores of loosely bound copper that can be attenuated by chelation, which define a labile copper pool. Targeted disruption of these labile copper stores by acute chelation or genetic knockdown of the CTR1 (copper transporter 1) copper channel alters the spatiotemporal properties of spontaneous activity in developing hippocampal and retinal circuits. The data identify an essential role for copper neuronal function and suggest broader contributions of this transition metal to cell signaling.

  15. Progress in understanding mood disorders: optogenetic dissection of neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, S; Tye, K M; Warden, M R

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that includes hopelessness, low mood, feelings of worthlessness and inability to experience pleasure. The lifetime prevalence of major depression approaches 20%, yet current treatments are often inadequate both because of associated side effects and because they are ineffective for many people. In basic research, animal models are often used to study depression. Typically, experimental animals are exposed to acute or chronic stress to generate a variety of depression-like symptoms. Despite its clinical importance, very little is known about the cellular and neural circuits that mediate these symptoms. Recent advances in circuit-targeted approaches have provided new opportunities to study the neuropathology of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. We review recent progress and highlight some studies that have begun tracing a functional neuronal circuit diagram that may prove essential in establishing novel treatment strategies in mood disorders. First, we shed light on the complexity of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) responses to stress by discussing two recent studies reporting that optogenetic activation of midbrain DA neurons can induce or reverse depression-related behaviors. Second, we describe the role of the lateral habenula circuitry in the pathophysiology of depression. Finally, we discuss how the prefrontal cortex controls limbic and neuromodulatory circuits in mood disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Incidental regulation of attraction: The neural basis of the derogation of attractive alternatives in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.L.; Berkman, E.T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Lieberman, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Although a great deal of research addresses the neural basis of deliberate and intentional emotion-regulation strategies, less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms involved in implicit forms of emotion regulation. Behavioural research suggests that romantically involved participants

  17. Adaptive nonlinear control using input normalized neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeghim, Henzeh; Seo, In Ho; Bang, Hyo Choong

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with the neural network is addressed to control uncertain nonlinear systems. The neural network-based adaptive control theory has been widely studied. However, the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the neural network is rather complicated and difficult to understand, and sometimes unnecessary assumptions are involved. As a result, unnecessary assumptions for stability analysis are avoided by using the neural network with input normalization technique. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is simply proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. A new simple update law as an adaptive nonlinear control is derived by the simplification of the input normalized neural network assuming the variation of the uncertain term is sufficiently small

  18. Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  19. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Porto-Pazos

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  20. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-04-19

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

  1. Dopamine and extinction: a convergence of theory with fear and reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D; Neve, Kim A; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-02-01

    Research on dopamine lies at the intersection of sophisticated theoretical and neurobiological approaches to learning and memory. Dopamine has been shown to be critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine's function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in reward-related tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine is involved in fear conditioning and extinction. These studies are consistent with long-standing ideas about appetitive-aversive interactions in learning theory and they speak to the general nature of cellular and molecular processes that underlie behavior. We review the behavioral and neurobiological literature showing a role for dopamine in fear conditioning and extinction. At a cellular level, we review dopamine signaling and receptor pharmacology, cellular and molecular events that follow dopamine receptor activation, and brain systems in which dopamine functions. At a behavioral level, we describe theories of learning and dopamine function that could describe the fundamental rules underlying how dopamine modulates different aspects of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dopamine and extinction: A convergence of theory with fear and reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Neve, Kim A.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Research on dopamine lies at the intersection of sophisticated theoretical and neurobiological approaches to learning and memory. Dopamine has been shown to be critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine’s function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in reward-related tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine is involved in fear conditioning and extinction. These studies are consistent with long-standing ideas about appetitive-aversive interactions in learning theory and they speak to the general nature of cellular and molecular processes that underlie behavior. We review the behavioral and neurobiological literature showing a role for dopamine in fear conditioning and extinction. At a cellular level, we review dopamine signaling and receptor pharmacology, cellular and molecular events that follow dopamine receptor activation, and brain systems in which dopamine functions. At a behavioral level, we describe theories of learning and dopamine function that could describe the fundamental rules underlying how dopamine modulates different aspects of learning and memory processes. PMID:24269353

  3. Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry in comorbid PTSD and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Helpman, Liat; Papini, Santiago; Schneier, Franklin; Markowitz, John C; Van Meter, Page E; Lindquist, Martin A; Wager, Tor D; Neria, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Regardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only. Comorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neural network modeling of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

  5. Underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Lynch, Charles J; Cheng, Katherine M; Phillips, Jennifer; Supekar, Kaustubh; Ryali, Srikanth; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2013-07-16

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often show insensitivity to the human voice, a deficit that is thought to play a key role in communication deficits in this population. The social motivation theory of ASD predicts that impaired function of reward and emotional systems impedes children with ASD from actively engaging with speech. Here we explore this theory by investigating distributed brain systems underlying human voice perception in children with ASD. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 20 children with ASD and 19 age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of voice-selective bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Children with ASD showed a striking pattern of underconnectivity between left-hemisphere pSTS and distributed nodes of the dopaminergic reward pathway, including bilateral ventral tegmental areas and nucleus accumbens, left-hemisphere insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Children with ASD also showed underconnectivity between right-hemisphere pSTS, a region known for processing speech prosody, and the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, brain regions critical for emotion-related associative learning. The degree of underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward pathways predicted symptom severity for communication deficits in children with ASD. Our results suggest that weak connectivity of voice-selective cortex and brain structures involved in reward and emotion may impair the ability of children with ASD to experience speech as a pleasurable stimulus, thereby impacting language and social skill development in this population. Our study provides support for the social motivation theory of ASD.

  6. Hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuitry is programmed by maternal obesity: interaction with postnatal nutritional environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control. At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS: Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.

  7. The neural subjective frame: from bodily signals to perceptual consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Dong; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine

    2014-05-05

    The report 'I saw the stimulus' operationally defines visual consciousness, but where does the 'I' come from? To account for the subjective dimension of perceptual experience, we introduce the concept of the neural subjective frame. The neural subjective frame would be based on the constantly updated neural maps of the internal state of the body and constitute a neural referential from which first person experience can be created. We propose to root the neural subjective frame in the neural representation of visceral information which is transmitted through multiple anatomical pathways to a number of target sites, including posterior insula, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and somatosensory cortex. We review existing experimental evidence showing that the processing of external stimuli can interact with visceral function. The neural subjective frame is a low-level building block of subjective experience which is not explicitly experienced by itself which is necessary but not sufficient for perceptual experience. It could also underlie other types of subjective experiences such as self-consciousness and emotional feelings. Because the neural subjective frame is tightly linked to homeostatic regulations involved in vigilance, it could also make a link between state and content consciousness.

  8. Deficient neural activity subserving decision-making during reward waiting time in intertemporal choice in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Ayako; Tanaka, Saori C; Kawakubo, Yuki; Yahata, Noriaki; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Nishimura, Yukika; Kano, Yukiko; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-24

    Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision-making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting (i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward) is altered in adults with ADHD. The participants included 14 medication-free adults with ADHD and 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The behavioral task had participants choose between a delayed, larger monetary reward and an immediate, smaller monetary reward, where the reward waiting time actually occurred during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. We tested for group differences in the contrast values of blood-oxygen-level dependent signals associated with the length of waiting time, calculated using the parametric modulation method. While the two groups did not differ in the time discounting rate, the delay-sensitive contrast values were significantly lower in the caudate and visual cortex in individuals with ADHD. The higher impulsivity scores were significantly associated with lower delay-sensitive contrast values in the caudate and visual cortex. These results suggest that deficient neural activity affects decision-making involving reward waiting time during intertemporal choice tasks, and provide an explanation for the basis of impulsivity in adult ADHD. © 2018 The Author. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2018 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. A Simple Quantum Neural Net with a Periodic Activation Function

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple neural net that requires only $O(nlog_2k)$ number of qubits and $O(nk)$ quantum gates: Here, $n$ is the number of input parameters, and $k$ is the number of weights applied to these parameters in the proposed neural net. We describe the network in terms of a quantum circuit, and then draw its equivalent classical neural net which involves $O(k^n)$ nodes in the hidden layer. Then, we show that the network uses a periodic activation function of cosine values o...

  10. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  11. Beyond excitation/inhibition imbalance in multidimensional models of neural circuit changes in brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Cian; Gonçalves, J Tiago; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2017-10-11

    A leading theory holds that neurodevelopmental brain disorders arise from imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) brain circuitry. However, it is unclear whether this one-dimensional model is rich enough to capture the multiple neural circuit alterations underlying brain disorders. Here, we combined computational simulations with analysis of in vivo two-photon Ca 2+ imaging data from somatosensory cortex of Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice, a model of Fragile-X Syndrome, to test the E/I imbalance theory. We found that: (1) The E/I imbalance model cannot account for joint alterations in the observed neural firing rates and correlations; (2) Neural circuit function is vastly more sensitive to changes in some cellular components over others; (3) The direction of circuit alterations in Fmr1 KO mice changes across development. These findings suggest that the basic E/I imbalance model should be updated to higher dimensional models that can better capture the multidimensional computational functions of neural circuits.

