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Sample records for neumann-mullins relation based

  1. Topological Analysis of Network Structures in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Martin E.

    2004-03-01

    Kinetics, topology, integral and differential geometry are combined to impose space-filling requirements on network structures. The theory centers on representing network cells as "average N-hedra," with curvatures and dihedral angles that satisfy thermodynamic equilibria at contact faces, triple lines and quadrajunctions. Exact kinetic relations are derived for average N-hedra that accurately predict the volumetric and areal time-rates of change for irregular polyhedral cells that comprise constructible network microstructures. The new results extend to three dimensions the von Neumann-Mullins law, which provides the well-known topologically-based kinetic relation valid for tessellations in 2-d Kinetic laws derived for here for 3-d may prove useful for constructing more accurate models of grain growth and foam coarsening, and for clarifying several long-standing general issues on space-filling criteria required for three-dimensional network structures. Comparisons will be shown between foams and isolated N-hedra, modeled recently using Surface Evolver simulations, and predictions from the new analytical results and other theoretical estimates. The availability of an exact analytic kinetic law provides benchmarks for testing simulations and for guiding quantitative experiments on network dynamics in three-dimensional microstructures. * The Author gives his special thanks for the financial assistance obtained from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, as a Forschungs Preissträger, and for scientific support so generously provided at the Institut für Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH-Aachen.

  2. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    cleansing approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to the limited storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the sensor data before using it to answer queries or conduct data analysis. Popular data...

  3. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average, are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to their limit storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency and effectiveness.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the data before using it for answering queries or for data analysis. Popular data cleansing...

  4. Resource-based relative values. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, W C; Braun, P; Dunn, D; Becker, E R

    1988-10-28

    Studies have been conducted over the past decade to develop a Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) for physicians' services. Policymakers view an RBRVS as a potential tool to pay physicians. The Physician Payment Review Commission, under a congressional mandate, has endorsed the general concept of a fee schedule based on resource costs for physician payment under Medicare. In this overview article, we present the policy context in which the RBRVS may play a role and describe the approach taken to develop this scale, specifically consultation with clinicians, researchers, and insurers and data gathering, including a national survey of physicians. We discuss underlying elements that are necessary to constructing an RBRVS, each of which is described more fully in subsequent articles: measuring the work (intraservice work) of performing medical services and procedures, estimating preservice and postservice work, comparing work across specialties, measuring practice costs, extrapolating from surveyed services, and establishing an RBRVS for evaluation/management services and for invasive procedures. Overall results are presented in a companion article.

  5. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  6. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  7. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Based on Symmetric Fuzzy Relative Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y F; He, L.H.; Chen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on fuzzy similarity degree, entropy, relative entropy and fuzzy entropy, the symmetric fuzzy relative entropy is presented, which not only has a full physical meaning, but also has succinct practicability. The symmetric fuzzy relative entropy can be used to measure the divergence between different fuzzy patterns. The example demonstrates that the symmetric fuzzy relative entropy is valid and reliable for fuzzy pattern recognition and classification, and its classification precision is v...

  8. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  10. Improved GPS-based Satellite Relative Navigation Using Femtosecond Laser Relative Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjik Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for improving Carrier-phase Differential Global Positioning System (CDGPS based realtime satellite relative navigation by applying laser baseline measurement data. The robustness against the space operational environment was considered, and a Synthetic Wavelength Interferometer (SWI algorithm based on a femtosecond laser measurement model was developed. The phase differences between two laser wavelengths were combined to measure precise distance. Generated laser data were used to improve estimation accuracy for the float ambiguity of CDGPS data. Relative navigation simulations in real-time were performed using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. The GPS and laser-combined relative navigation accuracy was compared with GPS-only relative navigation solutions to determine the impact of laser data on relative navigation. In numerical simulations, the success rate of integer ambiguity resolution increased when laser data was added to GPS data. The relative navigational errors also improved five-fold and two-fold, relative to the GPS-only error, for 250 m and 5 km initial relative distances, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is suitable for application to future satellite formation-flying missions.

  11. Relative effectiveness of context-based teaching strategy on senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study adopted the quasi experimental research design to examine the relative effectiveness of context-based teaching strategy on senior secondary school students' achievements in inorganic chemistry. The sample consists of 451 SSII chemistry students (224 males and 227 females) drawn from four out of 46 ...

  12. Snow avalanche friction relation based on extended kinetic theory

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    M. Rauter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheological models for granular materials play an important role in the numerical simulation of dry dense snow avalanches. This article describes the application of a physically based model from the field of kinetic theory to snow avalanche simulations. The fundamental structure of the so-called extended kinetic theory is outlined and the decisive model behavior for avalanches is identified. A simplified relation, covering the basic features of the extended kinetic theory, is developed and implemented into an operational avalanche simulation software. To test the obtained friction relation, simulation results are compared to velocity and runout observations of avalanches, recorded from different field tests. As reference we utilize a classic phenomenological friction relation, which is commonly applied for hazard estimation. The quantitative comparison is based on the combination of normalized residuals of different observation variables in order to take into account the quality of the simulations in various regards. It is demonstrated that the extended kinetic theory provides a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. The friction relation derived with the help of the extended kinetic theory shows advantages to the classic phenomenological friction, in particular when different events and various observation variables are investigated.

  13. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  14. Diffusion-based recommendation with trust relations on tripartite graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximeng; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Guangquan; Xiong, Fei; Lu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The diffusion-based recommendation approach is a vital branch in recommender systems, which successfully applies physical dynamics to make recommendations for users on bipartite or tripartite graphs. Trust links indicate users’ social relations and can provide the benefit of reducing data sparsity. However, traditional diffusion-based algorithms only consider rating links when making recommendations. In this paper, the complementarity of users’ implicit and explicit trust is exploited, and a novel resource-allocation strategy is proposed, which integrates these two kinds of trust relations on tripartite graphs. Through empirical studies on three benchmark datasets, our proposed method obtains better performance than most of the benchmark algorithms in terms of accuracy, diversity and novelty. According to the experimental results, our method is an effective and reasonable way to integrate additional features into the diffusion-based recommendation approach.

  15. Relative Status Determination for Spacecraft Relative Motion Based on Dual Quaternion

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    Jun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the two-satellite formation, the relative motion and attitude determination algorithm is a key component that affects the flight quality and mission efficiency. The relative status determination algorithm is proposed based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the system state optimal estimate linearization. Aiming at the relative motion of the spacecraft formation navigation problem, the spacecraft relative kinematics and dynamics model are derived from the dual quaternion in the algorithm. Then taking advantage of EKF technique, combining with the dual quaternion integrated dynamic models, considering the navigation algorithm using the fusion measurement by the gyroscope and star sensors, the relative status determination algorithm is designed. At last the simulation is done to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the EKF algorithm has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy.

  16. A Novel Relative Navigation Control Strategy Based on Relation Space Method for Autonomous Underground Articulated Vehicles

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    Fengqian Dou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel relative navigation control strategy based on the relation space method (RSM for articulated underground trackless vehicles. In the RSM, a self-organizing, competitive neural network is used to identify the space around the vehicle, and the spatial geometric relationships of the identified space are used to determine the vehicle’s optimal driving direction. For driving control, the trajectories of the articulated vehicles are analyzed, and data-based steering and speed control modules are developed to reduce modeling complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed RSM can choose the correct directions for articulated vehicles in different tunnels. The effectiveness and feasibility of the resulting novel relative navigation control strategy are validated through experiments.

  17. CARDINAL DIRECTION RELATIONS QUERY MODELING BASED ON GEO-ONTOLOGY

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    X. Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Direction relations, as an important spatial relationship, is simply expressed as object prosperity in traditional geo-ontology. The lacking of explicit specifications and reasoning rules of direction relations in geo-ontology result in the difficult or inflexible of spatial reasoning. Also, digital gazetteers provide information on named features, linking the feature's name with its location and its type. Although the location information is incomplete and not exact, the implicit spatial information, for example spatial relationships and spatial scale, can be extract using the appropriate models based on geo-ontology. In this paper, we proposed a novel conceptual framework of direction relations in order to formalize the semantics and implicit information of direction relations, and present an extraction algorithm of implicit information based on previous researches, which will produce a complete query instance of direction relations. At last, the most suitable direction physical model is recommended to calculation module according to relevant rules. And the experimental results show that this direction query model not only extracted the implicit information effectively, but also made a reasonable interpretation for the user's intention.

  18. Binary Relations-based Rough Sets – an Automated Approach

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    Grabowski Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rough sets, developed by Zdzisław Pawlak [12], are an important tool to describe the state of incomplete or partially unknown information. In this article, which is essentially the continuation of [8], we try to give the characterization of approximation operators in terms of ordinary properties of underlying relations (some of them, as serial and mediate relations, were not available in the Mizar Mathematical Library [11]. Here we drop the classical equivalence- and tolerance-based models of rough sets trying to formalize some parts of [18].

  19. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  20. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  1. Audiovisual Quality Fusion based on Relative Multimodal Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    for relative multimodal complexity analysis to derive the fusion parameter in objective audiovisual quality metrics. Audio and video qualities are first estimated separately using advanced quality models, and then they are combined into the overall audiovisual quality using a linear fusion. Based on carefully...... metrics, compared to the fusion parameters obtained from the subjective quality tests using other known optimization methods.......In multimodal presentations the perceived audiovisual quality assessment is significantly influenced by the content of both the audio and visual tracks. Based on our earlier subjective quality test for finding the optimal trade-off between audio and video quality, this paper proposes a novel method...

  2. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The prop...

  3. Implementing software based on relation frame theory to develop and increase relational cognitive skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.

  4. Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Based on Conceptual Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Vandael, Kristof; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that pain-related fear is key to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Previous research has shown that perceptual similarity with a pain-associated movement fosters the generalization of fear to novel movements. Perceptual generalization of pain-related fear is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the threat value of one movement to another without the necessity to learn anew. However, excessive spreading of fear to safe movements may become maladaptive and may lead to sustained anxiety, dysfunctional avoidance behaviors, and severe disability. A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to extract conceptual knowledge from a learning episode as well. Although this conceptual pathway may be important to understand fear generalization in chronic pain, research on this topic is lacking. We investigated acquisition and generalization of concept-based pain-related fear. During acquisition, unique exemplars of one action category (CS+; e.g., opening boxes) were followed by pain, whereas exemplars of another action category (CS-; e.g., closing boxes) were not. Subsequently, spreading of pain-related fear to novel exemplars of both action categories was tested. Participants learned to expect the pain to occur and reported more pain-related fear to the exemplars of the CS+ category compared with those of the CS- category. During generalization, fear and expectancy generalized to novel exemplars of the CS+ category, but not to the CS- category. This pattern was not corroborated in the eyeblink startle measures. This is the first study that demonstrates that pain-related fear can be acquired and generalized based on conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective.

  6. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  7. Relating quantum coherence and correlations with entropy-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan

    2017-09-21

    Quantum coherence and quantum correlations are important quantum resources for quantum computation and quantum information. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relationships between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems, and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for all the maximally correlated states.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

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    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  9. Composing Cardinal Direction Relations Basing on Interval Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jia, Haiyang; Liu, Dayou; Zhang, Changhai

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Skiadopoulos proposed a formal model for representing direction relations between compound regions (the finite union of simple regions), known as SK-model. It perhaps is currently one of most cognitive plausible models for qualitative direction information, and has attracted interests from artificial intelligence and geographic information system. Originating from Allen first using composition table to process time interval constraints; composing has become the key technique in qualitative spatial reasoning to check the consistency. Due to the massive number of basic directions in SK-model, its composition becomes extraordinary complex. This paper proposed a novel algorithm for the composition. Basing the concepts of smallest rectangular directions and its original directions, it transforms the composition of basic cardinal direction relations into the composition of interval relations corresponding to Allen's interval algebra. Comparing with existing methods, this algorithm has quite good dimensional extendibility, that is, it can be easily transferred to the tridimensional space with a few modifications.

  10. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

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    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  11. Relative Humidity Sensor Based on Microfiber Loop Resonator

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    Yangzi Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel relative humidity (RH sensor based on a microfiber loop resonator (MLR is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. As refractive index of the microfiber in the MLR is modified by environmental humidity, resonant wavelength of the MLR changes with RH level. By detecting this wavelength shift, RH measurement is realized with a linear response sensitivity of 1.8 pm/% RH. The obvious advantage of this technique over others is that no coating of humidity-sensitive material is required.

  12. QUALITY ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE-BASED SEQUENCE IMAGES RELATIVE ORIENTATION BASED ON COMPUTER VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the quality and its influence factors of relative orientation of vehicle-based sequence images by comparing with the result obtained from Position & Orientation System using Direct Geo-referencing. Studies have shown that, under normal circumstances, the image Relative Orientation based on Computer vision is more robust, and under special conditions, it is more practical for analyzing and increasing the quality of vision measurement. Besides these, the method can be borrowed by many surveying and mapping related fields, taking indoor robot mobile environment awareness and unmanned automobile for instance.

  13. Emotionally based strategic communications and societal stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Krešimir; Srbljinović, Armano; Popović, Siniša; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the potential of emotionally based strategic communications (EBSCs) as an extension of traditional strategic communications in prevention of societal stress-related disorders. The concept of EBSCs takes into consideration dominant emotional maps of a specific sociocultural environment in which communications take place. EBSCs may have a significant potential to transform mainly negative-dominant emotional maps of targeted social groups into more positive ones, as a precondition of building a more resilient and stress-resistant social environment. A better understanding of dominant emotional maps and their conditioning may facilitate restoration of more positive emotional maps by touching the right emotions of significant parts of the targeted social groups in the right way. Dominant emotional maps of societies afflicted by economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts etc., are typically characterized by negatively valenced emotions. Persistent negatively valenced group-based dominant emotions may be used as a quantitative statistical measure of potential stress-related disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders among respected group members. The toxic power of extreme negative emotions, attitudes, actions, and behavior might be reduced by EBSCs as a communication method for transforming negative-dominant emotional maps into more positive ones. EBSCs are conceptualized as the positively valenced stimulation of a negatively emotionally affected group by an appropriate communication strategy to minimize dominant-negative emotional maps and behavior of the targeted group.

  14. Web-based treatment for infertility-related psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; O'Donohue, William T; Jacobs, Negar Nicole

    2010-08-01

    Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support, and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and may be of significant lower cost. This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based approach to providing a cognitive behavioral intervention with 31 infertile women seeking medical reproductive technologies. Following randomized assignment, participants using the web-based intervention were compared with those in a wait-list control condition on general and infertility-related psychological stress measures. Results were mixed regarding intervention efficacy. Significant declines in general stress were evidenced in the experimental group compared with a wait-list control group. However, website access did not result in statistically significant improvements on a measure of infertility-specific stress. These findings add to the literature on psychological interventions for women experiencing fertility problems. Moreover, despite the widespread use of the Internet by this population, the present study is one of the first to investigate the usefulness of the Internet to attenuate stress in this population. Preliminary results suggest general stress may be significantly reduced in infertile women using an online cognitive behavioral approach.

  15. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  16. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadah, Shouq A; Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-06-13

    An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users' demographics. The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users' demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web-based social chatter.

  17. [Development of ultrasound-based monitor of relative blood volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunzhong; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Zhongwei; Fan, Jianghong; Xia, Wubing; Zhou, Hongbo; Yi, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Assessing dry weight accurately is crucial in providing effective and safe haemodialysis. Biases towards dry weight assessment may bring a series of dialysis complications. This study introduces an online detection technique of relative blood volume (RBV) based on ultrasound, which analyzes the correlation between changes in blood density and sound speed. By measuring the attenuation in sound velocity, this method was employed to calculate RBV, and then to evaluate the dry weight of patients on dialysis. TDC-GP2 time measurement chip and MSP430 Single-chip Microcontroller (SCM) were used in the system to measure the ultrasonic travel time. In the clinical trials, RBV values range between 71.3% and 108.1%, showing consistent result with Fresenius 4008S blood volume monitor (BVM). This detection method possesses several advantages, such as real time, convenient, reproducible, non-invasive, and etc.

  18. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  19. Smoothing-Based Relative Navigation and Coded Aperture Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Liebe, Carl Christian; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This project will develop an efficient smoothing software for incremental estimation of the relative poses and velocities between multiple, small spacecraft in a formation, and a small, long range depth sensor based on coded aperture imaging that is capable of identifying other spacecraft in the formation. The smoothing algorithm will obtain the maximum a posteriori estimate of the relative poses between the spacecraft by using all available sensor information in the spacecraft formation.This algorithm will be portable between different satellite platforms that possess different sensor suites and computational capabilities, and will be adaptable in the case that one or more satellites in the formation become inoperable. It will obtain a solution that will approach an exact solution, as opposed to one with linearization approximation that is typical of filtering algorithms. Thus, the algorithms developed and demonstrated as part of this program will enhance the applicability of small spacecraft to multi-platform operations, such as precisely aligned constellations and fractionated satellite systems.

  20. Towards a communication brain computer interface based on semantic relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Geuze

    Full Text Available This article investigates a possible Brain Computer Interface (BCI based on semantic relations. The BCI determines which prime word a subject has in mind by presenting probe words using an intelligent algorithm. Subjects indicate when a presented probe word is related to the prime word by a single finger tap. The detection of the neural signal associated with this movement is used by the BCI to decode the prime word. The movement detector combined both the evoked (ERP and induced (ERD responses elicited with the movement. Single trial movement detection had an average accuracy of 67%. The decoding of the prime word had an average accuracy of 38% when using 100 probes and 150 possible targets, and 41% after applying a dynamic stopping criterium, reducing the average number of probes to 47. The article shows that the intelligent algorithm used to present the probe words has a significantly higher performance than a random selection of probes. Simulations demonstrate that the BCI also works with larger vocabulary sizes, and the performance scales logarithmically with vocabulary size.

  1. Overcoming etch challenges related to EUV based patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Andrew W.; Cottle, Hongyun; Honda, Masanobu; Morikita, Shinya; Kumar, Kaushik A.; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Research and development activities related to Extreme Ultra Violet [EUV] defined patterning continue to grow for plasma etch trade-offs related to traditional approaches of PR smoothing, descum implementation and maintaining 2D aspect ratios of short lines or elliptical contacts concurrent with ultra-high photo resist [PR] selectivity. In this paper we will discuss sources of LER/LWR, impact of material choice, integration, and innovative plasma process techniques and describe how TELTM VigusTM CCP Etchers can enhance PR selectivity, reduce LER/LWR, and maintain 2D aspect ratio of incoming patterns. Beyond traditional process approaches this paper will show the utility of: [1] DC Superposition in enhancing EUV resist hardening and selectivity, increasing resistance to stress induced PR line wiggle caused by CFx passivation, and mitigating organic planarizer wiggle; [2] Quasi Atomic Layer Etch [Q-ALE] for ARC open eliminating the tradeoffs between selectivity, CD, and shrink ratio control; and [3] ALD+Etch FUSION technology for feature independent CD shrink and LER reduction. Applicability of these concepts back transferred to 193i based lithography is also confirmed.

  2. Relating Satellite-Based Contrail Detection to NWA Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Contrail-induced cloud cover has been shown to be a significant factor in regional climate change over the United States of America. As air traffic increases, the potential for globally significant impacts also rises. To better understand and predict these potential climatic effects, it is necessary to develop models that can accurately represent contrail properties based on ambient atmospheric variables including temperature, relative humidity and winds. Several high-resolution numerical weather analyses (NWA) including the 20-km Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) and the University of Oklahoma Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) can provide the temperature, humidity and wind information necessary to diagnose contrail formation. One outstanding problem that must be addressed to achieve a realistic simulation of contrails is the large uncertainties in upper tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) in numerical weather analyses. Current numerical weather analyses tend to underestimate UTH due to large dry biases in the balloon soundings used to construct the analyses. To evaluate each of the models, we match several months of contrail properties derived from satellite and surface observations to the NWA-derived humidity, vertical velocity, wind shear and atmospheric stability. The relationships between several contrail properties (including optical depth and areal contrail coverage) and the NWA-derived statistics will be analyzed to determine under which atmospheric conditions widespread contrail outbreaks are favored.

  3. A structure-based model of semantic integrity constraints for relational data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdorf, William J.; Ulberg, Karen J.; Baugh, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Data base management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which users access large volumes of data. Ensuring data accuracy through integrity constraints is a central aspect of DBMS use. However, many DBMSs still lack adequate integrity support. In additon, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support the role of a constraint classification system - has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the data base structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the arbitrary specification of any constraint. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering data base, and various implementation issues are discussed.

  4. Evidence-based management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Concussion is not only one of the most common injuries encountered by athletes participating in contact and collision sports, but also among the most complex injuries to manage in a sports medicine setting. Over the past two decades, we have made great progress in advancing the basic and clinical science of concussion. These advances have had enormous clinical translational value for developing evidence-based guidelines for management of concussion in sports. Applied clinical research has clarified the defining characteristics of sport-related concussion (SRC) that support new diagnostic criteria. At the same time, major advancements have been realized in the development and validation of clinical tools that allow a more objective and accurate assessment of concussion and performance-based measures of recovery. These tools provide clinicians with a more informed basis for determining an athlete's cognitive and physical fitness to return to competition after concussion. Standardized injury management protocols that systematically prescribe rest, graded activity, and return to play have been adopted in nearly all clinical settings. Herein, we briefly summarize the findings and recommendations from several national and international consensus guidelines and position statements on best practice in the evaluation and management of SRC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  6. A Framework for Problem-Based Learning: Teaching Mathematics with a Relational Problem-Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    One recommendation for encouraging young women and other underrepresented students in their mathematical studies is to find instructional methods, such as problem-based learning (PBL), that allow them to feel included in the learning process. Using a more relationally centered pedagogy along with more inclusive instructional methods may be a way…

  7. Special relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raogudimetla, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a great need to develop a system that can measure accurately atmospheric wind profiles because an accurate data of wind profiles in the atmosphere constitutes single most input for reliable simulations of global climate numerical methods. Also such data helps us understand atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics better. Because of this need for accurate wind measurements, a space-based Laser Atmospheric Winds Sounder (LAWS) is being designed at MSFC to measure wind profiles in the lower atmosphere of the earth with an accuracy of 1 m/s at lower altitudes to 5m/s at higher altitudes. This system uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and received frequencies to estimate the atmospheric wind velocities. If a significant return from the ground (sea) is possible, the spacecraft speed and height are estimated from it and these results and the Doppler shift are then used to estimate the wind velocities in the atmosphere. It is expected that at the proposed wavelengths, there will be enough backscatter from the aerosols but there may no be significant return from the ground. So a coherent (heterodyne) detection system is being proposed for signal processing because it can provide high signal to noise ratio and sensitivity and thus make the best use of low ground return. However, for a heterodyne detection scheme to provide the best results, it is important that the receiving aperture be aligned properly for the proposed wind sounder, this amounts to only a few microradians tolerance in alignment. It is suspected that the satellite motion relative to the ground may introduce errors in the order of a few microradians because of special relativity. Hence, the problem of laser scattering off a moving fixed target when the source and receiver are moving, which was not treated in the past in the literature, was analyzed in the following, using relativistic electrodynamics and applied to the

  8. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Eric W. (University of Texas, Austin, TX)

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  9. U.S.-Portuguese Relations and Lajes Field Air Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    by Manuel Martins entitled Base Aerea das Lajes (contribuicao para a sua historia ) Lajes Air Base11 specifically deals with the historical events...11 Manuel Martins, Base Aerea das Lajes (Contribuição Para a Sua Historia ) [Lajes Air Base (Contribution to its History)] (Azores

  10. Directory of selected forestry-related bibliographic data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Evans

    1979-01-01

    This compilation lists 117 bibliographic data bases maintained by scientists of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. For each data base, the following information is provided; name of the data base; originator; date started; coverage by subject; geographic area, and size of collection; base format; retrieval format; ways to query; who to query; and...

  11. Patterns of malaria related mortality based on verbal autopsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable malaria related mortality data is important for planning appropriate interventions. However, there is scarce information on the pattern of malaria related mortality in epidemic prone districts of Tanzania. This study was carried out to determine malaria related mortality and establish its trend change over time in both ...

  12. Pattern Classification Based on Fuzzy Relations under t-norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, D.H.; Song, K.B. [Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of Tamula's method of classifying patterns using fuzzy relations under t-norms and to find the exact calculation formulas of similarity relation induced by shift invariant fuzzy relation under continuous t-norm on R. Shift invariant one-step fuzzy relations on R are treated and the exact calculation formulas for the similitude as a limit value of the n-step fuzzy relation are derived. Some illustrative examples are given. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  14. A regression-based method for estimating risks and relative risks in case-base studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tina Tsz-Ting; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Both the absolute risk and the relative risk (RR) have a crucial role to play in epidemiology. RR is often approximated by odds ratio (OR) under the rare-disease assumption in conventional case-control study; however, such a study design does not provide an estimate for absolute risk. The case-base study is an alternative approach which readily produces RR estimation without resorting to the rare-disease assumption. However, previous researchers only considered one single dichotomous exposure and did not elaborate how absolute risks can be estimated in a case-base study. In this paper, the authors propose a logistic model for the case-base study. The model is flexible enough to admit multiple exposures in any measurement scale-binary, categorical or continuous. It can be easily fitted using common statistical packages. With one additional step of simple calculations of the model parameters, one readily obtains relative and absolute risk estimates as well as their confidence intervals. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method can produce unbiased estimates and adequate-coverage confidence intervals, for ORs, RRs and absolute risks. The case-base study with all its desirable properties and its methods of analysis fully developed in this paper may become a mainstay in epidemiology.

  15. A regression-based method for estimating risks and relative risks in case-base studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Tsz-Ting Chui

    Full Text Available Both the absolute risk and the relative risk (RR have a crucial role to play in epidemiology. RR is often approximated by odds ratio (OR under the rare-disease assumption in conventional case-control study; however, such a study design does not provide an estimate for absolute risk. The case-base study is an alternative approach which readily produces RR estimation without resorting to the rare-disease assumption. However, previous researchers only considered one single dichotomous exposure and did not elaborate how absolute risks can be estimated in a case-base study. In this paper, the authors propose a logistic model for the case-base study. The model is flexible enough to admit multiple exposures in any measurement scale-binary, categorical or continuous. It can be easily fitted using common statistical packages. With one additional step of simple calculations of the model parameters, one readily obtains relative and absolute risk estimates as well as their confidence intervals. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method can produce unbiased estimates and adequate-coverage confidence intervals, for ORs, RRs and absolute risks. The case-base study with all its desirable properties and its methods of analysis fully developed in this paper may become a mainstay in epidemiology.

  16. Immigrant-Host Community Relations in Malawi's Community Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project. (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...

  17. Immigrant-Host Community Relations in Malawi's Community Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...

  18. Relationalism about mechanics based on a minimalist ontology of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Vassallo, Antonio; Esfeld, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper elaborates on relationalism about space and time as motivated by a minimalist ontology of the physical world: there are only matter points that are individuated by the distance relations among them, with these relations changing. We assess two strategies to combine this ontology with physics, using classical mechanics as example: the Humean strategy adopts the standard, non-relationalist physical theories as they stand and interprets their formal apparatus as the means of bookkeeping of the change of the distance relations instead of committing us to additional elements of the ontology. The alternative theory strategy seeks to combine the relationalist ontology with a relationalist physical theory that reproduces the predictions of the standard theory in the domain where these are empirically tested. We show that, as things stand, this strategy cannot be accomplished without compromising a minimalist relationalist ontology.

  19. Data base management in interventional electrophysiology--the relational advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M A; Siebels, J; Schmitt, C

    1998-12-01

    A relational database was designed to facilitate patient management and storage of complex electrophysiologic data of patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation. The database has to deal with multiple data entries per patient record like radiofrequency current applications and catheters. Due to the complexity of catheter mapping and ablation therapy, the investigators have to handle various data types. Contradictory to a flat-file database, a relational structured database is not limited to a "single record structure". The designed database is built on the relational database programming environment 4th Dimension (ACI). It is implemented on an Apple Macintosh computer system. The relational structure consists of 13 data files and enables an unlimited data entry of multiple items per data field: In 1288 patients 10308 radiofrequency current applications were applied for ablation therapy and 4798 diagnostic or therapeutic catheters were used.

  20. Improved CDGPS FDIR Using Comm-based Relative Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use the comm-based measurements available from many advanced satellite cluster wireless networks to improve the flexibility and...

  1. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  2. Group Multilateral Relation Analysis Based on Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Qiang; ZHOU, Guo-min; CHEN, Guang-xuan; XU, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Massive, multi-source, heterogeneous police data and social data brings challenges to the current police work. The existing massive data resources are studied as the research object to excavate the group of multilateral relations by using large data technology for data archiving. The results of the study could provide technical support to police enforcement departments for fighting crime and preventing crime.

  3. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang Xuan

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the importance of background knowledge in relation extraction systems. We not only demonstrate the benefits of leveraging background knowledge to improve the systems' performance but also propose a principled framework that allows one to effectively incorporate knowledge into statistical machine learning models for…

  4. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces and its relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Merlo, Maria Elena; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    Motivation: Streptomyces is one of the best-studied genera of the order Actinomycetales due to its great importance in medical science, ecology and the biotechnology industry. A comprehensive, detailed and robust phylogeny of Streptomyces and its relatives is needed for understanding how this group

  5. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  6. [Stigma and related factors basing on mental illness stigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyduch, Agnieszka; Grzywa, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Stigmatization is a common problem to overcome for people suffering from chronic diseases. It usually follows infectious diseases, disabilities and mental disorders. In our study we explained basic concepts concerning stigma, particularly health-related one, and then we presented the most important socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards mentally ill people exemplifying them by scientific literature on mental illness stigma. Profession, frequency of contact with mentally ill persons, level of mental health literacy, own experience, education level, culture-related factors, overall value orientation, gender and age are the most relevant factors which influence perception of people suffering from mental disorders. A review of surveys on dependencies between those factors and attitudes towards mentally ill people and tendencies to stigmatize with mental illness was presented. Mental health literacy is the most easily modifiable factor among all the presented here. Majority of campaigns concerning change of attitude towards mentally ill people consist in enhancement of mental health awareness in society.

  7. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  8. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    relation and its directionality can help us infer that a text snippet mentioning a descendant term (e.g. cannabis ) entails a hypothesis mentioning an...metric tons of cannabis in one of its largest ever hauls, officials say. Hypothesis: Nigeria seizes 80 tons of drugs. Similarly, it is important to know of...An example sentence is: Contrast: [According to the survey, x% of Chinese Internet users prefer Google] whereas [y% prefer Baidu]. According to the

  9. Suggesting Missing Relations in Biomedical Ontologies Based on Lexical Regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Martínez, Manuel; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Karlsson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The number of biomedical ontologies has increased significantly in recent years. Many of such ontologies are the result of efforts of communities of domain experts and ontology engineers. The development and application of quality assurance (QA) methods should help these communities to develop useful ontologies for both humans and machines. According to previous studies, biomedical ontologies are rich in natural language content, but most of them are not so rich in axiomatic terms. Here, we are interested in studying the relation between content in natural language and content in axiomatic form. The analysis of the labels of the classes permits to identify lexical regularities (LRs), which are sets of words that are shared by labels of different classes. Our assumption is that the classes exhibiting an LR should be logically related through axioms, which is used to propose an algorithm to detect missing relations in the ontology. Here, we analyse a lexical regularity of SNOMED CT, congenital stenosis, which is reported as problematic by the SNOMED CT maintenance team.

  10. Relational and Object-Oriented Methodology in Data Bases Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Database programming languages integrate concepts of databases and programming languages to provide both implementation tools for data-intensive applications and high-level user interfaces to databases. Frequently, database programs contain a large amount of application knowledge which is hidden in the procedural code and thus difficult to maintain with changing data and user views. This paper presents a first attempt to improve the situation by supporting the integrated definition and management of data and rules based on a setoriented and predicative approach. The use of database technology for integrated fact and rule base management is shown to have some important advantages in terms of fact and rule integrity, question-answering, and explanation of results.

  11. Comparative Study of Base Community Relations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    absence of high-profile violent crime incidents, traffic accidents and drunk driving, aviation noise, aviation accidents or other public safety issues...Additionally, I examine the normally associated “causes” for base tension including petty and violent crime, incidents of drunk driving, and the...communities degree of radicalization varies for other reasons as well. Aviation Accidents in the Last Decade Civil Nuisance “Contact

  12. PUBLIC RELATION BASED MODEL OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupka Naumovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communication mass media tool is no longer effective as previously, hence can no longer fulfill the role of leading marketing mix tool. Therefore, the necessity for altering the structure of the traditional marketing communication mix elements, emphasizing the role of other elements but advertising, with more personalized and interactive functions. One method for improvement of marketing communication’s mix efficiency is by reallocation the leading role of advertising with public relations. The practice of public relations tools can ensure higher level of transparency in internal and external organizational communications and thus can certify more effective marketing communication. The theoretical research is supported with qualitative research of business segment by conducting a detailed interview for the marketing communication practice.

  13. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  14. Possibility of reinforcement learning based on event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tsubone, Tadashi; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    We applied event-related potential (ERP) to reinforcement signals that are equivalent to reward and punishment signals.We conducted an electroencephalogram (EEG) in which volunteers identified the success or failure of a task. We confirmed that there were differences in the EEG depending on whether the task was successful or not and suggested that ERP might be used as a reward of reinforcement leaning. We used a support vector machine (SVM) for recognizing the P300. We selected the feature vector in SVM that was composed of averages of each 50 ms for each of the six channels (C3,Cz,C4,P3,Pz,P4) for a total of 700 ms. We can suggest that reinforcement learning using P300 can be performed accurately.

  15. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  16. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  17. Assessment of credit risk based on fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabadze, Teimuraz

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach for an assessment of the credit risk to corporate borrowers. There are different models for borrowers' risk assessment. These models are divided into two groups: statistical and theoretical. When assessing the credit risk for corporate borrowers, statistical model is unacceptable due to the lack of sufficiently large history of defaults. At the same time, we cannot use some theoretical models due to the lack of stock exchange. In those cases, when studying a particular borrower given that statistical base does not exist, the decision-making process is always of expert nature. The paper describes a new approach that may be used in group decision-making. An example of the application of the proposed approach is given.

  18. Structure-property relations in bismuth-based Aurivillius phases

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, D Y S

    2001-01-01

    ferroelectric phase transition in Aurivillius phases. Orientational and translational domains arising from a change in crystal class and a doubling of the unit cell were detected. At the (PE) tetragonal - (PE) orthorhombic phase transition 90 deg ferroelastic domains are formed. Finally, at the (PE) orthorhombic to the (FE) orthorhombic phase transition centro-symmetry is lost, the ferroelastic orientation domain boundaries (ODBs) become ferroelectric and anti phase boundaries (APBs) are coupled with inversion domain boundaries (IDBs). The aim of this work was to relate the onset temperature and amplitude (qualitatively) of rotations of the octahedra to the onset of ferroelectricity in a range of Aurivillius compounds. Several stoichiometries were tested, including MBi sub 2 Nb sub 2 O sub 9 , MBi sub 4 Ti sub 4 O sub 1 sub 5 , M sub 2 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 5 O sub 1 sub 8 and MBi sub 8 Ti sub 7 O sub 2 sub 7 with the substitution of divalent (Ca sup 2 sup + , Sr sup 2 sup + , Pb sup 2 sup + and Ba sup 2 sup +) and...

  19. Event-based internet biosurveillance: relation to epidemiological observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Noele P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurveillance, which utilizes a variety of Internet sources, complements traditional surveillance. In this study we assess the reliability of Internet biosurveillance and evaluate disease-specific alert criteria against epidemiological data. Methods We reviewed and compared WHO epidemiological data and Argus biosurveillance system data for pandemic (H1N1 2009 (April 2009 – January 2010 from 8 regions and 122 countries to: identify reliable alert criteria among 15 Argus-defined categories; determine the degree of data correlation for disease progression; and assess timeliness of Internet information. Results Argus generated a total of 1,580 unique alerts; 5 alert categories generated statistically significant (p  Conclusion Confirmed pandemic (H1N1 2009 cases collected by Argus and WHO methods returned consistent results and confirmed the reliability and timeliness of Internet information. Disease-specific alert criteria provide situational awareness and may serve as proxy indicators to event progression and escalation in lieu of traditional surveillance data; alerts may identify early-warning indicators to another pandemic, preparing the public health community for disease events.

  20. Composition specification of teicoplanin based on its estimated relative bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Montañes, Antonio; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo

    2015-02-01

    Teicoplanin is a fermentative antibiotic consisting of several active components that contribute similarly to the antibacterial activity, but exhibit different pharmacokinetic properties. Differences in systemic exposure between batches of teicoplanin are possible within pharmacopeial specifications as the proportion of subcomponents may vary from batch to batch. The aim of this paper is to study the possible modification of the present pharmacopeial specification for teicoplanin composition to ensure an a priori pharmacokinetic equivalence between all pharmacopoeial-compliant batches. The expectable whole Area Under the Curve (AUC) of plasma levels of teicoplanin was predicted for different experimental batches and also for the theoretical extreme batches within pharmacopeial specifications. Calculations were done based on the AUC of each teicoplanin active subcomponent. Subsequently, the equivalence between a generic teicoplanin and a reference drug product was investigated by means of the ratio of AUCs. Batches under study, complying with current pharmacopoeial specifications, showed a maximum predicted difference in AUC slightly larger than 40%. The observed variability in teicoplanin compositions surpasses the conventional ±5% specification used for drugs obtained by chemical synthesis, but no 5% differences have been observed for any of the AUC means of the reference product when compared with the whole pooled data. Alternative specifications of actives composition can be defined to ensure that all batches complying with the pharmacopoeia are inside ±10% interval between them.

