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Sample records for neupravenych bukovych pilin

  1. Pilin Processing Follows a Different Temporal Route than That of Archaellins in Methanococcus maripaludis

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    Divya B. Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanococcus maripaludis has two different surface appendages: type IV-like pili and archaella. Both structures are believed to be assembled using a bacterial type IV pilus mechanism. Each structure is composed of multiple subunits, either pilins or archaellins. Both pilins and archaellins are made initially as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides, which must be removed by a prepilin peptidase-like enzyme. This enzyme is FlaK for archaellins and EppA for pilins. In addition, both pilins and archaellins are modified with N-linked glycans. The archaellins possess an N-linked tetrasaccharide while the pilins have a pentasaccharide which consists of the archaellin tetrasaccharide but with an additional sugar, an unidentified hexose, attached to the linking sugar. In this report, we show that archaellins can be processed by FlaK in the absence of N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation can occur on archaellins that still retain their signal peptides. In contrast, pilins are not glycosylated unless they have been acted on by EppA to have the signal peptide removed. However, EppA can still remove signal peptides from non-glycosylated pilins. These findings indicate that there is a difference in the order of the posttranslational modifications of pilins and archaellins even though both are type IV pilin-like proteins.

  2. MOLECULAR DOCKING AND DYNAMICS STUDIES ON THE PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRICALLY ACTIVE PILIN NANOWIRES OF GEOBACTER SULFURREDUCENS.

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    D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila1 *

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions are key aspects in biological recognitions applicable in nano/micro systems. Bacterial nanowires are pilus filament based structures that can conduct electrons. The transport of electron is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers made up of polymeric assemblies of proteins called pilin. Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of delivering electrons through extracellular electron transport (EET by employing conductive nanowires, which are pilin proteins composed of type IV subunit PilA. Protein-protein interactions play an important role in the stabilization of the pilin nanowire assembly complex and it contains transmembrane (TM domain. In current study, protein-protein docking and multiple molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed to understand the binding mode of pilin nanowires. The MD result explains the conformational behavior and folding of pilin nanowires in water environment in different time scale duration 20, 5, 5, 10 and 20ns (total of 60ns. Direct hydrogen bonds and water mediated hydrogen bonds that play a crucial role during the simulation were investigated. The conformational state, folding, end-toend distance profile and hydrogen bonding behavior had indicated that the Geobacter sulfurreducens pilin nanowires have electrical conductivity properties.

  3. Implementations of PI-line based FBP and BPF algorithms on GPGPU

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    Shen, Le [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Xing, Yuxiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Particle and Radiation Imaging

    2011-07-01

    Exact reconstruction is under the spotlight in cone beam CT. Katsevich put forward the first exact inversion formula for helical cone beam CT, which belongs to FBP type. Also, Pan Xiaochuan's group proposed another PI-line based exact reconstruction algorithm of BPF type. These two exact reconstruction algorithms and their derivative forms have been widely studied. In this paper, we present a different way of selecting PI-line segments appropriate for both Katsevich's FBP and Pan Xiaochuan's BPF algorithms. As 3D reconstruction contributes to massive computations and takes long time, people have made efforts to speed up the algorithms with the help of multi-core CPUs and GPGPU (General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit). In this paper, we also presents implementations for these two algorithms on GPGPU using an innovative way of selecting PI-line segments. Acceleration techniques and implementations are addressed in detail. The methods are tested on the Shepp-Logan phantom. Compared with our CPU's implementations, the accelerated algorithms on GPGPU are tens to hundreds times faster. (orig.)

  4. Oligomerized backbone pilin helps piliated Lactococcus lactis to withstand shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Duviau, Marie-Pierre; Oxaran, Virginie; Schmitz, Philippe; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2016-09-01

    The present work focuses on the role of pili present at the cell surface of Lactococcus lactis in bacterial adhesion to abiotic (hydrophobic polystyrene) and biotic (mucin-coated polystyrene) surfaces. Native pili-displaying strains and isogenic derivatives in which pilins or sortase C structural genes had been modified were used. Surface physico-chemistry, morphology and shear-flow-induced detachment of lactococcal cells were evaluated. The involvement of pili in L. lactis adhesion was clearly demonstrated, irrespective of the surface characteristics (hydrophobic/hydrophilic, presence or not of specific binding sites). The accessory pilin, PilC, and the backbone pilin, PilB, were revealed to play a major role in adhesion, provided that the PilB was present in its polymerized form. Within the population fraction that remained attached to the surface under increasing shear flow, different association behaviors were observed, showing that pili could serve as anchoring sites thus hampering the effect of shear flow on cell orientation and detachment.

  5. In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking.

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    Chang, Chungyu; Amer, Brendan R; Osipiuk, Jerzy; McConnell, Scott A; Huang, I-Hsiu; Hsieh, Van; Fu, Janine; Nguyen, Hong H; Muroski, John; Flores, Erika; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A; Putkey, John A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Clubb, Robert T; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-06-12

    Covalently cross-linked pilus polymers displayed on the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria are assembled by class C sortase enzymes. These pilus-specific transpeptidases located on the bacterial membrane catalyze a two-step protein ligation reaction, first cleaving the LPXTG motif of one pilin protomer to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and then joining the terminal Thr to the nucleophilic Lys residue residing within the pilin motif of another pilin protomer. To date, the determinants of class C enzymes that uniquely enable them to construct pili remain unknown. Here, informed by high-resolution crystal structures of corynebacterial pilus-specific sortase (SrtA) and utilizing a structural variant of the enzyme (SrtA 2M ), whose catalytic pocket has been unmasked by activating mutations, we successfully reconstituted in vitro polymerization of the cognate major pilin (SpaA). Mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical experiments authenticated that SrtA 2M synthesizes pilus fibers with correct Lys-Thr isopeptide bonds linking individual pilins via a thioacyl intermediate. Structural modeling of the SpaA-SrtA-SpaA polymerization intermediate depicts SrtA 2M sandwiched between the N- and C-terminal domains of SpaA harboring the reactive pilin and LPXTG motifs, respectively. Remarkably, the model uncovered a conserved TP(Y/L)XIN(S/T)H signature sequence following the catalytic Cys, in which the alanine substitutions abrogated cross-linking activity but not cleavage of LPXTG. These insights and our evidence that SrtA 2M can terminate pilus polymerization by joining the terminal pilin SpaB to SpaA and catalyze ligation of isolated SpaA domains in vitro provide a facile and versatile platform for protein engineering and bio-conjugation that has major implications for biotechnology.

  6. The type IV pilin of Burkholderia mallei is highly immunogenic but fails to protect against lethal aerosol challenge in a murine model.

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    Fernandes, Paula J; Guo, Qin; Waag, David M; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2007-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the cause of glanders and a proven biological weapon. We identified and purified the type IV pilin protein of this organism to study its potential as a subunit vaccine. We found that purified pilin was highly immunogenic. Furthermore, mice infected via sublethal aerosol challenge developed significant increases in titers of antibody against the pilin, suggesting that it is expressed in vivo. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that high-titer antipilin antisera provided passive protection against a sublethal or lethal aerosol challenge and no evidence of protection afforded by active immunization with purified pilin. These results contrast with the utility of type IV pilin subunit vaccines against other infectious diseases and highlight the need for further efforts to identify protective responses against this pathogen.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Minor Pilin CofB, the Initiator of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli*

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    Kolappan, Subramania; Ng, Dixon; Yang, Guixiang; Harn, Tony; Craig, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili are extracellular polymers of the major pilin subunit. These subunits are held together in the pilus filament by hydrophobic interactions among their N-terminal α-helices, which also anchor the pilin subunits in the inner membrane prior to pilus assembly. Type IV pilus assembly involves a conserved group of proteins that span the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Among these is a set of minor pilins, so named because they share their hydrophobic N-terminal polymerization/membrane anchor segment with the major pilins but are much less abundant. Minor pilins influence pilus assembly and retraction, but their precise functions are not well defined. The Type IV pilus systems of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are among the simplest of Type IV pilus systems and possess only a single minor pilin. Here we show that the enterotoxigenic E. coli minor pilins CofB and LngB are required for assembly of their respective Type IV pili, CFA/III and Longus. Low levels of the minor pilins are optimal for pilus assembly, and CofB can be detected in the pilus fraction. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of N-terminally truncated CofB, revealing a pilin-like protein with an extended C-terminal region composed of two discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. The C-terminal region is required for CofB to initiate pilus assembly. We propose a model for CofB-initiated pilus assembly with implications for understanding filament growth in more complex Type IV pilus systems as well as the related Type II secretion system. PMID:26324721

  8. Crystal Structure of the Minor Pilin CofB, the Initiator of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

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    Kolappan, Subramania; Ng, Dixon; Yang, Guixiang; Harn, Tony; Craig, Lisa

    2015-10-23

    Type IV pili are extracellular polymers of the major pilin subunit. These subunits are held together in the pilus filament by hydrophobic interactions among their N-terminal α-helices, which also anchor the pilin subunits in the inner membrane prior to pilus assembly. Type IV pilus assembly involves a conserved group of proteins that span the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Among these is a set of minor pilins, so named because they share their hydrophobic N-terminal polymerization/membrane anchor segment with the major pilins but are much less abundant. Minor pilins influence pilus assembly and retraction, but their precise functions are not well defined. The Type IV pilus systems of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are among the simplest of Type IV pilus systems and possess only a single minor pilin. Here we show that the enterotoxigenic E. coli minor pilins CofB and LngB are required for assembly of their respective Type IV pili, CFA/III and Longus. Low levels of the minor pilins are optimal for pilus assembly, and CofB can be detected in the pilus fraction. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of N-terminally truncated CofB, revealing a pilin-like protein with an extended C-terminal region composed of two discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. The C-terminal region is required for CofB to initiate pilus assembly. We propose a model for CofB-initiated pilus assembly with implications for understanding filament growth in more complex Type IV pilus systems as well as the related Type II secretion system. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the minor pilin FctB from Streptococcus pyogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, Christian; Young, Paul G.; Kang, Hae Joo; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    The minor pilin FctB from S. pyogenes strain 90/306S was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The hexagonal FctB crystals diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution. The minor pilin FctB is an integral part of the pilus assembly expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. Since it is located at the cell wall, it can be hypothesized that it functions as a cell-wall anchor for the streptococcal pilus. In order to elucidate its structure, the genes for FctB from the S. pyogenes strains 90/306S and SF370 were cloned for overexpression in Escherichia coli. FctB from strain 90/306S was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The hexagonal FctB crystals belonged to space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.15, c = 100.25 Å, and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution

  10. Structural conservation, variability, and immunogenicity of the T6 backbone pilin of serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

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    Young, Paul G; Moreland, Nicole J; Loh, Jacelyn M; Bell, Anita; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a broad range of diseases ranging from acute pharyngitis to the poststreptococcal sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. GAS pili are highly diverse, long protein polymers that extend from the cell surface. They have multiple roles in infection and are promising candidates for vaccine development. This study describes the structure of the T6 backbone pilin (BP; Lancefield T-antigen) from the important M6 serotype. The structure reveals a modular arrangement of three tandem immunoglobulin-like domains, two with internal isopeptide bonds. The T6 pilin lysine, essential for polymerization, is located in a novel VAKS motif that is structurally homologous to the canonical YPKN pilin lysine in other three- and four-domain Gram-positive pilins. The T6 structure also highlights a conserved pilin core whose surface is decorated with highly variable loops and extensions. Comparison to other Gram-positive BPs shows that many of the largest variable extensions are found in conserved locations. Studies with sera from patients diagnosed with GAS-associated acute rheumatic fever showed that each of the three T6 domains, and the largest of the variable extensions (V8), are targeted by IgG during infection in vivo. Although the GAS BP show large variations in size and sequence, the modular nature of the pilus proteins revealed by the T6 structure may aid the future design of a pilus-based vaccine. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS

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    Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Burrows, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Although two-component systems are a ubiquitous means of rapid bacterial adaptation to changing environments, identification of the specific signals detected by sensor kinases can be challenging. Also, little is known about the diverse, poorly characterized family of sensor kinases that detect intramembrane signals. We show that the major type IV pilin, PilA, is an inhibitory intramembrane ligand for the PilS sensor kinase that controls pilA expression and we characterize the mechanism of sig...