  12. Neural complexity: A graph theoretic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.; Buckley, C. L.; Bullock, S.

    2011-04-01

    One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.91.11.5033 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system’s dynamics. One key question arising for such measures involves understanding how they are influenced by network topology. Sporns [Cereb. Cortex53OPAV1047-321110.1093/cercor/10.2.127 10, 127 (2000)] employed numerical models in order to determine the dependence of neural complexity on the topological features of a network. However, a complete picture has yet to be established. While De Lucia [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.016114 71, 016114 (2005)] made the first attempts at an analytical account of this relationship, their work utilized a formulation of neural complexity that, we argue, did not reflect the intuitions of the original work. In this paper we start by describing weighted connection matrices formed by applying a random continuous weight distribution to binary adjacency matrices. This allows us to derive an approximation for neural complexity in terms of the moments of the weight distribution and elementary graph motifs. In particular, we explicitly establish a dependency of neural complexity on cyclic graph motifs.

  13. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  14. Psychological and neural mechanisms of experimental extinction: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Andrew R; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2014-02-01

    The present review examines key psychological concepts in the study of experimental extinction and implications these have for an understanding of the underlying neurobiology of extinction learning. We suggest that many of the signature characteristics of extinction learning (spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition) can be accommodated by the standard associative learning theory assumption that extinction results in partial erasure of the original learning together with new inhibitory learning. Moreover, we consider recent behavioral and neural evidence that supports the partial erasure view of extinction, but also note shortcomings in our understanding of extinction circuits as these relate to the negative prediction error concept. Recent work suggests that common prediction error and stimulus-specific prediction error terms both may be required to explain neural plasticity both in acquisition and extinction learning. In addition, we suggest that many issues in the content of extinction learning have not been fully addressed in current research, but that neurobiological approaches should be especially helpful in addressing such issues. These include questions about the nature of extinction learning (excitatory CS-No US, inhibitory CS-US learning, occasion setting processes), especially as this relates to studies of the micro-circuitry of extinction, as well as its representational content (sensory, motivational, response). An additional understudied problem in extinction research is the role played by attention processes and their underlying neural networks, although some research and theory converge on the idea that extinction is accompanied by attention decrements (i.e., habituation-like processes). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Dissonance (Revised): An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Marco; Shestakova, Anna; Nikulin, Vadim V; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Klucharev, Vasily

    2017-05-17

    Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to error-related negativity, which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring. Furthermore, the amplitude of the evoked response is correlated with the reevaluation of the alternatives. We also found a link between individual neural dynamics (long-range temporal correlations) of the frontocentral cortices during rest and follow-up neural and behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Individuals with stronger resting-state long-range temporal correlations demonstrated a greater postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives and larger evoked brain responses associated with stronger cognitive dissonance. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive dissonance is reflected in both resting-state and choice-related activity of the prefrontal cortex as part of the general performance-monitoring circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contrary to traditional decision theory, behavioral studies repeatedly demonstrate that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. Difficult choices generate psychological (cognitive) dissonance, which is reduced by the postdecisional devaluation of unchosen options. We found that decisions associated with a higher level of cognitive dissonance elicited a stronger negative frontocentral deflection that peaked ∼60 ms after the response. This activity shares similar spatial and temporal features as error-related negativity, the electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. Furthermore, the frontocentral resting

  16. Computational Models and Emergent Properties of Respiratory Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce G.; Rybak, Ilya A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of the neural control system for breathing in mammals provide a theoretical and computational framework bringing together experimental data obtained from different animal preparations under various experimental conditions. Many of these models were developed in parallel and iteratively with experimental studies and provided predictions guiding new experiments. This data-driven modeling approach has advanced our understanding of respiratory network architecture and neural mechanisms underlying generation of the respiratory rhythm and pattern, including their functional reorganization under different physiological conditions. Models reviewed here vary in neurobiological details and computational complexity and span multiple spatiotemporal scales of respiratory control mechanisms. Recent models describe interacting populations of respiratory neurons spatially distributed within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes and rostral ventrolateral medulla that contain core circuits of the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG). Network interactions within these circuits along with intrinsic rhythmogenic properties of neurons form a hierarchy of multiple rhythm generation mechanisms. The functional expression of these mechanisms is controlled by input drives from other brainstem components, including the retrotrapezoid nucleus and pons, which regulate the dynamic behavior of the core circuitry. The emerging view is that the brainstem respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of circuit organization. This allows flexible, state-dependent expression of different neural pattern-generation mechanisms under various physiological conditions, enabling a wide repertoire of respiratory behaviors. Some models consider control of the respiratory CPG by pulmonary feedback and network reconfiguration during defensive behaviors such as cough. Future directions in modeling of the respiratory CPG are considered. PMID:23687564

  17. Cellular and Circuitry Bases of Autism: Lessons Learned from the Temporospatial Manipulation of Autism Genes in the Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel W.Hulbert; Yong-hui Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying mutations that cause Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue to be valuable for determining the molecular underpinnings of the disorders.Recently,researchers have taken advantage of such models combined with Cre-loxP and similar systems to manipulate gene expression over space and time.Thus,a clearer picture is starting to emerge of the cell types,circuits,brain regions,and developmental time periods underlying ASDs.ASD-causing mutations have been restricted to or rescued specifically in excitatory or inhibitory neurons,different neurotransmitter systems,and cells specific to the forebrain or cerebellum.In addition,mutations have been induced or corrected in adult mice,providing some evidence for the plasticity and reversibility of core ASD symptoms.The limited availability of Cre lines that are highly specific to certain cell types or time periods provides a challenge to determining the cellular and circuitry bases of autism,but other technological advances may eventually overcome this obstacle.

  18. Neurogenetic Impairments of Brain Reward Circuitry Links to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Potential Nutrigenomic Induced Dopaminergic Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Oscar-Berman, M; Giordano, J; Downs, BW; Simpatico, T; Han, D; Femino, John

    2012-01-01

    Work from our laboratory in both in-patient and outpatient facilities utilizing the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD)™ found a significant lack of compliance to prescribed treatment medications and a lack of abstinence from drugs of abuse during active recovery. This unpublished, ongoing research provides an impetus to develop accurate genetic diagnosis and holistic approaches that will safely activate brain reward circuitry in the mesolimbic dopamine system. This editorial focuses on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with particular reference to genes related to dopaminergic function. The terminology “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” (RDS), used to describe behaviors found to have an association with gene-based hypodopaminergic function, is a useful concept to help expand our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), process addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors. This editorial covers the neurological basis of pleasure and the role of natural and unnatural reward in motivating and reinforcing behaviors. Additionally, it briefly describes the concept of natural dopamine D2 receptor agonist therapy coupled with genetic testing of a panel of reward genes, the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS). It serves as a spring-board for this combination of novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of RDS that was developed from fundamental genomic research. We encourage further required studies. PMID:23264886

  19. Neural networks of human nature and nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Levine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural network methods have facilitated the unification of several unfortunate splits in psychology, including nature versus nurture. We review the contributions of this methodology and then discuss tentative network theories of caring behavior, of uncaring behavior, and of how the frontal lobes are involved in the choices between them. The implications of our theory are optimistic about the prospects of society to encourage the human potential for caring.

  20. Neural Architectures for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  1. Sacred or Neural?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    Are religious spiritual experiences merely the product of the human nervous system? Anne L.C. Runehov investigates the potential of contemporary neuroscience to explain religious experiences. Following the footsteps of Michael Persinger, Andrew Newberg and Eugene d'Aquili she defines...... the terminological bounderies of "religious experiences" and explores the relevant criteria for the proper evaluation of scientific research, with a particular focus on the validity of reductionist models. Runehov's theis is that the perspectives looked at do not necessarily exclude each other but can be merged....... The question "sacred or neural?" becomes a statement "sacred and neural". The synergies thus produced provide manifold opportunities for interdisciplinary dialogue and research....

  2. Deconvolution using a neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S.K.

    1990-11-15

    Viewing one dimensional deconvolution as a matrix inversion problem, we compare a neural network backpropagation matrix inverse with LMS, and pseudo-inverse. This is a largely an exercise in understanding how our neural network code works. 1 ref.