  1. Novel Earth Observation Based on Quantum Optics and Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J.; Flury, J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments in fundamental physics (in theory as well as in technology) provide novel capabilities for geodetic applications such as refined observations of the Earth's gravity field. We will focus on two new concepts: one applies atomic interferometry for (satellite) gravimetry, the other uses clock measurements for observing potential differences at Earth surface. In the first case, gravity anomalies are determined by observing free-falling atoms (quantum gravimetry), such technique can also be applied for future gradiometric measurements in space. In the second case according to Einstein's theory of general relativity, frequency comparisons of highly precise optical clocks give access to differences of the gravity potential - even over long distances (relativistic geodesy). Also laser interferometry between test masses in space with nanometer accuracy belongs to these novel concepts. For the latter, technology developed for gravitational wave detection and successfully tested in the LISA/pathfinder mission is being prepared for geodetic measurements. Those concepts are recently elaborated in close cooperation between physicists and geodesists at the University of Hannover under the umbrella of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 1128 "Relativistic geodesy and gravimetry with quantum sensors (geo-Q)". We will give a few examples where geodesy will potentially benefit from these novel developments and show future perspectives. The direct determination of physical heights and the connection of distant tide gauges are just two examples. We will also illustrate the application of the new methods for Earth observation, where local and global mass variations can be observed with unforeseen accuracy and resolution, benefitting a wide range of geosciences.

  2. Fire Related Temperature Resistance of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyalakshmi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper is on the effect of heat treatment on fly ash based geopolymer mortar synthesized from fly ash (Class F –Low lime using alkaline binary activator solution containing sodium hydroxide (18 M and sodium silicate solution (MR 2.0, cured at 80oC for 24 h. 7 days aged specimen heated at elevated temperature (200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C for the sustained period of 2hrs. The TGA/DTA analysis and thermal conductivity measurement as per ASTM C113 were carried out besides the compressive strengths. The thermal stability of the fly ash mortar at elevated temperature was found to be high as reflected in the observed value of f800°C/f30°C being more than 1 and this ratio was raised to about 1.3 with the addition of 2% Zirconium di oxide (ZrO2. No visible cracks were found on the specimens with and without ZrO2 when 800°C was sustained for 4 hrs in smaller specimens of size: 50 mm diameter x 100 mm height and in also bigger size specimens: 22 cm × 11 cm × 7 cm specimens. TGA/DTA analysis of the geopolymer paste showed that the retention of mass was around 90%. The addition of ZrO2 improved thermal resistance. The micro structure of the matrix found to be intact even at elevated temperature that was evident from the FESEM studies.

  3. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Method Based on Binary Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Tao; Xu, Xuanhua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making problems based on binary relation. Firstly, the similarity measure between two vectors based on binary relation is defined, which can be utilized to aggregate preference information. Some desirable properties of the similarity measure based on fuzzy binary relation are also studied. Then, a methodology for fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making is proposed, in ...

  4. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  5. A shallow parser based on closed-class words to capture relations in biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Gondy; Chen, Hsinchun; Martinez, Jesse D

    2003-06-01

    Natural language processing for biomedical text currently focuses mostly on entity and relation extraction. These entities and relations are usually pre-specified entities, e.g., proteins, and pre-specified relations, e.g., inhibit relations. A shallow parser that captures the relations between noun phrases automatically from free text has been developed and evaluated. It uses heuristics and a noun phraser to capture entities of interest in the text. Cascaded finite state automata structure the relations between individual entities. The automata are based on closed-class English words and model generic relations not limited to specific words. The parser also recognizes coordinating conjunctions and captures negation in text, a feature usually ignored by others. Three cancer researchers evaluated 330 relations extracted from 26 abstracts of interest to them. There were 296 relations correctly extracted from the abstracts resulting in 90% precision of the relations and an average of 11 correct relations per abstract.

  6. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? : A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions,

  7. Evaluation of Multi Layers Web-based GIS Approach in Retrieving Tourist Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilawati Zainol; Zainab Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Geo-based information is getting greater importance among tourists. However, retrieving this information on the web depends heavily on the methods of dissemination. Therefore, this study intends to evaluate methods used in disseminating tourist related geo-based information on the web using partial match query, firstly, in default system which is a single layer approach and secondly, using multi layer web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) approaches. Shah Alam tourist related data are...

  8. Data bases and data base systems related to NASA's Aerospace Program: A bibliography with indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 641 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1, 1981 through June 30, 1982. The directory was compiled to assist in the location of numerical and factual data bases and data base handling and management systems.

  9. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Classification of bacteria within the genus Brucella has been difficult due in part to considerable genomic homogeneity between the different species and biovars, in spite of clear differences in phenotypes. Therefore, many different methods have been used to assess Brucella taxonomy. In the current work, we examine 32 sequenced genomes from genus Brucella representing the six classical species, as well as more recently described species, using bioinformatical methods. Comparisons were made at the level of genomic DNA using oligonucleotide based methods (Markov chain based genomic signatures, genomic codon and amino acid frequencies based comparisons) and proteomes (all-against-all BLAST protein comparisons and pan-genomic analyses). Results We found that the oligonucleotide based methods gave different results compared to that of the proteome based methods. Differences were also found between the oligonucleotide based methods used. Whilst the Markov chain based genomic signatures grouped the different species in genus Brucella according to host preference, the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods reflected small differences between the Brucella species. Only minor differences could be detected between all genera included in this study using the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods. Proteome comparisons were found to be in strong accordance with current Brucella taxonomy indicating a remarkable association between gene gain or loss on one hand and mutations in marker genes on the other. The proteome based methods found greater similarity between Brucella species and Ochrobactrum species than between species within genus Agrobacterium compared to each other. In other words, proteome comparisons of species within genus Agrobacterium were found to be more diverse than proteome comparisons between species in genus Brucella and genus Ochrobactrum. Pan-genomic analyses indicated that uptake of DNA from outside genus Brucella appears to be

  10. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of bacteria within the genus Brucella has been difficult due in part to considerable genomic homogeneity between the different species and biovars, in spite of clear differences in phenotypes. Therefore, many different methods have been used to assess Brucella taxonomy....... In the current work, we examine 32 sequenced genomes from genus Brucella representing the six classical species, as well as more recently described species, using bioinformatical methods. Comparisons were made at the level of genomic DNA using oligonucleotide based methods (Markov chain based genomic signatures...... between the oligonucleotide based methods used. Whilst the Markov chain based genomic signatures grouped the different species in genus Brucella according to host preference, the codon and amino acid frequencies based methods reflected small differences between the Brucella species. Only minor differences...

  11. Osteoporosis-related fracture case definitions for population-based administrative data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lix, Lisa M; Azimaee, Mahmoud; Osman, Beliz Acan; Caetano, Patricia; Morin, Suzanne; Metge, Colleen; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Leslie, William D

    2012-01-01

    Population-based administrative data have been used to study osteoporosis-related fracture risk factors and outcomes, but there has been limited research about the validity of these data for ascertaining fracture cases...

  12. Transportation-related data bases extracted from the national index of energy and environmental data bases. Part II. Detailed data base descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birss, E.W.; Yeh, J.W.

    1976-11-15

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) extracted a set of 135 transportation-related data bases from a computerized national index of energy and environmental data bases. LLL had produced the national index for the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The detailed transportation-related data base descriptions presented are part of a LLL ongoing research contract with the Information Division of the Transportation Systems Center of the U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT/TSC).

  13. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  14. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Won

    2016-01-01

    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  15. An MBASIC application program for relational inquiries on a data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An MBASIC application program is described that allows a user to specify and use a sequence of relational operations on a relational data base for the purpose of making an inquiry or for the purpose of transferring data to a new file.

  16. [A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice related to evidence-based dentistry among dental students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Fu; Zhu, Ce; Tao, Dan-Ying; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice related to evidence-based dentistry among dental students, and to provide a reference for targeted evidence-based dentistry teaching and practice evidence-based dentistry in dental students. Dental students who attended the internship in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital and Pudong People's Hospital were invited to attend this survey. Information on knowledge, attitude and practices related evidence-based dentistry was collected through questionnaires. SPSS 21.0 software package was used for data analysis. A total of 62 dental students attended this survey. Evidence-based dentistry related knowledge and attitude scores were 5.5±1.9 and 5.1±1.0, respectively. Over three quarters of students took courses on evidence-based medicine, while around half of students (56.5%) self-reported that they knew little about evidence-based medicine. 70.5% students practiced evidence-based dentistry less than once in the process of clinical decision making per week. The majority of students (80.3%) used MEDLINE or other databases to search for practice-related literature less than once per week. 63.9% students used practice guideline. The top three barriers to practice evidence-based dentistry were lack of information resources, insufficient time and lack of search skills. Evidence-based dentistry related knowledge and practice among dental students is deficient, whereas they hold positive attitude on practice. The top three barriers to practice evidence-based dentistry are lack of information resources, insufficient time and lack of search skills.

  17. Evaluating the Evidence Base for Relational Frame Theory: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; May, Richard J.; Munnelly, Anita; Hoon, Alice E.

    2010-01-01

    Relational frame theory (RFT) is a contemporary behavior-analytic account of language and cognition. Since it was first outlined in 1985, RFT has generated considerable controversy and debate, and several claims have been made concerning its evidence base. The present study sought to evaluate the evidence base for RFT by undertaking a citation…

  18. Parametric study of sensor placement for vision-based relative navigation system of multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Junho; Kim, Seungkeun; Suk, Jinyoung

    2017-12-01

    In order to overcome the limited range of GPS-based techniques, vision-based relative navigation methods have recently emerged as alternative approaches for a high Earth orbit (HEO) or deep space missions. Therefore, various vision-based relative navigation systems use for proximity operations between two spacecraft. For the implementation of these systems, a sensor placement problem can occur on the exterior of spacecraft due to its limited space. To deal with the sensor placement, this paper proposes a novel methodology for a vision-based relative navigation based on multiple position sensitive diode (PSD) sensors and multiple infrared beacon modules. For the proposed method, an iterated parametric study is used based on the farthest point optimization (FPO) and a constrained extended Kalman filter (CEKF). Each algorithm is applied to set the location of the sensors and to estimate relative positions and attitudes according to each combination by the PSDs and beacons. After that, scores for the sensor placement are calculated with respect to parameters: the number of the PSDs, number of the beacons, and accuracy of relative estimates. Then, the best scoring candidate is determined for the sensor placement. Moreover, the results of the iterated estimation show that the accuracy improves dramatically, as the number of the PSDs increases from one to three.

  19. A risk-based microbiological criterion that uses the relative risk as the critical limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism...... of concern is relatively high. The use of the approach is therefore illustrated with an example of Campylobacter in broiler meat. It shows that this microbiological criterion can be applied in practice. An advantage of the method is that the acceptable limit is directly defined in terms of risk, without...

  20. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  1. Estimators of the Relations of Equivalence, Tolerance and Preference Based on Pairwise Comparisons with Random Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klukowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of results of the author in the area of estimation of the relations of equivalence, tolerance and preference within a finite set based on multiple, independent (in a stochastic way pairwise comparisons with random errors, in binary and multivalent forms. These estimators require weaker assumptions than those used in the literature on the subject. Estimates of the relations are obtained based on solutions to problems from discrete optimization. They allow application of both types of comparisons - binary and multivalent (this fact relates to the tolerance and preference relations. The estimates can be verified in a statistical way; in particular, it is possible to verify the type of the relation. The estimates have been applied by the author to problems regarding forecasting, financial engineering and bio-cybernetics. (original abstract

  2. Community Detection for Multiplex Social Networks Based on Relational Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper we propose to use relational Bayesian networks for the specification of probabilistic network models, and develop inference techniques that solve the community detection problem based on these models. The use of relational Bayesian networks as a flexible high-level modeling framework enables us......Many techniques have been proposed for community detection in social networks. Most of these techniques are only designed for networks defined by a single relation. However, many real networks are multiplex networks that contain multiple types of relations and different attributes on the nodes...

  3. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  4. Age-related differences in sleep-based memory consolidation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Li, Hui-Jie; Guo, Yu-Hua; Peng, Peng; Lei, Xu; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation. Our results showed a significant overall sleep-based beneficial effect in young adults but not in older adults. However, further analyses suggested that the age differences were mainly manifested in sleep-based declarative memory consolidation but not in procedural memory consolidation. We discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the age-related degradation in sleep-based memory consolidation. Further research is needed to determine the crucial components for sleep-related memory consolidation in older adults such as age-related changes in neurobiological and cardiovascular functions, which may play an important role in this context and have the potential to delineate the interrelationships between age-related changes in sleep and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Method Based on Binary Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making problems based on binary relation. Firstly, the similarity measure between two vectors based on binary relation is defined, which can be utilized to aggregate preference information. Some desirable properties of the similarity measure based on fuzzy binary relation are also studied. Then, a methodology for fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making is proposed, in which the criteria values are in the terms of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (ITFNs. Simple and exact formulas are also proposed to determine the vector of the aggregation and group set. According to the weighted expected values of group set, it is easy to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, we apply the proposed method and the Cosine similarity measure method to a numerical example; the numerical results show that our method is effective and practical.

  6. A Study of the Demographics of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadah, Shouq A; Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2015-08-06

    The rapid spread of Web-based social media in recent years has impacted how patients share health-related information. However, little work has studied the demographics of these users. Our aim was to study the demographics of users who participate in health-related Web-based social outlets to identify possible links to health care disparities. We analyze and compare three different types of health-related social outlets: (1) general Web-based social networks, Twitter and Google+, (2) drug review websites, and (3) health Web forums. We focus on the following demographic attributes: age, gender, ethnicity, location, and writing level. We build and evaluate domain-specific classifiers to infer missing data where possible. The estimated demographic statistics are compared against various baselines, such as Internet and social networks usage of the population. We found that (1) drug review websites and health Web forums are dominated by female users, (2) the participants of health-related social outlets are generally older with the exception of the 65+ years bracket, (3) blacks are underrepresented in health-related social networks, (4) users in areas with better access to health care participate more in Web-based health-related social outlets, and (5) the writing level of users in health-related social outlets is significantly lower than the reading level of the population. We identified interesting and actionable disparities in the participation of various demographic groups to various types of health-related social outlets. These disparities are significantly distinct from the disparities in Internet usage or general social outlets participation.

  7. Music preferences based on audio features, and its relation to personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have summarized reported music preferences by genre into four broadly defined categories, which relate to various personality characteristics. Other research has indicated that genre classification is ambiguous and inconsistent. This ambiguity suggests that research relating personality to music preferences based on genre could benefit from a more objective definition of music. This problem is addressed by investigating how music preferences linked to objective audio features r...

  8. Chemotherapy-related cognitive change: a principle-based concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaskie, Mary Louise

    2012-05-01

    To present the results of a principle-based concept analysis of cognitive change in patients with cancer following chemotherapy treatment. 86 English-language articles retrieved through OVID, PubMed, CINAHL®, and Web of Knowledge searches through June 2010. No time limits were imposed. Analysis was based on the philosophical principles: epistemologic, pragmatic, linguistic, and logical. Conceptual components were identified and a theoretical definition of chemotherapy-related cognitive change emerged; the term was not clearly defined or well differentiated in the scientific literature. Implicit meanings are found in patients' subjective accounts, descriptions of the cognitive domains studied, and the choice of neuropsychological assessment instruments. Antecedents relative to chemotherapy-related cognitive change include disease and treatment factors. Moderators may include anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Consequences or outcomes of the experience of chemotherapy-related cognitive change include adjustment to illness, impact on quality of life, and potential for emotional distress. The principle-based concept analysis generated conceptual insights about chemotherapy-related cognitive change that are based on sound scientific evidence. The product of this method of analysis is a theoretical definition that reflects the state of the science. When the impact of cognitive change following chemotherapy is better understood, meaningful and timely interventions can be developed to improve quality of life for cancer survivors.

  9. Concept formation based on value relations evaluated with a matching-to-sample procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio

    2008-01-01

    To study concept formation based on relations, adults were taught and tested on complex discriminations involving figures that varied in colors, forms, and orientations. In Experiment 1, participants learned to select figures with values A1 and B1 or values B1 and C1; thereafter, they consistently selected figures with values A1 and C1. Selections were based on the relations among the values, rather than on perceptual properties. Experiments 2 and 3 studied generalization with a matching-to-sample procedure: participants learned to select "yes" in the presence of the positive figures, such as A1B1, and "no" in the presence of the negative figures. Thereafter, all figures that resulted from combining three values of the three relevant dimensions were probed. Participants typically selected "yes" in the presence of the novel figures that had two or three values related to one another and selected "no" in the presence of the other figures. Finally, two participants learned a simple discrimination. They did not generalize responding to other figures with the same values; instead, their performance in the generalization test remained almost unaltered. Thus, the concept based on relations was not affected by the simple discrimination. These results showed some unique properties of the concept based on relations and challenge previous theories on concept formation.

  10. Nonlinear Kalman filter based on duality relations between continuous and discrete-state stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An alternative application of duality relations of stochastic processes is demonstrated. Although conventional usages of the duality relations need analytical solutions for the dual processes, here I employ numerical solutions of the dual processes and investigate the usefulness. As a demonstration, estimation problems of hidden variables in stochastic differential equations are discussed. Employing algebraic probability theory, a little complicated birth-death process is derived from the stochastic differential equations, and an estimation method based on the ensemble Kalman filter is proposed. As a result, the possibility for making faster computational algorithms based on the duality concepts is shown.

  11. Use-related risk analysis for medical devices based on improved FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Shuai, Ma; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively analyze and control use-related risk of medical devices, quantitative methodologies must be applied. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and risk reduction. In this article, an improved FMEA based on Fuzzy Mathematics and Grey Relational Theory is developed to better carry out user-related risk analysis for medical devices. As an example, the analysis process using this improved FMEA method for a certain medical device (C-arm X-ray machine) is described.

  12. Work-related exhaustion and telomere length: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ahola

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR -based method.After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016 than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009. The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008.These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.

  13. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Revisiting the Content-Based Instruction in Language Teaching in relation with CLIL: Implementation and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has reviewed literature on Content-Based Instruction (CBI along with the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in Language Teaching based on the recent development in the field. This includes the learning principle, factors responsible for the successful implementation of CBI/CLIL, their prospect and outcome. The paper is written based on secondary data from different articles providing exploratory account of contexts observed, paying attention to the views and practices of participants, and review papers on previous studies. The goal is to understand the aspects of CBI, its relation with CLIL, success and shortcoming resulted from the implementation in language teaching.

  15. An Analysis of Organizational Justice and Organizational Identification Relation Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Ali Riza; Dülker, Ayse Pinar; Altin, Fatih; Çelik, Filiz; Dalkiran, Merve; Yulcu, Nazmiye Tuba; Tekin, Selim; Deniz, Ünal

    2017-01-01

    This study intends to analyze the relation between organizational justice and organizational identification based on teachers' perceptions. The study group consists of 1,223 teachers working at secondary and high-schools during the 2015-2016 academic year in 14 county towns of Balikesir in Turkey. The data was collected by Organizational Justice…

  16. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge Development through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastle, Peter A.; Chen, Senlin; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcome of an intervention using the project-based learning (PBL) model to increase students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge. Method: The participants were 185 fifth-grade students from three schools in Alabama (PBL group: n = 109; control group: n = 76). HRF knowledge was…

  17. Single acquisition electrical property mapping based on relative coil sensitivities: A proof-of-concept demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.P.; Sodickson, D.K.; Ipek, O.; Collins, C.M.; Gruetter, R.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeAll methods presented to date to map both conductivity and permittivity rely on multiple acquisitions to compute quantitatively the magnitude of radiofrequency transmit fields, B-1(+). In this work, we propose a method to compute both conductivity and permittivity based solely on relative

  18. The Criterion-Related Validity of a Computer-Based Approach for Scoring Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder; Salehi, Roya

    2006-01-01

    This investigation seeks to confirm a computer-based approach that can be used to score concept maps (Poindexter & Clariana, 2004) and then describes the concurrent criterion-related validity of these scores. Participants enrolled in two graduate courses (n=24) were asked to read about and research online the structure and function of the heart…

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive

  20. Relations between Value-Based Leadership and Distributed Leadership: A Casual Research on School Principles' Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relations between value-based leadership and distributed leadership behaviors of school principals were defined on the basis of the views of the primary school teachers. A casual research was designed for this. 225 primary school teachers were took part in study group determined the maximum variation sampling method. Data were…

  1. Competence-Based, Research-Related Lab Courses for Materials Modeling: The Case of Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Karl Sebastian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2017-01-01

    We are hereby presenting a didactic concept for an advanced lab course that focuses on the design of donor materials for organic solar cells. Its research-related and competence-based approach qualifies the students to independently and creatively apply computational methods and to profoundly and critically discuss the results obtained. The high…

  2. Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl) borate (BIM4) based zwitterionic and related molecules used as electron injection layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaping; Xu, Yunhua; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2013-02-05

    Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate (BIm4) based zwitterionic and/or related molecules for the fabrication of PLEDs is provided. Device performances with these materials approaches that of devices with Ba/Al cathodes for which the cathode contact is ohmic. Methods of producing such materials, and electron injection layers and devices containing these materials are also provided.

  3. Doorways III: Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…

  4. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  5. Exploring the relation between online case-based discussions and learning outcomes in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Vervaeke, Stijn; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    Online case-based discussions, parallel to theoretical dental education, have been highly valued by students and supervisors. This study investigated the relation between variables of online group discussions and learning outcomes. At Ghent University in Belgium, undergraduate dental students (years two and three) are required to participate in online case-based discussion groups (five students/group) in conjunction with two theoretical courses on basic periodontics and related therapy. Each week, a patient case is discussed under supervision of a periodontist, who authored the case and performed the treatment. Each case includes treatment history and demand, intra- and extraoral images, and full diagnostic information with periodontal and radiographic status. For this retrospective study, data were obtained for all 252 students in forty-three discussion groups between 2009 and 2012. Spearman's rank correlations were calculated to investigate the relation among group dynamics (number of group posts and views), individual student contributions (number of individual posts, newly introduced elements, questions, and reactions to other posts), supervisors' interventions (number of posts and posed questions), and learning outcomes (examination result). The results showed that learning outcomes were significantly related to the number of student posts (Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.19), newly introduced elements (ρ=0.21), reactions to other posts (ρ=0.14), number of supervisors' interventions (ρ=0.12), and supervisors' questions (ρ=0.20). These results suggest that individual student contributions during online case-based discussions and the provided supervision were related to learning outcomes.

  6. A 4DCT imaging-based breathing lung model with relative hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Choi, Sanghun [IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, 3131 Seamans Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    To reproduce realistic airway motion and airflow, the authors developed a deforming lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on four-dimensional (4D, space and time) dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 13 time points within controlled tidal volume respiration were used to account for realistic and irregular lung motion in human volunteers. Because of the irregular motion of 4DCT-based airways, we identified an optimal interpolation method for airway surface deformation during respiration, and implemented a computational solid mechanics-based moving mesh algorithm to produce smooth deforming airway mesh. In addition, we developed physiologically realistic airflow boundary conditions for both models based on multiple images and a single image. Furthermore, we examined simplified models based on one or two dynamic or static images. By comparing these simplified models with the model based on 13 dynamic images, we investigated the effects of relative hysteresis of lung structure with respect to lung volume, lung deformation, and imaging methods, i.e., dynamic vs. static scans, on CFD-predicted pressure drop. The effect of imaging method on pressure drop was 24 percentage points due to the differences in airflow distribution and airway geometry. - Highlights: • We developed a breathing human lung CFD model based on 4D-dynamic CT images. • The 4DCT-based breathing lung model is able to capture lung relative hysteresis. • A new boundary condition for lung model based on one static CT image was proposed. • The difference between lung models based on 4D and static CT images was quantified.

  7. Measure the structure similarity of nodes in complex networks based on relative entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Meizhu; Deng, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Similarity of nodes is a basic structure quantification in complex networks. Lots of methods in research on complex networks are based on nodes' similarity such as node's classification, network's community structure detection, network's link prediction and so on. Therefore, how to measure nodes' similarity is an important problem in complex networks. In this paper, a new method is proposed to measure nodes' structure similarity based on relative entropy and each node's local structure. In the new method, each node's structure feature can be quantified as a special kind of information. The quantification of similarity between different pair of nodes can be replaced as the quantification of similarity in structural information. Then relative entropy is used to measure the difference between each pair of nodes' structural information. At last the value of relative entropy between each pair of nodes is used to measure nodes' structure similarity in complex networks. Comparing with existing methods the new method is more accuracy to measure nodes' structure similarity.

  8. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application.

  9. Clustering scientific publications based on citation relations: A systematic comparison of different methods

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between di...

  10. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  11. Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.

  12. The identification of family subtype based on the assessment of subclinical levels of psychosis in relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derks Eske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. Previous studies have distinguished between familial and sporadic forms of schizophrenia and have suggested clinical differentiation between patients and relatives from sporadic and multiplex families. We will introduce a more refined method to distinguish between family subtypes based on psychosis dimension profiles in the relatives of schizophrenia patients. Methods Positive, negative, disorganization, mania, and depression scores were assessed in 1,392 relatives. Mixed Model Latent Class Analysis was used to identify family subtypes. A family subtype is a relatively homogeneous group of families with similar symptom profiles in the relatives in these families. Next, we investigated in 616 schizophrenia patients whether family subtype was associated with symptom profiles, IQ, cannabis dependence/abuse, or age of onset of psychosis. Results Based on the data of relatives, we identified two different family types: “healthy” and “at risk for psychiatric disorder”. Patients from at risk families obtained higher positive scores compared to patients from healthy families (Wald(1 = 6.6293, p = 0.010. No significant differences were found in any of the remaining variables. Conclusions Our findings confirm the existence of high-risk families and although we did not establish an etiological basis for the distinction between family types, genetic studies might reveal whether family subtype is associated with genetic heterogeneity.

  13. A network-based method for the identification of putative genes related to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Huang, GuoHua; Hu, Qinghua; Zou, Quan

    2016-11-01

    Infertility has become one of the major health problems worldwide, with its incidence having risen markedly in recent decades. There is an urgent need to investigate the pathological mechanisms behind infertility and to design effective treatments. However, this is made difficult by the fact that various biological factors have been identified to be related to infertility, including genetic factors. A network-based method was established to identify new genes potentially related to infertility. A network constructed using human protein-protein interactions based on previously validated infertility-related genes enabled the identification of some novel candidate genes. These genes were then filtered by a permutation test and their functional and structural associations with infertility-related genes. Our method identified 23 novel genes, which have strong functional and structural associations with previously validated infertility-related genes. Substantial evidence indicates that the identified genes are strongly related to dysfunction of the four main biological processes of fertility: reproductive development and physiology, gametogenesis, meiosis and recombination, and hormone regulation. The newly discovered genes may provide new directions for investigating infertility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "System Genetics" Guest Editor: Dr. Yudong Cai and Dr. Tao Huang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure-property relations in siloxane-based main chain liquid crystalline elastomers and related linear polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wanting

    2007-12-01

    Soft materials have attracted much scientific and technical interest in recent years. In this thesis, attention has been placed on the underpinning relations between molecular structure and properties of one type of soft matter---main chain liquid crystalline elastomers (MCLCEs), which may have application as shape memory or as auxetic materials. In this work, a number of siloxane-based MCLCEs and their linear polymer analogues (MCLCEs) with chemical variations were synthesized and examined. Among these chemical variations, rigid p-phenylene transverse rod and flat-shaped anthraquinone (AQ) mesogenic monomers were specifically incorporated. Thermal and X-ray analysis found a smectic C phase in most of our MCLCEs, which was induced by the strong self-segregation of siloxane spacers, hydrocarbon spacers and mesogenic rods. The smectic C mesophase of the parent LCE was not grossly affected by terphenyl transverse rods. Mechanical studies of MCLCEs indicated the typical three-region stress-strain curve and a polydomain-to-monodomain transition. Strain recovery experiments of MCLCEs showed a significant dependence of strain retentions on the initial strains but not on the chemical variations, such as the crosslinker content and the lateral substituents on mesogenic rods. The MCLCE with p-phenylene transverse rod showed a highly ordered smectic A mesophase at room temperature with high stiffness. Mechanical properties of MCLCEs with AQ monomers exhibit a strong dependence on the specific combination of hydrocarbon spacer and siloxane spacer, which also strongly affect the formation of pi-pi stacking between AQ units. Poisson's ratio measurement over a wide strain range found distinct trends of Poisson's ratio as a function of the crosslinker content as well as terphenyl transverse rod loadings in its parent MCLCEs.

  15. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Post-Treatment Cancer Survivors: Theory-Based Development of a Web-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Teresa; Walsh, Jane C; Groarke, AnnMarie; Moss-Morris, Rona; Morrissey, Eimear; McGuire, Brian E

    2017-07-04

    Cancer-related fatigue (CrF) is the most common and disruptive symptom experienced by cancer survivors. We aimed to develop a theory-based, interactive Web-based intervention designed to facilitate self-management and enhance coping with CrF following cancer treatment. The aim of our study was to outline the rationale, decision-making processes, methods, and findings which led to the development of a Web-based intervention to be tested in a feasibility trial. This paper outlines the process and method of development of the intervention. An extensive review of the literature and qualitative research was conducted to establish a therapeutic approach for this intervention, based on theory. The psychological principles used in the development process are outlined, and we also clarify hypothesized causal mechanisms. We describe decision-making processes involved in the development of the content of the intervention, input from the target patient group and stakeholders, the design of the website features, and the initial user testing of the website. The cocreation of the intervention with the experts and service users allowed the design team to ensure that an acceptable intervention was developed. This evidence-based Web-based program is the first intervention of its kind based on self-regulation model theory, with the primary aim of targeting the representations of fatigue and enhancing self-management of CrF, specifically. This research sought to integrate psychological theory, existing evidence of effective interventions, empirically derived principles of Web design, and the views of potential users into the systematic planning and design of the intervention of an easy-to-use website for cancer survivors.

  16. Students' perceptions of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community-based and hospital-based teaching: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, M; Martin, J; Murray, E

    2000-08-01

    To obtain the perceptions of first-year clinical medical students of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community-based and hospital-based clinical teaching. A qualitative study. A purposive sample of first-year clinical medical students who had experienced both community-based and hospital-based teaching was invited to participate in individual semistructured interviews or focus groups. Interviews and focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed to facilitate content analysis of the data. A total of 24 students participated in individual interviews and a further 18 took part in focus groups. Respondents identified advantages and disadvantages specific to teaching in each setting. Chief advantages of hospital-based learning were perceived to include learning about specialties and the management of acute conditions, and gaining experience of procedures and investigations. Community-based learning was perceived as particularly appropriate for learning about psychosocial issues in medicine, for increasing students' awareness of patient autonomy and for improving communication skills. In addition, aspects of organization and of teaching methods employed by community tutors, although not site-specific, were viewed as conducive to a positive educational experience. Students perceived some areas, such as clinical skills acquisition, to be equally well learned in either setting. As community-based teaching forms a greater proportion of the undergraduate medical experience, medical educators must find ways of determining the specific advantages that community and hospital settings can contribute to undergraduate learning and of using these resources effectively to develop comprehensive and integrated curricula. Innovations in teaching methods may also be necessary to provide an effective educational experience and promote active learning.

  17. Automatic extraction of semantic relations between medical entities: a rule based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Abacha Asma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information extraction is a complex task which is necessary to develop high-precision information retrieval tools. In this paper, we present the platform MeTAE (Medical Texts Annotation and Exploration. MeTAE allows (i to extract and annotate medical entities and relationships from medical texts and (ii to explore semantically the produced RDF annotations. Results Our annotation approach relies on linguistic patterns and domain knowledge and consists in two steps: (i recognition of medical entities and (ii identification of the correct semantic relation between each pair of entities. The first step is achieved by an enhanced use of MetaMap which improves the precision obtained by MetaMap by 19.59% in our evaluation. The second step relies on linguistic patterns which are built semi-automatically from a corpus selected according to semantic criteria. We evaluate our system’s ability to identify medical entities of 16 types. We also evaluate the extraction of treatment relations between a treatment (e.g. medication and a problem (e.g. disease: we obtain 75.72% precision and 60.46% recall. Conclusions According to our experiments, using an external sentence segmenter and noun phrase chunker may improve the precision of MetaMap-based medical entity recognition. Our pattern-based relation extraction method obtains good precision and recall w.r.t related works. A more precise comparison with related approaches remains difficult however given the differences in corpora and in the exact nature of the extracted relations. The selection of MEDLINE articles through queries related to known drug-disease pairs enabled us to obtain a more focused corpus of relevant examples of treatment relations than a more general MEDLINE query.

  18. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  19. Statistical assessment of biosimilarity based on relative distance between follow-on biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Ho; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2013-02-10

    In this paper, we propose a new three-arm parallel design to investigate biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and an innovator biological product by using relative distance based on the absolute mean differences. In the proposed design, one arm is for the biosimilar product and the other two arms are for the innovator biological product. The distance between the biosimilar product and the innovator biological product is defined by the absolute mean different between two products. Similarly, the distance between the innovator biological products from two difference batches is defined. The relative distance is defined as the ratio of the two distances whose denominator is the distance between the innovator biological products from two different batches. In the proposed design, if the relative distance is less than a prespecified margin, we claim that the two products are claimed to be biosimilar. The statistical test based on the ratio estimator and the linearization method are developed to assess biosimilarity. The power functions of two tests are derived in large sample and compared numerically. Because the statistical test based on the ratio estimator is more powerful than the linearization method, we recommend the statistical test based on the ratio estimator. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206

  1. Research on technology environment improvement of related industries based on internet governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guan, Zhongliang

    2017-08-01

    The technology of Internet is an important factor of industry’s development. Constructing a good technical environment is the foundation of the Internet and related industries’ development. This paper demonstrates the necessity of the construction and improvement of the Internet and the related industries technology environment through comparing the current situation of the related industries. It also points out that China needs to improve the environment of the Internet technology urgently. The paper establishes the technology demand pattern of different related industries, and explores strategies of the different Internet technology environment’s construction and perfection according to the different demand of the strong related Internet and the weak related Internet to the industries environment. This paper analyzes the factors that threaten the security of the Internet, and fully demonstrates the methods and tactics of establishing and improving the technology environment Internet hardware, the Internet and related industries in China under the basis of the framework of comprehensive management of Internet. This paper also studies the construction and improvement of the comprehensive management technology environment based on the Internet industry in China.

  2. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  3. Web based listing of agents associated with new onset work-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, K D; Beckett, W S

    2015-05-01

    Work-related asthma is common and yet remains a challenge to diagnose. Access to a listing of agents associated with work-related asthma has been suggested as useful in assisting in the diagnosis. The Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC) developed criteria that were used to review the peer-reviewed medical literature published in English. Based on this review, substances were designated either as a sensitizing agent or an irritant. The reviews were conducted by a board certified internist/pulmonologist/occupational medicine specialist from 2002 to 2007 and a board certified internist/occupational medicine physician from 2008- date. All reviews were then reviewed by the nine member AOEC board of directors. The original list of agents associated with new onset work-related asthma was derived from the tables of a text book on work-related asthma. After 13 years of review, there are 327 substances designated as asthma agents on the AOEC list; 173 (52.9%) coded as sensitizers, 35 (10.7%) as generally recognized as an asthma causing agent, four (1.2%) as irritants, two (0.6%) as both a sensitizer and an irritant and 113(34.6%) agents that still need to be reviewed. The AOEC has developed a readily available web based listing of agents associated with new onset work-related asthma in adults. The listing is based on peer-reviewed criteria. The listing is updated twice a year. Regular review of the peer-reviewed medical literature is conducted to determine whether new substances should be added to the list. Clinicians should find the list useful when considering the diagnosis of work-related asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Handwritten Chinese character recognition based on supervised competitive learning neural network and block-based relative fuzzy feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Wu, Shuanhu

    2005-02-01

    Offline handwritten chinese character recognition is still a difficult problem because of its large stroke changes, writing anomaly, and the difficulty for obtaining its stroke ranking information. Generally, offline handwritten chinese character can be divided into two procedures: feature extraction for capturing handwritten chinese character information and feature classifying for character recognition. In this paper, we proposed a new Chinese character recognition algorithm. In feature extraction part, we adopted elastic mesh dividing method for extracting the block features and its relative fuzzy features that utilized the relativities between different strokes and distribution probability of a stroke in its neighbor sub-blocks. In recognition part, we constructed a classifier based on a supervised competitive learning algorithm to train competitive learning neural network with the extracted features set. Experimental results show that the performance of our algorithm is encouraging and can be comparable to other algorithms.