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, a major pilin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G.; Baker, Edward N.

    2009-01-01

    SpaA, one of the major pilins of C. diphtheriae, has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution. Bacterial pili are cell-surface organelles that are critically involved in adhesion to host cells, leading to the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of infections. Whereas the pili of Gram-negative bacteria have been extensively studied, those of Gram-positive bacteria came to light only recently after the discovery and characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae pili. These newly discovered pili are formed by the covalent polymerization of pilin subunits catalyzed by sortase enzymes, making them fundamentally different from the noncovalent pilin assemblies of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, the expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, which forms the shaft of one of the three types of pili expressed by C. diphtheriae, are reported. SpaA 53–486 crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 34.9, b = 64.1, c = 198.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  13. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

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    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Matthews, Steve, E-mail: s.j.matthews@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Structural Biology and Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  14. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS.

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    Kilmury, Sara L N; Burrows, Lori L

    2016-05-24

    Type IV pili are important virulence factors for many pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcription of the major pilin gene-pilA-is controlled by the PilS-PilR two-component system in response to unknown signals. The absence of a periplasmic sensing domain suggested that PilS may sense an intramembrane signal, possibly PilA. We suggest that direct interactions between PilA and PilS in the inner membrane reduce pilA transcription when PilA levels are high. Overexpression in trans of PilA proteins with diverse and/or truncated C termini decreased native pilA transcription, suggesting that the highly conserved N terminus of PilA was the regulatory signal. Point mutations in PilA or PilS that disrupted their interaction prevented autoregulation of pilA transcription. A subset of PilA point mutants retained the ability to interact with PilS but could no longer decrease pilA transcription, suggesting that interaction between the pilin and sensor kinase is necessary but not sufficient for pilA autoregulation. Furthermore, PilS's phosphatase motif was required for the autoregulation of pilA transcription, suggesting that under conditions where PilA is abundant, the PilA-PilS interaction promotes PilR dephosphorylation and thus down-regulation of further pilA transcription. These data reveal a clever bacterial inventory control strategy in which the major subunit of an important P. aeruginosa virulence factor controls its own expression.

  15. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

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    Krishnan, Vengadesan [UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kim, Brandon J. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Doran, Kelly S. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Narayana, Sthanam V. L., E-mail: narayana@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding.

  16. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Kim, Brandon J.; Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin; Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima; Doran, Kelly S.; Ton-That, Hung; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding

  17. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

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    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped and heterologous (coccoid-shaped expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.

  18. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

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    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  19. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

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    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G. [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Kim, Chae Un [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Middleditch, Martin [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Baker, Edward N., E-mail: ted.baker@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  20. Isopeptide bonds of the major pilin protein BcpA influence pilus structure and bundle formation on the surface of Bacillus cereus

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    Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Poor, Catherine B.; Jureller, Justin E.; Budzik, Jonathan M.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf (UC)

    2012-09-05

    Bacillus cereus strains elaborate pili on their surface using a mechanism of sortase-mediated cross-linking of major and minor pilus components. Here we used a combination of electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to visualize these structures. Pili occur as single, double or higher order assemblies of filaments formed from monomers of the major pilin, BcpA, capped by the minor pilin, BcpB. Previous studies demonstrated that within assembled pili, four domains of BcpA -- CNA{sub 1}, CNA{sub 2}, XNA and CNA{sub 3} -- each acquire intramolecular lysine-asparagine isopeptide bonds formed via catalytic glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues. Here we showed that mutants unable to form the intramolecular isopeptide bonds in the CNA2 or CNA3 domains retain the ability to form pilus bundles. A mutant lacking the CNA{sub 1} isopeptide bond assembled deformed pilin subunits that failed to associate as bundles. X-ray crystallography revealed that the BcpA variant Asp{sup 312}Ala, lacking an aspartyl catalyst, did not generate the isopeptide bond within the jelly-roll structure of XNA. The Asp{sup 312}Ala mutant was also unable to form bundles and promoted the assembly of deformed pili. Thus, structural integrity of the CNA{sub 1} and XNA domains are determinants for the association of pili into higher order bundle structures and determine native pilus structure.

  1. Against the odds? De novo structure determination of a pilin with two cysteine residues by sulfur SAD.

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    Gorgel, Manuela; Bøggild, Andreas; Ulstrup, Jakob Jensen; Weiss, Manfred S; Müller, Uwe; Nissen, Poul; Boesen, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the anomalous signal of the intrinsic S atoms to phase a protein structure is advantageous, as ideally only a single well diffracting native crystal is required. However, sulfur is a weak anomalous scatterer at the typical wavelengths used for X-ray diffraction experiments, and therefore sulfur SAD data sets need to be recorded with a high multiplicity. In this study, the structure of a small pilin protein was determined by sulfur SAD despite several obstacles such as a low anomalous signal (a theoretical Bijvoet ratio of 0.9% at a wavelength of 1.8 Å), radiation damage-induced reduction of the cysteines and a multiplicity of only 5.5. The anomalous signal was improved by merging three data sets from different volumes of a single crystal, yielding a multiplicity of 17.5, and a sodium ion was added to the substructure of anomalous scatterers. In general, all data sets were balanced around the threshold values for a successful phasing strategy. In addition, a collection of statistics on structures from the PDB that were solved by sulfur SAD are presented and compared with the data. Looking at the quality indicator R(anom)/R(p.i.m.), an inconsistency in the documentation of the anomalous R factor is noted and reported.

  2. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  3. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  4. Structural Basis of Typhoid: Salmonella typhi Type IVb pilin (PilS) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulatory Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  5. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, William A; Orr, Mona W; Murray, Samantha R; Lee, Vincent T; Melville, Stephen B

    2017-05-15

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB and PilC are present in C. perfringens , called PilB1/PilB2 and PilC1/PilC2, respectively, along with four pilin proteins, PilA1 to PilA4. The gene encoding PilA2, which is considered the major pilin based on previous studies, is immediately downstream of the pilB2 and pilC2 genes. Purified PilB2 had ATPase activity, bound zinc, formed hexamers even in the absence of ATP, and bound the second messenger molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Circular dichroism spectroscopy of purified PilC2 indicated that it retained its predicted degree of alpha-helical secondary structure. Even though no direct interactions between PilB2 and PilC2 could be detected in vivo or in vitro even in the presence of c-di-GMP, high levels of expression of a diguanylate cyclase from C. perfringens (CPE1788) stimulated polymerization of PilA2 in a PilB2- and PilC2-dependent manner. These results suggest that PilB2 activity is controlled by c-di-GMP levels in vivo but that PilB2-PilC2 interactions are either transitory or of low affinity, in contrast to results reported previously from in vivo studies of the PilB1/PilC1 pair in which PilC1 was needed for polar localization of PilB1. This is the first biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP-dependent assembly ATPase from a Gram-positive bacterium. IMPORTANCE Type IV pili (TFP) are protein fibers involved in important bacterial functions, including motility, adherence to surfaces and host cells, and natural transformation. All clostridia whose genomes have been sequenced show evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in

  6. Structure of the CFA/III major pilin subunit CofA from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli determined at 0.90 Å resolution by sulfur-SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shota; Iwashita, Takaki; Baba, Seiki; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2012-10-01

    CofA, a major pilin subunit of colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III), forms pili that mediate small-intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In this study, the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated version of CofA was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using five sulfurs in the protein. Given the counterbalance between anomalous signal strength and the undesired X-ray absorption of the solvent, diffraction data were collected at 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. These data were sufficient to elucidate the sulfur substructure at 1.38 Å resolution. The low solvent content (29%) of the crystal necessitated that density modification be performed with an additional 0.9 Å resolution data set to reduce the phase error caused by the small sulfur anomalous signal. The CofA structure showed the αβ-fold typical of type IVb pilins and showed high structural homology to that of TcpA for toxin-coregulated pili of Vibrio cholerae, including spatial distribution of key residues critical for pilin self-assembly. A pilus-filament model of CofA was built by computational docking and molecular-dynamics simulation using the previously reported filament model of TcpA as a structural template. This model revealed that the CofA filament surface was highly negatively charged and that a 23-residue-long loop between the α1 and α2 helices filled the gap between the pilin subunits. These characteristics could provide a unique binding epitope for the CFA/III pili of ETEC compared with other type IVb pili.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of CofB, the minor pilin subunit of CFA/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tooru; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2015-06-01

    Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ∼ 4.0 to ∼ 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PsaA, the adhesive pilin subunit that forms the pH 6 antigen on the surface of Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Sadhukhan, Annapurna; Nair, Manoj K. M.; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Xia, Di

    2012-01-01

    The pH 6 antigen Psa displayed on the surface of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague in humans, consists of polymers of a single protein subunit termed PsaA. Donor-strand complemented PsaA was purified and crystallized. Yersinia pestis has been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. Like all other bacterial infections, the pathogenesis of Y. pestis begins with the attachment of bacteria to the surface of host cells. At least five surface proteins from Y. pestis have been shown to interact with host cells. Psa, the pH 6 antigen, is one of them and is deployed on the surface of bacteria as thin flexible fibrils that are the result of the polymerization of a single PsaA pilin subunit. Here, the crystallization of recombinant donor-strand complemented PsaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 1.9 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.5 Å resolution from a bromide-derivatized crystal. These crystals displayed the symmetry of the orthorhombic space group P222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 54.6, c = 102.1 Å. Initial phases were derived from single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments, resulting in an electron-density map that showed a single molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignment was aided by residues binding to bromide ions of the heavy-atom derivative

  9. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Jagung untuk Produk Modular dengan Teknik Pilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarita Ginting