  3. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  4. Neural systems for tactual memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, E; Petrides, M; Evans, A

    1996-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural systems involved in the memory processing of experiences through touch. 2. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography by means of the water bolus H2(15)O methodology in human subjects as they performed tasks involving different levels of tactual memory. In one of the experimental tasks, the subjects had to palpate nonsense shapes to match each one to a previously learned set, thus requiring constant reference to long-term memory. The other experimental task involved judgements of the recent recurrence of shapes during the scanning period. A set of three control tasks was used to control for the type of exploratory movements and sensory processing inherent in the two experimental tasks. 3. Comparisons of the distribution of activity between the experimental and the control tasks were carried out by means of the subtraction method. In relation to the control conditions, the two experimental tasks requiring memory resulted in significant changes within the posteroventral insula and the central opercular region. In addition, the task requiring recall from long-term memory yielded changes in the perirhinal cortex. 4. The above findings demonstrated that a ventrally directed parietoinsular pathway, leading to the posteroventral insula and the perirhinal cortex, constitutes a system by which long-lasting representations of tactual experiences are formed. It is proposed that the posteroventral insula is involved in tactual feature analysis, by analogy with the similar role of the inferotemporal cortex in vision, whereas the perirhinal cortex is further involved in the integration of these features into long-lasting representations of somatosensory experiences.

  5. Vibration monitoring with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural network to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected from operating machinery. Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm for data compression and the Backpropagation algorithm to perform the actual classification of the patterns. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results to date are very encouraging

  6. Neural correlates of HIV risk feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Frank E K; Schmälzle, Ralf; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-04-01

    Field studies on HIV risk perception suggest that people rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner. The present fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of the intuitive perception of risk. First, during an implicit condition, participants viewed a series of unacquainted persons and performed a task unrelated to HIV risk. In the following explicit condition, participants evaluated the HIV risk for each presented person. Contrasting responses for high and low HIV risk revealed that risky stimuli evoked enhanced activity in the anterior insula and medial prefrontal regions, which are involved in salience processing and frequently activated by threatening and negative affect-related stimuli. Importantly, neural regions responding to explicit HIV risk judgments were also enhanced in the implicit condition, suggesting a neural mechanism for intuitive impressions of riskiness. Overall, these findings suggest the saliency network as neural correlate for the intuitive sensing of risk. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rodent Zic Genes in Neural Network Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Eloísa

    2018-01-01

    The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits. During the last decade, it has become evident that Zic genes, in addition to playing important roles in early development (e.g., gastrulation and neural tube closure), are involved in different processes of late brain development, such as neuronal migration, axon guidance, and refinement of axon terminals. ZIC proteins are therefore essential for the proper wiring and connectivity of the brain. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge of the role of Zic genes in the late stages of neural circuit formation.

  8. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L; Sørensen, Andreas T

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral...... of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation...... using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying...

  9. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  10. Neural correlates of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neural cells.1 Under this approach, consciousness is believed to be a product of the ... possible only when the 40 Hz electrical hum is sustained among the brain circuits, ... expect the brain stem ascending reticular activating system. (ARAS) and the ... related synchrony of cortical neurons.11 Indeed, stimulation of brainstem ...

  11. Neural Networks and Micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, Ernst; Baidyk, Tatiana; Wunsch, Donald C.

    The title of the book, "Neural Networks and Micromechanics," seems artificial. However, the scientific and technological developments in recent decades demonstrate a very close connection between the two different areas of neural networks and micromechanics. The purpose of this book is to demonstrate this connection. Some artificial intelligence (AI) methods, including neural networks, could be used to improve automation system performance in manufacturing processes. However, the implementation of these AI methods within industry is rather slow because of the high cost of conducting experiments using conventional manufacturing and AI systems. To lower the cost, we have developed special micromechanical equipment that is similar to conventional mechanical equipment but of much smaller size and therefore of lower cost. This equipment could be used to evaluate different AI methods in an easy and inexpensive way. The proved methods could be transferred to industry through appropriate scaling. In this book, we describe the prototypes of low cost microequipment for manufacturing processes and the implementation of some AI methods to increase precision, such as computer vision systems based on neural networks for microdevice assembly and genetic algorithms for microequipment characterization and the increase of microequipment precision.

  12. Introduction to neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    This lecture is a presentation of today's research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix

  13. Learning from neural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Hill, David J

    2006-01-01

    One of the amazing successes of biological systems is their ability to "learn by doing" and so adapt to their environment. In this paper, first, a deterministic learning mechanism is presented, by which an appropriately designed adaptive neural controller is capable of learning closed-loop system dynamics during tracking control to a periodic reference orbit. Among various neural network (NN) architectures, the localized radial basis function (RBF) network is employed. A property of persistence of excitation (PE) for RBF networks is established, and a partial PE condition of closed-loop signals, i.e., the PE condition of a regression subvector constructed out of the RBFs along a periodic state trajectory, is proven to be satisfied. Accurate NN approximation for closed-loop system dynamics is achieved in a local region along the periodic state trajectory, and a learning ability is implemented during a closed-loop feedback control process. Second, based on the deterministic learning mechanism, a neural learning control scheme is proposed which can effectively recall and reuse the learned knowledge to achieve closed-loop stability and improved control performance. The significance of this paper is that the presented deterministic learning mechanism and the neural learning control scheme provide elementary components toward the development of a biologically-plausible learning and control methodology. Simulation studies are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Neural systems for control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omidvar, Omid; Elliott, David L

    1997-01-01

    ... is reprinted with permission from A. Barto, "Reinforcement Learning," Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M.A. Arbib, ed.. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 804-809, 1995. Chapter 4, Figures 4-5 and 7-9 and Tables 2-5, are reprinted with permission, from S. Cho, "Map Formation in Proprioceptive Cortex," International Jour...

  15. Neural underpinnings of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line K; Witek, Maria A G

    2014-01-01

    . According to this theory, perception and learning is manifested through the brain’s Bayesian minimization of the error between the input to the brain and the brain’s prior expectations. Fourth, empirical studies of neural and behavioral effects of syncopation, polyrhythm and groove will be reported, and we...

  16. Multiple simultaneous fault diagnosis via hierarchical and single artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamloueyan, R.; Shahrokhi, M.; Bozorgmehri, R.

    2003-01-01

    Process fault diagnosis involves interpreting the current status of the plant given sensor reading and process knowledge. There has been considerable work done in this area with a variety of approaches being proposed for process fault diagnosis. Neural networks have been used to solve process fault diagnosis problems in chemical process, as they are well suited for recognizing multi-dimensional nonlinear patterns. In this work, the use of Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks in diagnosing the multi-faults of a chemical process are discussed and compared with that of Single Artificial Neural Networks. The lower efficiency of Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks , in comparison to Single Artificial Neural Networks, in process fault diagnosis is elaborated and analyzed. Also, the concept of a multi-level selection switch is presented and developed to improve the performance of hierarchical artificial neural networks. Simulation results indicate that application of multi-level selection switch increase the performance of the hierarchical artificial neural networks considerably

  17. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  19. Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Cribben, Ivor; Luu, Connie; Kim, Esther; Bahktiari, Reyhaneh; Georgiou, George; Boliek, Carol A

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuitry associated with language processing is complex and dynamic. Graphical models are useful for studying complex neural networks as this method provides information about unique connectivity between regions within the context of the entire network of interest. Here, the authors explored the neural networks during covert reading to determine the role of feedforward and feedback loops in covert speech production. Brain activity of skilled adult readers was assessed in real word and pseudoword reading tasks with functional MRI (fMRI). The authors provide evidence for activity coherence in the feedforward system (inferior frontal gyrus-supplementary motor area) during real word reading and in the feedback system (supramarginal gyrus-precentral gyrus) during pseudoword reading. Graphical models provided evidence of an extensive, highly connected, neural network when individuals read real words that relied on coordination of the feedforward system. In contrast, when individuals read pseudowords the authors found a limited/restricted network that relied on coordination of the feedback system. Together, these results underscore the importance of considering multiple pathways and articulatory loops during language tasks and provide evidence for a print-to-speech neural network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Synaptic inputs compete during rapid formation of the calyx of Held: a new model system for neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Paul S; Hoffpauir, Brian K; Hoyson, Mitchell C; Jackson, Dakota R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Marrs, Glenn S; Dehoff, Marlin; Wu, Jonathan; Ellisman, Mark H; Spirou, George A

    2013-08-07

    Hallmark features of neural circuit development include early exuberant innervation followed by competition and pruning to mature innervation topography. Several neural systems, including the neuromuscular junction and climbing fiber innervation of Purkinje cells, are models to study neural development in part because they establish a recognizable endpoint of monoinnervation of their targets and because the presynaptic terminals are large and easily monitored. We demonstrate here that calyx of Held (CH) innervation of its target, which forms a key element of auditory brainstem binaural circuitry, exhibits all of these characteristics. To investigate CH development, we made the first application of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to neural development with fine temporal resolution and thereby accomplished the first time series for 3D ultrastructural analysis of neural circuit formation. This approach revealed a growth spurt of added apposed surface area (ASA)>200 μm2/d centered on a single age at postnatal day 3 in mice and an initial rapid phase of growth and competition that resolved to monoinnervation in two-thirds of cells within 3 d. This rapid growth occurred in parallel with an increase in action potential threshold, which may mediate selection of the strongest input as the winning competitor. ASAs of competing inputs were segregated on the cell body surface. These data suggest mechanisms to select "winning" inputs by regional reinforcement of postsynaptic membrane to mediate size and strength of competing synaptic inputs.