  5. Energy-related applications of helium: a revision of the ERDA-13 data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, E.F.; Krupka, M.C.

    1980-08-01

    A re-examination, revision, and re-evaluation of the data base contained within the 1975 document, ERDA-13, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, were completed and results are presented in this report. New technical and resource data, current legislative proposals, updated supply-and-demand relationships, latest legal developments, programmatic changes affectng the future demand for helium, socio-economic aspects, and the effects of the latest energy-consumption projections were considered and are discussed. In contrast to ERDA-13, however, explicit recommendations with respect to the formulation of Federal helium policy, as it pertains to the energy-related applications of helium, are not given.

  6. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuzinatto, R R; de Montigny, M; Khanna, F C; da Silva, J M Hoff

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in details: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles.

  7. Thermal conductivity coefficient of cement-based mortars as air relative humidity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwińska, A.; Garbalińska, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents results of tests and research conducted on three cement-based mortars. At first, moisture sorption was measured at 20°C and six relative humidity levels of the air. The tests were completed with a mathematical description of obtained sorption isotherms. Then, thermal conductivity coefficients λ were measured with stationary and non-stationary techniques on samples of various moisture degree. A linear dependence between coefficient λ and material moisture was determined. Component results of these two stages of research helped determine a mathematical dependence of the thermal conductivity coefficient upon the relative humidity of the tested materials.

  8. Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)

  9. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitnik, Slavko; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Bajec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice of transforming

  10. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-01-01

    The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the pr...

  11. A wavelet based algorithm for the identification of oscillatory event-related potential components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-08-15

    Event related potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate different kinds of ERP components. The algorithm detected the N170 ERP component with a high level of accuracy. We demonstrate that the asymmetry method is more accurate than the matching wavelet algorithm and t-CWT method by 48.67 and 8.03 percent, respectively. This paper provides an off-line demonstration of the algorithm and considers issues related to the extension of the algorithm to real-time applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BASES FOR EVALUATION OF THE BUSINESS EXCELLENCE STATUS IN RELATION TO THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Jankalová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has started the need to achieve the Business Excellence status. Emphasizing the responsibility of the company's behaviour towards society and the environment is confirmed by the adoption of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Based on theoretical background review, there is no single unified methodology for the evaluation of the Business Excellence status in relation to the CSR concept. The aim of this paper is to identify bases for the evaluation of Business Excellence status in relation to the CSR concept. The most important tasks include: to identify internal and external factors affecting Business Excellence status; to identify CSR areas for the needs of evaluation of the Business Excellence status. Primary sources included especially national and foreign scientific publications.

  13. The Research Base for a Public Relations Curriculum: A National Survey of Topics "Essential" to a Public Relations Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Robert; Anderson, James W.

    In order to rate the importance of elements involved in a public relations curriculum, a study analyzed the responses of public relations educators from all academic associations teaching the subject as well as practitioners from all specializations. Questionnaires were sent to 544 people who rated 110 elements as not essential to essential on a…

  14. Discovering relational-based association rules with multiple minimum supports on microarray datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Tseng, Vincent S

    2011-11-15

    Association rule analysis methods are important techniques applied to gene expression data for finding expression relationships between genes. However, previous methods implicitly assume that all genes have similar importance, or they ignore the individual importance of each gene. The relation intensity between any two items has never been taken into consideration. Therefore, we proposed a technique named REMMAR (RElational-based Multiple Minimum supports Association Rules) algorithm to tackle this problem. This method adjusts the minimum relation support (MRS) for each gene pair depending on the regulatory relation intensity to discover more important association rules with stronger biological meaning. In the actual case study of this research, REMMAR utilized the shortest distance between any two genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene regulatory network (GRN) as the relation intensity to discover the association rules from two S.cerevisiae gene expression datasets. Under experimental evaluation, REMMAR can generate more rules with stronger relation intensity, and filter out rules without biological meaning in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). Furthermore, the proposed method has a higher precision (100%) than the precision of reference Apriori method (87.5%) for the discovered rules use a literature survey. Therefore, the proposed REMMAR algorithm can discover stronger association rules in biological relationships dissimilated by traditional methods to assist biologists in complicated genetic exploration.

  15. Diet-related chronic disease in the northeastern United States: a model-based clustering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, Abby; Daepp, Madeleine I G

    2015-09-04

    Obesity and diabetes are global public health concerns. Studies indicate a relationship between socioeconomic, demographic and environmental variables and the spatial patterns of diet-related chronic disease. In this paper, we propose a methodology using model-based clustering and variable selection to predict rates of obesity and diabetes. We test this method through an application in the northeastern United States. We use model-based clustering, an unsupervised learning approach, to find latent clusters of similar US counties based on a set of socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental variables chosen through the process of variable selection. We then use Analysis of Variance and Post-hoc Tukey comparisons to examine differences in rates of obesity and diabetes for the clusters from the resulting clustering solution. We find access to supermarkets, median household income, population density and socioeconomic status to be important in clustering the counties of two northeastern states. The results of the cluster analysis can be used to identify two sets of counties with significantly lower rates of diet-related chronic disease than those observed in the other identified clusters. These relatively healthy clusters are distinguished by the large central and large fringe metropolitan areas contained in their component counties. However, the relationship of socio-demographic factors and diet-related chronic disease is more complicated than previous research would suggest. Additionally, we find evidence of low food access in two clusters of counties adjacent to large central and fringe metropolitan areas. While food access has previously been seen as a problem of inner-city or remote rural areas, this study offers preliminary evidence of declining food access in suburban areas. Model-based clustering with variable selection offers a new approach to the analysis of socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental data for diet-related chronic disease prediction. In a

  16. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  17. Nursing Students’ Competencies in Evidence-Based Practice and Its Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ashktorab; Pashaeypoor; Rassouli; Alavi-Majd

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is one of the nursing professional roles that can lead them to provide the best and more effective care. However, no studies are available on nursing students’ competencies in EBP. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the nursing students’ knowledge, attitude and intention to implement EBP and its related factors in two nursing and midwifery faculties in Tehran, Iran. ...

  18. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  19. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  20. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  1. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  2. LEOPARD: A grid-based dispersion relation solver for arbitrary gyrotropic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astfalk, Patrick; Jenko, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Particle velocity distributions measured in collisionless space plasmas often show strong deviations from idealized model distributions. Despite this observational evidence, linear wave analysis in space plasma environments such as the solar wind or Earth's magnetosphere is still mainly carried out using dispersion relation solvers based on Maxwellians or other parametric models. To enable a more realistic analysis, we present the new grid-based kinetic dispersion relation solver LEOPARD (Linear Electromagnetic Oscillations in Plasmas with Arbitrary Rotationally-symmetric Distributions) which no longer requires prescribed model distributions but allows for arbitrary gyrotropic distribution functions. In this work, we discuss the underlying numerical scheme of the code and we show a few exemplary benchmarks. Furthermore, we demonstrate a first application of LEOPARD to ion distribution data obtained from hybrid simulations. In particular, we show that in the saturation stage of the parallel fire hose instability, the deformation of the initial bi-Maxwellian distribution invalidates the use of standard dispersion relation solvers. A linear solver based on bi-Maxwellians predicts further growth even after saturation, while LEOPARD correctly indicates vanishing growth rates. We also discuss how this complies with former studies on the validity of quasilinear theory for the resonant fire hose. In the end, we briefly comment on the role of LEOPARD in directly analyzing spacecraft data, and we refer to an upcoming paper which demonstrates a first application of that kind.

  3. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Nav channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Nav channels, with Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Nav channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Nav channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Cav channel Cav1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Nav channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Nav channels, generated a homologous model of human Nav1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Nav channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Nav channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  4. Structure-based assessment of disease-related mutations in human voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiyun; Liu, Minhao; Yan, S Frank; Yan, Nieng

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels are essential for the rapid upstroke of action potentials and the propagation of electrical signals in nerves and muscles. Defects of Na v channels are associated with a variety of channelopathies. More than 1000 disease-related mutations have been identified in Na v channels, with Na v 1.1 and Na v 1.5 each harboring more than 400 mutations. Na v channels represent major targets for a wide array of neurotoxins and drugs. Atomic structures of Na v channels are required to understand their function and disease mechanisms. The recently determined atomic structure of the rabbit voltage-gated calcium (Ca v ) channel Ca v 1.1 provides a template for homology-based structural modeling of the evolutionarily related Na v channels. In this Resource article, we summarized all the reported disease-related mutations in human Na v channels, generated a homologous model of human Na v 1.7, and structurally mapped disease-associated mutations. Before the determination of structures of human Na v channels, the analysis presented here serves as the base framework for mechanistic investigation of Na v channelopathies and for potential structure-based drug discovery.

  5. Ontology-based automatic identification of public health-related Turkish tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Emine Ela; Yapar, Kürşad; Küçük, Dilek; Küçük, Doğan

    2017-04-01

    Social media analysis, such as the analysis of tweets, is a promising research topic for tracking public health concerns including epidemics. In this paper, we present an ontology-based approach to automatically identify public health-related Turkish tweets. The system is based on a public health ontology that we have constructed through a semi-automated procedure. The ontology concepts are expanded through a linguistically motivated relaxation scheme as the last stage of ontology development, before being integrated into our system to increase its coverage. The ultimate lexical resource which includes the terms corresponding to the ontology concepts is used to filter the Twitter stream so that a plausible tweet subset, including mostly public-health related tweets, can be obtained. Experiments are carried out on two million genuine tweets and promising precision rates are obtained. Also implemented within the course of the current study is a Web-based interface, to track the results of this identification system, to be used by the related public health staff. Hence, the current social media analysis study has both technical and practical contributions to the significant domain of public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Random Forest Classifier for Zero-Shot Learning Based on Relative Attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuhu; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Xuesong; Yu, Qiang

    2017-03-21

    For the zero-shot image classification with relative attributes (RAs), the traditional method requires that not only all seen and unseen images obey Gaussian distribution, but also the classifications on testing samples are made by maximum likelihood estimation. We therefore propose a novel zero-shot image classifier called random forest based on relative attribute. First, based on the ordered and unordered pairs of images from the seen classes, the idea of ranking support vector machine is used to learn ranking functions for attributes. Then, according to the relative relationship between seen and unseen classes, the RA ranking-score model per attribute for each unseen image is built, where the appropriate seen classes are automatically selected to participate in the modeling process. In the third step, the random forest classifier is trained based on the RA ranking scores of attributes for all seen and unseen images. Finally, the class labels of testing images can be predicted via the trained RF. Experiments on Outdoor Scene Recognition, Pub Fig, and Shoes data sets show that our proposed method is superior to several state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification capability for zero-shot learning problems.

  7. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Relative toxicity for indoor semi volatile organic compounds based on neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin; Baumont, Emmanuel; Glorennec, Philippe; Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2017-09-05

    Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) are contaminants commonly found in dwellings as a result of their use as plasticizers, flame retardants, or pesticides in building materials and consumer products. Many SVOCs are suspected of being neurotoxic, based on mammal experimentation (impairment of locomotor activity, spatial learning/memory or behavioral changes), raising the question of cumulative risk assessment. The aim of this work is to estimate the relative toxicity of such SVOCs, based on neuronal death. SVOCs fulfilling the following conditions were included: detection frequency >10% in dwellings, availability of data on effects or mechanism of action for neurotoxicity, and availability of dose-response relationships based on cell viability assays as a proxy of neuronal death. Benchmark concentration values (BMC) were estimated using a Hill model, and compared to assess relative toxicity. Of the 58 SVOCs selected, 28 were suspected of being neurotoxic in mammals, and 21 have been documented as inducing a decrease in cell viability in vitro. 13 have at least one dose-response relationship that can be used to derive a BMC based on a 10% fall in neuronal viability. Based on this in vitro endpoint, PCB-153 appeared to be the most toxic compound, having the lowest BMC10 (0.072μM) and diazinon the least toxic compound, having the highest BMC10 (94.35μM). We showed that experimental designs (in particular choice of cell lines) had a significant influence on BMC calculation. For the first time, the relative in vitro toxicity of 13 indoor contaminants belonging to different chemical families has been assessed on the basis of neuronal cell viability. Lack of comparable toxicity datasets limits the number of SVOCs that can be included. More standardized protocols in terms of cell lines, species and exposure duration should be developed with a view to cumulative risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relational Research between China’s Marine S&T and Economy Based on RPGRA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To make up the defect of the existing model, an improved grey relational model based on radian perspective (RPGRA is put forward. According to the similarity of the relative change trend of time series translating traditional grey relational degree into radian algorithm within different piecewise functions, it greatly improves the accuracy and validity of the research results by making full use of the poor information in time series. Meanwhile, the properties of the RPGRA were discussed. The relationship between China’s marine S&T and marine economy is researched using the new model, so the validity and creditability of RPGRA are illustrated. The empirical results show that marine scientific and technological research projects, marine scientific and technological patents granted, and research funds receipts of the marine scientific research institutions have greater relationship with GOP, which indicates that they have more impact on China’s marine economy.

  10. Experienced drug users assess the relative harms and benefits of drugs: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin Lester; Nutt, David John

    2013-01-01

    A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used in the UK. Asked to assess the relative harms of these drugs, they ranked alcohol and tobacco as the most harmful, and three "Class A" drugs (MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin) and one class B (cannabis) were ranked as the four least harmful drugs. When asked to assess the relative potential for benefit of the 11 drugs, MDMA, LSD, psilocybin, and cannabis were ranked in the top four; and when asked why these drugs are beneficial, rather than simply report hedonic properties, they referred to potential therapeutic applications (e.g., as tools to assist psychotherapy). These results provide a useful insight into the opinions of experienced drug users on a subject about which they have a rare and intimate knowledge.

  11. Computer-aided tool for the teaching of relational algebra in data base courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Villalobos Murillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the design and implementation of computer-aided tool called Relational Algebra Translator (RAT in data base courses, for the teaching of relational algebra. There was a problem when introducing the relational algebra topic in the course EIF 211 Design and Implementation of Databases, which belongs to the career of Engineering in Information Systems of the National University of Costa Rica, because students attending this course were lacking profound mathematical knowledge, which led to a learning problem, being this an important subject to understand what the data bases search and request do RAT comes along to enhance the teaching-learning process. It introduces the architectural and design principles required for its implementation, such as: the language symbol table, the gramatical rules and the basic algorithms that RAT uses to translate from relational algebra to SQL language. This tool has been used for one periods and has demonstrated to be effective in the learning-teaching process.  This urged investigators to publish it in the web site: www.slinfo.una.ac.cr in order for this tool to be used in other university courses.

  12. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  13. Familiarization may minimize age-related declines in rule-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul

    2017-11-01

    Being able to categorize promotes cognitive economy by reducing the amount of information that an individual needs to remember. This ability is particularly important in older adulthood, when executive functioning abilities are known to decline. Prior research has shown that older adults can learn simple categories quite well but struggle when learning more complex categories which place a demand on executive function resources. The goal of Experiments 1 to 3 was to assess whether familiarizing older adults with complex rule-based or non-rule-based categories prior to beginning a categorization task would minimize age-related categorization deficits. Both rule-based and non-rule-based category learning improved among older adults following pretraining, but the improvements to rule-based learning were more drastic, suggesting that executive functioning plays a heavier role in rule-based category learning. Findings provide a potential solution for improving the category learning abilities of older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Relative Packing Groups in Template-Based Structure Prediction: Cooperative Effects of True Positive Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  15. Preference-based health-related quality of life among victims of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael; Frisén, Ann

    2016-02-01

    No previous study has estimated the association between bullying and preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) ("utility"), knowledge of which may be used for cost-effectiveness studies of interventions designed to prevent bullying. Therefore, the aim of the study was to estimate preference-based HRQoL among victims of bullying compared to non-victims. A cross-sectional survey data collection among Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years in the first year of upper secondary school was conducted in the city of Gothenburg in Sweden (N = 758). Preference-based HRQoL was estimated with the SF-6D. Regression analyses were conducted to adjust for some individual-level background variable. Mean preference-based health-related quality of life scores were 0.77 and 0.71 for non-victims and victims of bullying, respectively. The difference of 0.06 points was statistically significant (p bullying prevention interventions, facilitating a comparison between costs and quality-adjusted life-years.

  16. Effectiveness of environment-based interventions for people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, René

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of evidence for the efficacy of environment-based interventions on the affect, behavior, and performance of people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias was conducted as part of the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Literature Review Project. Thirty-three reports met inclusion criteria. Results suggest that ambient music, aromatherapy, and Snoezelen are modestly effective in reducingagitation but do not consistently have long-term effects. Visually complex environments that give the illusion of barriers deter people from wandering to unsafe places but do not reduce the urge to wander. Evidence that bright light therapy can aid in regulating mood and the sleep-wake cycle and thus help people remain awake during the day is preliminary. Montessori-based programming can be useful in matching activities to the person's remaining skills. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term effect, contraindications, and best dosages of these interventions.

  17. Optical Fiber Relative Humidity Sensor Based on a FBG with a Di-Ureasil Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. H. Correia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we proposed a relative humidity (RH sensor based on a Bragg grating written in an optical fiber, associated with a coating of organo-silica hybrid material prepared by the sol-gel method. The organo-silica-based coating has a strong adhesion to the optical fiber and its expansion is reversibly affected by the change in the RH values (15.0–95.0% of the surrounding environment, allowing an increased sensitivity (22.2 pm/%RH and durability due to the presence of a siliceous-based inorganic component. The developed sensor was tested in a real structure health monitoring essay, in which the RH inside two concrete blocks with different porosity values was measured over 1 year. The results demonstrated the potential of the proposed optical sensor in the monitoring of civil engineering structures.

  18. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra F H; Antunes, Paulo; Pecoraro, Edison; Lima, Patrícia P; Varum, Humberto; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S; André, Paulo S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we proposed a relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a Bragg grating written in an optical fiber, associated with a coating of organo-silica hybrid material prepared by the sol-gel method. The organo-silica-based coating has a strong adhesion to the optical fiber and its expansion is reversibly affected by the change in the RH values (15.0-95.0%) of the surrounding environment, allowing an increased sensitivity (22.2 pm/%RH) and durability due to the presence of a siliceous-based inorganic component. The developed sensor was tested in a real structure health monitoring essay, in which the RH inside two concrete blocks with different porosity values was measured over 1 year. The results demonstrated the potential of the proposed optical sensor in the monitoring of civil engineering structures.

  19. Living alone and alcohol-related mortality: a population-based cohort study from Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Herttua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation and living alone are increasingly common in industrialised countries. However, few studies have investigated the potential public health implications of this trend. We estimated the relative risk of death from alcohol-related causes among individuals living alone and determined whether this risk changed after a large reduction in alcohol prices.We conducted a population-based natural experimental study of a change in the price of alcohol that occurred because of new laws enacted in Finland in January and March of 2004, utilising national registers. The data are based on an 11% sample of the Finnish population aged 15-79 y supplemented with an oversample of deaths. The oversample covered 80% of all deaths during the periods January 1, 2000-December 31, 2003 (the four years immediately before the price reduction of alcohol, and January 1, 2004-December 31, 2007 (the four years immediately after the price reduction. Alcohol-related mortality was defined using both underlying and contributory causes of death. During the 8-y follow-up about 18,200 persons died due to alcohol-related causes. Among married or cohabiting people the increase in alcohol-related mortality was small or non-existing between the periods 2000-2003 and 2004-2007, whereas for those living alone, this increase was substantial, especially in men and women aged 50-69 y. For liver disease in men, the most common fatal alcohol-related disease, the age-adjusted risk ratio associated with living alone was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 3.3, 4.1 before and 4.9 (95% CI 4.4, 5.4 after the price reduction (p<0.001 for difference in risk ratios. In women, the corresponding risk ratios were 1.7 (95% CI 1.4, 2.1 and 2.4 (95% CI 2.0, 2.9, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Living alone was also associated with other mortality from alcohol-related diseases (range of risk ratios 2.3 to 8.0 as well as deaths from accidents and violence with alcohol as a contributing cause (risk ratios

  20. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Saurin; Cherla, Deepa V; Shukla, Pratik A; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-09-01

    Various professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and health care-related Web sites provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEMs) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the 6th-grade reading level recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of this study is to assess the readability of facial fracture (FF)-related IPEMs and compare readability levels of IPEMs provided by four sources: professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and miscellaneous sources. Analysis of IPEMs on FFs available on Google.com. The readability of 41 FF-related IPEMs was assessed with four readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. Only 4.9% of IPEMs were written at or below the 6th-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were: FRES 54.10, FKGL 9.89, SMOG 12.73, and Gunning FOG 12.98, translating into FF-related IPEMs being written at a "difficult" writing level, which is above the level of reading understanding of the average American adult. IPEMs related to FFs are written above the recommended 6th-grade reading level. Consequently, this information would be difficult to understand by the average US patient. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Criterion-Related Validity of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Writing with Narrative and Expository Prompts Relative to Passage Copying Speed in 10th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Faust, Dennis; Mitchell, Rachel R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the criterion-related validity of four indicators of curriculum-based measurement in writing (WCBM) when using expository versus narrative writing prompts as compared to the validity of passage copying speed. Specifically, we compared criterion-related validity of production-dependent (total words written, correct word sequences),…

  2. A generalizable NLP framework for fast development of pattern-based biomedical relation extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Torii, Manabu; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2014-08-23

    Text mining is increasingly used in the biomedical domain because of its ability to automatically gather information from large amount of scientific articles. One important task in biomedical text mining is relation extraction, which aims to identify designated relations among biological entities reported in literature. A relation extraction system achieving high performance is expensive to develop because of the substantial time and effort required for its design and implementation. Here, we report a novel framework to facilitate the development of a pattern-based biomedical relation extraction system. It has several unique design features: (1) leveraging syntactic variations possible in a language and automatically generating extraction patterns in a systematic manner, (2) applying sentence simplification to improve the coverage of extraction patterns, and (3) identifying referential relations between a syntactic argument of a predicate and the actual target expected in the relation extraction task. A relation extraction system derived using the proposed framework achieved overall F-scores of 72.66% for the Simple events and 55.57% for the Binding events on the BioNLP-ST 2011 GE test set, comparing favorably with the top performing systems that participated in the BioNLP-ST 2011 GE task. We obtained similar results on the BioNLP-ST 2013 GE test set (80.07% and 60.58%, respectively). We conducted additional experiments on the training and development sets to provide a more detailed analysis of the system and its individual modules. This analysis indicates that without increasing the number of patterns, simplification and referential relation linking play a key role in the effective extraction of biomedical relations. In this paper, we present a novel framework for fast development of relation extraction systems. The framework requires only a list of triggers as input, and does not need information from an annotated corpus. Thus, we reduce the involvement of domain

  3. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  4. Types of Reasoning in Framing Based Plant Anatomy and It Relation to Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermayanti; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.

    2017-02-01

    A study about the spatial framing in plant anatomy course was conducted to investigate the role of framing in improving student reasoning in understanding the structure and function of plant and its relation to spatial thinking. A number of biology students (n=35) at State University in South Sumatra, Indonesia was involved as participants in this study. Data was collected using reasoning test based on Marzano framework and spatial thinking instrument test that had been developed and based on expert judgment. Data obtained was processed by calculating the average and percentage (%) on each indicator. Research findings show that there was improvement in reasoning and spatial thinking of students after having experience through framing based learning with an average N-gain 51.9 and 46.6 (moderate category). Learning of framing based plant anatomy course improved the students reasoning at each indicator. Students reasoning before and after learning based framing instruction are: (1) comparing (41.1 and 87.4); (2) classifying (14.7 and 77.1); (3) inducing (28.6 and 64.6); (4) deducing (15.7 and 55.7); (5) analyzing error (21.9 and 40.0); (6) constructing support (33.3 and 54.3); (7) abstracting (31.4 and 34.3); and (8) analyzing perspective (38.3 and 47.1). Analysis of the relationship between reasoning related concepts of plant anatomy and spatial thinking showed r=0.454 (p=0.00*>0.01) (significant correlation). Further it was found that students’ spatial thinking including generating a representation (i); maintaining a representations in working memory (ii); scanning the representation (iii); and transforming of representation (iv) are factors that improved student reasoning.

  5. Stereo-Vision-Based Relative Pose Estimation for the Rendezvous and Docking of Noncooperative Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous on-orbit servicing is expected to play an important role in future space activities. Acquiring the relative pose information and inertial parameters of target is one of the key technologies for autonomous capturing. In this paper, an estimation method of relative pose based on stereo vision is presented for the final phase of the rendezvous and docking of noncooperative satellites. The proposed estimation method utilizes the sparse stereo vision algorithm instead of the dense stereo algorithm. The method consists of three parts: (1 body frame reestablishment, which establishes the body-fixed frame for the target satellite using the natural features on the surface and measures the relative attitude based on TRIAD and QUEST; (2 translational parameter estimation, which designs a standard Kalman filter to estimate the translational states and the location of mass center; (3 rotational parameter estimation, which designs an extended Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter, respectively, to estimate the rotational states and all the moment-of-inertia ratios. Compared to the dense stereo algorithm, the proposed method can avoid degeneracy when the target has a high degree of axial symmetry and reduce the number of sensors. The validity of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

  6. Ontology-Oriented Diagnostic System for Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Relation Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method—92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts’ expectations.

  7. Site-specific acid-base properties of pholcodine and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Z; Hosztafi, S; Noszál, B

    2006-11-01

    The acid-base properties of pholcodine, a cough-depressant agent, and related compounds including metabolites were studied by 1H NMR-pH titrations, and are characterised in terms of macroscopic and microscopic protonation constants. New N-methylated derivatives were also synthesized in order to quantitate site- and nucleus-specific protonation shifts and to unravel microscopic acid-base equilibria. The piperidine nitrogen was found to be 38 and 400 times more basic than its morpholine counterpart in pholcodine and norpholcodine, respectively. The protonation data show that the molecule of pholcodine bears an average of positive charge of 1.07 at physiological pH, preventing it from entering the central nervous system, a plausible reason for its lack of analgesic or addictive properties. The protonation constants of pholcodine and its derivatives are interpreted by comparing with related molecules of pharmaceutical interest. The pH-dependent relative concentrations of the variously protonated forms of pholcodine and morphine are depicted in distribution diagrams.

  8. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    CERN Document Server

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined the effect of more rapid increase of potential energy of limestone with relatively low lattice energy as compared with the others.

  9. Topology-Based Approach to Predict Relative Stabilities of Charged and Functionalized Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Alcami, Manuel; Martin, Fernando

    2018-01-27

    Understanding the relationship between structure and stability is one of the fundamental aspects of fullerene chemistry, as the number of possible cage isomers is very large and complexity increases by orders of magnitude when chemical groups are attached to the fullerene cage. The well-established stability rules valid for neutral fullerenes do not apply to many charged or functionalized fullerenes. Here we present the theory, implementation and applications of two simple topology-based models that allow one to predict the relative stability of charged and functionalized fullerenes without the need for quantum chemistry calculations: (i) the charge stabilization index (CSI) model, based on the concepts of cage connectivity and frontier π orbitals, which offers a general framework for the relative stability of both positively and negatively charged fullerenes, as well as endohedral metallofullerenes, and (ii) the exohedral fullerene stabilization index (XSI) model, which incorporates all key factors governing the stability of exohedral fullerenes, namely, π delocalization, σ strain and steric hindrance between addends. Based exclusively on topological information, both models are powerful prescreening tools for predicting the most stable structures of a large number of charged and functionalized fullerenes. For easy use by fullerene chemists, both models have been implemented in the FullFun (for Fullerene Functionalization) software package, whose effectiveness and efficiency are demonstrated by some illustrative examples.

  10. Estimating material parameters of a structurally based constitutive relation for skin mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Jor, Jessica W. Y.

    2010-11-25

    This paper presents a structurally based modeling framework to characterize the structure-function relation in skin tissues, based upon biaxial tensile experiments performed in vitro on porcine skin. Equi-axial deformations were imposed by stretching circular skin specimens uniformly along twelve directions, and the resultant loads at the membrane attachment points were measured. Displacement fields at each deformation step were tracked using an image 2D cross-correlation technique. A modeling framework was developed to simulate the experiments, whereby measured forces were applied to finite element models that were created to represent the geometry and structure of the tissue samples. Parameters of a structurally based constitutive relation were then identified using nonlinear optimization. Results showed that the ground matrix stiffness ranged from 5 to 32 kPa, fiber orientation mean from 2 to 13. from the torso midline, fiber undulation mean from 1.04 to 1.34 and collagen fiber stiffness from 48 to 366 MPa. It was concluded that the objective function was highly sensitive to the mean orientation and that a priori information about fiber orientation mean was important for the reliable identification of constitutive parameters. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  11. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  12. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  13. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  14. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Šubelj

    Full Text Available Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  15. Increases in synthetic cannabinoids-related harms: Results from a longitudinal web-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Barratt, Monica J; Smith, Alan G; Sheth, Amit; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRA), also known as "K2" or "Spice," have drawn considerable attention due to their potential of abuse and harmful consequences. More research is needed to understand user experiences of SCRA-related effects. We use semi-automated information processing techniques through eDrugTrends platform to examine SCRA-related effects and their variations through a longitudinal content analysis of web-forum data. English language posts from three drug-focused web-forums were extracted and analyzed between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2015. Search terms are based on the Drug Use Ontology (DAO) created for this study (189 SCRA-related and 501 effect-related terms). EDrugTrends NLP-based text processing tools were used to extract posts mentioning SCRA and their effects. Generalized linear regression was used to fit restricted cubic spline functions of time to test whether the proportion of drug-related posts that mention SCRA (and no other drug) and the proportion of these "SCRA-only" posts that mention SCRA effects have changed over time, with an adjustment for multiple testing. 19,052 SCRA-related posts (Bluelight (n=2782), Forum A (n=3882), and Forum B (n=12,388)) posted by 2543 international users were extracted. The most frequently mentioned effects were "getting high" (44.0%), "hallucinations" (10.8%), and "anxiety" (10.2%). The frequency of SCRA-only posts declined steadily over the study period. The proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning positive effects (e.g., "High" and "Euphoria") steadily decreased, while the proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning negative effects (e.g., "Anxiety," 'Nausea," "Overdose") increased over the same period. This study's findings indicate that the proportion of negative effects mentioned in web forum posts and linked to SCRA has increased over time, suggesting that recent generations of SCRA generate more harms. This is also one of the first studies to conduct automated content analysis

  16. Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorder - Current Perspectives and Evidence-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Supriya; McMillan, Roddy

    2015-01-01

    Pain-related temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is one of the top three most common chronic pain conditions, along with headaches and back pain. TMD has complex pathophysiology and significant associations with a variety of other chronic pain conditions, eg fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine. Chronic TMD is associated with a negative impact upon quality of life and high levels of healthcare utility. It is important that clinicians are able to diagnose TMD correctly, provide appropriate management in keeping with current evidence-based practice, and identify when to refer patients to specialist care. The presence of risk factors, eg anxiety, depression, pain-related disability and chronic pain conditions elsewhere in the body, may help to identify which TMD patients require referral for multidisciplinary management. TMD should be managed using a holistic approach, incorporating patient education and encouragement towards self-management. TMD care pathways should consider using the three'pillars'of pain management: physical therapies, pharmacotherapy and clinical psychology.

  17. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.

  18. Prediction of protein functions based on function-function correlation relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ka-Lok; Ciou, Jin-Shuei; Huang, Chien-Hung

    2010-03-01

    A protein function pair approach, based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, is proposed to predict protein functions. Randomization tests are performed on the PPI dataset, which resulted in a protein function correlation scoring value which is used to rank the relative importance of a function pair. It has been found that certain classes of protein functions tend to be correlated together. Scoring values of these correlation pairs allow us to predict the functionality of a protein given that it interacts with proteins having well-defined function annotations. The jackknife test is used to validate the function pair method. The protein function pair approach achieves a prediction sensitivity comparable to an approach using more sophisticated method. The main advantages of this approach are as follows: (i) a set of function-function correlation relations are derived and intuitive biological interpretation can be achieved, and (ii) its simplicity, only two parameters are needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Learning connective-based word representations for implicit discourse relation identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé Elodie; Denis, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a simple semi-supervised ap-proach to improve implicit discourse relation identification. This approach harnesses large amounts of automatically extracted discourse connectives along with their arguments to con-struct new distributional word representations. Specifically, we represent...... words in the space of discourse connectives as a way to directly encode their rhetorical function. Experiments on the Penn Discourse Treebank demonstrate the effectiveness of these task-tailored repre-sentations in predicting implicit discourse re-lations. Our results indeed show that, despite...... their simplicity, these connective-based rep-resentations outperform various off-the-shelf word embeddings, and achieve state-of-the-art performance on this problem....

  1. Content-Based Image Retrieval Method using the Relative Location of Multiple ROIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, J.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently the method of specifying multiple regions of interest (ROI based image retrieval has been suggested. However it measures the similarity of the images without proper consideration of the spatial layouts of the ROIs and thus fails to accurately reflect the intent of the user. In this paper, we propose a new similarity measurement using the relative layouts of the ROIs. The proposed method divides images into blocks of certain size and extracted MPEG-7 dominant colors from the blocks overlapping with the user-designated ROIs to measure their similarities with the target images. At this point, similarity was weighted when the relative location of the ROIs in the query image and the target image was the same. The relative location was calculated by four directions (i.e. up, down, left and right of the basis ROI. The proposed method by an experiment using MPEG-7 XM shows that its performance is higher than the global image retrieval method or the retrieval method that does not consider the relative location of ROIs.

  2. Laser-based Relative Navigation Using GPS Measurements for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a precise relative navigation algorithm using both laser and Global Positioning System (GPS measurements in real time. The measurement model of the navigation algorithm between two spacecraft is comprised of relative distances measured by laser instruments and single differences of GPS pseudo-range measurements in spherical coordinates. Based on the measurement model, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is applied to smooth the pseudo-range measurements and to obtain the relative navigation solution. While the navigation algorithm using only laser measurements might become inaccurate because of the limited accuracy of spacecraft attitude estimation when the distance between spacecraft is rather large, the proposed approach is able to provide an accurate solution even in such cases by employing the smoothed GPS pseudo-range measurements. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the errors of the proposed algorithm are reduced by more than about 12% compared to those of an algorithm using only laser measurements, as the accuracy of angular measurements is greater than 0.001° at relative distances greater than 30 km.

  3. A Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations Based ANP Model for R&D Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly changing economy, technology companies have to make decisions on research and development (R&D projects investment on a routine bases with such decisions having a direct impact on that company’s profitability, sustainability and future growth. Companies seeking profitable opportunities for investment and project selection must consider many factors such as resource limitations and differences in assessment, with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Often, differences in perception by the various stakeholders hinder the attainment of a consensus of opinion and coordination efforts. Thus, in this study, a hybrid model is developed for the consideration of the complex criteria taking into account the different opinions of the various stakeholders who often come from different departments within the company and have different opinions about which direction to take. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL approach is used to convert the cause and effect relations representing the criteria into a visual network structure. A consistent fuzzy preference relations based analytic network process (CFPR-ANP method is developed to calculate the preference-weights of the criteria based on the derived network structure. The CFPR-ANP is an improvement over the original analytic network process (ANP method in that it reduces the problem of inconsistency as well as the number of pairwise comparisons. The combined complex proportional assessment (COPRAS-G method is applied with fuzzy grey relations to resolve conflicts arising from differences in information and opinions provided by the different stakeholders about the selection of the most suitable R&D projects. This novel combination approach is then used to assist an international brand-name company to prioritize projects and make project decisions that will maximize returns and ensure sustainability for the company.

  4. Systematically characterizing and prioritizing chemosensitivity related gene based on Gene Ontology and protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genes that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity of cancer cells is of great importance. Chemosensitivity related genes (CRGs have been widely utilized to guide clinical and cancer chemotherapy decisions. In addition, CRGs potentially share functional characteristics and network features in protein interaction networks (PPIN. Methods In this study, we proposed a method to identify CRGs based on Gene Ontology (GO and PPIN. Firstly, we documented 150 pairs of drug-CCRG (curated chemosensitivity related gene from 492 published papers. Secondly, we characterized CCRGs from the perspective of GO and PPIN. Thirdly, we prioritized CRGs based on CCRGs’ GO and network characteristics. Lastly, we evaluated the performance of the proposed method. Results We found that CCRG enriched GO terms were most often related to chemosensitivity and exhibited higher similarity scores compared to randomly selected genes. Moreover, CCRGs played key roles in maintaining the connectivity and controlling the information flow of PPINs. We then prioritized CRGs using CCRG enriched GO terms and CCRG network characteristics in order to obtain a database of predicted drug-CRGs that included 53 CRGs, 32 of which have been reported to affect susceptibility to drugs. Our proposed method identifies a greater number of drug-CCRGs, and drug-CCRGs are much more significantly enriched in predicted drug-CRGs, compared to a method based on the correlation of gene expression and drug activity. The mean area under ROC curve (AUC for our method is 65.2%, whereas that for the traditional method is 55.2%. Conclusions Our method not only identifies CRGs with expression patterns strongly correlated with drug activity, but also identifies CRGs in which expression is weakly correlated with drug activity. This study provides the framework for the identification of signatures that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity and offers a valuable

  5. Dynamic taxonomies applied to a web-based relational database for geo-hydrological risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G. M.; Nigrelli, G.; Bosio, A.; Chiarle, M.; Luino, F.