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengembangan industri kreatif tanpa limbah merupakan persyaratan penting bagi keseimbangan yang baik antara peningkatan usaha industri, daya dukung alam dan kesejahteraan manusia yang tinggal di lingkungan tersebut. Sangat sedikit usaha para pelaku industri untuk mengoptimalkan manfaat sebuah hasil alam hingga tidak menghasilkan limbah sama sekali. Kulit jagung merupakan salah satu limbah rumah tangga dan industri kecil yang jumlahnya berlimpah namun kurang optimal dalam pemanfaatannya. Produksi dan konsumsi jagung merupakan bagian dari satu sistem kehidupan yang utuh sehingga patut dipertimbangkan strategi pelaksanaannya agar daya dukung lingkungan tetap kuat. Penelitian eksperimental bahan kulit jagung ini bertujuan memanfaatkan limbah kulit jagung sebagai bahan alternatif produk kerajinan secara optimal tanpa menghasilkan limbah kembali. Dalam penelitian yang menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimen bahan posttest-only, diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa pengawetan dengan rendaman CH3COOH selama 24 jam dan proses penjemuran selama 3 jam pada jam 9 pagi hingga jam 12 siang menghasilkan serat kulit jagung yang memiliki kekuatan tarik paling tinggi dan warna yang cerah. Sedangkan teknik pemilinan membantu untuk menambah kekuatan tarik melalui kepadatan dari hasil pilinan kulit jagung. Hasil penelitian eksperimen bahan digunakan untuk membuat spesifikasi performa produk bagi konsep perancangan desain rak anyam modular yang diwujudkan dengan teknik sambung pasak yang praktis dalam penggunaannya. Kata kunci: tanpa limbah, pilinan kulit jagung, kaleng bekas, modular ABSTRACT  The development of zero waste creative industry is a vital prerequisite for a healthy balance between industrial development, nature support capacity and community welfare within the area. There are only a few number of industries that consider to optimalized their raw materials towards zero waste goal. Corn husk is one of the industrial and residential waste that is under utilize although available in abundance. Production and consumption is a part of the whole living system therefore both should be parts of the industrial consideration in asssuring nature support capability. This posttest-only experimental research of corn husk is intended to optimally utilize corn husk as a raw material alternative in craft industry towards zero waste production. The highest tensile force and the brightest color is attained by soaking corn husk in CH3COOH chemical liquid and drying them for 3 hours from 9.00 AM to 12.00PM. The twisting technic has enhanced its tensile capability through its twisting density. The result of the material experimental research is used to create a product performance specification for designing a modular woven rack, produced by using a practical rod pegs connection. Keywords: zero waste, twisted corn husk, used tin can, modular

  10. Discovering the bacterial circular proteins : bacteriocins, cyanobactins, and pilins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalban-Lopez, Manuel; Sanchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cebrian, Ruben; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years, several examples of natural ribosomally synthesized circular proteins and peptides from diverse organisms have been described. They are a group of proteins for which the precursors must be post-translationally modified to join the N and C termini with a peptide bond. This feature

  11. Ago Silde : "Olin täiesti ebatüüpiline maavanem" / Ago Silde ; interv. Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Silde, Ago

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota, 12. mai 2007, lk. 3. Intervjueeritav teeb tagasivaate oma tööle Ida-Viru maavanemana, ka parlamendivalimistest. Arvamust avaldavad Tõnis Seesmaa ja Urve Erikson

  12. Magnetite Compensates for the Lack of a Pilin-Associated c-Type Cytochrome in Extracellular Electron Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    investigation revealed that magnetite attached to the electrically conductive pili of Geobacter species in a manner reminiscent of the association of the multi-heme c-type cytochrome OmcS with the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Magnetite conferred extracellular electron capabilities on an Omc...

  13. Mucosal adhesion properties of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaCBA and SpaFED pilin subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.M.; Vesterlund, S.; Kankainen, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Tynkkynen, S.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are in part dependent upon a prolonged residency in the gastrointestinal tract and likely dictated by an adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene

  14. Binding of CFA/I Pili of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to Asialo-GM1 Is Mediated by the Minor Pilin CfaE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Riches, James D; Scanlon, Martin J; Ulett, Glen C; Sakellaris, Harry

    2016-05-01

    CFA/I pili are representatives of a large family of related pili that mediate the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells. They are assembled via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway and consist of two subunits, CfaB, which makes up the pilus shaft and a single pilus tip-associated subunit, CfaE. The current model of pilus-mediated adherence proposes that CFA/I has two distinct binding activities; the CfaE subunit is responsible for binding to receptors of unknown structure on erythrocyte and intestinal epithelial cell surfaces, while CfaB binds to various glycosphingolipids, including asialo-GM1. In this report, we present two independent lines of evidence that, contrary to the existing model, CfaB does not bind to asialo-GM1 independently of CfaE. Neither purified CfaB subunits nor CfaB assembled into pili bind to asialo-GM1. Instead, we demonstrate that binding activity toward asialo-GM1 resides in CfaE and this is essential for pilus binding to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that the binding activities of CFA/I pili for asialo-GM1, erythrocytes, and intestinal cells are inseparable, require the same amino acid residues in CfaE, and therefore depend on the same or very similar binding mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation.

  16. Signal peptide prediction suggests Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pilin subunit secretion via the Sec pathway may hinder MTP overexpression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, N.; Pillay, B.; Bubb, M.; Kumar, A.; Chiliza, T.; Pillay, M.

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pili (MTP) are novel, potential TB diagnostic biomarkers as they are important virulence attributes, unique to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The production of high quality recombinant transmembrane and secretory proteins that can serve as biomarkers may be challenging due to their secretion attributes. For example, the signal peptide of MTP governed by the classical secretion pathway may hinder the purification of the protein in E. coli systems. In this study, the secretion characteristics of MTP were determined and the cloning, expression and purification of MTP was attempted in E.coli. Materials and methods A fragment of MTP unique to MTBC was cloned into pet101 and pGEX-6P-1 vectors. The clones were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and expression of the protein was attempted at IPTG concentrations ranging from 0.1mM to 1mM and at temperatures between 25 °C to 37 °C. The pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone expressed protein was purified, yielding a MTP-GST fusion protein and a free GST band that were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Inclusion body preparation attempted from the pet101/mtp clone yielded two bands at 10 kDa and below 10 kDa, both of which were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Transcription activity of both the clones was interrogated by real time PCR on the cDNA derived from the induced clones at various time points after induction with IPTG. The signal peptide and protein secretion characteristics of the MTP protein were determined by bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence using publically available software. Results The truncated MTP fragments were successfully cloned in both the vectors as confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Expression of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone using 0.5 mM IPTG at 27 °C demonstrated the presence of the expected fragment at approximately 35 kDa. This was confirmed by Western Blotting using anti-GST antibodies. However, purification of MTP in adequate quantities as a pure protein fraction was unsuccessful. Mass spectrometry did not detect any fragments belonging to MTP, but only those of E.coli membrane proteins for the pet101/mtp clone and fragments of the GST tag in the case of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone. The bioinformatics secretion analyses of MTP predicted a strong Sec regulated secretion pathway and the absence of non-classical “mycobacterial specific” secretion. Discussion M. tuberculosis membrane and secretory proteins often contain signal peptides. In this study, excluding the signal peptide region and using a GST tag greatly enhanced the expression of the protein in the soluble fraction. However, purification of the MTP peptide remained problematic due to a lower available peptide concentration resulting from the lower molecular weight, in the purified fraction compared to the GST tag. Alternately, the predicted Sec regulated secretion pathway may play a role in inhibition of MTP overexpression in E.coli. Thus, alternatives to E. coli expression systems or more efficient purification strategies are required for the acquisition of high quality M. tuberculosis antigens.

  17. Signal peptide prediction suggests Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pilin subunit secretion via the Sec pathway may hinder MTP overexpression in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, N.; Pillay, B.; Bubb, M.; Kumar, A.; Chiliza, T.; Pillay, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pili (MTP) are novel, potential TB diagnostic biomarkers as they are important virulence attributes, unique to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The production of high quality recombinant transmembrane and secretory proteins that can serve as biomarkers may be challenging due to their secretion attributes. For example, the signal peptide of MTP governed by the classical secretion pathway may hinder the purification of the protein in E. coli systems. In this study, the secretion characteristics of MTP were determined and the cloning, expression and purification of MTP was attempted in E.coli. Materials and methods A fragment of MTP unique to MTBC was cloned into pet101 and pGEX-6P-1 vectors. The clones were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and expression of the protein was attempted at IPTG concentrations ranging from 0.1mM to 1mM and at temperatures between 25 °C to 37 °C. The pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone expressed protein was purified, yielding a MTP-GST fusion protein and a free GST band that were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Inclusion body preparation attempted from the pet101/mtp clone yielded two bands at 10 kDa and below 10 kDa, both of which were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Transcription activity of both the clones was interrogated by real time PCR on the cDNA derived from the induced clones at various time points after induction with IPTG. The signal peptide and protein secretion characteristics of the MTP protein were determined by bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence using publically available software. Results The truncated MTP fragments were successfully cloned in both the vectors as confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Expression of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone using 0.5 mM IPTG at 27 °C demonstrated the presence of the expected fragment at approximately 35 kDa. This was confirmed by Western Blotting using anti-GST antibodies. However, purification of MTP in adequate quantities as a pure protein fraction was unsuccessful. Mass spectrometry did not detect any fragments belonging to MTP, but only those of E.coli membrane proteins for the pet101/mtp clone and fragments of the GST tag in the case of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone. The bioinformatics secretion analyses of MTP predicted a strong Sec regulated secretion pathway and the absence of non-classical “mycobacterial specific” secretion. Discussion M. tuberculosis membrane and secretory proteins often contain signal peptides. In this study, excluding the signal peptide region and using a GST tag greatly enhanced the expression of the protein in the soluble fraction. However, purification of the MTP peptide remained problematic due to a lower available peptide concentration resulting from the lower molecular weight, in the purified fraction compared to the GST tag. Alternately, the predicted Sec regulated secretion pathway may play a role in inhibition of MTP overexpression in E.coli. Thus, alternatives to E. coli expression systems or more efficient purification strategies are required for the acquisition of high quality M. tuberculosis antigens.

  18. The TadV Protein of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Is a Novel Aspartic Acid Prepilin Peptidase Required for Maturation of the Flp1 Pilin and TadE and TadF Pseudopilins†

    OpenAIRE

    Tomich, Mladen; Fine, Daniel H.; Figurski, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The tad locus of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans encodes genes for the biogenesis of Flp pili, which allow the bacterium to adhere tenaciously to surfaces and form strong biofilms. Although tad (tight adherence) loci are widespread among bacterial and archaeal species, very little is known about the functions of the individual components of the Tad secretion apparatus. Here we characterize the mechanism by which the pre-Flp1 prepilin is processed to the mature pilus subunit. We demonstra...