  1. Adaptive Filtering Using Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Menon, Sunil K.; Atiya, Amir F.

    2005-01-01

    A method for adaptive (or, optionally, nonadaptive) filtering has been developed for estimating the states of complex process systems (e.g., chemical plants, factories, or manufacturing processes at some level of abstraction) from time series of measurements of system inputs and outputs. The method is based partly on the fundamental principles of the Kalman filter and partly on the use of recurrent neural networks. The standard Kalman filter involves an assumption of linearity of the mathematical model used to describe a process system. The extended Kalman filter accommodates a nonlinear process model but still requires linearization about the state estimate. Both the standard and extended Kalman filters involve the often unrealistic assumption that process and measurement noise are zero-mean, Gaussian, and white. In contrast, the present method does not involve any assumptions of linearity of process models or of the nature of process noise; on the contrary, few (if any) assumptions are made about process models, noise models, or the parameters of such models. In this regard, the method can be characterized as one of nonlinear, nonparametric filtering. The method exploits the unique ability of neural networks to approximate nonlinear functions. In a given case, the process model is limited mainly by limitations of the approximation ability of the neural networks chosen for that case. Moreover, despite the lack of assumptions regarding process noise, the method yields minimum- variance filters. In that they do not require statistical models of noise, the neural- network-based state filters of this method are comparable to conventional nonlinear least-squares estimators.

  2. Neural Correlates of Gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ryan Fox

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality, and is valued by religions and moral philosophies. It has been established that gratitude leads to benefits for both mental health and interpersonal relationships. It is thus important to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of gratitude, which are only now beginning to be investigated. To this end, we conducted an experiment during which we induced gratitude in participants while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that gratitude ratings would correlate with activity in brain regions associated with moral cognition, value judgment and theory of mind. The stimuli used to elicit gratitude were drawn from stories of survivors of the Holocaust, as many survivors report being sheltered by strangers or receiving lifesaving food and clothing, and having strong feelings of gratitude for such gifts. The participants were asked to place themselves in the context of the Holocaust and imagine what their own experience would feel like if they received such gifts. For each gift, they rated how grateful they felt. The results revealed that ratings of gratitude correlated with brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, in support of our hypotheses. The results provide a window into the brain circuitry for moral cognition and positive emotion that accompanies the experience of benefitting from the goodwill of others.

  3. Neural correlates of gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glenn R; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality, and is valued by religions and moral philosophies. It has been established that gratitude leads to benefits for both mental health and interpersonal relationships. It is thus important to elucidate the neurobiological correlates of gratitude, which are only now beginning to be investigated. To this end, we conducted an experiment during which we induced gratitude in participants while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that gratitude ratings would correlate with activity in brain regions associated with moral cognition, value judgment and theory of mind. The stimuli used to elicit gratitude were drawn from stories of survivors of the Holocaust, as many survivors report being sheltered by strangers or receiving lifesaving food and clothing, and having strong feelings of gratitude for such gifts. The participants were asked to place themselves in the context of the Holocaust and imagine what their own experience would feel like if they received such gifts. For each gift, they rated how grateful they felt. The results revealed that ratings of gratitude correlated with brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, in support of our hypotheses. The results provide a window into the brain circuitry for moral cognition and positive emotion that accompanies the experience of benefitting from the goodwill of others.

  4. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Lawrence, Phil; Bentley, Graham; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew; Miller, Sam R; McHugh, Simon; Bullmore, Edward T; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  5. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Dodds

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  6. Alterations in brain structures related to taste reward circuitry in ill and recovered anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K; Shott, Megan E; Hagman, Jennifer O; Mittal, Vijay A

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. The authors assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which may be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. The authors used structural MR imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in women with current restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=19), women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=24), women with bulimia nervosa (N=19), and healthy comparison women (N=24). All eating disorder groups exhibited increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manual tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and volume predicted taste pleasantness ratings across all groups. Analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories. Antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes were increased on the right side in the anorexia nervosa and recovered anorexia nervosa groups and on the left side in the bulimia nervosa group relative to the healthy comparison group. Dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in the recovered anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa groups and predicted sensitivity to reward in all three eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas relative to the healthy comparison group. The results held when a range of covariates, such as age, depression, anxiety, and medications, were controlled for. Brain structure in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value.

  7. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  8. Bioprinting for Neural Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Anand, Shivesh; Shah, Twisha; Tasoglu, Savas

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions. We review a range of bioprinted neural tissue models and discuss how they can be used to observe how neurons behave, understand disease processes, develop new therapies and, ultimately, design replacement tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Neural plasticity and its initiating conditions in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L E

    2018-03-01

    Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis. Auditory neurons compensate for deafferentation by increasing their input/output functions (gain) at multiple levels of the auditory system. Forms of homeostatic plasticity are believed to be responsible for this neural change, which increases the spontaneous and driven activity of neurons in central auditory structures in animals expressing behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Another tinnitus correlate, increased neural synchrony among the affected neurons, is forged by spike-timing-dependent neural plasticity in auditory pathways. Slow oscillations generated by bursting thalamic neurons verified in tinnitus animals appear to modulate neural plasticity in the cortex, integrating tinnitus neural activity with information in brain regions supporting memory, emotion, and consciousness which exhibit increased metabolic activity in tinnitus patients. The latter process may be induced by transient auditory events in normal processing but it persists in tinnitus, driven by phantom signals from the auditory pathway. Several tinnitus therapies attempt to suppress tinnitus through plasticity, but repeated sessions will likely be needed to prevent tinnitus activity from returning owing to deafferentation as its initiating condition.

  11. A wirelessly powered microspectrometer for neural probe-pin device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, whether done invasively or not, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. We have developed a micro-spectrometer for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The micro-spectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) to enable operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, enable real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  12. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  13. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Horan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.

  14. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed. The earliest was directed medially; these cells invaginated into a median groove and were the main contributors to the initial neural tube closure. Once the median groove was completed, cells chang...

  15. Anomaly detection in an automated safeguards system using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteson, R.; Howell, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    An automated safeguards system must be able to detect an anomalous event, identify the nature of the event, and recommend a corrective action. Neural networks represent a new way of thinking about basic computational mechanisms for intelligent information processing. In this paper, we discuss the issues involved in applying a neural network model to the first step of this process: anomaly detection in materials accounting systems. We extend our previous model to a 3-tank problem and compare different neural network architectures and algorithms. We evaluate the computational difficulties in training neural networks and explore how certain design principles affect the problems. The issues involved in building a neural network architecture include how the information flows, how the network is trained, how the neurons in a network are connected, how the neurons process information, and how the connections between neurons are modified. Our approach is based on the demonstrated ability of neural networks to model complex, nonlinear, real-time processes. By modeling the normal behavior of the processes, we can predict how a system should be behaving and, therefore, detect when an abnormality occurs

  16. Neural substrates of sublexical processing for spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Andrew T; Wilson, Stephen M; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2017-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine the neural substrates of sublexical phoneme-grapheme conversion during spelling in a group of healthy young adults. Participants performed a writing-to-dictation task involving irregular words (e.g., choir), plausible nonwords (e.g., kroid), and a control task of drawing familiar geometric shapes (e.g., squares). Written production of both irregular words and nonwords engaged a left-hemisphere perisylvian network associated with reading/spelling and phonological processing skills. Effects of lexicality, manifested by increased activation during nonword relative to irregular word spelling, were noted in anterior perisylvian regions (posterior inferior frontal gyrus/operculum/precentral gyrus/insula), and in left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. In addition to enhanced neural responses within domain-specific components of the language network, the increased cognitive demands associated with spelling nonwords engaged domain-general frontoparietal cortical networks involved in selective attention and executive control. These results elucidate the neural substrates of sublexical processing during written language production and complement lesion-deficit correlation studies of phonological agraphia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Blom, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects. PMID:24048206

  18. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  19. Shaping the learning curve: epigenetic dynamics in neural plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Ziv Bronfman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A key characteristic of learning and neural plasticity is state-dependent acquisition dynamics reflected by the non-linear learning curve that links increase in learning with practice. Here we propose that the manner by which epigenetic states of individual cells change during learning contributes to the shape of the neural and behavioral learning curve. We base our suggestion on recent studies showing that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and RNA-mediated gene regulation are intimately involved in the establishment and maintenance of long-term neural plasticity, reflecting specific learning-histories and influencing future learning. Our model, which is the first to suggest a dynamic molecular account of the shape of the learning curve, leads to several testable predictions regarding the link between epigenetic dynamics at the promoter, gene-network and neural-network levels. This perspective opens up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in neurological pathologies.