    2012-02-01

    In its 40 years of activity, the Research Institute for Geo-hydrological Protection of the Italian National Research Council has amassed a vast and varied collection of historical documentation on landslides, muddy-debris flows, and floods in northern Italy from 1600 to the present. Since 2008, the archive resources have been maintained through a relational database management system. The database is used for routine study and research purposes as well as for providing support during geo-hydrological emergencies, when data need to be quickly and accurately retrieved. Retrieval speed and accuracy are the main objectives of an implementation based on a dynamic taxonomies model. Dynamic taxonomies are a general knowledge management model for configuring complex, heterogeneous information bases that support exploratory searching. At each stage of the process, the user can explore or browse the database in a guided yet unconstrained way by selecting the alternatives suggested for further refining the search. Dynamic taxonomies have been successfully applied to such diverse and apparently unrelated domains as e-commerce and medical diagnosis. Here, we describe the application of dynamic taxonomies to our database and compare it to traditional relational database query methods. The dynamic taxonomy interface, essentially a point-and-click interface, is considerably faster and less error-prone than traditional form-based query interfaces that require the user to remember and type in the "right" search keywords. Finally, dynamic taxonomy users have confirmed that one of the principal benefits of this approach is the confidence of having considered all the relevant information. Dynamic taxonomies and relational databases work in synergy to provide fast and precise searching: one of the most important factors in timely response to emergencies.

  6. Inferring rare disease risk variants based on exact probabilities of sharing by multiple affected relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexandre; Younkin, Samuel G.; Parker, Margaret M.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Mangold, Elisabeth; Albacha-Hejazi, Hasan; Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Family-based designs are regaining popularity for genomic sequencing studies because they provide a way to test cosegregation with disease of variants that are too rare in the population to be tested individually in a conventional case–control study. Results: Where only a few affected subjects per family are sequenced, the probability that any variant would be shared by all affected relatives—given it occurred in any one family member—provides evidence against the null hypothesis of a complete absence of linkage and association. A P-value can be obtained as the sum of the probabilities of sharing events as (or more) extreme in one or more families. We generalize an existing closed-form expression for exact sharing probabilities to more than two relatives per family. When pedigree founders are related, we show that an approximation of sharing probabilities based on empirical estimates of kinship among founders obtained from genome-wide marker data is accurate for low levels of kinship. We also propose a more generally applicable approach based on Monte Carlo simulations. We applied this method to a study of 55 multiplex families with apparent non-syndromic forms of oral clefts from four distinct populations, with whole exome sequences available for two or three affected members per family. The rare single nucleotide variant rs149253049 in ADAMTS9 shared by affected relatives in three Indian families achieved significance after correcting for multiple comparisons (p=2×10−6). Availability and implementation: Source code and binaries of the R package RVsharing are freely available for download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RVsharing/index.html. Contact: alexandre.bureau@msp.ulaval.ca or ingo@jhu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24740360

  7. Activity-based cost analysis of opioid-related nausea and vomiting among inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Leopold; Koch, Tilo; Kranke, Peter; Rüsch, Dirk; Torossian, Alexander; Nardi-Hiebl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and/or vomiting (N/V) are frequent side effects of opioid drugs. These are of major concerns to patients and caregivers and only few studies have focused on their economical costs. This is a prospective, nonproduct-related, activity-based evaluation of personnel and material costs of opioid-related N/V among inpatients. Data were obtained from surgical, general medicine, and palliative care wards at 16 German hospitals of different size, healthcare mandate, and ownership. According to predefined criteria, of 462 documented N/V events, 340 were diagnosed as opioid related. Elicited activities and pharmacological interventions for N/V episodes followed local standards. Both materials used and the time engaged to treat patients with N/V were documented on an "ad hoc" activity recording form. The total cost of an opioid-related N/V episode was calculated based on standard wages of the involved personnel and standard costs of the inherent materials used. Mean staff tenure time for handling an episode of N/V was 26.2 ± 19.8 minutes (nausea 16.9 ± 28.7 minutes; nausea + vomiting: 33.4 ± 26.8 minutes). In the German context, this corresponds to average personnel costs of €18.06 ± 13.64. Material cost contributes to another €13.49 ±13.38 of costs mainly depending on acquisition costs of antiemetic drugs. N/V showed to have impact on workload of nurses and (to lesser extent) physicians and economic burden of €31 ± 22 for each N/V episode. In view of these results, the potential costs of strategies to minimize the incidence of N/V (use of antiemetics and/or the use of new analgesics) should be outweighed against the incurred costs of N/V.

  8. Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Related Procedures in Children: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh; Nichols, Cynthia D.; Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.; Marcus, Carole L.; Witmans, Manisha B.; Kirk, Valerie G.; D'Andrea, Lynn A.; Hoban, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This evidence-based review provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the literature regarding the utility of polysomnography for the evaluation of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children including hypersomnias, parasomnias, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep in other special populations. Methods: A task force of pediatric sleep medicine experts performed a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of polysomnography for non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. They identified and graded 76 papers as evidence. Results: The main results include (1) polysomnography combined with the multiple sleep latency test is useful for evaluating disorders of excessive somnolence to objectively quantify sleepiness. The results have to be interpreted with consideration of the pubertal stage and regularity of the sleep patterns of the child; (2) polysomnography is indicated in children with parasomnias or sleep related movement disorders who have a high likelihood of having obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); (3) polysomnography is not routinely indicated in children with enuresis unless there is a high likelihood of OSA; (4) polysomnography can be helpful in evaluating children with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and when periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is suspected. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, polysomnography should be a part of a comprehensive sleep evaluation in selected circumstances to determine the nature of the events in more detail or when the suspicion of OSA is relatively high. Citation: Kotagal S; Nichols CD; Grigg-Damberger MM; Marcus CL; Witmans MB; Kirk VG; D'Andrea LA; Hoban TF. Non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and related procedures in children: an evidence-based review. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1451-1466. PMID:23115394

  9. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  10. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  11. TripleR: an R package for social relations analyses based on round-robin designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Felix D; Back, Mitja D; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round-robin designs. The scope of existing software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.

  12. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  13. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  14. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  15. MacPharmacy: A Relational Database Adjunt to a Hypermedia-Based Physician Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Patricia A.; Foxlee, R. Heath

    1990-01-01

    MacPharmacy is a relational database built as an adjunct to RadOnc, a hypermedia-based physician workstation in the domain of radiation oncology. Conceived originally as a RadOnc module for chemotherapeutic agents, the MacPharmacy database contains information on a large selection of drugs which can be accessed by a variety of users. Information on generic and trade names, pharmacodynamics, indications, and dosage is linked to RadOnc disease descriptions and patient records which contain a clinical summary of the presentation, treatment and results. MacPharmacy's features include data table addition and updating and a customizable user interface that can be linked to other applications. Due to the scarcity of Macintosh-based pharmacy databases, MacPharmacy fills an information gap for clinically-oriented Macintosh users.

  16. Digital Image Stabilization Method Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cameras mounted on vehicles frequently suffer from image shake due to the vehicles’ motions. To remove jitter motions and preserve intentional motions, a hybrid digital image stabilization method is proposed that uses variational mode decomposition (VMD and relative entropy (RE. In this paper, the global motion vector (GMV is initially decomposed into several narrow-banded modes by VMD. REs, which exhibit the difference of probability distribution between two modes, are then calculated to identify the intentional and jitter motion modes. Finally, the summation of the jitter motion modes constitutes jitter motions, whereas the subtraction of the resulting sum from the GMV represents the intentional motions. The proposed stabilization method is compared with several known methods, namely, medium filter (MF, Kalman filter (KF, wavelet decomposition (MD method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based method, and enhanced EMD-based method, to evaluate stabilization performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the other stabilization methods.

  17. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G

    2013-01-01

    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10-5 - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  18. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  19. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  20. Effectiveness of contact-based education for reducing mental illness-related stigma in pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strategy for reducing mental illness-related stigma in health-profession students is to include contact-based sessions in their educational curricula. In such sessions students are able to interact socially with a person that has a mental illness. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a multi-centre study of pharmacy students. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites. Because it was necessary that all students receive the contact-based sessions, the students were randomized either to an early or late intervention, with the late intervention group not having participated in the contact-based education at the time when the primary outcome was assessed. The primary outcome, stigma, was assessed using an attitudes scale called the Opening Minds Survey for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. Results We initially confirmed that outcomes were homogeneous across study centres, centre by group interaction, p = 0.76. The results were pooled across the three study centres. A significant reduction in stigma was observed in association with the contact-based sessions (mean change 4.3 versus 1.5, t=2.1, p=0.04. The effect size (Cohen’s d was 0.45. A similar reduction was seen in the control group when they later received the intervention. Conclusions Contact-based education is an effective method of reducing stigma during pharmacy education. These results add to a growing literature confirming the effectiveness of contact-based strategies for stigma reduction in health profession trainees.

  1. Population-based age group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD.

  2. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  3. Estimating haplotype relative risks on human survival in population-based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Bathum, Lise; Zhao, Jing Hua; Yashin, Anatoli I; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare; Kruse, Torben A

    2005-01-01

    Association-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is an increasingly important tool for localizing genes that show potential influence on human aging and longevity. As haplotypes contain more LD information than single markers, a haplotype-based LD approach can have increased power in detecting associations as well as increased robustness in statistical testing. In this paper, we develop a new statistical model to estimate haplotype relative risks (HRRs) on human survival using unphased multilocus genotype data from unrelated individuals in cross-sectional studies. Based on the proportional hazard assumption, the model can estimate haplotype risk and frequency parameters, incorporate observed covariates, assess interactions between haplotypes and the covariates, and investigate the modes of gene function. By introducing population survival information available from population statistics, we are able to develop a procedure that carries out the parameter estimation using a nonparametric baseline hazard function and estimates sex-specific HRRs to infer gene-sex interaction. We also evaluate the haplotype effects on human survival while taking into account individual heterogeneity in the unobserved genetic and nongenetic factors or frailty by introducing the gamma-distributed frailty into the survival function. After model validation by computer simulation, we apply our method to an empirical data set to measure haplotype effects on human survival and to estimate haplotype frequencies at birth and over the observed ages. Results from both simulation and model application indicate that our survival analysis model is an efficient method for inferring haplotype effects on human survival in population-based association studies.

  4. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.; Khokhlov, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined...

  5. Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Perretta, Claudio; Navarro, Enrique A; Segura, Jaume; Portolés, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. Outcomes and methods A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. Results The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in –2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. Conclusions This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels—independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep. PMID:24381254

  6. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferi J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jalle Teferi,1 Zewdu Shewangizaw2 1Addis Ababa Health Bureau, Zewuditu Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. Keywords: Oromia, favorable attitude, safe practice, rural

  7. Comparing clustering models in bank customers: Based on Fuzzy relational clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Hendalianpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is absolutely useful information to explore data structures and has been employed in many places. It organizes a set of objects into similar groups called clusters, and the objects within one cluster are both highly similar and dissimilar with the objects in other clusters. The K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms are the most popular clustering algorithms for their easy implementation and fast work, but in some cases we cannot use these algorithms. Regarding this, in this paper, a hybrid model for customer clustering is presented that is applicable in five banks of Fars Province, Shiraz, Iran. In this way, the fuzzy relation among customers is defined by using their features described in linguistic and quantitative variables. As follows, the customers of banks are grouped according to K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms and the proposed Fuzzy Relation Clustering (FRC algorithm. The aim of this paper is to show how to choose the best clustering algorithms based on density-based clustering and present a new clustering algorithm for both crisp and fuzzy variables. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to five datasets of customer's segmentation in banks. The result of the FCR shows the accuracy and high performance of FRC compared other clustering methods.

  8. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  9. PubMed related articles: a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jimmy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity called pmra that underlies the related article search feature in PubMed. Whether or not a document is about a particular topic is computed from term frequencies, modeled as Poisson distributions. Unlike previous probabilistic retrieval models, we do not attempt to estimate relevance–but rather our focus is "relatedness", the probability that a user would want to examine a particular document given known interest in another. We also describe a novel technique for estimating parameters that does not require human relevance judgments; instead, the process is based on the existence of MeSH ® in MEDLINE ®. Results The pmra retrieval model was compared against bm25, a competitive probabilistic model that shares theoretical similarities. Experiments using the test collection from the TREC 2005 genomics track shows a small but statistically significant improvement of pmra over bm25 in terms of precision. Conclusion Our experiments suggest that the pmra model provides an effective ranking algorithm for related article search.

  10. Obesity-related inflammation & cardiovascular disease: Efficacy of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sarvottam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. Chronic adiposity is associated with metabolic imbalance leading to dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ releasing several adipocytokines, and is associated with increased levels of tissue and circulating inflammatory biomolecules causing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Further, inflammation is also associated independently with obesity as well as CVD. Keeping this in view, it is possible that a reduction in weight may lead to a decrease in inflammation, resulting in CVD risk reduction, and better management of patients with CVD. Lifestyle intervention has been endorsed by several health authorities in prevention and management of chronic diseases. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in reducing the risk for CVD as well as management of patients with CVD as it is simple to follow and cost-effective with high compliance. The efficacy of such lifestyle intervention programmes is multifaceted, and is achieved via reduction in weight, obesity-related inflammation and stress, thereby culminating into risk reduction towards several chronic diseases including CVD. In this review, the association between obesity-related inflammation and CVD, and the role of yoga-based lifestyle intervention in prevention and management of CVD are discussed.

  11. Animacy-Based Accessibility and Competition in Relative Clause Production in Hindi and Malayalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, C K; Srivastava, A K

    2016-08-01

    Two studies investigated interaction of animacy-based accessibility and competition processes with language specific constraints in shaping production preferences. Relative clause elicitation tasks (Gennari et al. in Cogn Psychol 65:141-176, 2012) were performed by two groups with 40 participants in each. Significantly more passives were produced with animate question/focus and assigned subject function to them in Malayalam, while the difference was insignificant in Hindi with animacy not equating with grammatical function assignment. Both languages produced active objects with OSV order significantly more with animate question/focus. This indicates animacy effect on word order. Animacy also influenced the expression of the agent phase in both languages as a tendency was found to omit the agent by-phase or to delay its appearance, when the two animate nouns entering into the structure are highly similar. The results point to language specific constraints in relative clause production and variability in the role of animacy-based retrieval order across languages.

  12. Relative Hidden Markov Models for Video-Based Evaluation of Motion Skills in Surgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Baoxin

    2015-06-01

    A proper temporal model is essential to analysis tasks involving sequential data. In computer-assisted surgical training, which is the focus of this study, obtaining accurate temporal models is a key step towards automated skill-rating. Conventional learning approaches can have only limited success in this domain due to insufficient amount of data with accurate labels. We propose a novel formulation termed Relative Hidden Markov Model and develop algorithms for obtaining a solution under this formulation. The method requires only relative ranking between input pairs, which are readily available from training sessions in the target application, hence alleviating the requirement on data labeling. The proposed algorithm learns a model from the training data so that the attribute under consideration is linked to the likelihood of the input, hence supporting comparing new sequences. For evaluation, synthetic data are first used to assess the performance of the approach, and then we experiment with real videos from a widely-adopted surgical training platform. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach provides a promising solution to video-based motion skill evaluation. To further illustrate the potential of generalizing the method to other applications of temporal analysis, we also report experiments on using our model on speech-based emotion recognition.

  13. Obesity-related inflammation & cardiovascular disease: efficacy of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. Chronic adiposity is associated with metabolic imbalance leading to dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ releasing several adipocytokines, and is associated with increased levels of tissue and circulating inflammatory biomolecules causing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Further, inflammation is also associated independently with obesity as well as CVD. Keeping this in view, it is possible that a reduction in weight may lead to a decrease in inflammation, resulting in CVD risk reduction, and better management of patients with CVD. Lifestyle intervention has been endorsed by several health authorities in prevention and management of chronic diseases. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in reducing the risk for CVD as well as management of patients with CVD as it is simple to follow and cost-effective with high compliance. The efficacy of such lifestyle intervention programmes is multifaceted, and is achieved via reduction in weight, obesity-related inflammation and stress, thereby culminating into risk reduction towards several chronic diseases including CVD. In this review, the association between obesity-related inflammation and CVD, and the role of yoga-based lifestyle intervention in prevention and management of CVD are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the relation between adenoids hypertrophy and cranial base angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalili Z

    2006-07-01

    in lateral ceph views was 28%, 30% and 42% respectively. There was significant difference among different cranial base angle regarding the presence or absence of adenoid hypertrophy (P<0.001. According to Pearson coefficient, there was significant relation between A/N ratio groups and different cranial base angles (R=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, little correlation exists between A/N ratio and cranial base angle. Further studies are recommended to investigate the possible effects of other factors such as genetics and the environment.

  15. Thermodynamics of relation-based systems with applications in econophysics, sociophysics, and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2012-10-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze relation-based systems evolving in time by using the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics. The behavior of such systems can be tracked from the scattering matrix which is actually a network of directed vectors (or pathways) connecting subsequent values, which characterize an event, such as the index values in stock markets. A system behaves in a rigid (elastic) way to an external effect and resists permanent deformation, or it behaves in a viscous (or soft) way and deforms in an irreversible way. It was shown in the past that a formula derived using the slope of paths gives a measure about the extent of viscoelastic behavior of relation-based systems Gündüz (2009) [5] Gündüz and Gündüz (2010) [6]. In this research the ‘work’ associated with ‘elastic’ component, and ‘heat’ associated with ‘viscous’ component were discussed and elaborated. In a simple two subsequent pathway system in a scattering diagram the first vector represents ‘the cause’ and the second ‘the effect’. By using work and heat energy relations that involve force and also storage and loss modulus terms, respectively, one can calculate the energy involved in relation-based systems. The modulus values can be found from the parallel and vertical components of the second vector with respect to the first vector. Once work-like and heat-like terms were determined the internal energy is also easily found from their summation. The parallel and vertical components can also be used to calculate the magnitude of torque and torque energy in the system. Three cases, (i) the behavior of the NASDAQ-100 index, (ii) a social revolt, and (iii) the structure of a melody were analyzed for their ‘work-like’, ‘heat-like’, and ‘torque-like’ energies in the course of their evolution. NASDAQ-100 exhibits highly dissipative behavior, and its work terms are very small but heat terms are of large magnitude. Its internal energy highly fluctuates

  16. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  17. Assessment of cloud-related fine-mode AOD enhancements based on AERONET SDA product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Antti; Eck, Thomas F.; Kokkola, Harri; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-05-01

    AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork), which is a network of ground-based sun photometers, produces a data product called the aerosol spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA) that utilizes spectral total aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to infer the component fine- and coarse-mode optical depths at 500 nm. Based on its assumptions, SDA identifies cloud optical depth as the coarse-mode AOD component and therefore effectively computes the fine-mode AOD also in mixed cloud-aerosol observations. Therefore, it can be argued that the more representative AOD for fine-mode fraction should be based on all direct sun measurements and not only on those cloud screened for clear-sky conditions, i.e., on those from level 1 (L1) instead of level 2 (L2) in AERONET. The objective of our study was to assess, including all the available AERONET sites, how the fine-mode AOD is enhanced in cloudy conditions, contrasting SDA L1 and L2 in our analysis. Assuming that the cloud screening correctly separates the cloudy and clear-sky conditions, then the increases in fine-mode AOD can be due to various cloud-related processes, mainly by the strong hygroscopic growth of particles in the vicinity of clouds and in-cloud processing leading to growth of accumulation mode particles. We estimated these cloud-related enhancements in fine-mode AOD seasonally and found, for instance, that in June-August season the average over all the AERONET sites was 0.011, when total fine-mode AOD from L2 data was 0.154; therefore, the relative enhancement was 7 %. The enhancements were largest, both absolutely and relatively, in East Asia; for example, in June-August season the absolute and relative differences in fine-mode AOD, between L1 and L2 measurements, were 0.022 and 10 %, respectively. Corresponding values in North America and Europe were about 0.01 and 6-7 %. In some highly polluted areas, the enhancement is greater than these regional averages, e.g., in Beijing region and in June-July-August (JJA) season the

  18. Food-related parenting practices and adolescent weight status: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-05-01

    To examine food-related parenting practices (pressure-to-eat and food restriction) among mothers and fathers of adolescents and associations with adolescent weight status within a large population-based sample of racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse parent-adolescent pairs. Adolescents (N = 2231; 14.4 years old [SD = 2.0]) and their parents (N = 3431) participated in 2 coordinated population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight status and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents completed anthropometric measurements and surveys at school. Parents (or other caregivers) completed questionnaires via mail or phone. Findings suggest that the use of controlling food-related parenting practices, including pressure-to-eat and restriction, is common among parents of adolescents. Mean restriction levels were significantly higher among parents of overweight and obese adolescents compared with nonoverweight adolescents. However, levels of pressure-to-eat were significantly higher among nonoverweight adolescents. Results indicate that fathers are more likely than mothers to engage in pressure-to-eat behaviors and boys are more likely than girls to be on the receiving end of parental pressure-to-eat. Parental report of restriction did not differ significantly by parent or adolescent gender. No significant interactions by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were seen in the relationship between restriction or pressure-to-eat and adolescent weight status. Given that there is accumulating evidence for the detrimental effects of controlling feeding practices on children's ability to self-regulate energy intake, these findings suggest that parents should be educated and empowered through anticipatory guidance to encourage moderation rather than overconsumption and emphasize healthful food choices rather than restrictive eating patterns.

  19. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Readability evaluation of Internet-based patient education materials related to the anesthesiology field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Jung, Michael; Mccaffery, Kirsten J; McCarthy, Robert J; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the current investigation was to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology. We hypothesized that the majority of patient education materials would not be written according to current recommended readability grade level. Online patient education materials describing procedures, risks, and management of anesthesia-related topics were identified using the search engine Google (available at www.google.com) using the terms anesthesia, anesthesiology, anesthesia risks, and anesthesia care. Cross-sectional evaluation. None. Assessments of content readability were performed using validated instruments (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formulae, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Fry graph, and the Flesch Reading Ease score). Ninety-six Web sites containing Internet patient education materials (IPEMs) were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) readability grade level for all evaluated IPEMs was 13.5 (12.0-14.6). All the evaluated documents were classified at a greater readability level than the current recommended readability grade, P < .001. Readability grades were not significantly different among different IPEM sources. Assessment by the Flesch Reading Ease test classified all but 4 IPEMs as at least fairly difficult to read. Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology are currently written far above the recommended readability grade level. High complexity of written education materials likely limits access of information to millions of American patients. Redesign of online content of Web sites that provide patient education material regarding anesthesia could be an important step in improving access to information for patients with poor health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    (time-constant vs time-varying variance, and independent versus correlated age groups within years). The methods are applied to data on North Sea herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), and whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and the full stock assessments are carried out to evaluate...... the different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  2. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  3. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  4. Gambling-related harms among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisamo, Susanna; Halme, Jukka; Murto, Antti; Lintonen, Tomi

    2013-03-01

    Internationally, and also in Europe, adolescent gambling is increasingly recognized as an important public health issue. Most research on adolescent gambling, however, is prevalence-focused and population-based studies are scarce. Few studies have examined gambling-related harms among adolescents. In a national sample, we examined self-experienced harms related to gambling and the relationship between reported harms and gambling behavior among Finnish adolescents. A national survey of 12-18-year-olds was conducted in Finland in 2011 (N = 4,566). Main measures were frequency of gambling and gambling-related harms reported during the past 6 months. The relationship between reported harms and gambling behavior was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 44% had gambled during the past 6 months. Of the sample, 12% were frequent gamblers (at least weekly) and 32% were occasional gamblers (monthly or less often). Compared to occasional gamblers, frequent gamblers were more likely to experience harms. The most commonly reported harms among frequent gamblers were "felt guilty or shameful due to gambling" (17%) followed by "problems with relationships" (13%) and "disruptions of daily rhythm" (10%). In age and gender-adjusted analysis, daily gamblers were significantly more likely to report all different types of harms when compared to other groups. These findings suggest that when planning and targeting youth gambling prevention and harm reduction strategies the nature and extent to which gambling may contribute to the different types of harms are important to consider.

  5. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Seymour, Graham B; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R; May, Sean T; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

    2012-12-21

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

  6. A Pilot Directional Protection for HVDC Transmission Line Based on Relative Entropy of Wavelet Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing high-voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system and its fault superimposed circuit, the direction of the fault components of the voltage and the current measured at one end of transmission line is certified to be different for internal faults and external faults. As an estimate of the differences between two signals, relative entropy is an effective parameter for recognizing transient signals in HVDC transmission lines. In this paper, the relative entropy of wavelet energy is applied to distinguish internal fault from external fault. For internal faults, the directions of fault components of voltage and current are opposite at the two ends of the transmission line, indicating a huge difference of wavelet energy relative entropy; for external faults, the directions are identical, indicating a small difference. The simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed pilot protection system acts accurately for faults under different conditions, and its performance is not affected by fault type, fault location, fault resistance and noise.

  7. Querying clinical data in HL7 RIM based relational model with morph-RDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyatna, Freddy; Alonso-Calvo, Raul; Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-10-05

    Semantic interoperability is essential when carrying out post-genomic clinical trials where several institutions collaborate, since researchers and developers need to have an integrated view and access to heterogeneous data sources. One possible approach to accommodate this need is to use RDB2RDF systems that provide RDF datasets as the unified view. These RDF datasets may be materialized and stored in a triple store, or transformed into RDF in real time, as virtual RDF data sources. Our previous efforts involved materialized RDF datasets, hence losing data freshness. In this paper we present a solution that uses an ontology based on the HL7 v3 Reference Information Model and a set of R2RML mappings that relate this ontology to an underlying relational database implementation, and where morph-RDB is used to expose a virtual, non-materialized SPARQL endpoint over the data. By applying a set of optimization techniques on the SPARQL-to-SQL query translation algorithm, we can now issue SPARQL queries to the underlying relational data with generally acceptable performance.

  8. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  9. The assessment of disability related to vision performance-based measure in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrian, Kevin J; Lorenzana, Luciano L; Lankaranian, Dara; Dugar, Jyoti; Wizov, Sheryl S; Spaeth, George L

    2010-05-01

    To validate a third-generation performance-based measure of visual function titled "Assessment of Disability Related to Vision" (ADREV) in a study population of patients with diabetic retinopathy. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, free from ocular comorbidity, were recruited from a single institute and completed the ADREV, the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25), and a clinical ophthalmic examination. Correlation, regression, and bootstrap analysis were conducted to determine the relationship between ADREV scoring and each of the study's clinical and self-report measures of visual ability, while controlling for potential confounders. Ninety-one patients with diabetic retinopathy completed the study and analysis showed that the ADREV total and subscale scores shared a stronger relationship with the clinical measures of visual function than did the VFQ total and subscale scores. Regression analysis revealed that binocular visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and better eye visual field were the best predictors of ADREV performance. The ADREV performance measure is a valid instrument for the assessment of disability related to vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the assessments provided by ADREV were more related to traditional clinical indicators of visual impairment than were the results of the self-report measure, specifically the VFQ-25. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the response of spring-based relative gravimeters during paroxysmal eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Filippo; Iafolla, Valerio; Pistorio, Antonio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Bonaccorso, Alessandro; Del Negro, Ciro

    2014-12-01

    Gravity time sequences collected at Etna volcano by continuously recording spring-based relative gravimeters showed significant variations in temporal correspondence with paroxysmal eruptions. Since the observed gravity variations can only be partially related to subsurface mass redistribution phenomena, we investigated the instrumental effects due to ground vibrations such as those that accompany explosive activity. We simulated the performances of relative gravimeters with laboratory experiments to estimate their response to vertical and horizontal excitations. Laboratory tests were carried out using a vibrating platform capable of accelerating the instruments with intensities and frequencies, in both the vertical and horizontal directions, observed in the ground vibrations associated with paroxysmal events. The seismic signals recorded at Etna volcano during the 10 April 2011 lava fountain were analyzed to retrieve the parameters used to drive the vibration platform. We tested two gravimeters used for Etna volcano monitoring: the LaCoste & Romberg D#185 (Lafayette, CO, USA) and the Scintrex CG-3 M#9310234 (Concord, ON, Canada). The experiment results highlight that the vibrations resembling the seismic waves propagated during paroxysmal events cause an amplitude response in the gravity readings on the order of several hundred microgals (μGal). Generally, the relationship between the vibrations and the gravimeter response is nonlinear, with a fairly complex dependence on the frequencies and amplitudes of the signals acting on the gravimeters.

  11. Relative Humidity Sensor Based on No-Core Fiber Coated by Agarose-Gel Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A relative humidity (RH sensor based on single-mode–no-core–single-mode fiber (SNCS structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The agarose gel is coated on the no-core fiber (NCF as the cladding, and multimode interference (MMI occurs in the SNCS structure. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is modulated at different ambient relative humidities due to the tunable refractive index property of the agarose gel film. The relative humidity can be measured by the wavelength shift and intensity variation of the dip in the transmission spectra. The humidity response of the sensors, coated with different concentrations and coating numbers of the agarose solution, were experimentally investigated. The wavelength and intensity sensitivity is obtained as −149 pm/%RH and −0.075 dB/%RH in the range of 30% RH to 75% RH, respectively. The rise and fall time is tested to be 4.8 s and 7.1 s, respectively. The proposed sensor has a great potential in real-time RH monitoring.

  12. Relative Humidity Sensor Based on No-Core Fiber Coated by Agarose-Gel Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Shi, Jia; Yang, Xianchao; Xu, Degang; Rong, Feng; Zhao, Junfa; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-10-16

    A relative humidity (RH) sensor based on single-mode-no-core-single-mode fiber (SNCS) structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The agarose gel is coated on the no-core fiber (NCF) as the cladding, and multimode interference (MMI) occurs in the SNCS structure. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is modulated at different ambient relative humidities due to the tunable refractive index property of the agarose gel film. The relative humidity can be measured by the wavelength shift and intensity variation of the dip in the transmission spectra. The humidity response of the sensors, coated with different concentrations and coating numbers of the agarose solution, were experimentally investigated. The wavelength and intensity sensitivity is obtained as -149 pm/%RH and -0.075 dB/%RH in the range of 30% RH to 75% RH, respectively. The rise and fall time is tested to be 4.8 s and 7.1 s, respectively. The proposed sensor has a great potential in real-time RH monitoring.

  13. Criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in youth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Ruiz, J R

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to comprehensively study the criterion-related validity of the existing field-based fitness tests used in children and adolescents. The studies were scored according to the number of subjects, description of the study population and statistical analysis. Each study was classified as high, low and very low quality. Three levels of evidence were constructed: strong evidence, when consistent findings were observed in three or more high quality studies; moderate evidence, when consistent findings were observed in two high quality studies; and limited evidence when consistency of findings and/or the number of studies did not achieve the criteria for moderate. The results of 73 studies (50 of high quality) addressing the criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in children and adolescents indicate the following: that there is strong evidence indicating that the 20 m shuttle run test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness, that the hand-grip strength test is a valid measure of musculoskeletal fitness, that skin fold thickness and body mass index are good estimates of body composition, and that waist circumference is a valid measure to estimate central body fat. Moderate evidence was found that the 1-mile run/walk test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. A large number of other field-based fitness tests presented limited evidence, mainly due to a limited number of studies (one for each test). The results of the present systematic review should be interpreted with caution due to the substantial lack of consistency in reporting and designing the existing validity studies.

  14. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhalili, Rend; Shukla, Pratik A; Patel, Ronak H; Sanghvi, Saurin; Hubbi, Basil

    2015-03-01

    The US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) recommends that Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs) be written below the sixth-grade reading level to target the average American adult. This study was designed to determine the readability of IPEMs regarding mammography for breast cancer screening. Three-hundred mammography-related Web sites were reviewed for IPEMs. Forty-two IPEMs that met the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct were assessed for readability level with four readability indices that use existing algorithms based on word and sentence length to quantitatively analyze Internet sources for language intricacy including the following: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG; GFOG). Results were compared to national recommendations, and intergroup analysis was performed. No IPEMs (0%) regarding mammography were written at or below the sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 49.04 ± 10.62; FKGL, 10.71 ± 2.01; SMOG, 13.33 ± 1.67; and Gunning FOG, 14.32 ± 2.18. These scores indicate that the readability of mammography IPEMs is written at a "difficult" level, significantly above the recommended sixth-grade reading level (P related to mammography are written well above the recommended sixth-grade level and likely reflect other IPEMs in diagnostic radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of a web-based work-related asthma educational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Joshua C; Gotzev, Simeon; Scarborough, Jack; Liss, Gary M; Gupta, Samir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    Work-related asthma (WRA) has been estimated to account for 15-20% of adult asthma cases. Studies have indicated that a substantial number of asthma patients have inadequate knowledge of work-related effects on their disease, which may contribute to suboptimal asthma control. A Canadian web-based educational tool on WRA was developed to address this knowledge gap in the population. To evaluate the effectiveness of this web-based tool. Participants were recruited prior to a routine visit at a tertiary care asthma clinic in Toronto. A brief WRA knowledge questionnaire was developed and administered immediately before and after using of the web-based educational tool, and one year later. The study sample (N = 34) was mostly female (68%) with a mean age of 50.7 (SD, 17.2). Participants demonstrated significant improvement in questionnaire scores following interaction with the tool. The mean score increased from 76% (SEM = 2.1) to 84% (SEM = 1.7) (p = 0.001). On average, scores improved on 12 of the 13 questionnaire items. A 1-year follow-up of a sample of 19 participants demonstrated a slight reduction in mean scores, from 86% (SEM = 1.9) to 84% (SEM = 1.9), but still demonstrated a trend towards a higher score than the baseline (78%; SEM = 2.9; p = 0.08). Our findings suggest that the educational tool has a positive effect on WRA knowledge, and that knowledge may be retained long-term. Future studies are needed in non-tertiary care clinic populations which may possess less baseline knowledge of WRA.

  16. Symptom-Based Clustering in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Relates to History of Aspirin Sensitivity and Postsurgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Rohit; Patel, Neil; Jin, Jay; Hagan, John; Rank, Matthew; Lal, Devyani; Kita, Hirohito; O'Brien, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms burden in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be assessed by interviews or by means of validated tools such as the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). However, when only the total SNOT-22 scores are used, the pattern of symptom distribution and heterogeneity in patient symptoms is lost. To use a standardized symptom assessment tool (SNOT-22) on preoperative symptoms to understand symptom heterogeneity in CRS and to aid in characterization of distinguishing clinical features between subgroups. This was a retrospective review of 97 surgical patients with CRS. Symptom-based clusters were derived on the basis of presurgical SNOT-22 scores using unsupervised analysis and network graphs. Comparison between clusters was performed for clinical and demographic parameters, postsurgical symptom scores, and presence or absence of a history of aspirin sensitivity. Unsupervised analysis reveals coclustering of specific symptoms in the SNOT-22 tool. Using symptom-based clustering, patients with CRS were stratified into severe overall (mean total score, 90.8), severe sinonasal (score, 62), moderate sinonasal (score, 40), moderate nonsinonasal (score, 37) and mild sinonasal (score, 16) clusters. The last 2 clusters were associated with lack of history of aspirin sensitivity. The first cluster had a rapid relapse in symptoms postoperatively, and the last cluster demonstrated minimal symptomatic improvement after surgery. Symptom-based clusters in CRS reveal a distinct grouping of symptom burden that may relate to aspirin sensitivity and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  18. Measuring the Conformational Distance of GPCR-related Proteins Using a Joint-based Descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangappan, Jayaraman; Madan, Bharat; Wu, Sangwook; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2017-11-09

    Joint-based descriptor is a new level of macroscopic descriptor for protein structure using joints of secondary structures as a basic element. Here, we propose how the joint-based descriptor can be applied to examine the conformational distances or differences of transmembrane (TM) proteins. Specifically, we performed three independent studies that measured the global and conformational distances between GPCR A family and its related structures. First, the conformational distances of GPCR A family and other 7TM proteins were evaluated. This provided the information on the distant and close families or superfamilies to GPCR A family and permitted the identification of conserved local conformations. Second, computational models of GPCR A family proteins were validated, which enabled us to estimate how much they reproduce the native conformation of GPCR A proteins at global and local conformational level. Finally, the conformational distances between active and inactive states of GPCR proteins were estimated, which identified the difference of local conformation. The proposed macroscopic joint-based approach is expected to allow us to investigate structural features, evolutionary relationships, computational models and conformational changes of TM proteins in a more simplistic manner.