  19. Implementation techniques and acceleration of DBPF reconstruction algorithm based on GPGPU for helical cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Le; Xing Yuxiang

    2010-01-01

    The derivative back-projection filtered algorithm for a helical cone-beam CT is a newly developed exact reconstruction method. Due to its large computational complexity, the reconstruction is rather slow for practical use. General purpose graphic processing unit (GPGPU) is an SIMD paralleled hardware architecture with powerful float-point operation capacity. In this paper,we propose a new method for PI-line choice and sampling grid, and a paralleled PI-line reconstruction algorithm implemented on NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Numerical simulation studies are carried out to validate our method. Compared with conventional CPU implementation, the CUDA accelerated method provides images of the same quality with a speedup factor of 318. Optimization strategies for the GPU acceleration are presented. Finally, influence of the parameters of the PI-line samples on the reconstruction speed and image quality is discussed. (authors)

  20. Surface Proteome Analysis of a Natural Isolate of Lactococcus lactis Reveals the Presence of Pili Able to Bind Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, Mickael; Guillot, Alain; Goin, Mélodie; Furlan, Sylviane; Armalyte, Julija; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Thomas, Ginette; Chat, Sophie; Péchoux, Christine; Dupres, Vincent; Hols, Pascal; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Trugnan, Germain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria play crucial roles in bacterial adhesion to host tissues. Regarding commensal or probiotic bacteria, adhesion to intestinal mucosa may promote their persistence in the gastro-intestinal tract and their beneficial effects to the host. In this study, seven Lactococcus lactis strains exhibiting variable surface physico-chemical properties were compared for their adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. In this test, only one vegetal isolate TIL448 expressed a high-adhesion phenotype. A nonadhesive derivative was obtained by plasmid curing from TIL448, indicating that the adhesion determinants were plasmid-encoded. Surface-exposed proteins in TIL448 were analyzed by a proteomic approach consisting in shaving of the bacterial surface with trypsin and analysis of the released peptides by LC-MS/MS. As the TIL448 complete genome sequence was not available, the tryptic peptides were identified by a mass matching approach against a database including all Lactococcus protein sequences and the sequences deduced from partial DNA sequences of the TIL448 plasmids. Two surface proteins, encoded by plasmids in TIL448, were identified as candidate adhesins, the first one displaying pilin characteristics and the second one containing two mucus-binding domains. Inactivation of the pilin gene abolished adhesion to Caco-2 cells whereas inactivation of the mucus-binding protein gene had no effect on adhesion. The pilin gene is located inside a cluster of four genes encoding two other pilin-like proteins and one class-C sortase. Synthesis of pili was confirmed by immunoblotting detection of high molecular weight forms of pilins associated to the cell wall as well as by electron and atomic force microscopy observations. As a conclusion, surface proteome analysis allowed us to detect pilins at the surface of L. lactis TIL448. Moreover we showed that pili appendages are formed and involved in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

  1. Possibilities of urban archaeology in interpreting an early town plan of Haapsalu / Anton Pärn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Haapsalu keskaegse tänavaplaani rekonstrueerimisel on määravad keldrite uurimistulemused. Haapsalu paralleelsete tänavate ja keskse turuplatsiga plaanilahendus on 13. sajandi asutatud linnale tüüpiline. Kolme paralleelse tänavaga linnade levik saksa keeleruumis toetab senist arvamust, et Haapsalu linnalisele asustusele pandi alus umbes 13. sajandi keskpaiku

  2. Direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liu, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    of granular activated carbon permitted the pilin-deficient G. metallireducens to share electrons with M. barkeri, demonstrating that this conductive material could substitute for pili in promoting DIET. When M. barkeri was grown in co-culture with the H2-producing Pelobacter carbinolicus, incapable of DIET, M...

  3. Krista Leppiko : Eesti sobib kodu rajamiseks / Elo Odres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Odres, Elo, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Viasat Eestit pool aastat juhtiv Krista Leppiko on globaaleestlaste põlvkonna tüüpiline esindaja. Haridustee, töökogemus ja elu välismaal, töö meediaalal. Vt. samas: Aet Viira, "Teeme ära!" - Krista; Rändnäitlejast tippjuhiks; Kommenteerib Adriaan Kik

  4. Palju rääkimata lugusid / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Aafrika kultuuri ja ühiskonda käsitlevad filmide tegijateks on enamasti valged autorid, kelle käsitlused on stereotüüpsed. Ebatüüpiline näide on parima võõrkeelse filmi Oscari võitnud Gavin Hoodi "Tsotsi" : Lõuna-Aafrika 2005

  5. Identification of diverse archaeal proteins with class III signal peptides cleaved by distinct archaeal prepilin peptidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabó, Zalán; Oliveira Stahl, Adriana; Albers, Sonja-V.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Pohlschröder, Mechthild; Pohlschroder, M.

    2007-01-01

    Most secreted archaeal proteins are targeted to the membrane via a tripartite signal composed of a charged N terminus and a hydrophobic domain, followed by a signal peptidase-processing site. Signal peptides of archaeal flagellins, similar to class III signal peptides of bacterial type IV pilins,

  6. Caratterizzazione di isolati di Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenienti da pazienti affetti da fibrosi cistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Pulcrano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pulmonary pathogen that causes morbidity and mortality in burned, immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. Among the various virulence factors, type IV-pili, play a major role in mediating bacteria-host cells interactions, in formation of biofilm and for twiching motility.These pili are composed of pilin, 15000-16000 molecular weight monomeric subunit, synthesized from pilA gene. The N-terminal region of pilin protein is strong conserved and is important for the oligomerization.The C-terminal region is less conserved and contains a disulfide-bonded loop (DSL structure that is thought to interact with the eukaryotic glycolipid receptor “asialo GM1”. Analysis of pilin allele distribution among isolates from various sources revealed the presence of six groups of pilin allels characterized by different DSL sequence and different associated accessory genes in pilA chromosomal locus. 81 P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from cystic fibrosis patients during a 3 years period. 30 of these strains were grown and their genomic DNA was prepared using a rapid method for gram-negative bacteria. PCR primers were used for amplification of pilA and adjacent sequences revealing the presence of three different amplification products. One of these is highly homologous with pilA gene of PA14 strain, the others are identical to PA103 and PAK pilA genes. Our study revealed in the prevalence of isolates with group II pilin genes from Cystic Fibrosis compared with other groups that are predominant in previous studies.

  7. Pilus Biogenesis in Lactococcus lactis: Molecular Characterization and Role in Aggregation and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Ledue-Clier, Florence; Dieye, Yakhya; Herry, Jean-Marie; Péchoux, Christine; Meylheuc, Thierry; Briandet, Romain; Juillard, Vincent; Piard, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The genome of Lactococcus lactis strain IL1403 harbors a putative pilus biogenesis cluster consisting of a sortase C gene flanked by 3 LPxTG protein encoding genes (yhgD, yhgE, and yhhB), called here pil. However, pili were not detected under standard growth conditions. Over-expression of the pil operon resulted in production and display of pili on the surface of lactococci. Functional analysis of the pilus biogenesis machinery indicated that the pilus shaft is formed by oligomers of the YhgE pilin, that the pilus cap is formed by the YhgD pilin and that YhhB is the basal pilin allowing the tethering of the pilus fibers to the cell wall. Oligomerization of pilin subunits was catalyzed by sortase C while anchoring of pili to the cell wall was mediated by sortase A. Piliated L. lactis cells exhibited an auto-aggregation phenotype in liquid cultures, which was attributed to the polymerization of major pilin, YhgE. The piliated lactococci formed thicker, more aerial biofilms compared to those produced by non-piliated bacteria. This phenotype was attributed to oligomers of YhgE. This study provides the first dissection of the pilus biogenesis machinery in a non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium. Analysis of natural lactococci isolates from clinical and vegetal environments showed pili production under standard growth conditions. The identification of functional pili in lactococci suggests that the changes they promote in aggregation and biofilm formation may be important for the natural lifestyle as well as for applications in which these bacteria are used. PMID:23236417

  8. Eesti firmad olid esmakordselt messil Denkmal 2000 / üles kirjut. Ingrid Eylandt-Kuure

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Leipzigi messikeskuses 25.-28. X 2000. a. toimuva 4. muinsuskaitse ja linnauuenduse-alase messil oli ühisekspositsiooniga (põhiteemaks Tallinna tüüpiline elamu XV sajandist 1930. aastateni, boksi kujundaja Krista Veermets) väljas Eesti esindus: Tallinna Kultuuriväärtuste Amet, OÜ Arhitektuuribüroo Adrikorn & Rets, OÜ Vana Tallinn, AS KAR-Grupp. Messimuljeid

  9. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rintahaka

    Full Text Available A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we

  10. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  11. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  12. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Baker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon

  14. The use of high-throughput DNA sequencing in the investigation of antigenic variation: application to Neisseria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Davies

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation occurs in a broad range of species. This process resembles gene conversion in that variant DNA is unidirectionally transferred from partial gene copies (or silent loci into an expression locus. Previous studies of antigenic variation have involved the amplification and sequencing of individual genes from hundreds of colonies. Using the pilE gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae we have demonstrated that it is possible to use PCR amplification, followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing and a novel assembly process, to detect individual antigenic variation events. The ability to detect these events was much greater than has previously been possible. In N. gonorrhoeae most silent loci contain multiple partial gene copies. Here we show that there is a bias towards using the copy at the 3' end of the silent loci (copy 1 as the donor sequence. The pilE gene of N. gonorrhoeae and some strains of Neisseria meningitidis encode class I pilin, but strains of N. meningitidis from clonal complexes 8 and 11 encode a class II pilin. We have confirmed that the class II pili of meningococcal strain FAM18 (clonal complex 11 are non-variable, and this is also true for the class II pili of strain NMB from clonal complex 8. In addition when a gene encoding class I pilin was moved into the meningococcal strain NMB background there was no evidence of antigenic variation. Finally we investigated several members of the opa gene family of N. gonorrhoeae, where it has been suggested that limited variation occurs. Variation was detected in the opaK gene that is located close to pilE, but not at the opaJ gene located elsewhere on the genome. The approach described here promises to dramatically improve studies of the extent and nature of antigenic variation systems in a variety of species.

  15. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates.

  16. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon stretching.

  17. A novel pAA virulence plasmid encoding toxins and two distinct variants of the fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including...... some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity....

  18. Type IV pili of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can transfer electrons from extracellular electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongquan; Li, Hongyu

    2014-03-01

    Studies on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans accepting electrons from Fe(II) have previously focused on cytochrome c. However, we have discovered that, besides cytochrome c, type IV pili (Tfp) can transfer electrons. Here, we report conduction by Tfp of A. ferrooxidans analyzed with a conducting-probe atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicate that the Tfp of A. ferrooxidans are highly conductive. The genome sequence of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 contains two genes, pilV and pilW, which code for pilin domain proteins with the conserved amino acids characteristic of Tfp. Multiple alignment analysis of the PilV and PilW (pilin) proteins indicated that pilV is the adhesin gene while pilW codes for the major protein element of Tfp. The likely function of Tfp is to complete the circuit between the cell surface and Fe(II) oxides. These results indicate that Tfp of A. ferrooxidans might serve as biological nanowires transferring electrons from the surface of Fe(II) oxides to the cell surface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fan-beam and cone-beam image reconstruction via filtering the backprojection image of differentiated projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Tingliang; Leng Shuai; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new image reconstruction scheme is presented based on Tuy's cone-beam inversion scheme and its fan-beam counterpart. It is demonstrated that Tuy's inversion scheme may be used to derive a new framework for fan-beam and cone-beam image reconstruction. In this new framework, images are reconstructed via filtering the backprojection image of differentiated projection data. The new framework is mathematically exact and is applicable to a general source trajectory provided the Tuy data sufficiency condition is satisfied. By choosing a piece-wise constant function for one of the components in the factorized weighting function, the filtering kernel is one dimensional, viz. the filtering process is along a straight line. Thus, the derived image reconstruction algorithm is mathematically exact and efficient. In the cone-beam case, the derived reconstruction algorithm is applicable to a large class of source trajectories where the pi-lines or the generalized pi-lines exist. In addition, the new reconstruction scheme survives the super-short scan mode in both the fan-beam and cone-beam cases provided the data are not transversely truncated. Numerical simulations were conducted to validate the new reconstruction scheme for the fan-beam case

  20. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of SpaE, a basal pilus protein from the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arjun K; Megta, Abhin Kumar; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2017-06-01

    SpaE is the predicted basal pilin subunit in the sortase-dependent SpaFED pilus from the gut-adapted and commensal Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Thus far, structural characterization of the cell-wall-anchoring basal pilins has remained difficult and has been limited to only a few examples from pathogenic genera and species. To gain a further structural understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the anchoring and assembly of sortase-dependent pili in less harmful bacteria, L. rhamnosus GG SpaE for crystallization was produced by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Although several attempts to crystallize the SpaE protein were unsuccessful, trigonal crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.1 Å were eventually produced using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and high protein concentrations. Further optimization with a combination of additives led to the generation of SpaE crystals in an orthorhombic form that diffracted to a higher resolution of 1.5 Å. To expedite structure determination by SAD phasing, selenium-substituted (orthorhombic) SpaE crystals were grown and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution.