  20. Classification of Company Performance using Weighted Probabilistic Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Hasbi; Waridi Basyiruddin Arifin, Adi; Warsito, Budi

    2018-05-01

    Classification of company performance can be judged by looking at its financial status, whether good or bad state. Classification of company performance can be achieved by some approach, either parametric or non-parametric. Neural Network is one of non-parametric methods. One of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models is Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). PNN consists of four layers, i.e. input layer, pattern layer, addition layer, and output layer. The distance function used is the euclidean distance and each class share the same values as their weights. In this study used PNN that has been modified on the weighting process between the pattern layer and the addition layer by involving the calculation of the mahalanobis distance. This model is called the Weighted Probabilistic Neural Network (WPNN). The results show that the company's performance modeling with the WPNN model has a very high accuracy that reaches 100%.

  1. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  2. Analysis of neural data

    CERN Document Server

    Kass, Robert E; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    Continual improvements in data collection and processing have had a huge impact on brain research, producing data sets that are often large and complicated. By emphasizing a few fundamental principles, and a handful of ubiquitous techniques, Analysis of Neural Data provides a unified treatment of analytical methods that have become essential for contemporary researchers. Throughout the book ideas are illustrated with more than 100 examples drawn from the literature, ranging from electrophysiology, to neuroimaging, to behavior. By demonstrating the commonality among various statistical approaches the authors provide the crucial tools for gaining knowledge from diverse types of data. Aimed at experimentalists with only high-school level mathematics, as well as computationally-oriented neuroscientists who have limited familiarity with statistics, Analysis of Neural Data serves as both a self-contained introduction and a reference work.

  3. Design of Robust Neural Network Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Hintz-Madsen, Mads

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses a new framework for designing robust neural network classifiers. The network is optimized using the maximum a posteriori technique, i.e., the cost function is the sum of the log-likelihood and a regularization term (prior). In order to perform robust classification, we present...... a modified likelihood function which incorporates the potential risk of outliers in the data. This leads to the introduction of a new parameter, the outlier probability. Designing the neural classifier involves optimization of network weights as well as outlier probability and regularization parameters. We...... suggest to adapt the outlier probability and regularisation parameters by minimizing the error on a validation set, and a simple gradient descent scheme is derived. In addition, the framework allows for constructing a simple outlier detector. Experiments with artificial data demonstrate the potential...

  4. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurotensin neural mRNA expression correlates with vocal communication and other highly-motivated social behaviors in male European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merullo, Devin P; Cordes, Melissa A; Susan DeVries, M; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2015-11-01

    Vocalizations coordinate social interactions in many species and often are important for behaviors such as mate attraction or territorial defense. Although the neural circuitry underlying vocal communication is well-known for some animal groups, such as songbirds, the motivational processes that regulate vocal signals are not as clearly understood. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide implicated in motivation that can modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are key to mediating highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors, including sexually-motivated birdsong. However, the role of NT in modifying vocal communication or other social behaviors has not been well-studied. Here in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) we analyzed relationships between sexually-motivated song and NT and NT1 receptor (NTSR1) expression in VTA. Additionally, we examined NT and NTSR1 expression in four regions that receive dopaminergic projections from VTA and are involved in courtship song: the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the lateral septum (LS), Area X, and HVC. Relationships between NT and NTSR1 expression and non-vocal courtship and agonistic behaviors were also examined. NT expression in Area X positively related to sexually-motivated song production. NT expression in POM positively correlated with non-vocal courtship behavior and agonistic behavior. NT expression in POM was greatest in males owning nesting sites, and the opposite pattern was observed for NTSR1 expression in LS. These results are the first to implicate NT in Area X in birdsong, and further highlight NT as a potential neuromodulator for the control of vocal communication and other social behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Neural Yodelling

    OpenAIRE

    Pfäffli, Daniel (Autor/in)

    2018-01-01

    Yodel music differs from most other genres by exercising the transition from chest voice to falsetto with an audible glottal stop which is recognised even by laymen. Yodel often consists of a yodeller with a choir accompaniment. In Switzerland, it is differentiated between the natural yodel and yodel songs. Today's approaches to music generation with machine learning algorithms are based on neural networks, which are best described by stacked layers of neurons which are connected with neurons...

  7. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  9. Rotation Invariance Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Rotation invariance and translation invariance have great values in image recognition tasks. In this paper, we bring a new architecture in convolutional neural network (CNN) named cyclic convolutional layer to achieve rotation invariance in 2-D symbol recognition. We can also get the position and orientation of the 2-D symbol by the network to achieve detection purpose for multiple non-overlap target. Last but not least, this architecture can achieve one-shot learning in some cases using thos...

  10. On the neural mechanisms subserving consciousness and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eTallon-Baudry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness, as described in the experimental literature, is a multi-faceted phenomenon, that impinges on other well-studied concepts such as attention and control. Do consciousness and attention refer to different aspects of the same core phenomenon, or do they correspond to distinct functions? One possibility to address this question is to examine the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness and attention. If consciousness and attention pertain to the same concept, they should rely on shared neural mechanisms. Conversely, if their underlying mechanisms are distinct, then consciousness and attention should be considered as distinct entities. This paper therefore reviews neurophysiological facts arguing in favor or against a tight relationship between consciousness and attention. Three neural mechanisms that have been associated with both attention and consciousness are examined (neural amplification, involvement of the fronto-parietal network, and oscillatory synchrony, to conclude that the commonalities between attention and consciousness at the neural level may have been overestimated. Last but not least, experiments in which both attention and consciousness were probed at the neural level point toward a dissociation between the two concepts. It therefore appears from this review that consciousness and attention rely on distinct neural properties, although they can interact at the behavioral level. It is proposed that a "cumulative influence model", in which attention and consciousness correspond to distinct neural mechanisms feeding a single decisional process leading to behavior, fits best with available neural and behavioral data. In this view, consciousness should not be considered as a top-level executive function but should rather be defined by its experiential properties.

  11. Resolving bulimia nervosa using an innovative neural therapy approach: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Michael I.; Chung, Myung Kyu; LaRiccia, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Conventional treatment of Bulimia Nervosa is long term, expensive, and often ineffective. Neural therapy holds promise for treating Bulimia Nervosa in a shorter term, lower cost, and more effective manner. Much of neural therapy involves the superficial injection of local anesthetic injections. Implementation into current practice would be feasible.

  12. Resolving bulimia nervosa using an innovative neural therapy approach: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael I; Chung, Myung Kyu; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2018-02-01

    Conventional treatment of Bulimia Nervosa is long term, expensive, and often ineffective. Neural therapy holds promise for treating Bulimia Nervosa in a shorter term, lower cost, and more effective manner. Much of neural therapy involves the superficial injection of local anesthetic injections. Implementation into current practice would be feasible.

  13. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  14. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Vanhauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  15. Motor sequence learning-induced neural efficiency in functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Helmet T; Huppert, Theodore J; Erickson, Kirk I; Wollam, Mariegold E; Sparto, Patrick J; Sejdić, Ervin; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown the functional neural circuitry differences before and after an explicitly learned motor sequence task, but have not assessed these changes during the process of motor skill learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was measured while participants (n=13) were asked to tap their fingers to visually presented sequences in blocks that were either the same sequence repeated (learning block) or random sequences (control block). Motor learning was associated with a decrease in brain activity during learning compared to control. Lower brain activation was noted in the posterior parietal association area and bilateral thalamus during the later periods of learning (not during the control). Compared to the control condition, we found the task-related motor learning was associated with decreased connectivity between the putamen and left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle cingulate brain regions. Motor learning was associated with changes in network activity, spatial extent, and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2011-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the responsiveness to estradiol, with males exhibiting muted, and in some cases reverse, effects compared with females. The lack of lordosis in males may be explained by differences in synaptic organization or estrogen responsiveness, or both, in the VMH. However, given that damage to other brain regions unmasks lordosis behavior in males, a male-typical VMH is unlikely the main factor that prevents lordosis. In females, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms whereby ovarian hormones modulate VMH function to promote lordosis. PMID:21338620

  17. Application of cellular neural network (CNN) method to the nuclear reactor dynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, K.; Piroozmand, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a multilayer cellular neural network (CNN) to model and solve the nuclear reactor dynamic equations. An equivalent electrical circuit is analyzed and the governing equations of a bare, homogeneous reactor core are modeled via CNN. The validity of the CNN result is compared with numerical solution of the system of nonlinear governing partial differential equations (PDE) using MATLAB. Steady state as well as transient simulations, show very good comparison between the two methods. We used our CNN model to simulate space-time response of different reactivity excursions in a typical nuclear reactor. On line solution of reactor dynamic equations is used as an aid to reactor operation decision making. The complete algorithm could also be implemented using very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) circuitry. The efficiency of the calculation method makes it useful for small size nuclear reactors such as the ones used in space missions

  18. Neural Based Orthogonal Data Fitting The EXIN Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cirrincione, Giansalvo

    2008-01-01

    Written by three leaders in the field of neural based algorithms, Neural Based Orthogonal Data Fitting proposes several neural networks, all endowed with a complete theory which not only explains their behavior, but also compares them with the existing neural and traditional algorithms. The algorithms are studied from different points of view, including: as a differential geometry problem, as a dynamic problem, as a stochastic problem, and as a numerical problem. All algorithms have also been analyzed on real time problems (large dimensional data matrices) and have shown accurate solutions. Wh