  19. Acid-base physiology, neurobiology and behaviour in relation to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2017-06-15

    Experimental exposure to ocean and freshwater acidification affects the behaviour of multiple aquatic organisms in laboratory tests. One proposed cause involves an imbalance in plasma chloride and bicarbonate ion concentrations as a result of acid-base regulation, causing the reversal of ionic fluxes through GABA A receptors, which leads to altered neuronal function. This model is exclusively based on differential effects of the GABA A receptor antagonist gabazine on control animals and those exposed to elevated CO 2 However, direct measurements of actual chloride and bicarbonate concentrations in neurons and their extracellular fluids and of GABA A receptor properties in aquatic organisms are largely lacking. Similarly, very little is known about potential compensatory mechanisms, and about alternative mechanisms that might lead to ocean acidification-induced behavioural changes. This article reviews the current knowledge on acid-base physiology, neurobiology, pharmacology and behaviour in relation to marine CO 2 -induced acidification, and identifies important topics for future research that will help us to understand the potential effects of predicted levels of aquatic acidification on organisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Attention, predictive learning, and the inverse base-rate effect: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Andy J; Lavric, Aureliu; Hemmings, Yvonne; Surrey, Ed

    2014-02-15

    We report the first electrophysiological investigation of the inverse base-rate effect (IBRE), a robust non-rational bias in predictive learning. In the IBRE, participants learn that one pair of symptoms (AB) predicts a frequently occurring disease, whilst an overlapping pair of symptoms (AC) predicts a rarely occurring disease. Participants subsequently infer that BC predicts the rare disease, a non-rational decision made in opposition to the underlying base rates of the two diseases. Error-driven attention theories of learning state that the IBRE occurs because C attracts more attention than B. On the basis of this account we predicted and observed the occurrence of brain potentials associated with visual attention: a posterior Selection Negativity, and a concurrent anterior Selection Positivity, for C vs. B in a post-training test phase. Error-driven attention theories further predict no Selection Negativity, Selection Positivity or IBRE, for control symptoms matched on frequency to B and C, but for which there was no shared symptom (A) during training. These predictions were also confirmed, and this confirmation discounts alternative explanations of the IBRE based on the relative novelty of B and C. Further, we observed higher response accuracy for B alone than for C alone; this dissociation of response accuracy (B>C) from attentional allocation (C>B) discounts the possibility that the observed attentional difference was caused by the difference in response accuracy. © 2013.

  1. Relative Conspicuity of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in Interventional Pain Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Timothy P; Schueler, Beth A; Magnuson, Dixon J; Magnuson, Dayne

    2017-04-01

    To assess the relative radiographic conspicuity of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) that may be used in spinal injection procedures when iodine-based contrast agents are contraindicated. Eight GBCAs and three iodinated agents of varying iodine concentrations were radiographed under conditions representative of lumbar spinal injections at four kilovoltage peak (kVp) values. Radiographic contrast of each agent was measured as the percent pixel value difference with respect to background. Gadobutrol (Gadovist, 1 mM/mL) had the highest radiographic contrast among the gadolinium agents tested. Measured radiographic contrast correlated with the molar concentration of gadolinium. Gadobutrol radiographic contrast lies between the contrast of iohexol concentrations of 240 and 140 mgI/mL. All agents have decreasing contrast as kVp increases, but GBCAs decrease less than iodine-based agents. Gadobutrol is the GBCA with the greatest conspicuity for use in spinal injection procedures. It also has the highest molar concentration of gadolinium, and potential neural toxicity from intrathecal delivery must be considered.

  2. Age-related changes in anatomic bases for the insertion of zygomatic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, L-F; Tang, C-B; Shi, W-B; Wang, D-M; Wang, Y-Q; Sun, C; Yao, W-Q; Wu, Y-N

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to verify whether Chinese patients are well-suited for zygomatic implantation and to observe age-related changes in the linear and angular anatomic bases of the maxilla and zygoma. Using three-dimensional images selected from maxillofacial cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans generated by SimPlant, linear and angular measurements were obtained by simulating zygomatic implantation. The edentulous group comprised 40 subjects aged between 62 and 65 years. A total of 120 dentate cases were divided into three groups based on age: the established occlusion group (n=40; 12-15 years old), the adult group (n=40; 37-40 years old), and the elderly group (n=40; 62-65 years old). The mean potential insertion length of the ordinary and additional zygomatic implants became longer with age in the dentate groups. For both zygomatic implant insertion areas, the anteroposterior lengths of the maxilla and zygoma were thicker in the older dentate groups (Pzygomatic skeleton changes with age, which results in linear and angular variations in the zygomatic implant insertion area. Therefore, the anatomic bases in Chinese adults are suitable for zygomatic implants. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life and self-related health in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....

  4. Health-related quality of life and self-related 1 health in patients 2 with type 2 diabetes: Effects of group-based rehabilitation - versus individual counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....

  5. KarstALEA - a scientifically based method to predict karst-related hazards in underground constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmassmann, S.; Filliponi, M.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Parriaux, A.; Malard, A.; Vouillamoz, J.

    2012-04-01

    In underground construction in carbonate rocks, karst is a major issue. Karst occurrences entail specific hazards such as large voids, massif water inflow or sediment-filled voids. The underground construction itself as well as the environment can be affected (e.g. drying springs, sinkhole formation). Karst-related hazards can cause amongst others important delays, additional costs, safety-related problems on the construction site or the abandonment of a project. Until know, most investigation methods considered karst occurrences as randomly distributed and unpredictable. However, recent research based on the 3D analysis of cave systems proved that up to 80% of karst conduits are located on few inception features. Inception features are discontinuities (e.g. bedding planes, beddings of mm to cm thickness with a contrasting mineralogy or primary permeability, joints, faults), which are particularly susceptible to karstification. Further, the karst conduit density and their characteristics depend on the locally dominant speleogenetic processes. Based on that, so-called speleogenetic zones can be delimitated. Karst conduit density is highest near the surface, where water drainage is concentrated with depth, and around the water table, where water is drained to the spring(s). As the spatial distribution of dominant speleogenetic processes change with time, paleo-speleogenetic zones can be delimitated. This is particularly important for the paleo-speleogenetic zones corresponding to past water tables. The KarstALEA method combines the inception feature concept, knowledge about the spatial distribution of dominant - actual and past - speleogenetic processes (speleogenetic zones) and hydrogeological considerations. These leads to two major results: (1) the spatial distribution of karst occurrence probability (zones of characteristic karst conduit density); (2) the spatial distribution and characteristics of karst-related hazards, e.g. size and geometry of karst conduits

  6. Novelty responses to relational and non-relational information in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal region: a comparison based on event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stefan; Danckert, Stacey; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S

    2005-01-01

    We conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments that examined novelty responses in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) to determine whether the hippocampus makes contributions to memory processing that differ from those of structures in the adjacent parahippocampal region. In light of proposals that such differential contributions may pertain to relational processing demands, we assessed event-related fMRI responses in the MTL for novel single objects and for novel spatial and non-spatial object relationships; subjects were asked to detect these different types of novelties among previously studied items, and they successfully performed this task during scanning. A double dissociation that emerged from the response pattern of regions in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex provided the strongest support for functional specialization in the MTL. A region in the right middle hippocampus responded to the novelty of spatial and non-spatial relationships but not to the novelty of individual objects. By contrast, a region in right perirhinal cortex, situated in the anterior collateral sulcus, responded to the novelty of individual objects but not to that of either type of relationship. Other MTL regions that responded to novelty in the present study showed no reliable difference in their response to the various novelty types; these regions included anterior parts of the hippocampus and posterior aspects of parahippocampal cortex. Together, our findings indicate that relational processing demands are a critical determinant of functional specialization in the human MTL. They also suggest, however, that a neuroanatomical framework that only distinguishes between the hippocampus and the parahippocampal region is not sufficiently refined to account for all functional differences and similarities observed with respect to relational processes in the human MTL. (c)2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Yoga, mindfulness-based stress reduction and stress-related physiological measures: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Thompson, David R; Ski, Chantal F

    2017-12-01

    Practices that include yoga asanas and mindfulness-based stress reduction for the management of stress are increasingly popular; however, the neurobiological effects of these practices on stress reactivity are not well understood. Many studies investigating the effects of such practices fail to include an active control group. Given the frequency with which people are selecting such interventions as a form of self-management, it is important to determine their effectiveness. Thus, this review investigates the effects of practices that include yoga asanas, with and without mindfulness-based stress reduction, compared to an active control, on physiological markers of stress. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials published in English compared practices that included yoga asanas, with and without mindfulness-based stress reduction, to an active control, on stress-related physiological measures. The review focused on studies that measured physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol and peripheral cytokine expression. MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, PubMed, and Scopus were searched in May 2016 and updated in December 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included if they assessed at least one of the following outcomes: heart rate, blood pressure, heart rate variability, mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, interleukins or cortisol. Risk of bias assessments included sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of assessors, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Meta-analysis was undertaken using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 3. Sensitivity analyses were performed using 'one-study-removed' analysis. Subgroup analysis was conducted for different yoga and control group types, including mindfulness-based stress reduction versus non-mindfulness-based stress reduction based interventions, different populations, length of intervention

  8. Measurement of skeletal related events in SEER-Medicare: a comparison of claims-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Abdalla; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Woods, Corinne; Mullins, C Daniel; Kwok, Young; Qian, Yi; Arellano, Jorge; Balakumaran, Arun; Hussain, Arif

    2015-08-19

    Skeletal related events (SREs) are common in men with metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Various methods have been used to identify SREs from claims data. The objective of this study was to provide a framework for measuring SREs from claims and compare SRE prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates based on alternative approaches in men with mPC. Several claims-based approaches for identifying SREs were developed and applied to data for men aged [greater than or equal to] 66 years newly diagnosed with mPC between 2000 and 2009 in the SEER-Medicare datasets and followed through 2010 or until censoring. Post-diagnosis SREs were identified using claims that indicated spinal cord compression (SCC), pathologic fracture (PF), surgery to bone (BS), or radiation (suggestive of bone palliative radiation, RAD). To measure SRE prevalence, two SRE definitions were created: 'base case' (most commonly used in the literature) and 'alternative' in which different claims were used to identify each type of SRE. To measure cumulative incidence, we used the 'base case' definition and applied three periods in which claims were clustered to episodes: 14-, 21-, and 28-day windows. Among 8997 mPC patients, 46 % experienced an SRE according to the 'base case' definition and 43 % patients experienced an SRE according to the 'alternative' definition. Varying the code definition from 'base case' to 'alternative' resulted in an 8 % increase in the overall SRE prevalence. Using the 21-day window, a total of 12,930 SRE episodes were observed during follow up. Varying the window length from 21 to 28 days resulted in an 8 % decrease in SRE cumulative incidence (RAD: 10 %, PF: 8 %, SCC: 6 %, BS: 0.2 %). SRE prevalence was affected by the codes used, with PF being most impacted. The overall SRE cumulative incidence was affected by the window length used, with RAD being most affected. These results underscore the importance of the baseline definitions used to study claims data when

  9. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Tondowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.

  10. Multiple performance optimization of electrochemical drilling of Inconel 625 using Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manikandan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this present investigation, a multi performance characteristics optimization based on Taguchi approach with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA is proposed for Electrochemical Drilling process on Inconel 625 material which is used for marine, nuclear, aerospace applications, especially in corrosive environments. Experimental runs have been planned as per Taguchi’s principle with three input machining variables such as feed rate, flow rate of electrolyte and concentration of electrolyte. Besides the material removal rate and surface roughness, the geometric measures such as overcut, form and orientation tolerance are included as performance measures in this investigation. Outcomes of the analysis show that the feed rate is the predominant variable for the desired performance characteristics. On establishing the desired performance measures and multiple regression models are developed to be used as predictive tools. The confirmation test also conducted to validate the results attained by GRA approach and affirmed that there is considerable improvement with the help of proposed approach.

  11. Mining the Information for Structure Based Drug Designing by Relational Database Management Notion

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    R. Balajee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure based drug design is a technique that is used in the initial stages of a drug discovery program. The role of various computational methods in the characterization of the chemical properties and behavior of molecular systems is discussed. The field of bioinformatics has become a major part of the drug discovery pipeline playing a key role for validating drug targets. By integrating data from many inter-related yet heterogeneous resources, informatics can help in our understanding of complex biological processes and help improve drug discovery. The determination of the three dimensional properties of small molecules and macromolecular receptor structures is a core activity in the efforts towards a better understanding of structure-activity relationships.

  12. System Analysis of LWDH Related Genes Based on Text Mining in Biological Networks

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    Mingzhi Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liuwei-dihuang (LWDH is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, but its molecular mechanism about gene interactions is unclear. LWDH genes were extracted from the existing literatures based on text mining technology. To simulate the complex molecular interactions that occur in the whole body, protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs were constructed and the topological properties of LWDH genes were analyzed. LWDH genes have higher centrality properties and may play important roles in the complex biological network environment. It was also found that the distances within LWDH genes are smaller than expected, which means that the communication of LWDH genes during the biological process is rapid and effectual. At last, a comprehensive network of LWDH genes, including the related drugs and regulatory pathways at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, was constructed and analyzed. The biological network analysis strategy used in this study may be helpful for the understanding of molecular mechanism of TCM.

  13. Preparation and Characteristic of Relative-Humidity Sensors Based on Laterally Grown ZnO Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Shou; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Tu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Tseng-Hsing

    2013-06-01

    The use of laterally oriented zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) grown by a hydrothermal growth (HTG) method for relative-humidity (RH) sensing devices at room temperature (RT) is demonstrated. Sensing response under various RH conditions (12-96%) at RT is presented and discussed. A humidity sensor based on laterally oriented ZnO NWs with a sensing response (R12%/R96%) as high as 2.2 was obtained at RT. The RT-operable humidity-sensing characteristics with comparably good sensitivity of the proposed humidity sensors is attributed to the full utilization of the entire NW surface, because the current path is aligned with the orientation of the bridged lateral ZnO NWs during the humidity sensing application, thus making possible.

  14. Mutation-based growth charts for SEDC and other COL2A1 related dysplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terhal, Paulien A; van Dommelen, Paula; Le Merrer, Martine

    2012-01-01

    From data collected via a large international collaborative study, we have constructed a growth chart for patients with molecularly confirmed congenital spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SEDC) and other COL2A1 related dysplasias. The growth chart is based on longitudinal height measurements of 79...... patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical domain of COL2A1. In addition, measurements of 27 patients with other molecular defects, such as arginine to cysteine substitutions, splice mutations, and mutations in the C-terminal propeptide have been plotted on the chart. Height of the patients...... progressively deviate from that of normal children: compared to normal WHO charts, the mean length/height is -2.6 SD at birth, -4.2 SD at 5 years, and -5.8 SD in adulthood. The mean adult height (male and female combined) of patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical region is 138.2 cm...

  15. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space...... and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal...... and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at the end of this study....

  16. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bobo; Yin, Mingjie; Zhang, A Ping; Qian, Jinwen; He, Sailing

    2011-02-28

    A new fiber-optic relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a thin-core fiber modal interferometer (TCFMI) with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in between is presented. Poly (N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium chloride) (P4VP·HCl) and poly (vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PVS) are layer-by-layer deposited on the side surface of the sensor for RH sensing. The fabrication of the sensing nanocoating is characterized by using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of FBG in the middle of TCFMI can compensate the cross sensitivity of the sensor to temperature. The proposed sensor can detect the RH with resolution of 0.78% in a large RH range at different temperatures. A linear, fast and reversible response has been experimentally demonstrated.

  17. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time.......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...

  18. Defect-related hysteresis in nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelides Sokrates

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electronic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs depend on the positions of their walls with respect to neighboring shells. This fact can enable several applications of MWCNTs as nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS. In this article, we report the findings of a first-principles study on the stability and dynamics of point defects in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and their role in the response of the host systems under inter-tube displacement. Key defect-related effects, namely, sudden energy changes and hysteresis, are identified, and their relevance to a host of MWCNT-based NEMS is highlighted. The results also demonstrate the dependence of these effects on defect clustering and chirality of DWCNT shells.

  19. Group-Contribution based Property Estimation and Uncertainty analysis for Flammability-related Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Marcarie, Camille; Abildskov, Jens

    2016-01-01

    .0% and 0.99 for FP as well as 6.4% and 0.76 for AIT. Moreover, the temperature-dependence of LFL property was studied. A compound specific proportionality constant (KLFL) between LFL and temperature is introduced and an MG GC model to estimate KLFL is developed. Overall the ability to predict flammability......This study presents new group contribution (GC) models for the prediction of Lower and Upper Flammability Limits (LFL and UFL), Flash Point (FP) and Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT) of organic chemicals applying the Marrero/Gani (MG) method. Advanced methods for parameter estimation using robust...... regression and outlier treatment have been applied to achieve high accuracy. Furthermore, linear error propagation based on covariance matrix of estimated parameters was performed. Therefore, every estimated property value of the flammability-related properties is reported together with its corresponding 95...

  20. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

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    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Cutting Inserts and Optimization during Hard Turning: Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Raju, Ch.; Suresh, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to compare the conventional cutting inserts with wiper cutting inserts during the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel at different workpiece hardness. Type of insert, hardness, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut are taken as process parameters. Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experimental tests. Parametric analysis carried in order to know the influence of each process parameter on the three important Surface Roughness Characteristics (Ra, Rz, and Rt) and Material Removal Rate. Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) used to optimize the process parameters for individual response and multi-response outputs. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor.

  2. Air filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related symptoms in the BASE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, I S H; Mendell, M J; Mirer, A G; Apte, M G

    2008-04-01

    Used ventilation air filters have been shown to reduce indoor environmental quality and worker performance and increase symptoms, with effects stronger after reaction of filters with ozone. We analyzed data from the US EPA Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study to determine if ozone and specific filter media have interactive effects on building-related symptoms (BRS). We analyzed a subset of 34 buildings from the BASE study of 100 US office buildings to determine the separate and joint associations of filter medium [polyester/synthetic (PS) or fiberglass (FG)] and outdoor ozone concentration (above/below the median, 67.6 microg/m(3)) with BRS. Using logistic regression models and general estimating equations, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association of filter medium, ozone, and filter medium x ozone with BRS. Relative to FG + low ozone, PS alone or high ozone alone, were each significantly (P risk proportion (ARP) estimates indicate that removing both risk factors might, given certain assumptions, reduce BRS by 26-62%. These findings suggest possible adverse health consequences from chemical interactions between outdoor ozone and PS filters in buildings. Results need confirmation before recommending changes in building operation. However, if additional research confirms causal relationships, ARP estimates indicate that appropriate filter selection may substantially reduce BRS in buildings, especially in high-ozone areas. The results indicate that a better understanding of how filters interact with their environment is needed. While the mechanism is unknown and these findings need to be replicated, they indicate that the joint risk of BRS from polyester/synthetic filters and outdoor ozone above 67.6 microg/m(3) is much greater than the risk from each alone. These findings suggest potential reductions in BRS from appropriate selection of ventilation filter media or implementing strategies to reduce ozone

  3. The Relation between Sleep Disruption and Cataract in a Large Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjun; Nondahl, David M; Schubert, Carla R; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relation between sleep disruption and nuclear cataract, as well as the impact of cataract removal on sleep, in two discrete population-based cohorts. This is a cross-sectional study of 5070 participants from three large longitudinal epidemiologic studies of age-related eye disease, hearing, olfaction, and cognition. Slit-lamp photos of the lens were obtained to grade nuclear cataract using a standardized protocol. The quality of sleep was assessed using a modified Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between levels of nuclear cataract/cataract extraction and the number of sleep problems. Systemic co-morbidity data were included as potential confounders, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, thyroid disease, tobacco and alcohol use, and physical component summary score and mental component summary score. The mean age of the cohort was 57.6 years (range 22-95 years). The majority of the cohort demonstrated nuclear cataract levels 2 or 3 (36.8% and 30.1%, respectively). A total of 8% of the cohort had an intraocular lens (IOL) in at least one eye. There was no statistically significant correlation between sleep problems with presence of either nuclear cataract or IOL implant (p > 0.05). In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we found no significant association between nuclear cataract or presence of IOL with poor sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Studies of the longitudinal impact of nuclear cataract and cataract removal on sleep are needed to elucidate the role of nuclear cataract and cataract removal on sleep.

  4. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödje Kjetil

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154 is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists, the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.

  5. Identifying medication-related needs of HIV patients: foundation for community pharmacist-based services

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    Yardlee Kauffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients living with HIV/AIDS have complex medication regimens. Pharmacists within community pharmacy settings can have a role managing patients living with HIV/AIDS. Patients' perspectives surrounding implementation about community pharmacist-based services is needed as limited information is available. Objective: To identify medication-related needs of HIV-infected patients who receive prescriptions from a community pharmacy. To determine patient perspectives and knowledge of community pharmacist-based services. Methods: A qualitative research study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews with patients was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: HIV positive men and women at least 18 years of age who receive care at a HIV clinic, currently take medication(s and use a community pharmacy for all prescription fills. Patients were recruited from one urban and one rural health center. Patients answered questions about their perceptions and knowledge about the role and value of pharmacy services and completed a demographic survey. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Results: Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants from the urban site and 14 from the rural site. Five main themes emerged including: patients experience ongoing and varying medication-related needs; patients desire a pharmacist who is caring, knowledgeable and integrated with health care providers; patients expect ready access to drug therapy; patients value an individualized patient encounter, and patients need to be informed that a pharmacist-service exists. Conclusion: Patients with HIV value individualized and personal encounters with pharmacists at time intervals that are convenient for the patient. Patients felt that a one-on-one encounter with a pharmacist would be most valuable when initiating or modifying medication therapy. These patient perspectives can be useful for

  6. Decision-Making Algorithm for Multisensor Fusion Based on Grey Relation and DS Evidence Theory

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    Fang Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making algorithm, as the key technology for uncertain data fusion, is the core to obtain reasonable multisensor information fusion results. DS evidence theory is a typical and widely applicable decision-making method. However, DS evidence theory makes decisions without considering the sensors’ difference, which may lead to illogical results. In this paper, we present a novel decision-making algorithm for uncertain fusion based on grey relation and DS evidence theory. The proposed algorithm comprehensively takes consideration of sensor’s credibility and evidence’s overall discriminability, which can solve the uncertainty problems caused by inconsistence of sensors themselves and complexity of monitoring environment and simultaneously ensure the validity and accuracy of fusion results. The innovative decision-making algorithm firstly obtains the sensor’s credibility through the introduction of grey relation theory and then defines two impact factors as sensor’s credibility and evidence’s overall discriminability according to the focal element analyses and evidence’s distance analysis, respectively; after that, it uses the impact factors to modify the evidences and finally gets more reasonable and effective results through DS combination rule. Simulation results and analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can overcome the trouble caused by large evidence conflict and one-vote veto, which indicates that it can improve the ability of target judgment and enhance precision of uncertain data fusion. Thus the novel decision-making method has a certain application value.

  7. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

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    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  8. Relative Efficiencies of ASEAN Container Ports based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kutin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ports play a critical role in the economies of many countries in the ASEAN region. Efficient ports facilitate a country's imports and exports, and the “relative efficiency” of a port is evaluated based on its efficiency compared to others in its group. This study analyzes the relative efficiencies of 50 ASEAN container ports and terminals. These ports are categorized according to their container handling system and location (those located in a riverbank connected to the sea are called “inland seaports” and those by the seaside are called “seaports”. The traditional output-oriented data envelopment analysis method is applied, and measures of super-efficiency constant returns to scale are estimated in order to compare the units situated on the efficiency frontier. The findings may support port managers in the ASEAN region to make decisions on whether to increase container traffic. In addition, policymakers may consider the evaluation results in deciding whether to improve the trans-ASEAN transport network and ASEAN trade competitiveness.

  9. Large-scale investigation of human TF-miRNA relations based on coexpression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Weng, Shun-Long; Chang, Wen-Chi; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding, endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) are fairly well known for regulating gene expression rather than protein coding. Dysregulation of miRNA gene, either upregulated or downregulated, may lead to severe diseases or oncogenesis, especially when the miRNA disorder involves significant bioreactions or pathways. Thus, how miRNA genes are transcriptionally regulated has been highlighted as well as target recognition in recent years. In this study, a large-scale investigation of novel cis- and trans-elements was undertaken to further determine TF-miRNA regulatory relations, which are necessary to unravel the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes. Based on miRNA and annotated gene expression profiles, the term "coTFBS" was introduced to detect common transcription factors and the corresponding binding sites within the promoter regions of each miRNA and its coexpressed annotated genes. The computational pipeline was successfully established to filter redundancy due to short sequence motifs for TFBS pattern search. Eventually, we identified more convinced TF-miRNA regulatory relations for 225 human miRNAs. This valuable information is helpful in understanding miRNA functions and provides knowledge to evaluate the therapeutic potential in clinical research. Once most expression profiles of miRNAs in the latest database are completed, TF candidates of more miRNAs can be explored by this filtering approach in the future.

  10. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Woung, Lin-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Efficient Targeted Next Generation Sequencing-Based Workflow for Differential Diagnosis of Alport-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Kalmár, Tibor; Endreffy, Emőke; Ondrik, Zoltán; Iványi, Béla; Rikker, Csaba; Haszon, Ibolya; Túri, Sándor; Sinkó, Mária; Bereczki, Csaba; Maróti, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited type IV collagen nephropathies characterized by microscopic hematuria during early childhood, the development of proteinuria and progression to end-stage renal disease. Since choosing the right therapy, even before the onset of proteinuria, can delay the onset of end-stage renal failure and improve life expectancy, the earliest possible differential diagnosis is desired. Practically, this means the identification of mutation(s) in COL4A3-A4-A5 genes. We used an efficient, next generation sequencing based workflow for simultaneous analysis of all three COL4A genes in three individuals and fourteen families involved by AS or showing different level of Alport-related symptoms. We successfully identified mutations in all investigated cases, including 14 unpublished mutations in our Hungarian cohort. We present an easy to use unified clinical/diagnostic terminology and workflow not only for X-linked but for autosomal AS, but also for Alport-related diseases. In families where a diagnosis has been established by molecular genetic analysis, the renal biopsy may be rendered unnecessary.

  12. Optimization on machine learning based approaches for sentiment analysis on HPV vaccines related tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingcheng; Xu, Jun; Song, Hsingyi; Liu, Xiangyu; Tao, Cui

    2017-03-03

    Analysing public opinions on HPV vaccines on social media using machine learning based approaches will help us understand the reasons behind the low vaccine coverage and come up with corresponding strategies to improve vaccine uptake. To propose a machine learning system that is able to extract comprehensive public sentiment on HPV vaccines on Twitter with satisfying performance. We collected and manually annotated 6,000 HPV vaccines related tweets as a gold standard. SVM model was chosen and a hierarchical classification method was proposed and evaluated. Additional feature sets evaluation and model parameters optimization was done to maximize the machine learning model performance. A hierarchical classification scheme that contains 10 categories was built to access public opinions toward HPV vaccines comprehensively. A 6,000 annotated tweets gold corpus with Kappa annotation agreement at 0.851 was created and made public available. The hierarchical classification model with optimized feature sets and model parameters has increased the micro-averaging and macro-averaging F score from 0.6732 and 0.3967 to 0.7442 and 0.5883 respectively, compared with baseline model. Our work provides a systematical way to improve the machine learning model performance on the highly unbalanced HPV vaccines related tweets corpus. Our system can be further applied on a large tweets corpus to extract large-scale public opinion towards HPV vaccines.

  13. Efficient Targeted Next Generation Sequencing-Based Workflow for Differential Diagnosis of Alport-Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kovács

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome (AS is an inherited type IV collagen nephropathies characterized by microscopic hematuria during early childhood, the development of proteinuria and progression to end-stage renal disease. Since choosing the right therapy, even before the onset of proteinuria, can delay the onset of end-stage renal failure and improve life expectancy, the earliest possible differential diagnosis is desired. Practically, this means the identification of mutation(s in COL4A3-A4-A5 genes. We used an efficient, next generation sequencing based workflow for simultaneous analysis of all three COL4A genes in three individuals and fourteen families involved by AS or showing different level of Alport-related symptoms. We successfully identified mutations in all investigated cases, including 14 unpublished mutations in our Hungarian cohort. We present an easy to use unified clinical/diagnostic terminology and workflow not only for X-linked but for autosomal AS, but also for Alport-related diseases. In families where a diagnosis has been established by molecular genetic analysis, the renal biopsy may be rendered unnecessary.

  14. A genomic background based method for association analysis in related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Amin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feasibility of genotyping of hundreds and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in thousands of study subjects have triggered the need for fast, powerful, and reliable methods for genome-wide association analysis. Here we consider a situation when study participants are genetically related (e.g. due to systematic sampling of families or because a study was performed in a genetically isolated population. Of the available methods that account for relatedness, the Measured Genotype (MG approach is considered the 'gold standard'. However, MG is not efficient with respect to time taken for the analysis of genome-wide data. In this context we proposed a fast two-step method called Genome-wide Association using Mixed Model and Regression (GRAMMAR for the analysis of pedigree-based quantitative traits. This method certainly overcomes the drawback of time limitation of the measured genotype (MG approach, but pays in power. One of the major drawbacks of both MG and GRAMMAR, is that they crucially depend on the availability of complete and correct pedigree data, which is rarely available. METHODOLOGY: In this study we first explore type 1 error and relative power of MG, GRAMMAR, and Genomic Control (GC approaches for genetic association analysis. Secondly, we propose an extension to GRAMMAR i.e. GRAMMAR-GC. Finally, we propose application of GRAMMAR-GC using the kinship matrix estimated through genomic marker data, instead of (possibly missing and/or incorrect genealogy. CONCLUSION: Through simulations we show that MG approach maintains high power across a range of heritabilities and possible pedigree structures, and always outperforms other contemporary methods. We also show that the power of our proposed GRAMMAR-GC approaches to that of the 'gold standard' MG for all models and pedigrees studied. We show that this method is both feasible and powerful and has correct type 1 error in the context of genome-wide association analysis

  15. A genomic background based method for association analysis in related individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aulchenko, Yurii S

    2007-12-05

    Feasibility of genotyping of hundreds and thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thousands of study subjects have triggered the need for fast, powerful, and reliable methods for genome-wide association analysis. Here we consider a situation when study participants are genetically related (e.g. due to systematic sampling of families or because a study was performed in a genetically isolated population). Of the available methods that account for relatedness, the Measured Genotype (MG) approach is considered the 'gold standard'. However, MG is not efficient with respect to time taken for the analysis of genome-wide data. In this context we proposed a fast two-step method called Genome-wide Association using Mixed Model and Regression (GRAMMAR) for the analysis of pedigree-based quantitative traits. This method certainly overcomes the drawback of time limitation of the measured genotype (MG) approach, but pays in power. One of the major drawbacks of both MG and GRAMMAR, is that they crucially depend on the availability of complete and correct pedigree data, which is rarely available. In this study we first explore type 1 error and relative power of MG, GRAMMAR, and Genomic Control (GC) approaches for genetic association analysis. Secondly, we propose an extension to GRAMMAR i.e. GRAMMAR-GC. Finally, we propose application of GRAMMAR-GC using the kinship matrix estimated through genomic marker data, instead of (possibly missing and/or incorrect) genealogy. Through simulations we show that MG approach maintains high power across a range of heritabilities and possible pedigree structures, and always outperforms other contemporary methods. We also show that the power of our proposed GRAMMAR-GC approaches to that of the 'gold standard' MG for all models and pedigrees studied. We show that this method is both feasible and powerful and has correct type 1 error in the context of genome-wide association analysis in related individuals.

  16. Identifying cancer-related microRNAs based on gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Ming; Liu, Ke-Qin; Zhu, Guanghui; He, Feng; Duval, Béatrice; Richer, Jean-Michel; Huang, De-Shuang; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Hao, Jin-Kao; Chen, Luonan

    2015-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional regulations as well as other important biological processes. Recently, accumulating evidences indicate that miRNAs are extensively involved in cancer. However, it is a big challenge to identify which miRNAs are related to which cancer considering the complex processes involved in tumors, where one miRNA may target hundreds or even thousands of genes and one gene may regulate multiple miRNAs. Despite integrative analysis of matched gene and miRNA expression data can help identify cancer-associated miRNAs, such kind of data is not commonly available. On the other hand, there are huge amount of gene expression data that are publicly accessible. It will significantly improve the efficiency of characterizing miRNA's function in cancer if we can identify cancer miRNAs directly from gene expression data. We present a novel computational framework to identify the cancer-related miRNAs based solely on gene expression profiles without requiring either miRNA expression data or the matched gene and miRNA expression data. The results on multiple cancer datasets show that our proposed method can effectively identify cancer-related miRNAs with higher precision compared with other popular approaches. Furthermore, some of our novel predictions are validated by both differentially expressed miRNAs and evidences from literature, implying the predictive power of our proposed method. In addition, we construct a cancer-miRNA-pathway network, which can help explain how miRNAs are involved in cancer. The R code and data files for the proposed method are available at http://comp-sysbio.org/miR_Path/ liukeq@gmail.com supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Profiling and relative quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine based on acetone stable isotope derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wei, Fang; Xu, Ji-Qu; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Han, Xianlin; Quek, Siew-Young; Huang, Feng-Hong; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered to be one of the pivotal lipids for normal cellular function as well as disease initiation and progression. In this study, a simple, efficient, reliable, and inexpensive method for the qualitative analysis and relative quantification of PE, based on acetone stable isotope derivatization combined with double neutral loss scan-shotgun electrospray ionization tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis (ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS), was developed. The ASID method led to alkylation of the primary amino groups of PE with an isopropyl moiety. The use of acetone (d0-acetone) and deuterium-labeled acetone (d6-acetone) introduced a 6 Da mass shift that was ideally suited for relative quantitative analysis, and enhanced sensitivity for mass analysis. The DNLS model was introduced to simultaneously analyze the differential derivatized PEs by shotgun ESI-MS/MS with high selectivity and accuracy. The reaction specificity, labeling efficiency, and linearity of the ASID method were thoroughly evaluated in this study. Its excellent applicability was validated by qualitative and relative quantitative analysis of PE species presented in liver samples from rats fed different diets. Using the ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS method, 45 PE species from rat livers have been identified and quantified in an efficient manner. The level of total PEs tended to decrease in the livers of rats on high fat diets compared with controls. The levels of PE 32:1, 34:3, 34:2, 36:3, 36:2, 42:10, plasmalogen PE 36:1 and lyso PE 22:6 were significantly reduced, while levels of PE 36:1 and lyso PE 16:0 increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  19. Mutual associations between intellectual disability and epilepsy-related psychiatry disability: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Xun; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is the third-leading cause of psychiatry disability in China, and intellectual disability (ID) is also 1 major type of disabilities in China. This study estimates the prevalence of comorbidities with ID and epilepsy-related psychiatry disability (EPD) and examines mutual associations within ID and EPD.Data were taken from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, which was a nationally representative, population-based survey. To derive a nationally representative sample, the survey used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size. The disabled people who had ID and EPD based on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases. The cox-proportional hazards model was used to examine the associations between ID and EPD considering the happened sequence of ID and EPD.The prevalence of ID with EPD was 0.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.19) per 1000 people. Age was strongly associated with the risk of EPD, which was diagnosed after ID, especially among young ID population. Except for age, other variables were also associated between ID and EPD considering sequence of ID and EPD.This study is the first national study to explore mutual associations with ID and EPD and highlights the young ID children with high risk of development of epilepsy. To address the challenge of ID with EPD disability in China, the government should adjust its strategies for healthcare systems to prevent disability.

  20. Safety-Related Moderators of a Parent-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Goodrum, Nada; Armistead, Lisa P.; Cook, Sarah L.; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined factors influencing the effectiveness of a parent-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town, South Africa. Caregiver-youth dyads (N = 99) were randomized into intervention or control conditions and assessed longitudinally. The intervention improved a parenting skill associated with youth sexual risk, parent–child communication about sex and HIV. Analyses revealed that over time, intervention participants (female caregivers) who experienced recent intimate partner violence (IPV) or unsafe neighborhoods discussed fewer sex topics with their adolescent children than caregivers in safer neighborhoods or who did not report IPV. Participants with low or moderate decision-making power in their intimate relationships discussed more topics over time only if they received the intervention. The effectiveness of our intervention was challenged by female caregivers’ experience with IPV and unsafe neighborhoods, highlighting the importance of safety-related contextual factors when implementing behavioral interventions for women and young people in high-risk environments. Moderation effects did not occur for youth-reported communication outcomes. Implications for cross-cultural adaptations of parent-based HIV prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25286174

  1. Chinese Text Clustering for Topic Detection Based on Word Pattern Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yen-Ju; Yu, Su-Hsin

    This research adopt the method of word expansion to compose relevant features into the same semantic concept, then conduct the corresponding documents to concept clusters, and finally merge the concepts with common documents into document clusters. We expect the mechanism, the use of semantic concept to form a feature index, can reduce the problems of polysemy and synonymy. The frequent two or three sequent nouns in the same sentence are used to form a key pattern to replace the keyword as the feature of the text. The distributive strength of key patterns is measured by Pattern Frequency, Pattern Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency, Conditional Probability, Mutual Information, and Association Norm. According to the strength the agglomerate hierarchical clustering technique is applied to cluster these key patterns into semantic concepts. Then, based on the common documents between concepts, several semantic concepts are merged to a group, in which the corresponding text will be considered as topic-related. The experimental results show that our proposed text clustering based on five strength measures of key patterns are all better than the traditional VSM clustering. PFIDF is the best in average F-measure, 97.5%.