  1. Two type IV pili of Vibrio parahaemolyticus play different roles in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shime-Hattori, Akiko; Iida, Tetsuya; Arita, Michiko; Park, Kwon-Sam; Kodama, Toshio; Honda, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 has two sets of type IV-A pilus genes. One set is similar to that found in other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae (chitin-regulated pilus; ChiRP), and Vibrio vulnificus. The other is homologous to the genes for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the deletions in the pilin genes for each type IV pilus (the ChiRP and the MSHA pilus) on biofilm formation. Although the MSHA pilin mutant formed aggregates, the number of bacteria that attached directly to the coverslip was reduced, suggesting that this pilus contributes to the bacterial attachment to the surface of the coverslip. In contrast, the ChiRP mutant attached to the surface of the coverslip, but did not form aggregates, suggesting that ChiRP plays a role in bacterial agglutination during biofilm formation. These results suggest that the two type IV pili of V. parahaemolyticus contribute to biofilm formation in different ways. Both mutants showed a lower fitness for adsorption onto chitin particles than that of the wild type. Collectively, these data suggest that the use of two type IV pili is a refined strategy of V. parahaemolyticus for survival in natural environments.

  2. A Tad pilus promotes the establishment and resistance of Vibrio vulnificus biofilms to mechanical clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Meng; Rowe-Magnus, Dean Allistair

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is autochthonous to estuaries and warm coastal waters. Infection occurs via open wounds or ingestion, where its asymptomatic colonization of seafood, most infamously oysters, provides a gateway into the human food chain. Colonization begins with initial surface contact, which is often mediated by bacterial surface appendages called pili. Type IV Tad pili are widely distributed in the Vibrionaceae, but evidence for a physiological role for these structures is scant. The V. vulnificus genome codes for three distinct tad loci. Recently, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the expression of tad-3 and the phenotypes of a V. vulnificus descendent (NT) that exhibited increased biofilm formation, auto-aggregation, and oyster colonization relative to its parent. However, the mechanism by which tad pilus expression promoted these phenotypes was not determined. Here, we show that deletion of the tad pilin gene ( flp ) altered the near-surface motility profile of NT cells from high curvature, orbital retracing patterns characteristic of cells actively probing the surface to low curvature traces indicative of wandering and diminished bacteria-surface interactions. The NT flp pilin mutant also exhibited decreased initial surface attachment, attenuated auto-aggregation and formed fragile biofilms that disintegrated under hydrodynamic flow. Thus, the tad-3 locus, designated iam , promoted i nitial surface attachment, a uto-aggregation and resistance to m echanical clearance of V. vulnificus biofilms. The prevalence of tad loci in the Vibrionaceae suggests that they may play equally important roles in other family members.

  3. Organization and PprB-dependent control of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa tad Locus, involved in Flp pilus biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe S; Bordi, Christophe; Termine, Elise; Filloux, Alain; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial attachment to the substratum involves several cell surface organelles, including various types of pili. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tad machine assembles type IVb pili, which are required for adhesion to abiotic surfaces and to eukaryotic cells. Type IVb pili consist of a major subunit, the Flp pilin, processed by the FppA prepilin peptidase. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of the tad locus. We showed that the flp gene is expressed late in the stationary growth phase in aerobic conditions. We also showed that the tad locus was composed of five independent transcriptional units. We used transcriptional fusions to show that tad gene expression was positively controlled by the PprB response regulator. We subsequently showed that PprB bound to the promoter regions, directly controlling the expression of these genes. We then evaluated the contribution of two genes, tadF and rcpC, to type IVb pilus assembly. The deletion of these two genes had no effect on Flp production, pilus assembly, or Flp-mediated adhesion to abiotic surfaces in our conditions. However, our results suggest that the putative RcpC protein modifies the Flp pilin, thereby promoting Flp-dependent adhesion to eukaryotic cells.

  4. Genetic analysis and morphological identification of pilus-like structures in members of the genus Bifidobacterium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Cell surface pili in Gram positive bacteria have been reported to orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity and the development of biofilms. So far, little if any information is available on the presence of pilus-like structures in human gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Results and discussion In this report, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of various bifidobacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis revealed the existence of appendages resembling pilus-like structures. Interestingly, these microorganisms harbour two to six predicted pilus gene clusters in their genome, with each organized in an operon encompassing the major pilin subunit-encoding gene (designated fimA or fimP) together with one or two minor pilin subunit-encoding genes (designated as fimB and\\/or fimQ), and a gene encoding a sortase enzyme (strA). Quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR analysis and RT-PCR experiments revealed a polycistronic mRNA, encompassing the fimA\\/P and fimB\\/Q genes, which are differentially expressed upon cultivation of bifidobacteria on various glycans.

  5. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V.; Rajashankar, K.R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S.V. (Texas-HSC); (Cornell); (UAB)

    2011-10-21

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y) motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  6. Structural differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae housekeeping and pilus-specific sortases: SrtA and SrtC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khare

    Full Text Available The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2 and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104. Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  7. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  8. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  9. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a bacterial type IV pilus reveal characteristics of an experimentally-observed, force-induced conformational transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Biais, Nicolas; Tama, Florence

    2011-10-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are long, filamentous structures that emanate from the cellular surface of many infectious bacteria. They are built from a 158 amino acid long subunit called pilin. T4P can grow to many micrometers in length, and can withstand large tension forces. During the infection process, pili attach themselves to host cells, and therefore naturally find themselves under tension. We investigated the response of a T4 pilus to a pulling force using the method of steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation. Our simulations expose to the external environment an amino acid sequence initially hidden in the native filament, in agreement with experimental data. Therefore, our simulations might be probing the initial stage of the transition to a force-induced conformation of the T4 pilus. Additional exposed amino acid sequences that might be useful targets for drugs designed to mitigate bacterial infection were also predicted.

  10. Ultraviolet irradiation disrupts somatic pili structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverblatt, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    Three piliated bacterial species were exposed to ultraviolet light and the effect of increasing duration of irradiation on the integrity of the somatic pili was quantitated by negative-stain electron microscopy. Heavily piliated Proteus mirabilis became devoid of pili after 20 min of irradiation, but Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae required 40 min for complete depiliation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that new, small molecular weight fragments appeared after irradiation of purified E. coli pili, suggesting that cleavage of the peptide chain rather than dissociation of pilin monomers accounted for the loss of pili structure. These observations indicate that the ultrastructural integrity and function of pili can be disrupted by ultraviolet light.

  11. Type IV pili in Francisella – A virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie eNäslund Salomonsson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular human pathogen that is capable of rapid proliferation in the infected host. Mutants affected in intracellular survival and growth are highly attenuated which highlights the importance of the intracellular phase of the infection. Genomic analysis has revealed that Francisella encodes all genes required for expression of functional type IV pili (Tfp, and in this focused review we summarise recent findings regarding this system in the pathogenesis of tularemia. Tfp are dynamic adhesive structures that have been identified as major virulence determinants in several human pathogens, but it is not obvious what role these structures could have in an intracellular pathogen like Francisella. In the human pathogenic strains, genes required for secretion and assembly of Tfp and one pilin, PilA, have shown to be required for full virulence. Importantly, specific genetic differences have been identified between the different Francisella subspecies where in the most pathogenic type A variants all genes are intact while several Tfp genes are pseudogenes in the less pathogenic type B strains. This suggests that there has been a selection for expression of Tfp with different properties in the different subspecies. There is also a possibility that the genetic differences reflect adaption to different environmental niches of the subspecies and plays a role in transmission of tularemia. This is also in line with recent findings where Tfp pilins are found to be glycosylated which could reflect a role for Tfp in the environment to promote survival and transmission. We are still far from understanding the role of Tfp in virulence and transmission of tularemia, but with the genomic information and genetic tools available we are in a good position to address these issues in the future.

  12. Crystal structure of Spy0129, a Streptococcus pyogenes class B sortase involved in pilus assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Joo Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sortase enzymes are cysteine transpeptidases that mediate the covalent attachment of substrate proteins to the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria, and thereby play a crucial role in virulence, infection and colonisation by pathogens. Many cell-surface proteins are anchored by the housekeeping sortase SrtA but other more specialised sortases exist that attach sub-sets of proteins or function in pilus assembly. The sortase Spy0129, or SrtC1, from the M1 SF370 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for generating the covalent linkages between the pilin subunits in the pili of this organism. The crystal structure of Spy0129 has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution (R = 20.4%, Rfree  = 26.0%. The structure shows that Spy0129 is a class B sortase, in contrast to other characterised pilin polymerases, which belong to class C. Spy0129 lacks a flap believed to function in substrate recognition in class C enzymes and instead has an elaborated β6/β7 loop. The two independent Spy0129 molecules in the crystal show differences in the positions and orientations of the catalytic Cys and His residues, Cys221 and His126, correlated with movements of the β7/β8 and β4/β5 loops that respectively follow these residues. Bound zinc ions stabilise these alternative conformations in the crystal. This conformational variability is likely to be important for function although there is no evidence that zinc is involved in vivo.

  13. Crystal structure of Spy0129, a Streptococcus pyogenes class B sortase involved in pilus assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

    2011-01-11

    Sortase enzymes are cysteine transpeptidases that mediate the covalent attachment of substrate proteins to the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria, and thereby play a crucial role in virulence, infection and colonisation by pathogens. Many cell-surface proteins are anchored by the housekeeping sortase SrtA but other more specialised sortases exist that attach sub-sets of proteins or function in pilus assembly. The sortase Spy0129, or SrtC1, from the M1 SF370 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for generating the covalent linkages between the pilin subunits in the pili of this organism. The crystal structure of Spy0129 has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution (R = 20.4%, Rfree  = 26.0%). The structure shows that Spy0129 is a class B sortase, in contrast to other characterised pilin polymerases, which belong to class C. Spy0129 lacks a flap believed to function in substrate recognition in class C enzymes and instead has an elaborated β6/β7 loop. The two independent Spy0129 molecules in the crystal show differences in the positions and orientations of the catalytic Cys and His residues, Cys221 and His126, correlated with movements of the β7/β8 and β4/β5 loops that respectively follow these residues. Bound zinc ions stabilise these alternative conformations in the crystal. This conformational variability is likely to be important for function although there is no evidence that zinc is involved in vivo.