  19. Neural responses during the anticipation and receipt of olfactory reward and punishment in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lai-Quan; Zhou, Han-Yu; Zhuang, Yuan; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Møller, Arne; Kringelbach, Morten L; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-03-01

    Pleasure experience is an important part of normal healthy life and is essential for general and mental well-being. Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the underlying neural processing of verbal and visual modalities of reward. However, how the brain processes rewards in the olfactory modality is not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the neural basis of olfactory rewards in 25 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We developed an Olfactory Incentive Delay (OLID) imaging task distinguishing between the anticipation and receipt of olfactory rewards and punishments. We found that the pallidum was activated during the anticipation of both olfactory rewards and punishments. The bilateral insula was activated independently from the odours' hedonic valence during the receipt phase. In addition, right caudate activation during the anticipation of unpleasant odours was correlated with self-reported anticipatory hedonic traits, whereas bilateral insular activation during the receipt of pleasant odours was correlated with self-reported consummatory hedonic traits. These findings suggest that activity in the insula and the caudate may be biomarkers of anhedonia. These findings also highlight a useful and valid paradigm to study the neural circuitry underlying reward processing in people with anhedonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  1. Nigral dopaminergic neuron replenishment in adult mice through VE-cadherin-expressing neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir A Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2– neural progenitor cells. We sought to further validate this finding and explore a potential atypical origin for these progenitor cells. Since neural progenitor cells have a proximal association with the vasculature of the brain and subsets of endothelial cells are Nestin+, we hypothesized that dopaminergic neural progenitors might share a common cell lineage. Therefore, we employed a VE-cadherin promoter-driven CREERT2:THlox/THlox transgenic mouse line to ablate the tyrosine hydroxylase gene from endothelial cells in adult animals. After 26 weeks, but not 13 weeks, following the genetic blockade of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in VE-cadherin+ cells, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase+ neurons in the substantia nigra. The results from this genetic lineage tracing study suggest that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by a VE-cadherin+ progenitor cell population potentially arising from an endothelial lineage.

  2. Toward a distributed free-floating wireless implantable neural recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyungwoo Yeon; Xingyuan Tong; Byunghun Lee; Mirbozorgi, Abdollah; Ash, Bruce; Eckhardt, Helmut; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    To understand the complex correlations between neural networks across different regions in the brain and their functions at high spatiotemporal resolution, a tool is needed for obtaining long-term single unit activity (SUA) across the entire brain area. The concept and preliminary design of a distributed free-floating wireless implantable neural recording (FF-WINeR) system are presented, which can enabling SUA acquisition by dispersedly implanting tens to hundreds of untethered 1 mm3 neural recording probes, floating with the brain and operating wirelessly across the cortical surface. For powering FF-WINeR probes, a 3-coil link with an intermediate high-Q resonator provides a minimum S21 of -22.22 dB (in the body medium) and -21.23 dB (in air) at 2.8 cm coil separation, which translates to 0.76%/759 μW and 0.6%/604 μW of power transfer efficiency (PTE) / power delivered to a 9 kΩ load (PDL), in body and air, respectively. A mock-up FF-WINeR is implemented to explore microassembly method of the 1×1 mm2 micromachined silicon die with a bonding wire-wound coil and a tungsten micro-wire electrode. Circuit design methods to fit the active circuitry in only 0.96 mm2 of die area in a 130 nm standard CMOS process, and satisfy the strict power and performance requirements (in simulations) are discussed.

  3. A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Derjean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that animals respond to odors by generating or modulating specific motor behaviors. These reactions are important for daily activities, reproduction, and survival. In the sea lamprey, mating occurs after ovulated females are attracted to spawning sites by male sex pheromones. The ubiquity and reliability of olfactory-motor behavioral responses in vertebrates suggest tight coupling between the olfactory system and brain areas controlling movements. However, the circuitry and the underlying cellular neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using lamprey brain preparations, and electrophysiology, calcium imaging, and tract tracing experiments, we describe the neural substrate responsible for transforming an olfactory input into a locomotor output. We found that olfactory stimulation with naturally occurring odors and pheromones induced large excitatory responses in reticulospinal cells, the command neurons for locomotion. We have also identified the anatomy and physiology of this circuit. The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain. Activation of this olfactory-motor pathway generated rhythmic ventral root discharges and swimming movements. Our study bridges the gap between behavior and cellular neural mechanisms in vertebrates, identifying a specific subsystem within the CNS, dedicated to producing motor responses to olfactory inputs.

  4. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Brand, Michael

    2013-03-01

    At birth or after hatching from the egg, vertebrate brains still contain neural stem cells which reside in specialized niches. In some cases, these stem cells are deployed for further postnatal development of parts of the brain until the final structure is reached. In other cases, postnatal neurogenesis continues as constitutive neurogenesis into adulthood leading to a net increase of the number of neurons with age. Yet, in other cases, stem cells fuel neuronal turnover. An example is protracted development of the cerebellar granular layer in mammals and birds, where neurogenesis continues for a few weeks postnatally until the granular layer has reached its definitive size and stem cells are used up. Cerebellar growth also provides an example of continued neurogenesis during adulthood in teleosts. Again, it is the granular layer that grows as neurogenesis continues and no definite adult cerebellar size is reached. Neuronal turnover is most clearly seen in the telencephalon of male canaries, where projection neurons are replaced in nucleus high vocal centre each year before the start of a new mating season--circuitry reconstruction to achieve changes of the song repertoire in these birds? In this review, we describe these and other examples of adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate taxa. We also compare the structure of the stem cell niches to find common themes in their organization despite different functions adult neurogenesis serves in different species. Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

  5. Neural origins of psychosocial functioning impairments in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Elliott, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder, a complex neuropsychiatric condition, is associated with psychosocial functioning impairments that could become chronic even after symptoms remit. Social functioning impairments in patients could also pose coping difficulties to individuals around them. In this Personal View, we trace the potential neurobiological origins of these impairments down to three candidate domains-namely, social perception and emotion processing, motivation and reward value processing, and social decision making. We argue that the neural basis of abnormalities in these domains could be detectable at different temporal stages during social interactions (eg, before and after decision stages), particularly within frontomesolimbic networks (ie, frontostriatal and amygdala-striatal circuitries). We review some of the experimental designs used to probe these circuits and suggest novel, integrative approaches. We propose that an understanding of the interactions between these domains could provide valuable insights for the clinical stratification of major depressive disorder subtypes and might inform future developments of novel treatment options in return. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Kim, Sung Soo; Thakur, Pramodsingh H; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception of the shape of objects critically guides our ability to interact with them. In this review, we describe how shape information is processed as it ascends the somatosensory neuraxis of primates. At the somatosensory periphery, spatial form is represented in the spatial patterns of activation evoked across populations of mechanoreceptive afferents. In the cerebral cortex, neurons respond selectively to particular spatial features, like orientation and curvature. While feature selectivity of neurons in the earlier processing stages can be understood in terms of linear receptive field models, higher order somatosensory neurons exhibit nonlinear response properties that result in tuning for more complex geometrical features. In fact, tactile shape processing bears remarkable analogies to its visual counterpart and the two may rely on shared neural circuitry. Furthermore, one of the unique aspects of primate somatosensation is that it contains a deformable sensory sheet. Because the relative positions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors depend on the conformation of the hand, the haptic perception of three-dimensional objects requires the integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive signals, an integration that is observed throughout somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Auditory Neural Prostheses – A Window to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kameshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies to affect children world-over. The incidence of congenital hearing loss is more pronounced in developing countries like the Indian sub-continent, especially with the problems of consanguinity. Hearing loss is a double tragedy, as it leads to not only deafness but also language deprivation. However, hearing loss is the only truly remediable handicap, due to remarkable advances in biomedical engineering and surgical techniques. Auditory neural prostheses help to augment or restore hearing by integration of an external circuitry with the peripheral hearing apparatus and the central circuitry of the brain. A cochlear implant (CI is a surgically implantable device that helps restore hearing in patients with severe-profound hearing loss, unresponsive to amplification by conventional hearing aids. CIs are electronic devices designed to detect mechanical sound energy and convert it into electrical signals that can be delivered to the coch­lear nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells of the coch­lea. The only true prerequisite is an intact auditory nerve. The emphasis is on implantation as early as possible to maximize speech understanding and perception. Bilateral CI has significant benefits which include improved speech perception in noisy environments and improved sound localization. Presently, the indications for CI have widened and these expanded indications for implantation are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing, and special etiologies of deafness. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS / hybrid device is designed for individuals with binaural low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI is a safe and effective means of hearing rehabilitation in patients with retrocochlear disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 or congenital cochlear nerve aplasia, wherein the cochlear nerve is damaged

  8. Neural Processing of Emotional Musical and Nonmusical Stimuli in Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lepping

    Full Text Available Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression.Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning.ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum.These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments.