  2. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.

  3. Chaotic Image Encryption Based on Running-Key Related to Plaintext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image encryption scheme. In the running-key generation stage, by successively disturbing chaotic stream with cipher-text, the relation of running-key to plaintext is established, reconstruction attack is avoided, effective use of chaotic resource is guaranteed, and dynamical degradation of digital chaos is minimized. In the image encryption stage, by introducing random-feedback mechanism, the difficulty of breaking this scheme is increased. Comparing with the-state-of-the-art algorithms, our scheme exhibits good properties such as large key space, long key period, and extreme sensitivity to the initial key and plaintext. Therefore, it can resist brute-force, reconstruction attack, and differential attack.

  4. Soil infiltration based on bp neural network and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Juan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall and different underlying surfaces. We established a six factor-model of soil cumulative infiltration by the improved back propagation (BP-based artificial neural network algorithm with a momentum term and self-adjusting learning rate. Compared to the multiple nonlinear regression method, the stability and accuracy of the improved BP algorithm was better. Based on the improved BP model, the sensitive index of these six factors on soil cumulative infiltration was investigated. Secondly, the grey relational analysis method was used to individually study grey correlations among these six factors and soil cumulative infiltration. The results of the two methods were very similar. Rainfall duration was the most influential factor, followed by vegetation cover, vegetation type, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture. The effect of slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was not significant.

  5. Delineation of the ischemic stroke lesion based on watershed and relative fuzzy connectedness in brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Asit; Jena, Subhranshu; Sabut, Sukanta

    2017-09-26

    Precise segmentation of stroke lesions from brain magnetic resonance (MR) images poses a challenging task in automated diagnosis. In this paper, we proposed a new method called watershed-based lesion segmentation algorithm (WLSA), which is a novel intensity-based segmentation technique used to delineate infarct lesion in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MR images of the brain. The algorithm was tested on a series of 142 real-time images collected from different stroke patients reported at IMS and SUM Hospital. One MRI slice having largest area of infract lesion is selected from each patient from multiple slices. The main objective is to combine the strength of guided filter and watershed transform through relative fuzzy connectedness (RFC) to detect lesion boundaries appropriately. The extracted informative statistical and geometrical features are used to classify the types of stroke lesions according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed process with high accuracy in delineating lesions. A classification with a dice similarity index (DSI) of 96% with computational time of 0.06 s in random forest (RF) and an accuracy of 85% with computational time of 0.84 s has been obtained by multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network classifier in tenfold cross-validation process. Better detection accuracy is achieved in RF classifier in classifying stroke lesions.

  6. Diagnosis related group grouping study of senile cataract patients based on E-CHAID algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To figure out the contributed factors of the hospitalization expenses of senile cataract patients (HECP and build up an area-specified senile cataract diagnosis related group (DRG of Shanghai thereby formulating the reference range of HECP and providing scientific basis for the fair use and supervision of the health care insurance fund. METHODS: The data was collected from the first page of the medical records of 22 097 hospitalized patients from tertiary hospitals in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 whose major diagnosis were senile cataract. Firstly, we analyzed the influence factors of HECP using univariate and multivariate analysis. DRG grouping was conducted according to the exhaustive Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (E-CHAID model, using HECP as target variable. Finally we evaluated the grouping results using non-parametric test such as Kruskal-Wallis H test, RIV, CV, etc. RESULTS: The 6 DRGs were established as well as criterion of HECP, using age, sex, type of surgery and whether complications/comorbidities occurred as the key variables of classification node of senile cataract cases. CONCLUSION: The grouping of senile cataract cases based on E-CHAID algorithm is reasonable. And the criterion of HECP based on DRG can provide a feasible way of management in the fair use and supervision of medical insurance fund.

  7. Distinguishing age-related cognitive decline from dementias: A study based on machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Füsun; Iscen, Pınar; Sahin, Sevki; Çinar, Nilgun; Karsidag, Sibel; Goularas, Dionysis

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to examine the distinguishability of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) from dementias based on some neurocognitive tests using machine learning. 106 subjects were divided into four groups: ARCD (n=30), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=20), vascular dementia (VD) (n=21) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=35). The following tests were applied to all subjects: The Wechsler memory scale-revised, a clock-drawing, the dual similarities, interpretation of proverbs, word fluency, the Stroop, the Boston naming (BNT), the Benton face recognition, a copying-drawings and Öktem verbal memory processes (Ö-VMPT) tests. A multilayer perceptron, a support vector machine and a classification via regression with M5-model trees were employed for classification. The pairwise classification results show that ARCD is completely separable from AD with a success rate of 100% and highly separable from MCI and VD with success rates of 95.4% and 86.30%, respectively. The neurocognitive tests with the higher merit values were Ö-VMPT recognition (ARCD vs. AD), Ö-VMPT total learning (ARCD vs. MCI) and semantic fluency, proverbs, Stroop interference and naming BNT (ARCD vs. VD). The findings show that machine learning can be successfully utilized for distinguishing ARCD from dementias based on neurocognitive tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dina L.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T.; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A.; Frisina, D. Robert; Frisina, Robert D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European–American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults. PMID:23102807

  9. Components to the acid-base related ventilatory drives in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Naves, J; Giusti, H; Hoffmann, A; Glass, M L

    2007-01-15

    Lungfish are closely related to terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapoda). Like tetrapods, the South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) has central chemoreceptors involved in regulation of acid-base status. However, no data were available on peripheral CO(2)/[H(+)] receptors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that such receptors exist by measuring the ventilatory responses during a 5h exposure to combined aquatic/gas phase hypercarbia 7% (approximately 49 mmHg). Normocarbic control ventilation was 22 ml BTPS kg(-1)h(-1), and hypercarbia increased ventilation to 175 ml BTPS kg(-1)h(-1) at 5h. This procedure was repeated with the modification that normocarbic mock CSF (pH 7.45; P(CO2) = 20.7 mmHg) was applied to superfuse the cerebral ventricular system during the last 2h of the experiment. This served to eliminate the hypercarbic stimulus to the central chemoreceptors, while possible responses from peripheral chemoreceptors would remain intact. Peripheral receptors were detected, since ventilation became reduced to 62 ml BTPS kg(-1)h(-1) (P<0.05), which exceeds the initial normocarbic control ventilation (P<0.05). Based on this, the peripheral contribution accounted for 20% of the total response to hypercarbia, similar to the contribution of these receptors in man.

  10. Economic Evaluation of a Home-Based Age-Related Macular Degeneration Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, John S; Clemons, Traci; Regillo, Carl; Rayess, Nadim; Liffmann Kruger, Danielle; Rein, David

    2017-05-01

    Medicare recently approved coverage of home telemonitoring for early detection of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no economic evaluation has yet assessed its cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact. To evaluate a home-based daily visual-field monitoring system using simulation methods and to apply the findings of the Home Monitoring of the Eye study to the US population at high risk for wet-form AMD. In this economic analysis, an evaluation of the potential cost, cost-effectiveness, and government budgetary impact of adoption of a home-based daily visual-field monitoring system among eligible Medicare patients was performed. Effectiveness and visual outcomes data from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Home Monitoring of the Eye study, treatment data from the Wills Eye Hospital Treat & Extend study, and AMD progression data from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 were used to simulate the long-term effects of telemonitoring patients with CNV in one eye or large drusen and/or pigment abnormalities in both eyes. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis and an alternative scenario using the Treat & Extend study control group outcomes were used to examine uncertainty in these data and assumptions. Home telemonitoring of patients with AMD for early detection of CNV vs usual care. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, net present value of lifetime societal costs, and 10-year nominal government expenditures. Telemonitoring of patients with existing unilateral CNV or multiple bilateral risk factors for CNV (large drusen and retinal pigment abnormalities) incurs $907 (95% CI, -$6302 to $2809) in net lifetime societal costs, costs $1312 (95% CI, $222-$2848) per patient during 10 years from the federal government's perspective, and results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $35 663 (95% CI, cost savings to $235 613) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Home telemonitoring

  11. Mapping Heat-related Risks for Community-based Adaptation Planning under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recently, epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of the mortality impacts of extreme heat. This research has several aims: 1) to promote climate prediction services with spatial and temporal information on heat-related risks, using GIS (Geographical Information System), and digital mapping techniques; 2) to propose a visualization approach to articulating the evolution of local heat-health responses over time and the evaluation of new interventions for the implementation of valid community-based adaptation strategies and reliable actionable planning; and 3) to provide an appropriate and simple method of adjusting bias and quantifying the uncertainty in future outcomes, so that regional climate projections may be transcribed into useful forms for a wide variety of different users. Following the 2003 European heat wave, climatologists, medical specialists, and social scientists expedited efforts to revise and integrate risk governance frameworks for communities to take appropriate and effective actions themselves. Recently, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) methodology has made projections possible for anyone wanting to openly access state-of-the-art climate model outputs and climate data to provide the backbone for decisions. Furthermore, the latest high-solution regional climate model (RCM) has been a huge increase in the volumes of data available. In this study, we used high-quality hourly projections (5-km resolution) from the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM-5km), following the SRES-A1B scenario developed by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and observational data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The NHRCM-5km is a dynamic downscaling of results from the MRI-AGCM3.2S (20-km resolution), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) driven by the

  12. Health-related quality of life in patients with skull base tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, M O

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the investigation was to report on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients diagnosed with skull base tumours using the Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). Those patients suffering with vestibular schwannoma were examined to determine the effect facial nerve function had on their quality of life. It took place at the tertiary referral centre at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. A prospective study of 70 consecutive patients was taken, who harboured the following tumours: 54 vestibular schwannomas, 13 meningiomas, two haemangioblastomas and one hypoglossal schwannoma. Patients were interviewed using the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Facial nerve function was assessed in those patients who had vestibular schwannomas. The entire cohort of live skull base patients were assessed after a median follow-up time of 38.4 months. Patients with vestibular schwannoma treated conservatively with interval MRI had a quality of life similar to t he normal population. Those who underwent surgery had a significant difference in two of the SF-36 domains. No statistically significant correlation was found at final assessment between the degree of facial nerve functioning and any of the domains of SF-36. Patients with non-vestibular tumours had an impaired HRQoL in seven of the eight domains. Patients with skull base tumours have a significant impairment of their HRQoL. A conservative policy of follow up with interval MRI for patients with small vestibular schwannomas may therefore be more appropriate to preserve their HRQoL. Facial nerve outcome has little influence on quality of life in vestibular schwannoma patients.

  13. Evidence-based risk assessment and recommendations for physical activity clearance: diabetes mellitus and related comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Michael C; Burr, Jamie

    2011-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is one of the most powerful treatment options for persons with prediabetes or diabetes. However, some elevation in risk occurs with increased PA, at least initially, and certain precautions need to be made to lower these risks, particularly if these persons are unaccustomed to exercise. We conducted a standardized search of all adverse events associated with increased PA in persons with prediabetes or diabetes (type 1 or type 2) and provided evidence-based guidelines on PA screening in these apparently high-risk individuals. A systematic literature review was performed of all studies reporting on adverse events in persons with prediabetes or diabetes. Studies included were from all designs (retrospective and prospective including randomized controlled trials) and were assessed according to evaluation criteria adapted by a consensus panel. A total of 47 studies, involving >8000 individuals, were deemed eligible. A number of these studies identified a range of mild to severe acute risks with exercise (musculoskeletal injury, hypoglycemia, foot ulceration, proliferative retinopathy, hypotension, sudden death) but the overall prevalence was low. Based on several randomized controlled trials and prospective studies in which prescribed exercise was performed at a wide range of intensities, it appears that increased PA is a relatively safe procedure with no evidence of a loss of life. Based on our assessment of the available literature, we provide a new PA risk algorithm for persons with prediabetes and diabetes and comment on the role of the patient, the qualified exercise professional, and the patient's physician in the risk screening process.

  14. Antipathogenic effects of structurally-related Schiff base derivatives: Structure–activity relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Hisaindee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen structurally-related Schiff base derivatives, which belong to salicylidenebenzylamine and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidenebenzylamine families were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. All the synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Human pathogenic gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated based on their toxicity to different concentrations of Schiff base compounds. For assessment of toxicity to pathogens, a disc diffusion assay was used to test the antimicrobial properties. The results revealed some antimicrobial activities of some of the synthesized compounds. Among the tested pathogens, the synthesized salicylidinaniline derivatives show highly potent action towards Alternaria alternata. Interestingly, a compound which contains the –Cl group is only effective against gram negative bacteria, but not gram positive bacteria. No remarkable antibacterial or antifungal activities were observed in the presence of –CH3 or –Br group. Furthermore, most of the naphthalene-containing compounds show no growth retardation towards bacterial or fungal pathogens. On the other hand, the presence of –OH or –SH group at para or ortho position, respectively, on the aniline site is correlated with an increased inhibitory drug effect on all pathogens. The importance of our findings to the drug research and developments is discussed in the context of finding a correlation between the structural properties of the new drugs and their biological activities.

  15. Addictive behaviors related to opioid use for chronic pain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højsted, Jette; Ekholm, Ola; Kurita, Geana Paula; Juel, Knud; Sjøgren, Per

    2013-12-01

    The growing body of research showing increased opioid use in patients with chronic pain coupled with concerns regarding addiction encouraged the development of this population-based study. The goal of the study was to investigate the co-occurrence of indicators of addictive behaviors in patients with chronic non-cancer pain in long-term opioid treatment. The study combined data from the individual-based Danish Health Survey in 2010 and the official Danish health and socio-economic, individual-based registers. From a simple random sample of 25,000 adults (16 years or older) living in Denmark, 13,281 individuals were analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between chronic pain (lasting ≥6 months), opioid use, health behavior, and body mass index. Six potential addictive behaviors were identified: daily smoking; high alcohol intake; illicit drug use in the past year; obesity; long-term use of benzodiazepines; and long-term use of benzodiazepine-related drugs. At least 2 of the 6 addictive behaviors were observed in 22.6% of the long-term opioid users with chronic pain compared with 11.5% of the non-opioid users with chronic pain and 8.9% of the individuals without chronic pain. Thus, a strong association was demonstrated between long-term opioid use and the clustering of addictive behaviors. An intricate relationship between chronic pain, opioid use, and addictive behaviors was observed in this study, which deserves both clinical attention and further research. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Criterion-Related Validity of Two Curriculum-Based Measures of Mathematical Skill in Relation to Reading Comprehension in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Giancarlo A.; Yarbrough, Jamie L.; Kovaleski, Joseph F.; Tran, Vi N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between benchmark scores from two curriculum-based measurement probes in mathematics (M-CBM) and student performance on a state-mandated high-stakes test. Participants were 298 students enrolled in grades 7 and 8 in a rural southeastern school. Specifically, we calculated the criterion-related and predictive…

  17. Tailoring Nutritional Advice for Mexicans Based on Prevalence Profiles of Diet-Related Adaptive Gene Polymorphisms

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    Claudia Ojeda-Granados

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we aimed to provide a prevalence profile of several DRAG polymorphisms in the Mexican population, including Central West (CW Mexico subpopulations. Geographic heat maps were built using ArcGIS10 (Esri, Redlands, CA, USA software, based on the published data of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, ABCA1 Arg230Cys (rs9282541, APOE T388C (rs429358/C526T (rs7412, LCT C-13910T (rs4988235 polymorphisms and AMY1 copy number variation (CNV. Also, new data obtained by allelic discrimination-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays for the MTHFR, ABCA1, and APOE polymorphisms as well as the AMY1 CNV in the CW Mexico subpopulations with different proportions of AM and EUR ancestry were included. In the CW region, the highest frequency of the MTHFR 677T, ABCA1 230C and APOE ε4 adaptive alleles was observed in the AM groups, followed by Mestizos with intermediate AM ancestry. The LCT-13910T allele frequency was highest in Mestizos-EUR but extremely low in AM, while the AMY1 diploid copy number was 6.82 ± 3.3 copies. Overall, the heat maps showed a heterogeneous distribution of the DRAG polymorphisms, in which the AM groups revealed the highest frequencies of the adaptive alleles followed by Mestizos. Given these genetic differences, genome-based nutritional advice should be tailored in a regionalized and individualized manner according to the available foods and Mexican traditional food culture that

  18. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Rohde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse

  19. Profiling and relative quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine based on acetone stable isotope derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Wei, Fang, E-mail: willasa@163.com [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Xu, Ji-qu; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-yan [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Han, Xianlin [Center for Metabolic Origins of Disease, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL 32827 (United States); College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 548 Bingwen Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053 (China); Quek, Siew-young [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Huang, Feng-hong [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: chenhong@oilcrops.cn [Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition (China)

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered to be one of the pivotal lipids for normal cellular function as well as disease initiation and progression. In this study, a simple, efficient, reliable, and inexpensive method for the qualitative analysis and relative quantification of PE, based on acetone stable isotope derivatization combined with double neutral loss scan-shotgun electrospray ionization tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis (ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS), was developed. The ASID method led to alkylation of the primary amino groups of PE with an isopropyl moiety. The use of acetone (d{sub 0}-acetone) and deuterium-labeled acetone (d{sub 6}-acetone) introduced a 6 Da mass shift that was ideally suited for relative quantitative analysis, and enhanced sensitivity for mass analysis. The DNLS model was introduced to simultaneously analyze the differential derivatized PEs by shotgun ESI-MS/MS with high selectivity and accuracy. The reaction specificity, labeling efficiency, and linearity of the ASID method were thoroughly evaluated in this study. Its excellent applicability was validated by qualitative and relative quantitative analysis of PE species presented in liver samples from rats fed different diets. Using the ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS method, 45 PE species from rat livers have been identified and quantified in an efficient manner. The level of total PEs tended to decrease in the livers of rats on high fat diets compared with controls. The levels of PE 32:1, 34:3, 34:2, 36:3, 36:2, 42:10, plasmalogen PE 36:1 and lyso PE 22:6 were significantly reduced, while levels of PE 36:1 and lyso PE 16:0 increased. - Highlights: • A novel isotope reagent acetone was explored for the derivatization of PEs. • The labeling reaction was carried out under mild conditions with high specificity. • Enhanced detection sensitivity of PEs was achieved after derivatization. • The ASID-DNLS-Shotgun MS/MS method was used to relative quantification of PEs.

  20. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  1. Client-nurse relationships in home-based palliative care: a critical analysis of power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Abram; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; McWilliam, Carol

    2007-08-01

    To elicit an in-depth understanding of the sources of power and how power is exercised within client-nurse relationships in home-based palliative care. As in all social relations, power is present within client-nurse relationships. Although much research has focused on interpersonal relationships in nursing, the concept of power within the client-nurse relationship in palliative care settings has not been extensively investigated. Applying a critical lens, secondary qualitative data analysis was conducted. Seventeen nurse and 16 client transcripts from a primary study were selected for secondary data analysis. These 33 transcripts afforded theme saturation, which allowed for both commonalities and differences to be identified. Data analysis involved analytic coding. Study findings help make explicit the underlying power present in the context of home-based palliative care and how this power is used and potentially abused. In analysing the sources and exercise of power, the linkage between macro and micro levels of power is made explicit, as nurses functioned within a hierarchy of power. The findings suggest that educational/occupational status continues to be a source of power for nurses within the relationship. However, nurses also experience powerlessness within the home care context. For clients, being able to control one's own life is a source of power, but this power is over-shadowed by the powerlessness experienced in relationships with nurses. The exercise of power by clients and nurses creates experiences of both liberation and domination. Nurses who are willing to reflect on and change those disempowering aspects of the client-nurse relationship, including a harmful hierarchy, will ultimately be successful in the health promotion of clients in home-based palliative care. Additionally, it should be recognized that nurses work within a specific health system context and, therefore, their practice is influenced by policies and funding models implemented at

  2. Methods for Engineering Enterprise Management Based on the Inter-factor Productive-Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Naydis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of engineering enterprises in the Russian Federation. It conducts a review and analysis of existing methods for business management using indicators to characterize enterprise activities by means of the scalars, functional dependencies of one factor value on the other (function one, wherein the magnitude of one factor value corresponds to a single magnitude of the other value - a dependent factor, as well as by means of data tables, and, as an example, by balance list and articulation statement used in accounting. The paper gives statements of need for taking into account the mutual influences and system interrelation of factors diversity and for special methods of their identification. The article is aimed at development of methods for business management of engineering enterprises taking into account a variety of factors and their interdependencies. The relevance of the issue stems from the fact that the analysis of existing methods of business management has shown that it is impossible to have the requested information about a considerable number of productive-economic factors in their system-based interrelation. There is a proposal for the management objects wherein multiple factors and their interactions are taken into consideration to be called inter-factor productive-economic relations (IPER. The paper presents the IPER-based structure of the business management system. It describes a method to identify controlled productive-economic factors and provides allocation and justification of the significant ones for the IPER control. Described methods of business management are distinguished by a large amount of control information, and data form rather complex structures. Therefore, it is proposed to use them in automatic control systems. The paper describes principles of information support for business management through binding IPER to organizational structures of the enterprise. It offers an

  3. Expression and Organization of Geographic Spatial Relations Based on Topic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. J.; Wang, H.; Cui, T. J.; Guo, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Relation is one of the important components of Geographical Information Science and Spatial Database. There have been lots of researches on Spatial Relation and many different spatial relations have been proposed. The relationships among these spatial relations such as hierarchy and so on are complex and this brings some difficulties to the applications and teaching of these spatial relations. This paper summaries some common spatial relations, extracts the topic types, association types, resource types of these spatial relations using the technology of Topic Maps, and builds many different relationships among these spatial relations. Finally, this paper utilizes Java and Ontopia to build a topic map among these common spatial relations, forms a complex knowledge network of spatial relations, and realizes the effective management and retrieval of spatial relations.

  4. Towards retrieving critical relative humidity from ground-based remote sensing observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Boutle, Ian; Morcrette, Cyril J.; Newsom, Rob K.

    2016-08-22

    Nearly all parameterisations of large-scale cloud require the specification of the critical relative humidity (RHcrit). This is the gridbox-mean relative humidity at which the subgrid fluctuations in temperature and water vapour become so large that part of a subsaturated gridbox becomes saturated and cloud starts to form. Until recently, the lack of high-resolution observations of temperature and moisture variability has hindered a reasonable estimate of the RHcrit from observations. However, with the advent of ground-based measurements from Raman lidar, it becomes possible to obtain long records of temperature and moisture (co-)variances with sub-minute sample rates. Lidar observations are inherently noisy and any analysis of higher-order moments will be very dependent on the ability to quantify and remove this noise. We present an exporatory study aimed at understanding whether current noise levels of lidar-retrieved temperature and water vapour are sufficient to obtain a reasonable estimate of the RHcrit. We show that vertical profiles of RHcrit can be derived for a gridbox length of up to about 30 km (120) with an uncertainty of about 4 % (2 %). RHcrit tends to be smallest near the scale height and seems to be fairly insensitive to the horizontal grid spacing at the scales investigated here (30 - 120 km). However, larger sensitivity was found to the vertical grid spacing. As the grid spacing decreases from 400 to 100 m, RHcrit is observed to increase by about 6 %, which is more than the uncertainty in the RHcrit retrievals.

  5. «Bases of social regulation and public relations» subject: MGSU teaching experience

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    Andreev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the author’s teaching experience in Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU in 2014 – 2017 of a new subject aimed to consolidate the information which is usually «dispersed» between courses of public relations, management, philosophy, sociology, etc. In particular, the author expresses his point of view concerning the most optimal structural organization of a training material for this discipline, considers the most successful, in his opinion, methodical practices, marks some features of the discipline understanding by students and their achieved results in study. Considering the training material provided in the first part of this discipline – «Bases of social regulation», – the author suggests to make the central, «recurrent» problem of the section the question of social planning in urban policy and especially – the social aspects in development and implementation of the smart city concept. In the second part of the discipline – «Public relations» – the author considers reasonable to pay special attention (apart from the general-theoretical communication problems reviewing to practical questions of establishment of trust relationships between town-planners and social groups similar to different components of a creative class. The author comes to a conclusion that the teaching methods of this subject in construction higher education institutions should create for students an integral view of the democratically understanding processes for social planning in town-planning, inseparably connected with different forms and methods of social communication.

  6. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  7. Younger age at gout onset is related to obesity in a community-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams DeMarco, Mara A.; Maynard, Janet W.; Huizinga, Mary Margret; Baer, Alan N.; Köttgen, Anna; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with gout risk. It is unclear whether obesity is associated with a younger age of gout onset. We examined whether obesity is related to age at gout onset and quantified the risk of incident gout by obesity status in the Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE II) study, a longitudinal community-based cohort. Methods CLUE II began in 1989 as a cohort study of residents living within or surrounding Washington County, Maryland. Follow-up questionnaires queried whether each participant had been diagnosed with gout by a healthcare professional. Among participants with gout, we assessed whether obesity was related to age at disease onset. We also ascertained the eighteen-year risk of incident gout according to obesity status (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at baseline with cumulative incidence ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Poisson regression. Results Among the study population (n=15,533), 517 developed incident gout. The prevalence of obesity at baseline was 16.2%. The overall mean age at gout onset was 59.3 years. The onset of gout was 3.1 years (95% CI: 0.3, 5.8) earlier in those who were obese at baseline and 11.0 years earlier (95% CI: 5.8, 16.1) in participants who were obese at age 21, compared to their non-obese participants. The 18-year adjusted RR of gout in obese participants compared to non-obese participants was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.37). Conclusion Obesity is not only a risk factor for incident gout but was associated with an earlier age at gout onset. PMID:21485022

  8. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  9. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.Population-based, cross-sectional study.A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week, frequency (days per week, and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis.Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria.Overall, 336 (2.7% subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54. High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33. There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94 but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97. A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  10. Asynchronous gaze-independent event-related potential-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Aricò, Pietro; Schettini, Francesca; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2013-10-01

    In this study a gaze independent event related potential (ERP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) for communication purpose was combined with an asynchronous classifier endowed with dynamical stopping feature. The aim was to evaluate if and how the performance of such asynchronous system could be negatively affected in terms of communication efficiency and robustness to false positives during the intentional no-control state. The proposed system was validated with the participation of 9 healthy subjects. A comparison was performed between asynchronous and synchronous classification technique outputs while users were controlling the same gaze independent BCI interface. The performance of both classification techniques were assessed both off-line and on-line by means of the efficiency metric introduced by Bianchi et al. (2007). This latter metric allows to set a different misclassification cost for wrong classifications and abstentions. Robustness was evaluated as the rate of false positives occurring during voluntary no-control states. The asynchronous classifier did not exhibited significantly higher accuracy or lower error rate with respect to the synchronous classifier (accuracy: 74.66% versus 87.96%, error rate: 7.11% versus 12.04% respectively). However, the on-line and off-line analysis revealed that the communication efficiency was significantly improved (pinterface is a promising solution to be further explored in order to increase the general usability of ERP-based BCI systems designed for severely disabled people with an impairment of the voluntary control of eye movements. In fact, the asynchronous classifier can improve communication efficiency automatically adapting the number of stimulus repetitions to the current user's state and suspending the control if he/she does not intend to select an item. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Practice-related changes in neural activation patterns investigated via wavelet-based clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinae; Park, Cheolwoo; Dyckman, Kara A.; Lazar, Nicole A.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Li, Qingyang; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and specifically, activation changes across time associated with practice-related cognitive control during eye movement tasks. Experimental design Participants were engaged in antisaccade performance (generating a glance away from a cue) while fMR images were acquired during two separate time points: 1) at pre-test before any exposure to the task, and 2) at post-test, after one week of daily practice on antisaccades, prosaccades (glancing towards a target) or fixation (maintaining gaze on a target). Principal observations The three practice groups were compared across the two time points, and analyses were conducted via the application of a model-free clustering technique based on wavelet analysis. This series of procedures was developed to avoid analysis problems inherent in fMRI data and was composed of several steps: detrending, data aggregation, wavelet transform and thresholding, no trend test, principal component analysis and K-means clustering. The main clustering algorithm was built in the wavelet domain to account for temporal correlation. We applied a no trend test based on wavelets to significantly reduce the high dimension of the data. We clustered the thresholded wavelet coefficients of the remaining voxels using the principal component analysis K-means clustering. Conclusion Over the series of analyses, we found that the antisaccade practice group was the only group to show decreased activation from pre- to post-test in saccadic circuitry, particularly evident in supplementary eye field, frontal eye fields, superior parietal lobe, and cuneus. PMID:22505290

  12. Tactile-Sight: A Sensory Substitution Device Based on Distance-Related Vibrotactile Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cancar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory substitution is a research field of increasing interest with regard to technical, applied and theoretical issues. Among the latter, it is of central interest to understand the form in which humans perceive the environment. Ecological psychology, among other approaches, proposes that we can detect higher-order informational variables (in the sense that they are defined over substantial spatial and temporal intervals that specify our interaction with the environment. When using a vibrotactile sensory substitution device, it is reasonable to ask if stimulation on the skin may be exploitable to detect higher-order variables. Motivated by this question, a portable vibrotactile sensory substitution device was built, using distance-based information as a source and driving a large number of vibrotactile actuators (72 in the reported version, 120 max. The portable device was designed to explore real environments, allowing natural unrestricted movement for the user while providing contingent real-time vibrotactile information. Two preliminary experiments were performed. In the first one, participants were asked to detect the time to contact of an approaching ball in a simulated (desktop environment. Reasonable performance was observed in all experimental conditions, including the one with only tactile stimulation. In the second experiment, a portable version of the device was used in a real environment, where participants were asked to hit an approaching ball. Participants were able to coordinate their arm movements with vibrotactile stimulation in appropriate timing. We conclude that vibrotactile flow can be generated by distance-based activation of the actuators and that this stimulation on the skin allows users to perceive time-to-contact related environmental properties.

  13. Development of a honey based tonic syrup for cancer-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF is the most common and distressing symptom that affects overall quality of life of cancer patients. Due to the multi-factorial etiology, there is currently no “gold standard” for treatment of CRF. Considering the growing importance of national traditional medicines, natural remedies are viewed as playing distinctive role. “Jollab” is a natural syrup prescribed by Iranian traditional medicine (ITM scholars as tonic especially for the cardiovascular system. “Jollab” can consist of several ingredients although almost all traditional recipes include saffron and rose water as well as sugar or honey. The aim of this research was to develop a honey based “Jollab” and evaluate hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, a product of fructose decomposition, as an indicator of heating effect on honey. Methods: Several “Jollab” formulations with different proportions of honey and rose water were prepared using deslagging procedure through direct or indirect heating. The HMF content of the formulation was measured according to International Honey Commission (IHC method. Results: “Jollab” was formulated with saffron (0.1%, honey (57.1% and rose water (42.8%. Two-thirds of the rose water was evaporated during deslagging procedure through direct heating (up to 95 °C and the remaining was added to the honey at the end of the process. Moreover, the HMF content of the prepared Jollab was 64.47±5.49 mg/kg which meets ICH standards. Conclusion: The developed honey based Jollab could be considered as a safe formulation for further studies in the field of CRF due to the acceptable HMF content.

  14. Development of a web-based, work-related asthma educational tool for patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists. To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma. An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website prototype. This was subsequently tested and serially revised according to patient feedback in three moderated phases (one focus group and two interview phases), followed by face validation by asthma educators. Patients (n=10) were 20 to 28 years of age; seven (70%) were female, three (30%) were in university, two (20%) were in college and five (50%) were currently employed. Key format preferences included: well-spaced, bulleted text; movies (as opposed to animations); photos (as opposed to cartoons); an explicit listing of website aims on the home page; and an exploding tab structure. Participants disliked integrated games and knowledge quizzes. Desired informational content included a list of triggers, prevention⁄control methods, currently available tools and resources, a self-test for WRA, real-life scenario presentations, compensation information, information for colleagues on how to react during an asthma attack and a WRA discussion forum. The website met the perceived needs of young asthmatic patients. This resource could be disseminated widely and should be tested for its effects on patient behaviour, including job choice, workplace irritant⁄allergen avoidance and⁄or protective equipment, asthma medication use and physician prompting for management of WRA symptoms.

  15. Stem cell based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: The promises and the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Hossein; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Danhong; Chader, Gerald J; Falabella, Paulo; Stefanini, Francisco; Rowland, Teisha; Clegg, Dennis O; Kashani, Amir H; Hinton, David R; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. AMD is classified as either neovascular (NV-AMD) or non-neovascular (NNV-AMD). Cumulative damage to the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris leads to dysfunction and loss of RPE cells. This causes degeneration of the overlying photoreceptors and consequential vision loss in advanced NNV-AMD (Geographic Atrophy). In NV-AMD, abnormal growth of capillaries under the retina and RPE, which leads to hemorrhage and fluid leakage, is the main cause of photoreceptor damage. Although a number of drugs (e.g., anti-VEGF) are in use for NV-AMD, there is currently no treatment for advanced NNV-AMD. However, replacing dead or dysfunctional RPE with healthy RPE has been shown to rescue dying photoreceptors and improve vision in animal models of retinal degeneration and possibly in AMD patients. Differentiation of RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-RPE) and from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-RPE) has created a potentially unlimited source for replacing dead or dying RPE. Such cells have been shown to incorporate into the degenerating retina and result in anatomic and functional improvement. However, major ethical, regulatory, safety, and technical challenges have yet to be overcome before stem cell-based therapies can be used in standard treatments. This review outlines the current knowledge surrounding the application of hESC-RPE and iPSC-RPE in AMD. Following an introduction on the pathogenesis and available treatments of AMD, methods to generate stem cell-derived RPE, immune reaction against such cells, and approaches to deliver desired cells into the eye will be explored along with broader issues of efficacy and safety. Lastly, strategies to improve these stem cell-based treatments will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2017-09-08

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  17. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders : a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C. H. W.; van Rooij, I. A. L. M.; Bakker, M. K.; Marcelis, C. L. M.; Addor, M. C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C. M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; de Blaauw, I.; Roeleveld, N.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Objective To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. Population The study

  18. Computer-based auditory training (CBAT): benefits for children with language- and reading-related learning difficulties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD...

  19. Robust transcriptional signatures for low-input RNA samples based on relative expression orderings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Li, Yawei; He, Jun; Guan, Qingzhou; Chen, Rou; Yan, Haidan; Zheng, Weicheng; Song, Kai; Cai, Hao; Guo, You; Wang, Xianlong; Guo, Zheng

    2017-11-28

    It is often difficult to obtain sufficient quantity of RNA molecules for gene expression profiling under many practical situations. Amplification from low-input samples may induce artificial signals. We compared the expression measurements of low-input mRNA samples, from 25 pg to 1000 pg mRNA, which were amplified and profiled by Smart-seq, DP-seq and CEL-seq techniques using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with those of the paired high-input (50 ng) mRNA samples. Even with 1000 pg mRNA input, we found that thousands of genes had at least 2 folds-change of expression levels in the low-input samples compared with the corresponding paired high-input samples. Consequently, a transcriptional signature based on quantitative expression values and determined from high-input RNA samples cannot be applied to low-input samples, and vice versa. In contrast, the within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of approximately 90% of all the gene pairs in the high-input samples were maintained in the paired low-input samples with 1000 pg input mRNA molecules. Similar results were observed in the low-input total RNA samples amplified and profiled by the Whole-Genome DASL technique using the Illumina HumanRef-8 v3.0 platform. As a proof of principle, we developed REOs-based signatures from high-input RNA samples for discriminating cancer tissues and showed that they can be robustly applied to low-input RNA samples. REOs-based signatures determined from the high-input RNA samples can be robustly applied to samples profiled with the low-input RNA samples, as low as the 1000 pg and 250 pg input samples but no longer stable in samples with less than 250 pg RNA input to a certain degree.

  20. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  1. A bootstrap based analysis pipeline for efficient classification of phylogenetically related animal miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetically related miRNAs (miRNA families convey important information of the function and evolution of miRNAs. Due to the special sequence features of miRNAs, pair-wise sequence identity between miRNA precursors alone is often inadequate for unequivocally judging the phylogenetic relationships between miRNAs. Most of the current methods for miRNA classification rely heavily on manual inspection and lack measurements of the reliability of the results. Results In this study, we designed an analysis pipeline (the Phylogeny-Bootstrap-Cluster (PBC pipeline to identify miRNA families based on branch stability in the bootstrap trees derived from overlapping genome-wide miRNA sequence sets. We tested the PBC analysis pipeline with the miRNAs from six animal species, H. sapiens, M. musculus, G. gallus, D. rerio, D. melanogaster, and C. elegans. The resulting classification was compared with the miRNA families defined in miRBase. The two classifications were largely consistent. Conclusion The PBC analysis pipeline is an efficient method for classifying large numbers of heterogeneous miRNA sequences. It requires minimum human involvement and provides measurements of the reliability of the classification results.