  14. Evidence that biosynthesis of the second and third sugars of the archaellin Tetrasaccharide in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis occurs by the same pathway used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to make a di-N-acetylated sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Sarah; Robotham, Anna; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Jarrell, Ken F

    2015-05-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis has two surface appendages, archaella and type IV pili, which are composed of glycoprotein subunits. Archaellins are modified with an N-linked tetrasaccharide with the structure Sug-1,4-β-ManNAc3NAmA6Thr-1,4-β-GlcNAc3NAcA-1,3-β-GalNAc, where Sug is (5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-α-L-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose. The pilin glycan has an additional hexose attached to GalNAc. In this study, genes located in two adjacent, divergently transcribed operons (mmp0350-mmp0354 and mmp0359-mmp0355) were targeted for study based on annotations suggesting their involvement in biosynthesis of N-glycan sugars. Mutants carrying deletions in mmp0350, mmp0351, mmp0352, or mmp0353 were nonarchaellated and synthesized archaellins modified with a 1-sugar glycan, as estimated from Western blots. Mass spectroscopy analysis of pili purified from the Δmmp0352 strain confirmed a glycan with only GalNAc, suggesting mmp0350 to mmp0353 were all involved in biosynthesis of the second sugar (GlcNAc3NAcA). The Δmmp0357 mutant was archaellated and had archaellins with a 2-sugar glycan, as confirmed by mass spectroscopy of purified archaella, indicating a role for MMP0357 in biosynthesis of the third sugar (ManNAc3NAmA6Thr). M. maripaludis mmp0350, mmp0351, mmp0352, mmp0353, and mmp0357 are proposed to be functionally equivalent to Pseudomonas aeruginosa wbpABEDI, involved in converting UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid, an O5-specific antigen sugar. Cross-domain complementation of the final step of the P. aeruginosa pathway with mmp0357 supports this hypothesis. This work identifies a series of genes in adjacent operons that are shown to encode the enzymes that complete the entire pathway for generation of the second and third sugars of the N-linked tetrasaccharide that modifies archaellins of Methanococcus maripaludis. This posttranslational modification of archaellins is important, as it is necessary for

  15. The GBS PI-2a pilus is required for virulence in mice neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Papasergi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. Most bacterial pathogens, including gram-positive bacteria, have long filamentous structures known as pili extending from their surface. Although pili are described as adhesive organelles, they have been also implicated in many other functions including thwarting the host immune responses. We previously characterized the pilus-encoding operon PI-2a (gbs1479-1474 in strain NEM316. This pilus is composed of three structural subunit proteins: PilA (Gbs1478, PilB (Gbs1477, and PilC (Gbs1474, and its assembly involves two class C sortases (SrtC3 and SrtC4. PilB, the bona fide pilin, is the major component whereas PilA, the pilus associated adhesin, and PilC the pilus anchor are both accessory proteins incorporated into the pilus backbone.In this study, the role of the major pilin subunit PilB was tested in systemic virulence using 6-weeks old and newborn mice. Notably, the non-piliated ΔpilB mutant was less virulent than its wild-type counterpart in the newborn mice model. Next, we investigated the possible role(s of PilB in resistance to innate immune host defenses, i.e. resistance to macrophage killing and to antimicrobial peptides. Phagocytosis and survival of wild-type NEM316 and its isogenic ΔpilB mutant in immortalized RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were not significantly different whereas the isogenic ΔsodA mutant was more susceptible to killing. These results were confirmed using primary peritoneal macrophages. We also tested the activities of five cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP-1D, LL-37, colistin, polymyxin B, and mCRAMP and found no significant difference between WT and ΔpilB strains whereas the isogenic dltA mutant showed increased sensitivity.These results question the previously described role of PilB pilus in resistance to the host immune defenses. Interestingly, PilB was found to be important for virulence in the neonatal

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of

  17. A thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is essential for viability, pilus assembly, toxin production and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jooya, Neda; Chang, Chungyu; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-12-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae exports through the Sec apparatus many extracellular proteins that include the key virulence factors diphtheria toxin and the adhesive pili. How these proteins attain their native conformations after translocation as unfolded precursors remains elusive. The fact that the majority of these exported proteins contain multiple cysteine residues and that several membrane-bound oxidoreductases are encoded in the corynebacterial genome suggests the existence of an oxidative protein-folding pathway in this organism. Here we show that the shaft pilin SpaA harbors a disulfide bond in vivo and alanine substitution of these cysteines abrogates SpaA polymerization and leads to the secretion of degraded SpaA peptides. We then identified a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (MdbA), whose structure exhibits a conserved thioredoxin-like domain with a CPHC active site. Remarkably, deletion of mdbA results in a severe temperature-sensitive cell division phenotype. This mutant also fails to assemble pilus structures and is greatly defective in toxin production. Consistent with these defects, the ΔmdbA mutant is attenuated in a guinea pig model of diphtheritic toxemia. Given its diverse cellular functions in cell division, pilus assembly and toxin production, we propose that MdbA is a component of the general oxidative folding machine in C. diphtheriae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Uptake of extracellular DNA: Competence induced pili in natural transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschiol, Sandra; Balaban, Murat; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transport of DNA across bacterial membranes involves complex DNA uptake systems. In Gram-positive bacteria, the DNA uptake machinery shares fundamental similarities with type IV pili and type II secretion systems. Although dedicated pilus structures, such as type IV pili in Gram-negative bacteria, are necessary for efficient DNA uptake, the role of similar structures in Gram-positive bacteria is just beginning to emerge. Recently two essentially very different pilus structures composed of the same major pilin protein ComGC were proposed to be involved in transformation of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae – one is a long, thin, type IV pilus-like fiber with DNA binding capacity and the other one is a pilus structure that was thicker, much shorter and not able to bind DNA. Here we discuss how competence induced pili, either by pilus retraction or by a transient pilus-related opening in the cell wall, may mediate DNA uptake in S. pneumoniae. PMID:25640084

  19. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment

  20. Off-pathway assembly of fimbria subunits is prevented by chaperone CfaA of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Liu, Yang; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2016-12-01

    The assembly of the class 5 colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli was proposed to proceed via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway. Here, we show that in the absence of the chaperone CfaA, CfaB, the major pilin subunit of CFA/I fimbriae, is able to spontaneously refold and polymerize into cyclic trimers. CfaA kinetically traps CfaB to form a metastable complex that can be stabilized by mutations. Crystal structure of the stabilized complex reveals distinctive interactions provided by CfaA to trap CfaB in an assembly competent state through donor-strand complementation (DSC) and cleft-mediated anchorage. Mutagenesis indicated that DSC controls the stability of the chaperone-subunit complex and the cleft-mediated anchorage of the subunit C-terminus additionally assist in subunit refolding. Surprisingly, over-stabilization of the chaperone-subunit complex led to delayed fimbria assembly, whereas destabilizing the complex resulted in no fimbriation. Thus, CfaA acts predominantly as a kinetic trap by stabilizing subunit to avoid its off-pathway self-polymerization that results in energetically favorable trimers and could serve as a driving force for CFA/I pilus assembly, representing an energetic landscape unique to class 5 fimbria assembly. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Legionella dumoffii Tex-KL Mutated in an Operon Homologous to traC-traD is Defective in Epithelial Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Ken-Ichiro, Iida; Ren, Hong Yu; Zhou, Hai Jian; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    To understand the mechanism of invasion by Legionella dumoffii. The L. dumoffii strain Tex-KL was mutated using the Tn903 derivative, Tn903dIIlacZ. After screening 799 transposon insertion mutants, we isolated one defective mutant. We then constructed the gene-disrupted mutant, KL16, and studied its invasion of and intracellular growth in HeLa and A549 cells, and in A/J mice survival experiments. The structure of traC-traD operon was analyzed by RT-PCR. The transposon insertion was in a gene homologous to Salmonella typhi traC, which is required for the assembly of F pilin into the mature F pilus structure and for conjugal DNA transmission. Results from RT-PCR suggested that the traC-traD region formed an operon. We found that when the traC gene was disrupted, invasion and intracellular growth of L. dumoffii Tex-KL were impaired in human epithelial cells. When mice were infected by intranasal inoculation with a traC deficient mutant, their survival significantly increased when compared to mice infected with the wild-type strain.. Our results indicated that the traC-traD operon is required for the invasion and intracellular growth abilities of L. dumoffii Tex-KL in epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are outer membrane and periplasmic extensions of the extracellular electron transport components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbadian, Sahand; Barchinger, Sarah E; Leung, Kar Man; Byun, Hye Suk; Jangir, Yamini; Bouhenni, Rachida A; Reed, Samantha B; Romine, Margaret F; Saffarini, Daad A; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A; Golbeck, John H; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report, to our knowledge, the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis point to S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires as extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures as previously thought. These membrane extensions are associated with outer membrane vesicles, structures ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, and are consistent with bacterial nanowires that mediate long-range EET by the previously proposed multistep redox hopping mechanism. Redox-functionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  3. Functional identification of conserved residues involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG sortase specificity and pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-05-30

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface mucus-binding pilus structures, along with other LPXTG surface proteins, which are processed by sortases upon specific recognition of a highly conserved LPXTG motif. Bioinformatic analysis of all predicted LPXTG proteins encoded by the L. rhamnosus GG genome revealed a remarkable conservation of glycine residues juxtaposed to the canonical LPXTG motif. Here, we investigated and defined the role of this so-called triple glycine (TG) motif in determining sortase specificity during the pilus assembly and anchoring. Mutagenesis of the TG motif resulted in a lack or an alteration of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus structures, indicating that the TG motif is critical in pilus assembly and that they govern the pilin-specific and housekeeping sortase specificity. This allowed us to propose a regulatory model of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus biogenesis. Remarkably, the TG motif was identified in multiple pilus gene clusters of other Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that similar signaling mechanisms occur in other, mainly pathogenic, species. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. A unified analysis of FBP-based algorithms in helical cone-beam and circular cone- and fan-beam scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaochuan; Xia Dan; Zou Yu; Yu Lifeng

    2004-01-01

    A circular scanning trajectory is and will likely remain a popular choice of trajectory in computed tomography (CT) imaging because it is easy to implement and control. Filtered-backprojection (FBP)-based algorithms have been developed previously for approximate and exact reconstruction of the entire image or a region of interest within the image in circular cone-beam and fan-beam cases. Recently, we have developed a 3D FBP-based algorithm for image reconstruction on PI-line segments in a helical cone-beam scan. In this work, we demonstrated that the 3D FBP-based algorithm indeed provided a rather general formulation for image reconstruction from divergent projections (such as cone-beam and fan-beam projections). On the basis of this formulation we derived new approximate or exact algorithms for image reconstruction in circular cone-beam or fan-beam scans, which can be interpreted as special cases of the helical scan. Existing algorithms corresponding to the derived algorithms were identified. We also performed a preliminary numerical study to verify our theoretical results in each of the cases. The results in the work can readily be generalized to other non-circular trajectories