  9. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  10. A framework for the first-person internal sensation of visual perception in mammals and a comparable circuitry for olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

    2015-01-01

    Perception is a first-person internal sensation induced within the nervous system at the time of arrival of sensory stimuli from objects in the environment. Lack of access to the first-person properties has limited viewing perception as an emergent property and it is currently being studied using third-person observed findings from various levels. One feasible approach to understand its mechanism is to build a hypothesis for the specific conditions and required circuit features of the nodal points where the mechanistic operation of perception take place for one type of sensation in one species and to verify it for the presence of comparable circuit properties for perceiving a different sensation in a different species. The present work explains visual perception in mammalian nervous system from a first-person frame of reference and provides explanations for the homogeneity of perception of visual stimuli above flicker fusion frequency, the perception of objects at locations different from their actual position, the smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, the perception of object borders, and perception of pressure phosphenes. Using results from temporal resolution studies and the known details of visual cortical circuitry, explanations are provided for (a) the perception of rapidly changing visual stimuli, (b) how the perception of objects occurs in the correct orientation even though, according to the third-person view, activity from the visual stimulus reaches the cortices in an inverted manner and (c) the functional significance of well-conserved columnar organization of the visual cortex. A comparable circuitry detected in a different nervous system in a remote species-the olfactory circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster-provides an opportunity to explore circuit functions using genetic manipulations, which, along with high-resolution microscopic techniques and lipid membrane interaction studies, will be able to verify the structure

  11. Mitochondrial metabolism in early neural fate and its relevance for neuronal disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Carmen; Prigione, Alessandro

    2017-12-01

    Modulation of energy metabolism is emerging as a key aspect associated with cell fate transition. The establishment of a correct metabolic program is particularly relevant for neural cells given their high bioenergetic requirements. Accordingly, diseases of the nervous system commonly involve mitochondrial impairment. Recent studies in animals and in neural derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) highlighted the importance of mitochondrial metabolism for neural fate decisions in health and disease. The mitochondria-based metabolic program of early neurogenesis suggests that PSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) may be used for modeling neurological disorders. Understanding how metabolic programming is orchestrated during neural commitment may provide important information for the development of therapies against conditions affecting neural functions, including aging and mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sex differences of gray matter morphology in cortico-limbic-striatal neural system in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingtao; Chen, Kaiyuan; Womer, Fay; Jiang, Wenyan; Luo, Xingguang; Driesen, Naomi; Liu, Jie; Blumberg, Hilary; Tang, Yanqing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences are observed in both epidemiological and clinical aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD). The cortico-limbic-striatal neural system, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum, have shown sexually dimorphic morphological features and have been implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion in MDD. In this study, we utilized a whole-brain, voxel-based approach to examine sex differences in the regional distribution of gray matter (GM) morphological abnormalities in medication-naïve participants with MDD. Participants included 29 medication-naïve individuals with MDD (16 females and 13 males) and 33 healthy controls (HC) (17 females and 16 males). Gray matter morphology of the cortico-limbic-striatal neural system was examined using voxel-based morphometry analyzes of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The main effect of diagnosis and interaction effect of diagnosis by sex on GM morphology were statistically significant (p sex-related patterns of abnormalities within the cortico-limbic-strial neural system, such as predominant prefrontal-limbic abnormalities in MDD females vs. predominant prefrontal-striatal abnormalities in MDD males, suggest differences in neural circuitry that may mediate sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and potential targets for sex-differentiated treatment of the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural network-based nonlinear model predictive control vs. linear quadratic gaussian control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Vance, R.; Mardi, N.; Qian, Z.; Prisbrey, K.

    1997-01-01

    One problem with the application of neural networks to the multivariable control of mineral and extractive processes is determining whether and how to use them. The objective of this investigation was to compare neural network control to more conventional strategies and to determine if there are any advantages in using neural network control in terms of set-point tracking, rise time, settling time, disturbance rejection and other criteria. The procedure involved developing neural network controllers using both historical plant data and simulation models. Various control patterns were tried, including both inverse and direct neural network plant models. These were compared to state space controllers that are, by nature, linear. For grinding and leaching circuits, a nonlinear neural network-based model predictive control strategy was superior to a state space-based linear quadratic gaussian controller. The investigation pointed out the importance of incorporating state space into neural networks by making them recurrent, i.e., feeding certain output state variables into input nodes in the neural network. It was concluded that neural network controllers can have better disturbance rejection, set-point tracking, rise time, settling time and lower set-point overshoot, and it was also concluded that neural network controllers can be more reliable and easy to implement in complex, multivariable plants.

  14. Nonlinear signal processing using neural networks: Prediction and system modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A.; Farber, R.

    1987-06-01

    The backpropagation learning algorithm for neural networks is developed into a formalism for nonlinear signal processing. We illustrate the method by selecting two common topics in signal processing, prediction and system modelling, and show that nonlinear applications can be handled extremely well by using neural networks. The formalism is a natural, nonlinear extension of the linear Least Mean Squares algorithm commonly used in adaptive signal processing. Simulations are presented that document the additional performance achieved by using nonlinear neural networks. First, we demonstrate that the formalism may be used to predict points in a highly chaotic time series with orders of magnitude increase in accuracy over conventional methods including the Linear Predictive Method and the Gabor-Volterra-Weiner Polynomial Method. Deterministic chaos is thought to be involved in many physical situations including the onset of turbulence in fluids, chemical reactions and plasma physics. Secondly, we demonstrate the use of the formalism in nonlinear system modelling by providing a graphic example in which it is clear that the neural network has accurately modelled the nonlinear transfer function. It is interesting to note that the formalism provides explicit, analytic, global, approximations to the nonlinear maps underlying the various time series. Furthermore, the neural net seems to be extremely parsimonious in its requirements for data points from the time series. We show that the neural net is able to perform well because it globally approximates the relevant maps by performing a kind of generalized mode decomposition of the maps. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Memory Consolidation and Neural Substrate of Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redolar-Ripoll, Diego

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the relationships between reward and learning and memory processes. Different studies have described how information about rewards influences behavior and how the brain uses this reward information to control learning and memory processes. Reward nature seems to be processed in different ways by neurons in different brain structures, ranging from the detection and perception of rewards to the use of information about predicted rewards for the control of goal-directed behavior. The neural substrate underling this processing of reward information is a reliable way of improving learning and memory processes. Evidence from several studies indicates that this neural system can facilitate memory consolidation in a wide variety of learning tasks. From a molecular perspective, certain cardinal features of reward have been described as forms of memory. Studies of human addicts and studies in animal models of addiction show that chronic drug exposure produces stable changes in the brain at the cellular and molecular levels that underlie the long-lasting behavioral plasticity associated with addiction. These molecular and cellular adaptations involved in addiction are also implicated in learning and memory processes. Dopamine seems to be a critical common signal to activate different genetic mechanisms that ultimately remodel synapses and circuits. Despite memory is an active and complex process mediated by different brain areas, the neural substrate of reward is able to improve memory consolidation in a several paradigms. We believe that there are many equivalent traits between reward and learning and memory processes.

  16. Neural network application to diesel generator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnostic problems typically begin with the observation of some system behavior which is recognized as a deviation from the expected. The fundamental underlying process is one involving pattern matching cf observed symptoms to a set of compiled symptoms belonging to a fault-symptom mapping. Pattern recognition is often relied upon for initial fault detection and diagnosis. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models employing neural network paradigms are known to be good pattern recognition devices. This paper describes the application of neural network processing techniques to the malfunction diagnosis of subsystems within a typical diesel generator configuration. Neural network models employing backpropagation learning were developed to correctly recognize fault conditions from the input diagnostic symptom patterns pertaining to various engine subsystems. The resulting network models proved to be excellent pattern recognizers for malfunction examples within the training set. The motivation for employing network models in lieu of a rule-based expert system, however, is related to the network's potential for generalizing malfunctions outside of the training set, as in the case of noisy or partial symptom patterns

  17. Development and Evaluation of Micro-Electrocorticography Arrays for Neural Interfacing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Amelia Ann

    Neural interfaces have great promise for both electrophysiological research and therapeutic applications. Whether for the study of neural circuitry or for neural prosthetic or other therapeutic applications, micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) arrays have proven extremely useful as neural interfacing devices. These devices strike a balance between invasiveness and signal resolution, an important step towards eventual human application. The objective of this research was to make design improvements to micro-ECoG devices to enhance both biocompatibility and device functionality. To best evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements, a cranial window imaging method for in vivo monitoring of the longitudinal tissue response post device implant was developed. Employment of this method provided valuable insight into the way tissue grows around micro-ECoG arrays after epidural implantation, spurring a study of the effects of substrate geometry on the meningeal tissue response. The results of the substrate footprint comparison suggest that a more open substrate geometry provides an easy path for the tissue to grow around to the top side of the device, whereas a solid device substrate encourages the tissue to thicken beneath the device, between the electrode sites and the brain. The formation of thick scar tissue between the recording electrode sites and the neural tissue is disadvantageous for long-term recorded signal quality, and thus future micro-ECoG device designs should incorporate open-architecture substrates for enhanced longitudinal in vivo function. In addition to investigating improvements for long-term device reliability, it was also desired to enhance the functionality of micro-ECoG devices for neural electrophysiology research applications. To achieve this goal, a completely transparent graphene-based device was fabricated for use with the cranial window imaging method and optogenetic techniques. The use of graphene as the conductive material provided

  18. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Result...