  2. The Readjustment of China-US Relations After 2010 - Based on The Theory of 'Institutional System'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, international order gradually changed from a 'power-centered system' to an 'Institution-based System'. International Institution became the core stone in the construction of the international order. Occupying an advantageous position in the institutional structure became the main factor in driving relational changes between major powers. Against the background of 'institutional system', the dominant countries are inclined to use the 'security lever' as a tool to maintain their dominant position. In order to promote economic factors conducive to their own benefit, these dominant powers set up a series of discriminative international institutions against emerging powers by weakening their material foundation and their room for maneuver in policy-making without destabilizing the liberalization of global market. After 2010, the international order entered into a period of re-adjustment during which East Asia became the pivotal center of attention while China became the main driving force. This situation was seen as a threat to the existing US hegemony. Therefore, before and after 2010 the contradictions between China and the United States were intensifying, and the focus of this round of China-US power struggle aimed to occupy the hegemonic position in shaping the international order in East Asia. Perceiving the US “security strategy” as a means and facing the US-led discriminative international economic order (TPP, China needs to broaden its openness and to use the "common development" strategy to deal with the US discriminative strategy.

  3. Experimental research for relative radiometric calibration of imaging spectrometer based on Savart plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Chunmin; Yan, Tingyu

    2017-02-01

    The basic principle of tempo-spatially mixed modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) based on savart plates is outlined. A calibration method of pixel response non-uniformity of charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in such type of instrument is presented. The method which uses column-flat-fields can avoid the influence of interference fringes. The use of polychromatic calibration source can solve the problem of the slant of the fringes in large optical path difference areas. The procedure of calibration experiment and the algorithm of data processing are detailed described. Two groups of relative radiometric calibration coefficient are obtained through the method of least-square. The original images are corrected by using the coefficients to validate its calibration effect. The results indicated that the method can obviously improve the uniformity of pixels and the vignetting artifacts and defect of the instrument can be well corrected. This study provides a theoretical guidance for study, design, modulation, experiment and engineering of FTIS.

  4. Hearing aid-related satisfaction based on type and degree of hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad FarajiKhiavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used ; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20 and 75-90 years (n=20. Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL questionnaire.Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age group (p=0.02. Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02. On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01.Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants . Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.

  5. Multiple sclerosis lesion quantification in MR images by using vectorial scale-based relative fuzzy connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Nyul, Laszlo G.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for segmenting PD- and T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and MS lesions. For a given vectorial image (with PD- and T2-weighted components) to be segmented, we perform first intensity inhomogeneity correction and standardization prior to segmentation. Absolute fuzzy connectedness and certain morphological operations are utilized to generate the brain intracranial mask. The optimum thresholding method is applied to the product image (the image in which voxel values represent T2 value x PD value) to automatically recognize potential MS lesion sites. Then, the recently developed technique -- vectorial scale-based relative fuzzy connectedness -- is utilized to segment all voxels within the brain intracranial mask into WM, GM, CSF, and MS lesion regions. The number of segmented lesions and the volume of each lesion are finally output as well as the volume of other tissue regions. The method has been tested on 10 clinical brain MRI data sets of MS patients. An accuracy of better than 96% has been achieved. The preliminary results indicate that its performance is better than that of the k-nearest neighbors (kNN) method.

  6. A Simple Formula for Local Burnup and Isotope Distributions Based on Approximately Constant Relative Reaction Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenxi Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and analytical formula is suggested to solve the problems of the local burnup and the isotope distributions. The present method considers two extreme conditions of neutrons penetrating the fuel rod. Based on these considerations, the formula is obtained to calculate the reaction rates of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and straightforward the local burnup and the isotope distributions. Starting from an initial burnup level, the parameters of the formula are fitted to the reaction rates given by a Monte Carlo (MC calculation. Then the present formula independently gives very similar results to the MC calculation from the starting to high burnup level but takes just a few minutes. The relative reaction rates are found to be almost independent of the radius (except (n,γ of  238U and the burnup, providing a solid background for the present formula. A more realistic examination is also performed when the fuel rods locate in an assembly. A combination of the present formula and the MC calculation is expected to have a nice balance between the numerical accuracy and time consumption.

  7. Health-related behavior and quality of life among the elderly: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Guimarães Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between health-related behaviors and quality of life among the elderly. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out including 1,958 elderly living in four areas in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 2001/2002. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument. This instrument's eight subscales and two components were the dependent variables. Independent variables were physical activity, weekly frequency of alcohol consumption and smoking. Multiple linear regression models were used to control for the effect of gender, age, schooling, work, area of residence and number of chronic conditions. RESULTS: Physical activity was positively associated with the eight SF-36 subscales. The stronger associations were found for role-physical (β=11.9, physical functioning (β=11.3 and physical component. Elderly individuals who consumed alcohol at least once a week showed a better quality of life than those did not consume alcohol. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a poorer quality of life for the mental component (β=-2.4. CONCLUSIONS: The study results showed that physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption and no smoking are positively associated with a better quality of life in the elderly.

  8. Experimental study of surface roughness in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Deris Ashanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Discharge Machining (EDM is one of the modern machining which is capable in handling hard and difficult-to-machine material. The successful of EDM basically depends on its performances such as surface roughness (Ra, material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear rate (EWR and dimensional accuracy (DA. Ra is considered as the most important performance due to it role as a technological quality measurement for a product and also a factor that significantly affects the manufacturing process. This paper presents the experimental study of surface roughness in die sinking EDM using stainless steel SS316L with copper impregnated graphite electrode. The machining experimental is conducted based on the two levels full factorial design of design of experiment (DOE with five machining parameters which are peak current, servo voltage, servo speed, pulse on time and pulse off time. The results were analyzed using grey relational analysis (GRA and it was found that pulse on time and servo voltage give the most influence to the Ra value.

  9. A Cost-Effective Relative Humidity Sensor Based on Side Coupling Induction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingzi; Hou, Yulong; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Zhidong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Qiu-Lin

    2017-04-25

    A intensity-modulated optical fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor based on the side coupling induction technology (SCIT) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The agarose gel and the twisted macro-bend coupling structure are first combined for RH sensing applications. The refractive index (RI) of the agarose gel increases with the increase of the RH and is in linear proportion from 20 to 80%RH. The side coupling power, which changes directly with the RI of the agarose gel, can strip the source noise from the sensor signal and improve the signal to noise ratio substantially. The experiment results show that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor increases while the bend radius decreases. When the bend radius is 8 mm, the sensor has a linear response from 40% to 80% RH with the sensitivity of 4.23 nW/% and the limit of detection of 0.70%. A higher sensitivity of 12.49 nW/% is achieved when RH raises from 80% to 90% and the limit of detection decreases to 0.55%. Furthermore, the proposed sensor is a low-cost solution, offering advantages of good reversibility, fast response time, and compensable temperature dependence.

  10. An Object-Relational Ifc Storage Model Based on Oracle Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Liu, Hua; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    With the building models are getting increasingly complicated, the levels of collaboration across professionals attract more attention in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. In order to adapt the change, buildingSMART developed Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to facilitate the interoperability between software platforms. However, IFC data are currently shared in the form of text file, which is defective. In this paper, considering the object-based inheritance hierarchy of IFC and the storage features of different database management systems (DBMS), we propose a novel object-relational storage model that uses Oracle database to store IFC data. Firstly, establish the mapping rules between data types in IFC specification and Oracle database. Secondly, design the IFC database according to the relationships among IFC entities. Thirdly, parse the IFC file and extract IFC data. And lastly, store IFC data into corresponding tables in IFC database. In experiment, three different building models are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of our storage model. The comparison of experimental statistics proves that IFC data are lossless during data exchange.

  11. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  12. Network-based analysis reveals functional connectivity related to internet addiction tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eWen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPreoccupation and compulsive use of the internet can have negative psychological effects, such that it is increasingly being recognized as a mental disorder. The present study employed network-based statistics to explore how whole-brain functional connections at rest is related to the extent of individual’s level of internet addiction, indexed by a self-rated questionnaire. We identified two topologically significant networks, one with connections that are positively correlated with internet addiction tendency, and one with connections negatively correlated with internet addiction tendency. The two networks are interconnected mostly at frontal regions, which might reflect alterations in the frontal region for different aspects of cognitive control (i.e., for control of internet usage and gaming skills. Next, we categorized the brain into several large regional subgroupings, and found that the majority of proportions of connections in the two networks correspond to the cerebellar model of addiction which encompasses the four-circuit model. Lastly, we observed that the brain regions with the most inter-regional connections associated with internet addiction tendency replicate those often seen in addiction literature, and is corroborated by our meta-analysis of internet addiction studies. This research provides a better understanding of large-scale networks involved in internet addiction tendency and shows that pre-clinical levels of internet addiction are associated with similar regions and connections as clinical cases of addiction.

  13. AN OBJECT-RELATIONAL IFC STORAGE MODEL BASED ON ORACLE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the building models are getting increasingly complicated, the levels of collaboration across professionals attract more attention in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC industry. In order to adapt the change, buildingSMART developed Industry Foundation Classes (IFC to facilitate the interoperability between software platforms. However, IFC data are currently shared in the form of text file, which is defective. In this paper, considering the object-based inheritance hierarchy of IFC and the storage features of different database management systems (DBMS, we propose a novel object-relational storage model that uses Oracle database to store IFC data. Firstly, establish the mapping rules between data types in IFC specification and Oracle database. Secondly, design the IFC database according to the relationships among IFC entities. Thirdly, parse the IFC file and extract IFC data. And lastly, store IFC data into corresponding tables in IFC database. In experiment, three different building models are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of our storage model. The comparison of experimental statistics proves that IFC data are lossless during data exchange.

  14. Deviation from the Kadowaki-Woods relation in Yb-based intermediate-valence systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujii, N; Kosuge, K

    2003-01-01

    The T sup 2 -coefficient of the electrical resistivity, A, is compared with the electronic specific heat coefficient, gamma, for a number of Yb-based compounds. It is revealed that many systems, including YbCuAl, YbInCu sub 4 , YbAl sub 3 , and YbCu sub 5 , show A/gamma sup 2 values close to 0.4 x 10 sup - sup 6 mu OMEGA cm mol sup 2 K sup 2 mJ sup - sup 2 , which are remarkably small compared to those obtained from an expression known as the Kadowaki-Woods relation: A/gamma sup 2 = 1.0 x 10 sup - sup 5 mu OMEGA cm mol sup 2 K sup 2 mJ sup - sup 2. Empirically, the compounds with the smaller A/gamma sup 2 values appear to show weak intersite magnetic correlation and/or to have almost fully degenerate (J = 5/2 or 7/2) ground states.

  15. Evidence based effects of yoga practice on various health related problems of elderly people: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2017-10-01

    More than 50% of the elderly above 60 years of age suffer from chronic medical conditions, the prevalence of which increases with age. Though Yoga has been reported as an effective modality in improving various physical and psychological aspects of elderly populations, a comprehensive review of Yoga and its effects on various health related problems of elderly populations has not yet been reported. Hence, we performed PubMed/Medline search to review relevant articles, using keyword "yoga and elderly". Relevant articles published since inception till 6th October 2016 were included for the review. Based on the available scientific literature, this review suggests that the regular practice of Yoga can be considered as an effective intervention in improving physical (reduces heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose, oxidative damage, fatigue, weakness, fear of fall, and improve heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, insulin sensitivity, physical functions, mobility, flexibility, and urinary incontinence), mental (reduces depression, anxiety), emotional (reduces anger, stress, tension and improve self-efficacy), social (improve life satisfaction), and vital (improved vitality) planes of elderly individuals, offering a better quality of sleep and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A pathway-based network analysis of hypertension-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Hu, Jing-Bo; Xu, Chuan-Yun; Zhang, De-Hai; Yan, Qian; Xu, Ming; Cao, Ke-Fei; Zhang, Xu-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Complex network approach has become an effective way to describe interrelationships among large amounts of biological data, which is especially useful in finding core functions and global behavior of biological systems. Hypertension is a complex disease caused by many reasons including genetic, physiological, psychological and even social factors. In this paper, based on the information of biological pathways, we construct a network model of hypertension-related genes of the salt-sensitive rat to explore the interrelationship between genes. Statistical and topological characteristics show that the network has the small-world but not scale-free property, and exhibits a modular structure, revealing compact and complex connections among these genes. By the threshold of integrated centrality larger than 0.71, seven key hub genes are found: Jun, Rps6kb1, Cycs, Creb312, Cdk4, Actg1 and RT1-Da. These genes should play an important role in hypertension, suggesting that the treatment of hypertension should focus on the combination of drugs on multiple genes.

  17. "Cognitive" visual acuity estimation based on the event-related potential P300 component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sven P; Marhöfer, David; Bach, Michael

    2010-09-01

    An objective assessment of sensory and sensuo-cognitive function, based on physiological signals rather than on the behavioral response of a patient, is often advisable, albeit challenging. Evoked potentials are frequently used as an objective measure, but usually fail to detect defects beyond primary sensory areas, including those of psychogenic origin. Here we assess whether the event-related P300 component may be used to measure "cognitive" visual acuity. A visual oddball paradigm was used to elicit P300 responses in subjects with normal or artificially blurred vision. Probe stimuli consisted of infrequently presented gratings with spatial frequencies in the range of 2.2-16.2 cycles per degree, which could be either target or non-target stimuli depending on their orientation. Frequent stimuli were homogeneously grey fields. Without blur, rare stimuli of all spatial frequencies produced reliable P300 responses. Blur abolished the P300 to fine gratings consistently in 10 of 11 subjects. The drop in P300 amplitude was steep, rather than gradual, between visible and invisible gratings. The P300 is sensitive to identify the resolution threshold and thus may serve as a tool for estimating acuity in cases of visual impairments. The study presents a tool for the objective assessment of acuity in cases of higher-level visual impairments. The concept can most likely be extended to other sensory modalities. 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation relation for strong motion in Eastern Java based on appropriate database and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rian; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2017-07-01

    The selection and determination of attenuation relation has become important for seismic hazard assessment in active seismic region. This research initially constructs the appropriate strong motion database, including site condition and type of the earthquake. The data set consisted of large number earthquakes of 5 ≤ Mw ≤ 9 and distance less than 500 km that occurred around Java from 2009 until 2016. The location and depth of earthquake are being relocated using double difference method to improve the quality of database. Strong motion data from twelve BMKG's accelerographs which are located in east Java is used. The site condition is known by using dominant period and Vs30. The type of earthquake is classified into crustal earthquake, interface, and intraslab based on slab geometry analysis. A total of 10 Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are tested using Likelihood (Scherbaum et al., 2004) and Euclidean Distance Ranking method (Kale and Akkar, 2012) with the associated database. The evaluation of these methods lead to a set of GMPEs that can be applied for seismic hazard in East Java where the strong motion data is collected. The result of these methods found that there is still high deviation of GMPEs, so the writer modified some GMPEs using inversion method. Validation was performed by analysing the attenuation curve of the selected GMPE and observation data in period 2015 up to 2016. The results show that the selected GMPE is suitable for estimated PGA value in East Java.

  19. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  20. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  1. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Based and Traditional Resources for Education in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.; Wainman, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic…

  2. Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Fonagy, Peter; Dill, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined variability in teachers' reported adherence to a school-based violence prevention program, Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, and investigated the relations of teacher adherence to teachers' attitudes related to the intervention and students' attitudes about and responses to bullying. The results provide evidence…

  3. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  4. Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Serlachius, Eva; Almqvist, Catarina; Frisén, Louise; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of…

  5. Genetic variability in apomictic mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and its close relatives (Garcinia spp.) based on ISSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    SOBIR; ROEDHY POERWANTO; EDY SANTOSA; SOALOON SINAGA; ELINA MANSYAH

    2011-01-01

    Sobir, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Sinaga S, Mansyah E (2011) Genetic variability in apomictic mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and its close relatives (Garcinia spp.) based on ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 12: 59-63. In order to reveal phylogenetic relationship of mangosteen and several close relatives (Garcinia spp.), we employed seven ISSR dinucleotide primer systems on eleven close relatives of mangosteen and 28 mangosteen accessions from four islands in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and...

  6. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related

  7. Consumer segmentation based on food-related lifestyles and analysis of rabbit meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago-Vera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation divides the market into small groups of consumers who share similar characteristics. As all consumers within the same group have a common profile, marketing strategies can be adapted to target a specific type of consumer. Owing to the rapid changes in today’s society, consumer lifestyle has become the ideal criterion for market segmentation. In this study, we employed the food-related lifestyle model, which scholars have shown to be suitable and valid in several countries. Using data from a survey (with 3.53% error, we segmented the Spanish food market based on consumers’ food-related lifestyles. For each segment, we identified the consumer profile and analysed consumers’ consumption of rabbit meat. Factor analysis and cluster analysis yielded 4 segments: (i ‘Unconcerned’ (36.8% of the sample mainly consists of male consumers. Consumers in this segment value neither the freshness nor the price/quality ratio of their food items and consume rabbit meat rarely (39.4% or sporadically (29.3%. (ii ‘Cooks’ (18.4% predominantly consists of middle-aged women. Consumers in this segment are highly demanding and critical of the quality of food products. They like cooking and are regular consumers of rabbit meat (40.6%. (iii ‘Out-of-home consumers and convenience shoppers’ (28.6% mostly consists of consumers aged between 25 and 34 y old and contains a large proportion of upper-class consumers. Consumers in this segment prefer to eat out and consume convenience products. This segment has the second highest percentage of regular consumers of rabbit meat (36.9%. The segment also has the second highest percentage of consumers who rarely or never eat rabbit meat (43.9%. (iv ‘Rational purchaser with little interest in cooking’ (16.2% has the highest proportion of consumers aged 55 to 74 y old. Consumers in this segment have the least interest in cooking, the most interest in the purchasing process, and the lowest

  8. Catalog based two-color, relative photometry of NEOs at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, E. S.; Györgyey Ries, J.; Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.

    2001-11-01

    The McDonald Observatory astrometry group has been involved in Solar System positional observations since the early 1970's. Since 1995, it has evolved to a CCD-based, almost totally automated, astrometry package. We are focusing our observational program on Near Earth Objects (NEOs) as part of NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs with diameters larger than 1 km by 2008. We carry out confirmation observations of newly discovered objects and contribute to orbit improvements of under-observed objects. Understanding the overall hazard that these objects pose to Earth requires their dynamical and physical characterization. We recently adopted the USNO-A2.0 catalogue to improve our astrometric results. The catalog, however, also provides stellar magnitudes in the standard Johnson R and B photometric bands. After completing the night’s observing program, we now regularly provide the IAU with R magnitudes in addition to astrometric positions. Our limiting magnitude in R is near 22 in a 15 minute exposure over a 46 arcmin field on the 0.8m prime focus camera. Typically, we are scheduled for 4 nights each lunation, but our semi-automated, IRAF/ICE based program can be used by other 0.8m users. We are testing procedures that will include B and V exposures as part of our standard confirmation triplet. We have confirmed that switching filters between exposures on standard fields does not compromise the astrometric accurary. Thus, we should be able to provide two color, sequential, relative photometry of any newly discovered asteroid, as part of the confirmation process. The time interval between exposures is less than 20 minutes, short compared to most asteroid rotation times. Consequently, a meaningful color index can be obtained in parallel with the astrometric positions. Although B-R is not the usual color index used in asteroid classification studies, we are testing whether we can use it as a quick diagnostic tool to roughly classify newly

  9. A Comparison of Relative Time to Peak and Tmax for Mismatch-Based Patient Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Wouters

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI/diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI mismatch profile is used to select patients for endovascular treatment. A PWI map of Tmax is commonly used to identify tissue with critical hypoperfusion. A time to peak (TTP map reflects similar hemodynamic properties with the added benefit that it does not require arterial input function (AIF selection and deconvolution. We aimed to determine if TTP could substitute Tmax for mismatch categorization.MethodsImaging data of the DEFUSE 2 trial were reprocessed to generate relative TTP (rTTP maps. We identified the rTTP threshold that yielded lesion volumes comparable to Tmax > 6 s and assessed the effect of reperfusion according to mismatch status, determined based on Tmax and rTTP volumes.ResultsAmong 102 included cases, the Tmax > 6 s lesion volumes corresponded most closely with rTTP > 4.5 s lesion volumes: median absolute difference 6.9 mL (IQR: 2.3–13.0. There was 94% agreement in mismatch classification between Tmax and rTTP-based criteria. When mismatch was assessed by Tmax criteria, the odds ratio (OR for favorable clinical response associated with reperfusion was 7.4 (95% CI 2.3–24.1 in patients with mismatch vs. 0.4 (95% CI 0.1–2.6 in patients without mismatch. When mismatch was assessed with rTTP criteria, these ORs were 7.2 (95% CI 2.3–22.2 and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1–2.2, respectively.ConclusionrTTP yields lesion volumes that are comparable to Tmax and reliably identifies the PWI/DWI mismatch profile. Since rTTP is void of the problems associated with AIF selection, it is a suitable substitute for Tmax that could improve the robustness and reproducibility of mismatch classification in acute stroke.

  10. Understanding Vehicle Related Crime to Elaborate on Countermeasures Based on ADAS and V2X Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German

  11. An all-but-one entropic uncertainty relation, and application to password-based identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, N.J.; Fehr, S.; González-Guillén, C.; Schaffner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations are quantitative characterizations of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which make use of an entropy measure to quantify uncertainty. We propose a new entropic uncertainty relation. It is the first such uncertainty relation that lower bounds the uncertainty in the

  12. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...

  13. Using "The West Wing" for Problem-Based Learning in Public Relations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.; Luecke, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating "The West Wing" in public relations courses can effectively dramatize the concrete and abstract dimensions of public relations. In turn, students see public relations in action (albeit fictionally so) and learn much about it through structured lessons. From individual writing assignments about situations in "The West Wing," to the…

  14. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  15. The construction of semantic memory: grammar based representations learned from relational episodic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco P Battaglia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation, collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of ``sleep replay'' of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  16. The construction of semantic memory: grammar-based representations learned from relational episodic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of "sleep replay" of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  17. Nursing Students' Competencies in Evidence-Based Practice and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Tahereh; Pashaeypoor, Shahzad; Rassouli, Maryam; Alavi-Majd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is one of the nursing professional roles that can lead them to provide the best and more effective care. However, no studies are available on nursing students' competencies in EBP. This study aimed to investigate the nursing students' knowledge, attitude and intention to implement EBP and its related factors in two nursing and midwifery faculties in Tehran, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 170 undergraduate nursing students were selected from two faculties of nursing and midwifery in Tehran, Iran. A census sampling method was applied and they were all before graduation in 2013. The Rubin and Parrish questionnaire was used to assess the students' knowledge, attitude and intention to implement EBP as well as factors affecting the implementation of EBP. Students completed the instrument through self-report. Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The students mean scores of knowledge, attitude and intention to implement EBP was 31.08 ± 5.77, 50.40 ± 9.58, 36.01 ± 4.64, respectively. The students' age was inversely correlated with their scores of knowledge, attitude and intention to use EBP (P research methods (P research methods nor familiarity with EBP could significantly affect the students' intention to implement EBP. The present study showed that nursing students have not a high mean score in the three subscales of knowledge, attitude and intention to implement EBP. It is essential for faculties and nurse managers not only to focus on education of EBP, but also to support nurses and nursing students to implement it in the process patient care.

  18. Genetic engineering to enhance crop-based phytonutrients (nutraceuticals) to alleviate diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, Autar K; Shukla, Vijaya; Fatima, Tahira; Handa, Avtar K; Yachha, Surender K

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition studies have provided unambiguous evidence that a number of human health maladies including chronic coronary artery, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer and age- and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with the diet. Several favorable and a few deleterious natural dietary ingredients have been identified that predispose human populations to various genetic and epigenetic based disorders. Media dissemination of this information has greatly raised public awareness of the beneficial effects due to increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals-foods rich in phytonutrients, protein and fiber. However, the presence of intrinsically low levels of the beneficial phytonutrients in the available genotypes of crop plants is not always at par with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for different phytonutrients (nutraceuticals). Molecular engineering of crop plants has offered a number of tools to markedly enhance intracellular concentrations of some of the beneficial nutrients, levels that, in some cases, are closer to the RDA threshold. This review brings together literature on various strategies utilized for bioengineering both major and minor crops to increase the levels of desirable phytonutrients while also decreasing the concentrations of deleterious metabolites. Some of these include increases in: protein level in potato; lysine in corn and rice; methionine in alfalfa; carotenoids (beta-carotene, phytoene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) in rice, potato, canola, tomato; choline in tomato; folates in rice, corn, tomato and lettuce; vitamin C in corn and lettuce; polyphenolics such as flavonol, isoflavone, resveratrol, chlorogenic acid and other flavonoids in tomato; anthocyanin levels in tomato and potato; alpha-tocopherol in soybean, oil seed, lettuce and potato; iron and zinc in transgenic rice. Also, molecular engineering has succeeded in considerably reducing the levels of the offending protein glutelin in rice

  19. Access to artemisinin-based anti-malarial treatment and its related factors in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Rashid A; Selemani, Majige; Mrisho, Gumi A; Masanja, Irene M; Amuri, Mbaraka; Njozi, Mustafa H; Kajungu, Dan; Kuepfer, Irene; Abdulla, Salim M; de Savigny, Don

    2013-05-07

    Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. From October 2009 to June 2011 we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6-45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7-40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania.

  20. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A multiple criteria decision making for raking alternatives using preference relation matrix based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bahramloo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranking various alternatives has been under investigation and there are literally various methods and techniques for making a decision based on various criteria. One of the primary concerns on ranking methodologies such as analytical hierarchy process (AHP is that decision makers cannot express his/her feeling in crisp form. Therefore, we need to use linguistic terms to receive the relative weights for comparing various alternatives. In this paper, we discuss ranking different alternatives based on the implementation of preference relation matrix based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

  2. Characterizing Exposure-Related Behaviors Using Agent-Based Models Embedded with Needs-Based Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on where and how individuals spend their time is important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Traditionally, exposure assessors have relied on time-use surveys in order to obtain information on exposure-related b...

  3. Intraocular lenses for the treatment of age-related cataracts: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    accommodation and, therefore, offer a continuous range of vision (i.e. near, intermediate and distant vision) without the need for glasses. Purported advantages over multifocal IOLs include the avoidance of haloes and no reduction in contrast sensitivity. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was the first material used in the fabrication of IOLs and has inherent ultraviolet blocking abilities. PMMA IOLs are inflexible, however, and require a larger incision for implantation compared with newer foldable silicone (hydrophobic) and acrylic (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) lenses. IOLs can be further sub-classified as being either aspheric or spheric, blue/violet filtered or non-filtered or 1- or 3-piece. METHODS OF EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: A literature search was conducted from January 2003 to January 2009 that included OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment/Centre for Review and Dissemination. Inclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteriaadult patients with age-related cataractssystematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) distance visual acuity (best corrected distance visual acuity), near visual acuity (best distance corrected near visual acuity) contrast sensitivity, depth of field, glare, quality of life, visual function, spectacle dependence, posterior capsule opacification.studies with fewer than 20 eyesIOLs for non-age related cataractsIOLs for presbyopiastudies with a mean follow-up reporting insufficient data for analysis COMPARISONS OF INTEREST: The primary comparison of interest was accommodative vs. multifocal vs. monofocal lenses. Secondary comparisons of interest included: tinted vs. non-tinted lensesaspheric vs. spheric lensesmultipiece vs. single piece lensesbiomaterial A (e.g. acrylic) vs. biomaterial B (e.g. silicone) lensessharp vs. round edged lensesThe quality of the studies was

  4. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Reverse Genetics of SARS-Related Coronavirus Using Vaccinia Virus-Based Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Weber, Friedemann; Züst, Roland; Kuri, Thomas; Dijkman, Ronald; Chang, Guohui; Siddell, Stuart G.; Snijder, Eric J.; Thiel, Volker; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime) as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV). Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs). In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs. PMID:22412934

  6. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  7. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  8. Activity-Based Restorative Therapies: Concepts and Applications in Spinal Cord Injury-Related Neurorehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Cristina L.; McDonald, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation following spinal cord injury-related paralysis has traditionally focused on teaching compensatory techniques, thus enabling the individual to achieve day-to-day function despite significant neurological deficits. But the concept of an irreparable central nervous system (CNS) is slowly being replaced with evidence related to…

  9. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers develop due to rapidly chang...

  10. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers deve...

  11. Creating Robust Relation Extract and Anomaly Detect via Probabilistic Logic-Based Reasoning and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    experiments in: (a) Flight Domain and (b) Literature Domain. (c) A learned tree in the flight domain...represent probabilistic dependencies among the attributes of different related objects, leading to a compact representation of learned models. Most...first order logic representation of the relational structures, counting is essentially over the satisfied instances of a FOL clause given the data

  12. Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

  13. NHL and RCGA Based Multi-Relational Fuzzy Cognitive Map Modeling for Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to model multi-dimensions and multi-granularities oriented complex systems, this paper firstly proposes a kind of multi-relational Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM to simulate the multi-relational system and its auto construct algorithm integrating Nonlinear Hebbian Learning (NHL and Real Code Genetic Algorithm (RCGA. The multi-relational FCM fits to model the complex system with multi-dimensions and multi-granularities. The auto construct algorithm can learn the multi-relational FCM from multi-relational data resources to eliminate human intervention. The Multi-Relational Data Mining (MRDM algorithm integrates multi-instance oriented NHL and RCGA of FCM. NHL is extended to mine the causal relationships between coarse-granularity concept and its fined-granularity concepts driven by multi-instances in the multi-relational system. RCGA is used to establish high-quality high-level FCM driven by data. The multi-relational FCM and the integrating algorithm have been applied in complex system of Mutagenesis. The experiment demonstrates not only that they get better classification accuracy, but it also shows the causal relationships among the concepts of the system.

  14. Organizational Influences and Constraints on Community College Web-Based Media Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sheila M.; Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Various organizational, departmental, and interdepartmental factors influence how an educational institution practices public relations. These factors may enable or hinder the ways in which communication practitioners build and maintain relationships with the media. Higher education institutions are especially in need of public relations efforts.…

  15. Evidence That Classroom-Based Behavioral Interventions Reduce Pregnancy-Related School Dropout among Nairobi Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea; Sinclair, Jake; Omondi Mboya, Benjamin; Langat, Nickson; Paiva, Lee; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Golden, Neville H.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Baiocchi, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of behavioral, empowerment-focused interventions on the incidence of pregnancy-related school dropout among girls in Nairobi's informal settlements. Method: Retrospective data on pregnancy-related school dropout from two cohorts were analyzed using a matched-pairs quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome was…

  16. [ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J R; España Romero, V; Castro Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Cuenca García, M; Jiménez Pavón, D; Chillón, P; Girela Rejón, Ma J; Mora, J; Gutiérrez, A; Suni, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo, M J

    2011-01-01

    Hereby we summarize the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) Study and describe the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The evidence-based ALPHA-Fitness test battery include the following tests: 1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; 2) the handgrip strength and 3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and 4) body mass index, 5) waist circumference; and 6) skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) to assess body composition. Furthermore, we include two versions: 1) the high priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness; and 2) the extended ALPHA health-related fitness tests battery for children and adolescents, which includes all the evidence-based fitness tests plus the 4 x 10 m shuttle run test to assess motor fitness.

  17. Teachers' Assessment-Related Local Adaptations of a Problem-Based Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susan; Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Williams, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' implementation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program was examined to determine both how they assessed student learning and their reasons for these assessment practices. Ten 6th grade science teachers used Alien Rescue, a computer-based PBL module, with their students for approximately three weeks. Interviews, observations, and…

  18. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  19. Construct validity and factor structure of survey-based assessment of cost-related medication burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Mehmet; Alexander, G Caleb; Ng, Xinyi; Harrington, Donna

    2015-02-01

    Millions of Americans are burdened by out-of-pocket prescription costs. Although many survey measures have been developed to assess this burden, the construct validity and the factor structure of these instruments have not been rigorously assessed. To characterize the factor structure and the construct validity of items assessing cost-related medication burden. We applied exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses to the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, focusing on 10 items assessing cost-related mediation burden among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries. The fit of competing models was compared using several indices. The study population (N=8777) was predominantly aged over 65 years (83.3%), female (54.4%), and white (84.3%). Two distinct factors were present for the medication cost-reduction strategies: (1) cost-related medication nonadherence and (2) drug-shopping behaviors, not directly impacting medication compliance. The two factors were moderately correlated (r=0.55), highlighting the presence of a 2 distinct but related constructs for cost-related medication burden. An item assessing the use of mail or internet pharmacies did not load well on either factor and may not necessarily measure medication-related cost burden. An item assessing reduced spending on basic needs loaded strongly on the same factor with the cost-related medication nonadherence items, suggesting they together may represent extreme compensatory behaviors that may adversely affect health outcomes. Two distinct constructs were derived from these items examining cost-related medication burden. Although cost-related medication burden is often associated with nonadherence, drug-shopping behaviors that do not directly impact adherence are also important measure of this burden.

  20. Prediction of disease-related genes based on weighted tissue-specific networks by using DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Predicting disease-related genes is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics and systems biology. With the advances in high-throughput techniques, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which make it possible to identify disease-related genes at the network level. However, network-based identification of disease-related genes is still a challenge as the considerable false-positives are still existed in the current available protein interaction networks (PIN). Considering the fact that the majority of genetic disorders tend to manifest only in a single or a few tissues, we constructed tissue-specific networks (TSN) by integrating PIN and tissue-specific data. We further weighed the constructed tissue-specific network (WTSN) by using DNA methylation as it plays an irreplaceable role in the development of complex diseases. A PageRank-based method was developed to identify disease-related genes from the constructed networks. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we constructed PIN, weighted PIN (WPIN), TSN, WTSN for colon cancer and leukemia, respectively. The experimental results on colon cancer and leukemia show that the combination of tissue-specific data and DNA methylation can help to identify disease-related genes more accurately. Moreover, the PageRank-based method was effective to predict disease-related genes on the case studies of colon cancer and leukemia. Tissue-specific data and DNA methylation are two important factors to the study of human diseases. The same method implemented on the WTSN can achieve better results compared to those being implemented on original PIN, WPIN, or TSN. The PageRank-based method outperforms degree centrality-based method for identifying disease-related genes from WTSN.

  1. Defense Health Care: Activities Related to Past Drinking Water Contamination at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crosse, Marcia; Anderson, Bonnie; Doran, Karen; Bogart, George; Desaulniers, Helen; Hamann, Cathleen; Organek, Danielle; Price, Roseanne; Ritchie, Christina; Ryba, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    .... ATSDR has projected a December 2007 completion date for the study. The National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 required GAO to report on past drinking water contamination and related health effects at Camp Lejeune...

  2. Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms and hence subgroups...

  3. A robotics-based behavioral paradigm to measure anxiety-related responses in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cianca

    Full Text Available Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the study of anxiety-related disorders in translational research, whereby they serve a fundamental complement to laboratory rodents. Several anxiety-related behavioral paradigms, which rest upon the presentation of live predatorial stimuli, may yield inconsistent results due to fatigue, habituation, or idiosyncratic responses exhibited by the stimulus itself. To overcome these limitations, we designed and manufactured a fully controllable robot inspired by a natural aquatic predator (Indian leaf fish, Nandus nandus of zebrafish. We report that this robot elicits aversive antipredatorial reactions in a preference test and that data obtained therein correlate with data observed in traditional anxiety- and fear-related tests (light/dark preference and shelter-seeking. Finally, ethanol administration (0.25; 0.50; 1.00% exerts anxiolytic effects, thus supporting the view that robotic stimuli can be used in the analysis of anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish.

  4. A Matrix Based Integrated Framework for Multi Disciplinary Exploration of Cyber-International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    granted for business processes, which are related to electronic commerce , data processing, electronic sales, advertising models, and other such business...e.g. Huawei, etc.); e ) Supply chain behind them ( electronic chips, software, etc.). 4.2.3. Internet Standard Bodies At the technical level, Internet is...Deposit of Industrial Designs. A number of other international organizations deal with issues relating to electronic commerce in their particular areas of

  5. BURNOUT SYNDROME IN NURSING STUDENTS BASED ON EFFECT OF STRESSOR, RELATIONAL MEANING AND COPING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Mazarina Devi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professional education program is a program in which nursing students are transformed to become professional nurses. At this level, nursing students will encounter various stressors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between stressors, relational meaning and coping strategy on burnout syndrome in nursing students who are undergoing professional education. Method: This was a correlational study using cross-sectional approach. Population comprised regular student of nursing profession program at the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University. Sample size was determined by simple random sampling and 61 persons were included in the inclusion criteria. Data then analyzed using multiple linear regression test with signi fi cance level ofα < 0.05. Results: This study found that total burnout syndrome was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p = 0.005, β = 0.460. Emotional exhaustion was signi fi cantly related to relational meaning (p= 0.001, β = 0.532 and emotion focused coping (p = 0.035, β =0.298. Relational meaning was also signifi cantly related to depersonalization (p = 0.002, β = 0.050. Subsequently, the decline in self-achievement was signi fi cantly related to personal stressors, i.e the number of room mates (p = 0.016, β = 0.344, total learning time/day (p = 0.036, β=0.366 and environmental stressors (workload (p = 0.039, β = -0.349. Discussion: It is suggested for students to prepare for professional education, and the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, should strengthen the function of academic counselors in terms of preceptorship role model in order to avoid the risk of burnout syndrome when the nursing students undergoing professional education.