  5. A conserved tad pilus promotes Vibrio vulnificus oyster colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Meng; Duriez, Patrick; Arazi, Mattan; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

    2018-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the United States. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. We isolated a 1000th generation descendant, designated NT that exhibited increased biofilm and aggregate formation relative to its parent. We identified two significant causal changes underlying these phenotypes. First, the entire 24-kb capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, which is essential for virulence but inhibits biofilm formation, had been purged from the genome. However, NT formed more extensive biofilms and aggregates than a defined cps mutant, suggesting that additional factor(s) contributed to its phenotypes. Second, the expression of a tight adherence (tad) pilus locus was elevated in NT. Deletion of the associated pilin (flp) decreased NT biofilm and aggregate formation. Furthermore, NTΔflp strains were deficient relative to NT in an oyster colonization model, demonstrating a positive correlation between the biofilm and aggregation phenotypes associated with Tad pilus production and efficient bacterial retention by feeding oysters. Despite being widely distributed in the Vibrionaceae, this is the first demonstration of a bona fide physiological role for a Tad pilus in this bacterial family. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the tad locus in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: a termination cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Karin E; Hovel-Miner, Galadriel A; Tomich, Mladen; Figurski, David H

    2008-06-01

    The tad (tight adherence) locus of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans includes genes for the biogenesis of Flp pili, which are necessary for bacterial adhesion to surfaces, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. Although studies have elucidated the functions of some of the Tad proteins, little is known about the regulation of the tad locus in A. actinomycetemcomitans. A promoter upstream of the tad locus was previously identified and shown to function in Escherichia coli. Using a specially constructed reporter plasmid, we show here that this promoter (tadp) functions in A. actinomycetemcomitans. To study expression of the pilin gene (flp-1) relative to that of tad secretion complex genes, we used Northern hybridization analysis and a lacZ reporter assay. We identified three terminators, two of which (T1 and T2) can explain flp-1 mRNA abundance, while the third (T3) is at the end of the locus. T1 and T3 have the appearance and behavior of intrinsic terminators, while T2 has a different structure and is inhibited by bicyclomycin, indicating that T2 is probably Rho dependent. To help achieve the appropriate stoichiometry of the Tad proteins, we show that a transcriptional-termination cascade is important to the proper expression of the tad genes. These data indicate a previously unreported mechanism of regulation in A. actinomycetemcomitans and lead to a more complete understanding of its Flp pilus biogenesis.

  7. SpyRing interrogation: analyzing how enzyme resilience can be achieved with phytase and distinct cyclization chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Christopher; Bennett, S. Paul; Howarth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes catalyze reactions with exceptional selectivity and rate acceleration but are often limited by instability. Towards a generic route to thermo-resilience, we established the SpyRing approach, cyclizing enzymes by sandwiching between SpyTag and SpyCatcher (peptide and protein partners which lock together via a spontaneous isopeptide bond). Here we first investigated the basis for this resilience, comparing alternative reactive peptide/protein pairs we engineered from Gram-positive bacteria. Both SnoopRing and PilinRing cyclization gave dramatic enzyme resilience, but SpyRing cyclization was the best. Differential scanning calorimetry for each ring showed that cyclization did not inhibit unfolding of the inserted β-lactamase. Cyclization conferred resilience even at 100 °C, where the cyclizing domains themselves were unfolded. Phytases hydrolyze phytic acid and improve dietary absorption of phosphate and essential metal ions, important for agriculture and with potential against human malnutrition. SpyRing phytase (PhyC) resisted aggregation and retained catalytic activity even following heating at 100 °C. In addition, SpyRing cyclization made it possible to purify phytase simply by heating the cell lysate, to drive aggregation of non-cyclized proteins. Cyclization via domains forming spontaneous isopeptide bonds is a general strategy to generate resilient enzymes and may extend the range of conditions for isolation and application of enzymes. PMID:26861173

  8. The Role of Chaperone-subunit Usher Domain Interactions in the Mechanism of Bacterial Pilus Biogenesis Revealed by ESI-MS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C.; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J.; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Radford, Sheena E.

    2012-01-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species. PMID:22371487

  9. The role of chaperone-subunit usher domain interactions in the mechanism of bacterial pilus biogenesis revealed by ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E; Radford, Sheena E

    2012-07-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species.

  10. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  11. Conserved Streptococcus pneumoniae spirosomes suggest a single type of transformation pilus in competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of S. pneumoniae as a major human pathogen is largely due to its remarkable genomic plasticity, allowing efficient escape from antimicrobials action and host immune response. Natural transformation, or the active uptake and chromosomal integration of exogenous DNA during the transitory differentiated state competence, is the main mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genomic makeover in pneumococci. Although transforming DNA has been proposed to be captured by Type 4 pili (T4P in Gram-negative bacteria, and a competence-inducible comG operon encoding proteins homologous to T4P-biogenesis components is present in transformable Gram-positive bacteria, a prevailing hypothesis has been that S. pneumoniae assembles only short pseudopili to destabilize the cell wall for DNA entry. We recently identified a micrometer-sized T4P-like pilus on competent pneumococci, which likely serves as initial DNA receptor. A subsequent study, however, visualized a different structure--short, 'plaited' polymers--released in the medium of competent S. pneumoniae. Biochemical observation of concurrent pilin secretion led the authors to propose that the 'plaited' structures correspond to transformation pili acting as peptidoglycan drills that leave DNA entry pores upon secretion. Here we show that the 'plaited' filaments are not related to natural transformation as they are released by non-competent pneumococci, as well as by cells with disrupted pilus biogenesis components. Combining electron microscopy visualization with structural, biochemical and proteomic analyses, we further identify the 'plaited' polymers as spirosomes: macromolecular assemblies of the fermentative acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme AdhE that is well conserved in a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Assembly mechanism of FCT region type 1 pili in serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Masanobu; Kimura, Keiji Richard; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Wada, Satoshi; Sugauchi, Akinari; Oiki, Eiji; Higashino, Miharu; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Okahashi, Nobuo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Isoda, Ryutaro; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2011-10-28

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces diverse pili depending on the serotype. We investigated the assembly mechanism of FCT type 1 pili in a serotype M6 strain. The pili were found to be assembled from two precursor proteins, the backbone protein T6 and ancillary protein FctX, and anchored to the cell wall in a manner that requires both a housekeeping sortase enzyme (SrtA) and pilus-associated sortase enzyme (SrtB). SrtB is primarily required for efficient formation of the T6 and FctX complex and subsequent polymerization of T6, whereas proper anchoring of the pili to the cell wall is mainly mediated by SrtA. Because motifs essential for polymerization of pilus backbone proteins in other Gram-positive bacteria are not present in T6, we sought to identify the functional residues involved in this process. Our results showed that T6 encompasses the novel VAKS pilin motif conserved in streptococcal T6 homologues and that the lysine residue (Lys-175) within the motif and cell wall sorting signal of T6 are prerequisites for isopeptide linkage of T6 molecules. Because Lys-175 and the cell wall sorting signal of FctX are indispensable for substantial incorporation of FctX into the T6 pilus shaft, FctX is suggested to be located at the pilus tip, which was also implied by immunogold electron microscopy findings. Thus, the elaborate assembly of FCT type 1 pili is potentially organized by sortase-mediated cross-linking between sorting signals and the amino group of Lys-175 positioned in the VAKS motif of T6, thereby displaying T6 and FctX in a temporospatial manner.

  13. Mutation of Tyr137 of the universal Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesin FimH relaxes the tyrosine gate prior to mannose binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Rabbani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent diseases manifested by Escherichia coli are acute and recurrent bladder infections and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. E. coli clinical isolates express the FimH adhesin, which consists of a mannose-specific lectin domain connected via a pilin domain to the tip of type 1 pili. Although the isolated FimH lectin domain has affinities in the nanomolar range for all high-mannosidic glycans, differentiation between these glycans is based on their capacity to form predominantly hydrophobic interactions within the tyrosine gate at the entrance to the binding pocket. In this study, novel crystal structures of tyrosine-gate mutants of FimH, ligand-free or in complex with heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside or 4-biphenyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside, are combined with quantum-mechanical calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations. In the Y48A FimH crystal structure, a large increase in the dynamics of the alkyl chain of heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside attempts to compensate for the absence of the aromatic ring; however, the highly energetic and stringent mannose-binding pocket of wild-type FimH is largely maintained. The Y137A mutation, on the other hand, is the most detrimental to FimH affinity and specificity: (i in the absence of ligand the FimH C-terminal residue Thr158 intrudes into the mannose-binding pocket and (ii ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid interacts strongly with Glu50, Thr53 and Asn136, in spite of multiple dialysis and purification steps. Upon mutation, pre-ligand-binding relaxation of the backbone dihedral angles at position 137 in the tyrosine gate and their coupling to Tyr48 via the interiorly located Ile52 form the basis of the loss of affinity of the FimH adhesin in the Y137A mutant.

  14. A structural basis for sustained bacterial adhesion: biomechanical properties of CFA/I pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Björnham, Oscar; Svantesson, Mats; Badahdah, Arwa; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Bullitt, Esther

    2012-02-03

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Adhesion pili (or fimbriae), such as the CFA/I (colonization factor antigen I) organelles that enable ETEC to attach efficiently to the host intestinal tract epithelium, are critical virulence factors for initiation of infection. We characterized the intrinsic biomechanical properties and kinetics of individual CFA/I pili at the single-organelle level, demonstrating that weak external forces (7.5 pN) are sufficient to unwind the intact helical filament of this prototypical ETEC pilus and that it quickly regains its original structure when the force is removed. While the general relationship between exertion of force and an increase in the filament length for CFA/I pili associated with diarrheal disease is analogous to that of P pili and type 1 pili, associated with urinary tract and other infections, the biomechanical properties of these different pili differ in key quantitative details. Unique features of CFA/I pili, including the significantly lower force required for unwinding, the higher extension speed at which the pili enter a dynamic range of unwinding, and the appearance of sudden force drops during unwinding, can be attributed to morphological features of CFA/I pili including weak layer-to-layer interactions between subunits on adjacent turns of the helix and the approximately horizontal orientation of pilin subunits with respect to the filament axis. Our results indicate that ETEC CFA/I pili are flexible organelles optimized to withstand harsh motion without breaking, resulting in continued attachment to the intestinal epithelium by the pathogenic bacteria that express these pili. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunomagnetic separation combined with colony immunoblotting for selective enrichment and detection of piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Q; Wei, Y F; Rao, S Q; Gao, L; Yin, Y Q; Xue, F; Fang, W M; Gu, R X; Jiao, X A