  19. Genetic learning in rule-based and neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The design of neural networks and fuzzy systems can involve complex, nonlinear, and ill-conditioned optimization problems. Often, traditional optimization schemes are inadequate or inapplicable for such tasks. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are a class of optimization procedures whose mechanics are based on those of natural genetics. Mathematical arguments show how GAs bring substantial computational leverage to search problems, without requiring the mathematical characteristics often necessary for traditional optimization schemes (e.g., modality, continuity, availability of derivative information, etc.). GA's have proven effective in a variety of search tasks that arise in neural networks and fuzzy systems. This presentation begins by introducing the mechanism and theoretical underpinnings of GA's. GA's are then related to a class of rule-based machine learning systems called learning classifier systems (LCS's). An LCS implements a low-level production-system that uses a GA as its primary rule discovery mechanism. This presentation illustrates how, despite its rule-based framework, an LCS can be thought of as a competitive neural network. Neural network simulator code for an LCS is presented. In this context, the GA is doing more than optimizing and objective function. It is searching for an ecology of hidden nodes with limited connectivity. The GA attempts to evolve this ecology such that effective neural network performance results. The GA is particularly well adapted to this task, given its naturally-inspired basis. The LCS/neural network analogy extends itself to other, more traditional neural networks. Conclusions to the presentation discuss the implications of using GA's in ecological search problems that arise in neural and fuzzy systems.

  20. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.

    2016-04-01

    Particle accelerators are host to myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.

  1. Analysis of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Heiden, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is a unified and general treatment of activity in neural networks from a mathematical pOint of view. Possible applications of the theory presented are indica­ ted throughout the text. However, they are not explored in de­ tail for two reasons : first, the universal character of n- ral activity in nearly all animals requires some type of a general approach~ secondly, the mathematical perspicuity would suffer if too many experimental details and empirical peculiarities were interspersed among the mathematical investigation. A guide to many applications is supplied by the references concerning a variety of specific issues. Of course the theory does not aim at covering all individual problems. Moreover there are other approaches to neural network theory (see e.g. Poggio-Torre, 1978) based on the different lev­ els at which the nervous system may be viewed. The theory is a deterministic one reflecting the average be­ havior of neurons or neuron pools. In this respect the essay is writt...

  2. Neural Synchronization and Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Neural networks can synchronize by learning from each other. In the case of discrete weights full synchronization is achieved in a finite number of steps. Additional networks can be trained by using the inputs and outputs generated during this process as examples. Several learning rules for both tasks are presented and analyzed. In the case of Tree Parity Machines synchronization is much faster than learning. Scaling laws for the number of steps needed for full synchronization and successful learning are derived using analytical models. They indicate that the difference between both processes can be controlled by changing the synaptic depth. In the case of bidirectional interaction the synchronization time increases proportional to the square of this parameter, but it grows exponentially, if information is transmitted in one direction only. Because of this effect neural synchronization can be used to construct a cryptographic key-exchange protocol. Here the partners benefit from mutual interaction, so that a passive attacker is usually unable to learn the generated key in time. The success probabilities of different attack methods are determined by numerical simulations and scaling laws are derived from the data. They show that the partners can reach any desired level of security by just increasing the synaptic depth. Then the complexity of a successful attack grows exponentially, but there is only a polynomial increase of the effort needed to generate a key. Further improvements of security are possible by replacing the random inputs with queries generated by the partners.

  3. Neural mechanisms of hypnosis and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedittis, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Hypnosis has been an elusive concept for science for a long time. However, the explosive advances in neuroscience in the last few decades have provided a "bridge of understanding" between classical neurophysiological studies and psychophysiological studies. These studies have shed new light on the neural basis of the hypnotic experience. Furthermore, an ambitious new area of research is focusing on mapping the core processes of psychotherapy and the neurobiology/underlying them. Hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. The Hypnotic Brain can serve as a way to tap neurocognitive questions and our cognitive assays can in turn shed new light on the neural bases of hypnosis. This cross-talk should enhance research and clinical applications. An increasing body of evidence provides insight in the neural mechanisms of the Meditative Brain. Discrete meditative styles are likely to target different neurodynamic patterns. Recent findings emphasize increased attentional resources activating the attentional and salience networks with coherent perception. Cognitive and emotional equanimity gives rise to an eudaimonic state, made of calm, resilience and stability, readiness to express compassion and empathy, a main goal of Buddhist practices. Structural changes in gray matter of key areas of the brain involved in learning processes suggest that these skills can be learned through practice. Hypnosis and Meditation represent two important, historical and influential landmarks of Western and Eastern civilization and culture respectively. Neuroscience has beginning to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of both Hypnotic and Meditative Brain, outlining similarities but also differences between the two states and processes. It is important not to view either the Eastern or the Western system as superior to the other. Cross-fertilization of the ancient Eastern meditation techniques

  4. Neural Networks for Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Two neural networks are trained to act as an observer and a controller, respectively, to control a non-linear, multi-variable process.......Two neural networks are trained to act as an observer and a controller, respectively, to control a non-linear, multi-variable process....

  5. Neural networks at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgett, W.; Burkett, K.; Campbell, M.K.; Wu, D.Y.; Bianchin, S.; DeNardi, M.; Pauletta, G.; Santi, L.; Caner, A.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.; Lindsey, C.S.; Wainer, N.; Dall'Agata, M.; Johns, K.; Dickson, M.; Stanco, L.; Wyss, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    This paper summarizes neural network applications at the Fermilab Tevatron, including the first online hardware application in high energy physics (muon tracking): the CDF and DO neural network triggers; offline quark/gluon discrimination at CDF; ND a new tool for top to multijets recognition at CDF

  6. Neural Networks for the Beginner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    Motivated by the brain, neural networks are a right-brained approach to artificial intelligence that is used to recognize patterns based on previous training. In practice, one would not program an expert system to recognize a pattern and one would not train a neural network to make decisions from rules; but one could combine the best features of…

  7. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  8. Neural fields theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter; Potthast, Roland; Wright, James

    2014-01-01

    With this book, the editors present the first comprehensive collection in neural field studies, authored by leading scientists in the field - among them are two of the founding-fathers of neural field theory. Up to now, research results in the field have been disseminated across a number of distinct journals from mathematics, computational neuroscience, biophysics, cognitive science and others. Starting with a tutorial for novices in neural field studies, the book comprises chapters on emergent patterns, their phase transitions and evolution, on stochastic approaches, cortical development, cognition, robotics and computation, large-scale numerical simulations, the coupling of neural fields to the electroencephalogram and phase transitions in anesthesia. The intended readership are students and scientists in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, theoretical biology, and computational neuroscience. Neural field theory and its applications have a long-standing tradition in the mathematical and computational ...

  9. Artificial neural networks in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, simply known as neural networks, have attracted considerable interest in recent years largely because of a growing recognition of the potential of these computational paradigms as powerful alternative models to conventional pattern recognition or function approximation techniques. The neural networks approach is having a profound effect on almost all fields, and has been utilised in fields Where experimental inter-disciplinary work is being carried out. Being a multidisciplinary subject with a broad knowledge base, Nondestructive Testing (NDT) or Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is no exception. This paper explains typical applications of neural networks in NDT/NDE. Three promising types of neural networks are highlighted, namely, back-propagation, binary Hopfield and Kohonen's self-organising maps. (Author)

  10. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementati...

  11. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  12. Neural Blockade for Persistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    involved in neuropathic pain syndromes or to be used as a treatment in its own right. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence for neural blockade as a potential diagnostic tool or treatment for persistent pain after breast cancer surgery. In this systematic review, we found only 7 studies (n......Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery is predominantly a neuropathic pain syndrome affecting 25% to 60% of patients and related to injury of the intercostobrachial nerve, intercostal nerves, and other nerves in the region. Neural blockade can be useful for the identification of nerves...

  13. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Neural Networks to Predict the Hardness of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zahran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloys have gained significant industrial importance being involved in many of the light and heavy industries and especially in aerospace engineering. The mechanical properties of aluminum alloys are defined by a number of principal microstructural features. Conventional mathematical models of these properties are sometimes very complex to be analytically calculated. In this paper, a neural network model is used to predict the correlations between the hardness of aluminum alloys in relation to certain alloying elements. A backpropagation neural network is trained using a thorough dataset. The impact of certain elements is documented and an optimum structure is proposed.

  15. EDITORIAL: Why we need a new journal in