    2016-11-01

    Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains have attracted much attention owing to their excellent mucus adhering capacity and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive method for isolating pLR strains in complex ecosystems using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with colony immunoblotting (CIB). Magnetic nanobeads (diameter: 180 nm) conjugated with anti-pLR SpaA pilin antibodies (anti-SpaA) were prepared and used to preconcentrate pLR strains in samples, followed by confirmation with anti-SpaA-based CIB analysis. Under optimized experimental conditions, IMS-CIB selectively recovered pLR strains from 10 7  CFU ml -1 of faecal microbiota samples spiked with 2·9 × 10 1 to 2·4 × 10 6  CFU ml -1 of pLR strains. No positive colonies were detected in samples without addition of pLR strains. The detection limit of IMS-CIB was 29 CFU pLR ml -1 of faecal microbiota, which is much lower than that of CIB without IMS preconcentration (2·0 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 ). IMS-CIB allowed selective preconcentration of pLR strains in highly heterogeneous bacterial suspensions and direct detection of pLR colonies, which remained readily available for subsequent isolation. Our findings established an effective method for selective enrichment and detection of pLR strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Genome sequences and comparative genomics of two Lactobacillus ruminis strains from the bovine and human intestinal tracts

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host

  17. Transcriptional activation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jennifer; Wagner, Karin; Seekircher, Stephanie; Greune, Lilo; Humberg, Verena; Schmidt, M Alexander; Heusipp, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Type IV pili are virulence factors in various bacteria and mediate, among other functions, the colonization of diverse surfaces. Various subclasses of type IV pili have been identified, but information on pilus expression, biogenesis, and the associated phenotypes is sparse for the genus Yersinia. We recently described the identification of PypB as a transcriptional regulator in Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we show that the pypB gene is associated with the tad locus, a genomic island that is widespread among bacterial and archaeal species. The genetic linkage of pypB with the tad locus is conserved throughout the yersiniae but is not found among other bacteria carrying the tad locus. We show that the genes of the tad locus form an operon in Y. enterocolitica that is controlled by PypB and that pypB is part of this operon. The tad genes encode functions necessary for the biogenesis of the Flp subfamily of type IVb pili initially described for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to mediate a tight-adherence phenotype. In Y. enterocolitica, the Flp pilin protein shows some peculiarities in its amino acid sequence that imply similarities as well as differences compared to typical motifs found in the Flp subtype of type IVb pili. Flp is expressed and processed after PypB overproduction, resulting in microcolony formation but not in increased adherence to biotic or abiotic surfaces. Our data describe the transcriptional regulation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Y. enterocolitica but fail to show most previously described phenotypes associated with this type of pilus in other bacteria.

  18. Proteomic profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 cultivated under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are frequently used in probiotic food and dairy products. Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 is a promising probiotic candidate strain that displays strong adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and elicits potent anti-inflammatory capacity both in vitro and in murine models of colitis. The recently sequenced genome of B. bifidum S17 has a size of about 2.2 Mb and encodes 1,782 predicted protein-coding genes. In the present study, a comprehensive proteomic profiling was carried out to identify and characterize proteins expressed by B. bifidum S17. A total of 1148 proteins entries were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, representing 64.4% of the predicted proteome. 719 proteins could be assigned to functional categories according to cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs. The COG distribution of the detected proteins highly correlates with that of the complete predicted proteome suggesting a good coverage and representation of the genomic content of B. bifidum S17 by the proteome. COGs that were highly present in the proteome of B. bifidum S17 were Translation, Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism, and Carbohydrate Transport and Metabolism. Complete sets of enzymes for both the bifidus shunt and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway were identified. Further bioinformatic analysis yielded 28 proteins with a predicted extracellular localization including 14 proteins with an LPxTG-motif for cell wall anchoring and two proteins (elongation factor Tu and enolase with a potential moonlighting function in adhesion. Amongst the predicted extracellular proteins were five of six pilin proteins encoded in the B. bifidum S17 genome as well as several other proteins with a potential role in interaction with host structures. The presented results are the first compilation of a proteomic reference profile for a B. bifidum strain and will facilitate analysis of the molecular mechanisms of physiology, host

  19. Speculazione sulle valute e fluttuazzioni del dollaro. (Currency speculation and dollar fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SCHULMEISTER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo studio i motivi dietro le ampie fluttuazioni del tasso di cambio del dollaro a seguito del crollo del sistema di Bretton Woods, per la maggior parte non spiegata dalle teorie prevalenti del tasso di cambio, sono esplorate. L'autore indaga il tasso di cambio tra le due valute più scambiate, il dollaro e il marco tedesco, dal 1973 al 1988. Nella prima parte, il modello dei movimenti dei tassi di cambio quotidiani viene esaminato per dimostrare che una sequenza di rialzo o al ribasso interrotto da movimenti non direzionali è tipico della dinamica dei tassi di cambio nel breve periodo. Questo modello è sistematicamente sfruttata attraverso speculazione monetaria, in particolare attraverso l'uso di "analisi tecnica". Nella seconda parte, l'autore si concentra sul medio termine, sostenendo che le fluttuazioni possono essere spiegati come il risultato di interagire squilibri dei beni e mercati delle attività. Anche se valuta la speculazione è stata sistematicamente redditizio per la maggior parte delle valute, deve essere considerata destabilizzante in quanto la sequenza delle corse dei prezzi ha causato notevoli e persistenti deviazioni dei tassi di cambio dai loro valori di equilibrio (PIL.In this study the reasons behind the wide fluctuations of the dollar exchange rate following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system, for the most part unexplained by the prevailing exchange rate theories, are explored. The author investigates the exchange rate between the two most traded currencies, the dollar and the deutschemark, from 1973 to 1988. In the first part, the pattern of the daily exchange rate movements is examined to show that a sequence of upward and downward trends interrupted by non-directional movements is typical of exchange rate dynamics in the short run. This pattern is systemically exploited through currency speculation, particularly through the use of “technical analysis”. In the second part, the author focuses on the

  20. Structural Basis of a Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase in the Hedgehog-Forming Actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Tirgar, Reyhaneh; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-05-01

    The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in nucleation of oral microbial consortia leading to biofilm formation. Due to the lack of genetic tools, little is known about basic cellular processes, including protein secretion and folding, in this organism. We report here a survey of the C. matruchotii genome, which encodes a large number of exported proteins containing paired cysteine residues, and identified an oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA (MdbA Cd ). Crystallization studies uncovered that the 1.2-Å resolution structure of C. matruchotii MdbA (MdbA Cm ) possesses two conserved features found in actinobacterial MdbA enzymes, a thioredoxin-like fold and an extended α-helical domain. By reconstituting the disulfide bond-forming machine in vitro , we demonstrated that MdbA Cm catalyzes disulfide bond formation within the actinobacterial pilin FimA. A new gene deletion method supported that mdbA is essential in C. matruchotii Remarkably, heterologous expression of MdbA Cm in the C. diphtheriae Δ mdbA mutant rescued its known defects in cell growth and morphology, toxin production, and pilus assembly, and this thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity required the catalytic motif CXXC. Altogether, the results suggest that MdbA Cm is a major thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, which likely mediates posttranslocational protein folding in C. matruchotii by a mechanism that is conserved in Actinobacteria IMPORTANCE The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in the development of oral biofilms or dental plaque; however, little is known about the basic cellular processes in this organism. We report here a high-resolution structure of a C. matruchotii oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA. By biochemical analysis, we demonstrated that C. matruchotii MdbA catalyzes disulfide

  1. In-vivo identification of direct electron transfer from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to electrodes via outer-membrane OmcA-MtrCAB protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Akihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakamura, Ryuhei, E-mail: nakamura@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kazuhito, E-mail: hashimoto@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); ERATO/JST, HASHIMOTO Light Energy Conversion Project (Japan)

    2011-06-30

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: > Monolayer biofilm of Shewanella cells was prepared on an ITO electrode. > Extracellular electron transfer (EET) process was examined with series of mutants. > Direct ET was confirmed with outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB complex. > The EET process was not prominently influenced by capsular polysaccharide. - Abstract: The direct electron-transfer (DET) property of Shewanella bacteria has not been resolved in detail due to the complexity of in vivo electrochemistry in whole-cell systems. Here, we report the in vivo assignment of the redox signal indicative of the DET property in biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a series of mutants and a chemical marking technique. The CV measurements of monolayer biofilms formed by deletion mutants of c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrA, {Delta}mtrB, {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA, and {Delta}cymA), and pilin ({Delta}pilD), capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) and menaquinone ({Delta}menD) biosynthetic proteins demonstrated that the electrochemical redox signal with a midpoint potential at 50 mV (vs. SHE) was due to an outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB protein complex of decaheme cytochromes, and did not involve either inner-membrane-bound CymA protein or secreted menaquinone. Using the specific binding affinity of nitric monoxide for the heme groups of c-type cytochromes, we further confirmed this conclusion. The heterogeneous standard rate constant for the DET process was estimated to be 300 {+-} 10 s{sup -1}, which was two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for the electron shuttling process via riboflavin. Experiments using a mutant unable to produce capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) revealed that the DET property of the OmcA-MtrCAB complex was not influenced by insulating and hydrophilic extracellular polysaccharide. Accordingly, under physiological conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 utilizes a high density of outer

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  3. Using recombinant Lactococci as an approach to dissect the immunomodulating capacity of surface piliation in probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

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    Ingemar von Ossowski

    Full Text Available Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA, we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG

  4. Plasmid Complement of Lactococcus lactis NCDO712 Reveals a Novel Pilus Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazanova, Mariya; Beerthuyzen, Marke; Siezen, Roland; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela M; de Jong, Anne; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Kok, Jan; Bachmann, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is an important gram-positive model organism. It is a plasmid-free and phage-cured derivative of strain NCDO712. Plasmid-cured strains facilitate studies on molecular biological aspects, but many properties which make L. lactis an important organism in the dairy industry are plasmid encoded. We sequenced the total DNA of strain NCDO712 and, contrary to earlier reports, revealed that the strain carries 6 rather than 5 plasmids. A new 50-kb plasmid, designated pNZ712, encodes functional nisin immunity (nisCIP) and copper resistance (lcoRSABC). The copper resistance could be used as a marker for the conjugation of pNZ712 to L. lactis MG1614. A genome comparison with the plasmid cured daughter strain MG1363 showed that the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that accumulated in the laboratory since the strains diverted more than 30 years ago is limited to 11 of which only 5 lead to amino acid changes. The 16-kb plasmid pSH74 was found to contain a novel 8-kb pilus gene cluster spaCB-spaA-srtC1-srtC2, which is predicted to encode a pilin tip protein SpaC, a pilus basal subunit SpaB, and a pilus backbone protein SpaA. The sortases SrtC1/SrtC2 are most likely involved in pilus polymerization while the chromosomally encoded SrtA could act to anchor the pilus to peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Overexpression of the pilus gene cluster from a multi-copy plasmid in L. lactis MG1363 resulted in cell chaining, aggregation, rapid sedimentation and increased conjugation efficiency of the cells. Electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of the pilus gene cluster leads to appendices on the cell surfaces. A deletion of the gene encoding the putative basal protein spaB, by truncating spaCB, led to more pilus-like structures on the cell surface, but cell aggregation and cell chaining were no longer observed. This is consistent with the prediction that spaB is involved in the anchoring of the pili to the cell.