  6. Social judgments of behavioral versus substance-related addictions: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Colman, Ian; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Patten, Scott B.; Schopflocher, Don; Wolfe, Jody; Wild, T Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the concept of addiction has expanded to include many types of problematic repetitive behaviors beyond those related to substance misuse. This trend may have implications for the way lay people think about addictions and persons struggling with addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how the public understands a variety of substance-related and behavioral addictions. Methods: A representative sample of 4,000 individuals from...

  7. Relations between structure and material properties in earth alkaline silicate basing phosphors; Struktureigenschaftsbeziehungen in Erdalkalisilikat basierenden Leuchtstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Wolfgang

    2008-03-19

    This work is basing on the relation between structure and luminescence of Eu{sup 2+} doped Earth-Alkaline-Silicates. After an overview of Earth-Alkaline-Silicates silicates with an additional cation (Li{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}) and an additional anion (Cl{sup -}, N{sup 3-}) are examined in chapter 4 and 5. Basing on this data an relation between structural influence - like ion-radii, anion and coordination polyeder - and phosphor luminescence is set up. The ability of using as an industrial phosphor is made in the final chapter. (orig.)

  8. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A B; Wright, A; Krousel-Wood, M; Thomas, E J; McCoy, J A; Sittig, D F

    2015-01-01

    Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes.

  10. Age-related changes in consolidation of perceptual and muscle-based learning of motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep contributes to consolidation of goal-based vs. muscle-based learning in older adults (OA) has not been disentangled. We trained young (n = 62) and older (n = 50) adults on a motor sequence learning task and re-tested learning following 12 h intervals containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. To probe consolidation of goal-based learning of the sequence, half of the participants were re-tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was the same but, due to a shift in stimulus-response mapping, the movement response sequence differed. To probe consolidation of muscle-based learning, the remaining participants were tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was novel, but now the sequence of movements used for responding was unchanged. In young adults, there was a significant condition (goal-based vs. muscle-based learning) by interval (sleep vs. wake) interaction, F(1,58) = 6.58, p = 0.013: goal-based learning tended to be greater following sleep compared to wake, t(29) = 1.47, p = 0.072. Conversely, muscle-based learning was greater following wake than sleep, t(29) = 2.11, p = 0.021. Unlike young adults, this interaction was not significant in OA, F(1,46) = 0.04, p = 0.84, nor was there a main effect of interval, F(1,46) = 1.14, p = 0.29. Thus, OA do not preferentially consolidate sequence learning over wake or sleep.

  11. Panic attack history and anxiety sensitivity in relation to cognitive-based smoking processes among treatment-seeking daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirsten A; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Smits, Jasper A J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has found that panic attacks are related to increased risk of more severe nicotine withdrawal and poor cessation outcome. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and related sensations) has similarly been found to be related to an increased risk of acute nicotine withdrawal and poorer cessation outcome. However, research has yet to examine the relative contributions of panic attacks and AS in terms of cognitive-based smoking processes (e.g., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, addictive and negative affect-based reduction smoking motives, barriers to cessation, problem symptoms experienced while quitting). Participants (n = 242; 57.4% male; M (age) = 38.1) were daily smokers recruited as a part of a larger randomized control trial for smoking cessation. It was hypothesized that both panic attacks and AS would uniquely and independently predict the studied cognitive-based smoking processes. As hypothesized, AS was uniquely and positively associated with all smoking processes after controlling for average number of cigarettes smoked per day, current Axis I diagnosis, and participant sex. However, panic attack history was only significantly related to problem symptoms experienced while quitting smoking. Although past research has demonstrated significant associations between panic attacks and certain aspects of cigarette smoking (e.g., severity of nicotine withdrawal; lower abstinence rates, and negative affect reduction motives), the present findings suggest that AS may be more relevant to understanding beliefs about and motives for smoking behavior as well as perceptions of cessation-related difficulties.

  12. Criterion-related validity of field-based muscular fitness tests in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Ruiz, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Aparicio, V; Gatto-Cardia, M; Baena, P; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Castillo, M J; Ortega, F B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the association between isokinetic strength and field-based muscular fitness tests in youth. One hundred twenty-six adolescents (14.4±1.7 y) participated in the study. Upper and lower body isokinetic strength were measured at preset angular velocities of 90 º/s and 60 º/s, respectively. Muscular fitness was also assessed by means of field-based tests: handgrip strength, bent and extended arm hang tests, standing long jump, squat jump, countermovement jump and Abalakov jump. Height, weight and skinfold thickness were used to estimate body composition. All field-based tests were significantly associated with isokinetic peak torque and power (Pvalid field-based muscular fitness tests when compared to isokinetic strength. These tests can be useful to assess muscular fitness in young people when laboratory methods are not feasible.

  13. Relative Panoramic Camera Position Estimation for Image-Based Virtual Reality Networks in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Akano, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Sekiguchi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Image-based virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  14. Neighborhood, family and individual characteristics related to adolescent park-based physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Tan, Diane; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2015-07-01

    Local parks are an important community resource that may influence levels of physical activity among youth. However, few population-based studies have investigated park-based physical activity among youth. This study examines sociodemographic, family, and neighborhood characteristics associated with park-based physical activity among adolescents. Data were from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a population-based survey of California households, and were analyzed in 2012-2013 and 2015. This study examined individual (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and nativity), family (household income, parental education, and nativity), and neighborhood characteristics (urbanicity, perceived park availability, perceived park safety, neighborhood income, and racial composition) associated with engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. In California, 71% of adolescents reported being physically active the last time they visited a park. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses, older adolescents and females were less likely to be physically active in parks. Adolescents with a park within walking distance of home and those with a safe park nearby were more likely to be physically active during a park visit. Park availability and perceptions of park safety are important predictors of engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. These findings provide information that can help inform interventions intended to increase physical activity among youth. Strategies that increase availability and safety of parks and other recreation spaces may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-11-15

    It is of great therapeutic significance that disordered function of the vascular endothelium which supply the affected ocular structures plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. According to current concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by pharmaacological or non pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction, which result in prevention or improvement of age related macular degeneration as well. Medicines including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors), statins, acetylsalicylic acid, trimetazidin, third generation beta-blockers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, folate, vitamin D, melatonin, advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker alagebrium, endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan, coenzyme Q10; "causal" antioxidant vitamins, N-acetyl-cysteine, resveratrol, L-arginine, serotonin receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, curcumin and doxycyclin all have beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Considering that the human vascular system is consubstantial, medicines listed above should be given to patients (1) who have no macular degeneration but have risk factors

  16. Quantum Coherence Quantifiers Based on Rényi α-Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lian-He; Li, Yong-Ming; Luo, Yu; Xi, Zheng-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The resource theories of quantum coherence attract a lot of attention in recent years. Especially, the monotonicity property plays a crucial role here. In this paper we investigate the monotonicity property for the coherence measures induced by the Rényi α-relative entropy, which present in [Phys. Rev. A 94 (2016) 052336]. We show that the Rényi α-relative entropy of coherence does not in general satisfy the monotonicity requirement under the subselection of measurements condition and it also does not satisfy the extension of monotonicity requirement, which presents in [Phys. Rev. A 93 (2016) 032136]. Due to the Rényi α-relative entropy of coherence can act as a coherence monotone quantifier, we examine the trade-off relations between coherence and mixedness. Finally, some properties for the single qubit of Rényi 2-relative entropy of coherence are derived. Supported by by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271237, 11671244, 61671280, and the Higher School Doctoral Subject Foundation of Ministry of Education of China under Grant No. 20130202110001, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (GK201502004 and 2016CBY003), and the Academic Leaders and Academic Backbones, Shaanxi Normal University under Grant No. 16QNGG013

  17. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R.; Ober, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus); the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini. Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data. PMID:22379388

  18. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maddison

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus; the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini.Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data.

  19. Genderized words in affective worlds: Can experiences and relations prevent (transgender-based violence in prison?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hochdorn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has been realized with regard to the (contextual construction of violence and power in total institutions. Furthermore the affective role of relations has been investigated in order to understand how concepts, such as power and violence, are situated within the relational frame of everyday interactions. The topic of the research has been focused on transgender prisoners, detained in a special section of the female ward of the prison of Florence-Sollicciano. Interviewees with prison’s staff and MtF transgender inmates have been gathered, concerning to the way how gender identity claims in a highly institutionalized context. Qualitative analysis, adopting the software Transana, has been used in order to study the implicit sense of ideological, historical and relational meanings within discursive production. Results show that everyday interactions, such as between trans-prisoners themselves and amongst them and the penitentiary guards, increase the affective value of communication and consequently of interpersonal relations. The affective variable, therefore, becomes an important aspect, according to which interaction can be considered  pragmatic and situated actions. Empowering the pragmatical and strategical value of situated relations improves not only the difficult condition of detention, but also the hard and challenging tasks a those staff-members, who work in prison every day.

  20. Health-related quality of life and self-related health in patients with type 2 diabetes: Effects of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadstrup Eva S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 143 type 2 diabetes patients to either a six-month multidisciplinary group-based rehabilitation programme including patient education, supervised exercise and a cooking-course or a six-month individual counselling programme. HRQOL was measured by Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36 and self-rated health was measured by Diabetes Symptom Checklist - Revised (DCS-R. Results In both groups, the lowest estimated mean scores of the SF36 questionnaire at baseline were "vitality" and "general health". There were no significant differences in the change of any item between the two groups after the six-month intervention period. However, vitality-score increased 5.2 points (p = 0.12 within the rehabilitation group and 5.6 points (p = 0.03 points among individual counselling participants. In both groups, the highest estimated mean scores of the DSC-R questionnaire at baseline were "Fatigue" and "Hyperglycaemia". Hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic distress decreased significantly after individual counselling than after group-based rehabilitation (difference -0.3 points, p = 0.04. No between-group differences occurred for any other items. However, fatigue distress decreased 0.40 points within the rehabilitation group (p = 0.01 and 0.34 points within the individual counselling group (p p = 0.01. Conclusions A group-based rehabilitation programme did not improve health-related quality of life and self-rated health more than an individual counselling

  1. Analysis of Relativity Premium in Bonus-Malus System Based on Optimal Linear Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bonus-malus system plays a very important role in actuarial mathematics through determining its relativity premium, which is extensively used in automobile insurance. There are many ways including Bayesian estimator and ordinary linear estimator to calculate the relativity premium. There is no doubt that Bayesian estimator is the most accurate estimator; however, it is undesirable for commercial purposes for its rather irregular pattern. This paper aims to introduce an optimal linear estimator for relativity premium, which has a simple pattern and is obtained under the quadratic loss function such that the result is close to Bayesian method. The Loimaranta efficiency of such an optimal linear estimator has been studied and compared with the two methods mentioned above.

  2. Analog-Based Postprocessing of Navigation-Related Hydrological Ensemble Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, S.; Klein, B.

    2017-11-01

    Inland waterway transport benefits from probabilistic forecasts of water levels as they allow to optimize the ship load and, hence, to minimize the transport costs. Probabilistic state-of-the-art hydrologic ensemble forecasts inherit biases and dispersion errors from the atmospheric ensemble forecasts they are driven with. The use of statistical postprocessing techniques like ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) allows for a reduction of these systematic errors by fitting a statistical model based on training data. In this study, training periods for EMOS are selected based on forecast analogs, i.e., historical forecasts that are similar to the forecast to be verified. Due to the strong autocorrelation of water levels, forecast analogs have to be selected based on entire forecast hydrographs in order to guarantee similar hydrograph shapes. Custom-tailored measures of similarity for forecast hydrographs comprise hydrological series distance (SD), the hydrological matching algorithm (HMA), and dynamic time warping (DTW). Verification against observations reveals that EMOS forecasts for water level at three gauges along the river Rhine with training periods selected based on SD, HMA, and DTW compare favorably with reference EMOS forecasts, which are based on either seasonal training periods or on training periods obtained by dividing the hydrological forecast trajectories into runoff regimes.

  3. Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns for Intelligent Sensors—Knowledge Engineering-Based Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408 can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems in high risk environments. The paper presents the background and results of the previous research on patterns-based security specifications and introduces a new ontological approach. The elaborated ontology and knowledge base were validated on the IT security development process dealing with the sensor example. The contribution of the paper concerns the application of the knowledge engineering methodology to the previously developed Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for intelligent sensor security development. The issue presented in the paper has a broader significance in terms that it can solve information security problems in many application domains.

  4. Pilot study of Internet-based early intervention for combat-related mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Gollan, Jackie; Fogel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates an Internet-based early intervention combining online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with electronic peer-to-peer support intended to promote mental health and well-being among combat veterans. We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial of 50 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans using a pre and post single-arm design. We evaluated feasibility and changes in mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), functional status, and attitudes toward treatment seeking at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. A diverse group of veterans was enrolled (26% ethnic minority, 90% male, 66% with income stigma regarding friends (ES = 1.51). Although lack of a control group is a limitation, the Internet-based program combining CBT-based coping skills training and peer-to-peer support demonstrated potential feasibility and evidenced benefit in symptom remediation for depression and PTSD.

  5. Apolipoprotein E phenotype is not related to late-life depression in a population-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele frequencies were examined in a population-based sample (n = 475; age range 65-84 years; Amsterdam Study of the Elderly). The relation of ApoE ε4 with dementia and with various types of late-life depression was studied. Depression was measured with the Geriatric Mental

  6. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  7. Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  8. Minimally-supervised extraction of domain-specific part-whole relations using Wikipedia as knowledge-base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, Ashwin; Bouma, Gosse

    We present a minimally-supervised approach for learning part whole relations from texts. Unlike previous techniques, we focused on sparse, domain-specific texts. The novelty in our approach lies in the use of Wikipedia as a knowledge-base, from which we first acquire a set of reliable patterns that

  9. Using an image-extended relational database to support content-based image retrieval in a PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Caetano; Traina, Agma J M; Araújo, Myrian R B; Bueno, Josiane M; Chino, Fabio J T; Razente, Humberto; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a new Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), called cbPACS, which has content-based image retrieval capabilities. The cbPACS answers range and k-nearest- neighbor similarity queries, employing a relational database manager extended to support images. The images are compared through their features, which are extracted by an image-processing module and stored in the extended relational database. The database extensions were developed aiming at efficiently answering similarity queries by taking advantage of specialized indexing methods. The main concept supporting the extensions is the definition, inside the relational manager, of distance functions based on features extracted from the images. An extension to the SQL language enables the construction of an interpreter that intercepts the extended commands and translates them to standard SQL, allowing any relational database server to be used. By now, the system implemented works on features based on color distribution of the images through normalized histograms as well as metric histograms. Metric histograms are invariant regarding scale, translation and rotation of images and also to brightness transformations. The cbPACS is prepared to integrate new image features, based on texture and shape of the main objects in the image.

  10. Relative contribution of different muscle energy consumption processes in an energy-based muscle load sharing cost function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikooyan, A.A.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Westerhoff, P.; Bergmann, G.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contributions of two muscle energy consumption processes (the detachment of cross-bridges and calcium-pumping) incorporated in a recently developed muscle load sharing cost function, namely the energy-based criterion, by using in vivo measured

  11. Country-wise differences in perception of health-related messages in cereal-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the impact of health-related messages on the perceived overall healthiness and consumers' likelihood to buy cereal-based products or non-cereal products containing beneficial compounds from grains, across four European countries. The data were col...

  12. Gender relations, gender-based violence and sport for development and peace : Questions, concerns and cautions emerging from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and

  13. The relative contributions of fear and disgust reductions to improvements in spider phobia following exposure-based treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, B.O.; Huijding, J.; Jong, P.J. de; Smits, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative contributions of changes in state fear and disgust emotions to improvements in spider phobia observed with exposure-based treatment. Sixty-one treatment-seeking spider fearful individuals underwent a one-session exposure in vivo treatment. Growth curve

  14. The relative contributions of fear and disgust reductions to improvements in spider phobia following exposure-based treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Huijding, Jorg; de Jong, Peter J.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    The present study examines the relative contributions of changes in state fear and disgust emotions to improvements in spider phobia observed with exposure-based treatment. Sixty-one treatment-seeking spider fearful individuals underwent a one-session exposure in vivo treatment. Growth curve

  15. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  16. Factors Related to Outcome in a School-Based Intensive Mental Health Program: An Examination of Nonresponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne K.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nyre, Joseph E.; Randall, Camille J.; Puddy, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors related to treatment responders (n = 35) and nonresponders (n = 16) in a group of 51 children admitted to the Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP). Children's response to treatment was coded based on their functioning at intake and discharge using total CAFAS scores. Demographic variables, length of treatment, number of…

  17. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  18. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  19. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  20. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: A population based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory); F. van der Lijn (Fedde); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A. Hofman (Albert); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods:

  1. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  2. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, L.E.W.; Diehle, J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansma, E.P.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive

  3. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  4. Demonstration-Based Education Generates Behavior Change Related to Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Alexander J.; Bauman, Peter J.; Boltz, Stan; Hemenway, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Getting agricultural producers to make changes to their operations is difficult, especially related to complex systems such as the water cycle on managed agricultural lands. We surveyed participants who had watched a rainfall simulator demonstration during the summer of 2015. Results indicate that the demonstration was effective in providing…

  5. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  6. Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Son, Ji Y.; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2017-01-01

    Why might it be (at least sometimes) beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study…

  7. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  8. Estimation of storm runoff loads based on rainfall-related variables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study indicated that, event loads are better estimated as power functions of storm-related independent variables. On the notion that rainfall data are more readily available, easy and less expensive to collect than runoff data, the calibrated model was verified using rainfall volume as independent variable.

  9. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  10. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia-related skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Marianne; Arendrup, Maiken C; Svejgaard, Else L

    2015-01-01

    Internationally approved guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Malassezia-related skin diseases are lacking. Therefore, a panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and a microbiologist under the auspices of the Danish Society of Dermatology undertook a data review and compiled guidel...

  11. Topography of Power Relations in Slovak Preschool Sector Based on Bourdieu's Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašcák, Ondrej; Pupala, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the Slovak preschool education sector using Bourdieu's field theory. It describes stable and volatile points in the evolution of preschool education in terms of the power games occurring within the specific social field of power relations shaped during these games. It explores the groups of powerful players that represent the…

  12. Brain Plasticity Related to Psychomotor Skills in Catheter-based Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Katja; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Taatgen, Niels; Lanzer, Peter; Villringer, Arno

    2016-01-01

    A fascinating property of the brain is its ability to reorganise as a result of experience. Practice-related change has been shown in grey and white matter as a result of for example juggling training, but tasks that require many interrelated skills such as very fine motor skills, mental rotation

  13. Properties of Teacher Networks in Twitter: Are They Related to Community-Based Peer Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macià, Maria; Garcia, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Teachers participate in social networking sites to share knowledge and collaborate with other teachers to create education-related content. In this study we selected several communities in order to better understand the networks that these participants establish in Twitter and the role that the social network plays in their activity within the…

  14. Relating FIA data to habitat classifications via tree-based models of canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Chris Toney; Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife species-habitat matrices are used to relate lists of species with abundance of their habitats. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program provides data on forest composition and structure, but these attributes may not correspond directly with definitions of wildlife habitats. We used FIA tree data and tree crown diameter models to estimate canopy cover, from...

  15. Cataract surgery and age-related macular degeneration. An evidence-based update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataract often coexist in patients and concerns that cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of incidence or progression of existing AMD has been raised. This systematic review and meta-analysis is focused on presenting the evidence...

  16. Dental status and oral health-related quality of life. A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C. M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Schuller, A. A.

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with tooth wear and tooth loss. This study investigated the association between OHRQoL and dental status (in terms of natural dentition, partial or complete dentures, or edentulism). Sixteen hundred and twenty-two persons who participated in

  17. Understanding the Dialectical Relations between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky's writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts,…

  18. Learning connective-based word representations for implicit discourse relation identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé Elodie; Denis, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a simple semi-supervised ap-proach to improve implicit discourse relation identification. This approach harnesses large amounts of automatically extracted discourse connectives along with their arguments to con-struct new distributional word representations. Specifically, we represen...

  19. Rule-based conversion of closely-related languages: a Dutch-to-Afrikaans convertor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For fast-tracking the development of resources for resource-scarce languages, one could transfer existing technologies from one language to another well-sourced, closely-related language. In this contribution, the authors describe the development...

  20. Evaluation of PubMed filters used for evidence-based searching: validation using relative recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The research sought to determine the value of PubMed filters and combinations of filters in literature selected for systematic reviews on therapy-related clinical questions. METHODS: References to 35,281 included and 48,514 excluded articles were extracted from 2,629 reviews published

  1. Music Retrieval Based on the Relation between Color Association and Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamur, Tetsuaki; Utsumi, Akira; Sakamoto, Maki

    Various methods for music retrieval have been proposed. Recently, many researchers are tackling developing methods based on the relationship between music and feelings. In our previous psychological study, we found that there was a significant correlation between colors evoked from songs and colors evoked only from lyrics, and showed that the music retrieval system using lyrics could be developed. In this paper, we focus on the relationship among music, lyrics and colors, and propose a music retrieval method using colors as queries and analyzing lyrics. This method estimates colors evoked from songs by analyzing lyrics of the songs. On the first step of our method, words associated with colors are extracted from lyrics. We assumed two types of methods to extract words associated with colors. In the one of two methods, the words are extracted based on the result of a psychological experiment. In the other method, in addition to the words extracted based on the result of the psychological experiment, the words from corpora for the Latent Semantic Analysis are extracted. On the second step, colors evoked from the extracted words are compounded, and the compounded colors are regarded as those evoked from the song. On the last step, colors as queries are compared with colors estimated from lyrics, and the list of songs is presented based on similarities. We evaluated the two methods described above and found that the method based on the psychological experiment and corpora performed better than the method only based on the psychological experiment. As a result, we showed that the method using colors as queries and analyzing lyrics is effective for music retrieval.

  2. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, César; García de Olalla, Patricia; Miró, Josep M; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0-16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7-6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0-2.4/1000 py)]. Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5-7.0) and HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4-1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1-7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7-123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5-56.4) versus MSM. There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males.

  3. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Garriga

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013.We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models.182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py; 95% confidence interval (CI:12.0-16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7-6.1/1000 py, external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0-2.4/1000 py].Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM. Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR:3.2; CI:1.5-7.0 and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3-5.7 versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4-1.7 and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1-7.3 versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7-123.2 and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5-56.4 versus MSM.There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males.

  4. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  5. IoT-based Asset Management System for Healthcare-related Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Carman Ka Man

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare industry has been focusing efforts on optimizing inventory management procedures through the incorporation of Information and Communication Technology, in the form of tracking devices and data mining, to establish ideal inventory models. In this paper, a roadmap is developed towards a technological assessment of the Internet of Things (IoT in the healthcare industry, 2010–2020. According to the roadmap, an IoT-based healthcare asset management system (IoT-HAMS is proposed and developed based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Fuzzy Logic (FL, incorporating IoT technologies for asset management to optimize the supply of resources.

  6. Editorial ~ Does "Lean Thinking" Relate to Network-based Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Cookson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pointing to the “objectivised, rationalized, technologically-based interaction,” Peters (1973 referred to the then prevailing correspondence forms of distance education as “the most industrialized form of education” (p. 313. With such features as assembly line methods; division of labor; centralized processes of teaching materials development, production and dispatching; student admissions enrollment systems; automated registration, course allocation, and student support, and personnel management systems, distance education institutions demonstrated management structures and practices utilized in industrial and business organizations. Large numbers of courses and students were thus “processed” in correspondence, radio, and television-based distance education systems.

  7. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  8. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  9. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C; Ochoa, Julio J; Cordero, Mario D; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L

    2013-01-01

    Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  10. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  11. Students' Appraisal of Emotional and Relational Experience whilst Collaborating Online Using Text Based Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The impacts that the lack of physical cues and non-verbal cues of emotional expression has on the student learning experience in text based online environments were targeted separately in this study. A questionnaire was constructed with separate items for non-verbal cues of emotional expression and cues to physical identity. The survey also…

  12. Relations of morphological characteristics and maximal oxygen consumption of fourth grade pupils based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 71 respondents, 37 boys and 34 girls, age of fourth grade elementary school, accordingly 9 years +/- 6 months, it is assessed correlation and prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based measures of morphological range. Maximum oxygen consumption was measured by indirect method, using a field test of maximal multiple load of feedback running at 20 meters. Range of morphology was analyzed based on 5 measures of longitudinal dimensionality, 4 measures of volume and body mass and 3 measures of transversal dimensionality. Results of correlation analysis showed that in both sexes there was no statistically significant correlation between results of maximal oxygen consumption and measures of longitudinal dimensionality, while regression analysis confirmed that there was no statistically significant prediction of maximum oxygen consumption based on measures of longitudinal dimensionality. While the correlation analysis deduced that part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality have statistically significant correlation only with female respondents with results of maximal oxygen consumption. Regression analysis showed statistically significant prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based on part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality. It is determined that female respondents with larger volumes of the thigh and lower leg, accordingly with smaller diameters of knee joint and ankle joint most likely will achieve better results in applied test, and therefore higher maximal oxygen consumption.

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of Measuring Sight-Word Acquisition with Curriculum-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Mosack, Jill L.

    2005-01-01

    Curriculum-Based Assessment for Instructional Design (CBA-ID) provides data used to ensure an appropriately challenging learning task. One aspect of appropriate challenge measured by CBA-ID, called the acquisition rate (AR), involves the amount of new information a student could acquire and retain during initial learning. Previous research…

  14. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  15. The Development of Representation Skills in Transitive Reasoning Based on Relations of Equality and Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    On tasks involving assessement of the heights of colored sticks, kindergarten, third-grade, and adult subjects were successful on inferences involving only equalities or only inequalities across various conditions and procedures. A dramatic developmental increase in performance was found on inferences based on the combination of equality and…

  16. Microarray-based identification of clinically relevant vaginal bacteria in relation to bacterial vaginosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, J.A.M.; Smit, P.W.; Kort, R.; Reid, G.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Tempelman, H.; Bontekoe, T.R.; Korporaal, H.; Boon, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to examine the use of a tailor-made DNA microarray containing probes representing the vaginal microbiota to examine bacterial vaginosis. Study Design: One hundred one women attending a health center for HIV testing in South Africa were enrolled. Stained, liquid-based

  17. Example-Based Learning: Effects of Model Expertise in Relation to Student Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Paul; van Gog, Tamara; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Gerards-Last, Dorien; Geraets, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background: Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. Aims: This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a "non"-didactical solution (i.e., based on actual performance). The effects of model expertise…

  18. Inequality of Higher Education in China: An Empirical Test Based on the Perspective of Relative Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to examine what makes Chinese college students dissatisfied with entrance opportunities for higher education. Based on the author's survey data, we test two parameters which could be a potential cause of this dissatisfaction: 1) distributive inequality, which emphasizes the individual's dissatisfaction caused by…

  19. As the Climate Changes: Intergenerational Action-Based Learning in Relation to Flood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sara; McEwen, Lindsey J.; Quinn, Nevil

    2017-01-01

    It is a concern that children represent an under-researched group in flood education and preparedness because as adults they are more likely to experience flooding as the climate changes, and because it suggests their potential today, as agents of change, is being undervalued. Using action-based, participatory methodology with seven to…

  20. Smart Device-Based Notifications to Promote Healthy Behavior Related to Childhood Obesity and Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Jose A.; Guerrero, Luis A.; Bravo, José

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century and it is a threat to the life of people according to World Health Organization. In this scenario, family environment is important to establish healthy habits which help to reduce levels of obesity and control overweight in children. However, little efforts have been focused on helping parents to promote and have healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we present two smart device-based notification prototypes to promote healthy behavior with the aim of avoiding childhood overweight and obesity. The first prototype helps parents to follow a healthy snack routine, based on a nutritionist suggestion. Using a fridge magnet, parents receive graphical reminders of which snacks they and their children should consume. The second prototype provides a graphical reminder that prevents parents from forgetting the required equipment to practice sports. Prototypes were evaluated by nine nutritionists from three countries (Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain). Evaluations were based on anticipation of use and the ergonomics of human–system interaction according to the ISO 9241-210. Results show that the system is considered useful. Even though they might not be willing to use the system, they would recommend it to their patients. Based on the ISO 9241-210 the best ranked features were the system’s comprehensibility, the perceived effectiveness and clarity. The worst ranked features were the system’s suitability for learning and its discriminability. PMID:29346302

  1. Smart Device-Based Notifications to Promote Healthy Behavior Related to Childhood Obesity and Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century and it is a threat to the life of people according to World Health Organization. In this scenario, family environment is important to establish healthy habits which help to reduce levels of obesity and control overweight in children. However, little efforts have been focused on helping parents to promote and have healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we present two smart device-based notification prototypes to promote healthy behavior with the aim of avoiding childhood overweight and obesity. The first prototype helps parents to follow a healthy snack routine, based on a nutritionist suggestion. Using a fridge magnet, parents receive graphical reminders of which snacks they and their children should consume. The second prototype provides a graphical reminder that prevents parents from forgetting the required equipment to practice sports. Prototypes were evaluated by nine nutritionists from three countries (Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain. Evaluations were based on anticipation of use and the ergonomics of human–system interaction according to the ISO 9241-210. Results show that the system is considered useful. Even though they might not be willing to use the system, they would recommend it to their patients. Based on the ISO 9241-210 the best ranked features were the system’s comprehensibility, the perceived effectiveness and clarity. The worst ranked features were the system’s suitability for learning and its discriminability.

  2. Experimental Evidence of the Relative Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning for Knowledge Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Schaap, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on knowledge acquisition and knowledge retention in a controlled experiment in a lab setting. Eighty-eight first-year psychology students were randomly assigned to either a PBL condition, a lecture condition, or a self-study condition. All participants had the opportunity to study…

  3. Clickable 4-Oxo-β-lactam-Based Selective Probing for Human Neutrophil Elastase Related Proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Eduardo F P; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Carvalho, Luís A R; Guedes, Rita C; Hofbauer, Stefan; Brito, José A; Archer, Margarida; Moreira, Rui; Lucas, Susana D

    2016-09-20

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a serine protease associated with several inflammatory processes such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The precise involvement of HNE in COPD and other inflammatory disease mechanisms has yet to be clarified. Herein we report a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, or 'click' chemistry) approach based on the 4-oxo-β-lactam warhead that yielded potent HNE inhibitors containing a triazole moiety. The resulting structure-activity relationships set the basis to develop fluorescent and biotinylated activity-based probes as tools for molecular functional analysis. Attaching the tags to the 4-oxo-β-lactam scaffold did not affect HNE inhibitory activity, as revealed by the IC50 values in the nanomolar range (56-118 nm) displayed by the probes. The nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-based probe presented the best binding properties (ligand efficiency (LE)=0.31) combined with an excellent lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE=4.7). Moreover, the probes showed adequate fluorescence properties, internalization in human neutrophils, and suitable detection of HNE in the presence of a large excess of cell lysate proteins. This allows the development of activity-based probes with promising applications in target validation and identification, as well as diagnostic tools. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  5. Smart Device-Based Notifications to Promote Healthy Behavior Related to Childhood Obesity and Overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo; González, Iván; Jimenez-Garcia, Elitania; Fontecha, Jesús; Brenes, Jose A; Guerrero, Luis A; Bravo, José

    2018-01-18

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century and it is a threat to the life of people according to World Health Organization. In this scenario, family environment is important to establish healthy habits which help to reduce levels of obesity and control overweight in children. However, little efforts have been focused on helping parents to promote and have healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we present two smart device-based notification prototypes to promote healthy behavior with the aim of avoiding childhood overweight and obesity. The first prototype helps parents to follow a healthy snack routine, based on a nutritionist suggestion. Using a fridge magnet, parents receive graphical reminders of which snacks they and their children should consume. The second prototype provides a graphical reminder that prevents parents from forgetting the required equipment to practice sports. Prototypes were evaluated by nine nutritionists from three countries (Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain). Evaluations were based on anticipation of use and the ergonomics of human-system interaction according to the ISO 9241-210. Results show that the system is considered useful. Even though they might not be willing to use the system, they would recommend it to their patients. Based on the ISO 9241-210 the best ranked features were the system's comprehensibility, the perceived effectiveness and clarity. The worst ranked features were the system's suitability for learning and its discriminability.

  6. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  7. A Review of Computer-Based Human Behavior Representations and Their Relation to Military Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    distri- butions of input values, which are used to generate Monte Carlo runs of the simulation. The latest version of HOS (Version V) includes editors...by body part, actions, procedures, steps within procedures, and interactions among devices. If the model is run in a Monte Carlo mode, distributions of...II-15 D. Business Redesign Agent-Based Holistic Modeling System ( Brahms

  8. Relative quantification of proteasome activity by activity-based protein profiling and LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, N.; Kuo, C.L.; Paniagua, G.; Elst, H. van den; Verdoes, M.; Willems, L.I.; Linden, W.A. van der; Ruben, M.; Genderen, E. van; Gubbens, J.; Wezel, G.P. van; Overkleeft, H.S.; Florea, B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a functional proteomics technique for directly monitoring the expression of active enzymes in cell extracts and living cells. The technique relies on irreversible inhibitors equipped with reactive groups (warheads) that covalently attach to the active site

  9. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to

  10. The relation between characteristics of learning environments and students' knowledge development in competence-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr P.J. Teune; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr. M. Koopman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the development of student knowledge in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education schools which differ in the manner and extent to which they have implemented characteristics of competence-based education. The implementation of these characteristics was

  11. Incidence of fall-related injuries in Iran: A population-based nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Eslami, Vahid; Karimi, Hasti; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2016-07-01

    Fall-related injuries are considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of fall-related injuries and its determinants in Iran. A cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of 15-64 years old Iranians was carried out in 2011. A three-stage cluster sampling design was used. Total of 1525 clusters were randomly selected. Six households in each cluster were randomly selected, and one member of each household was interviewed. Data on the demographics and history of fall-related injury were obtained using the previously validated and reliability tested Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7 (SFIQ7). In all, 7886 subjects responded to the survey. The incidence rate of all fall-related injuries was 59 (95%CI: 45-72) per 1000 person-year. The incidence rate of First Aid Fall-Related Injuries (FAFRIs) and Medical Attended Fall-Related Injuries (MAFRIs) were 30±5 and 28±12, respectively. Homes were the most common place of falls (52.5%). For all and MAFRIs, the most common activity leading to fall injury was walking (37.8% and 47.6%, respectively) whereas for FAFRIs was playing (31.9%). For all and FAFRIs, the most common description was as follows: upper limb as the injured organ (52.0% and 61.2%, respectively) and superficial wound as the most prevalent type of injury (39.0% and 61.8%, respectively). However, for MAFRIs, lower limb injuries (52.9%) and fracture (43.6%) were more pronounced. Risk factors for MAFRI were as follows: paid work activity (OR: 3.11; 95%CI: 2.07-4.67), playing (OR: 14.64; 95%CI: 6.34-33.80), walking (OR: 57.09; 95%CI: 28.95-112.59), driving (OR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.23-6.63), and recreation activities (OR: 44.11; 95%CI: 14.04-138.54). Higher age and education were the other risk factors for MAFRI, as well as residing in rural areas. This study revealed considerable incidence of fall injuries in Iranian population especially in rural regions who need access to

  12. Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Finke

    Full Text Available The co-registration of eye tracking and electroencephalography provides a holistic measure of ongoing cognitive processes. Recently, fixation-related potentials have been introduced to quantify the neural activity in such bi-modal recordings. Fixation-related potentials are time-locked to fixation onsets, just like event-related potentials are locked to stimulus onsets. Compared to existing electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces that depend on visual stimuli, fixation-related potentials have the advantages that they can be used in free, unconstrained viewing conditions and can also be classified on a single-trial level. Thus, fixation-related potentials have the potential to allow for conceptually different brain-machine interfaces that directly interpret cortical activity related to the visual processing of specific objects. However, existing research has investigated fixation-related potentials only with very restricted and highly unnatural stimuli in simple search tasks while participant's body movements were restricted. We present a study where we relieved many of these restrictions while retaining some control by using a gaze-contingent visual search task. In our study, participants had to find a target object out of 12 complex and everyday objects presented on a screen while the electrical activity of the brain and eye movements were recorded simultaneously. Our results show that our proposed method for the classification of fixation-related potentials can clearly discriminate between fixations on relevant, non-relevant and background areas. Furthermore, we show that our classification approach generalizes not only to different test sets from the same participant, but also across participants. These results promise to open novel avenues for exploiting fixation-related potentials in electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces and thus providing a novel means for intuitive human-machine interaction.

  13. Effects of C-related dangling bonds and functional groups on the fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence properties of carbon based dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Ruifen; Wang, Qian; Chen, Lichan; Hou, Linxi; Chi, Yuwu; Lu, Chun Hua; Fu, Fengfu; Dong, Yongqiang

    2018-02-01

    Single-layer carbon based dots (SCDs) is chosen as a model to investigate the effect of the C-related dangling bonds with spin S = 1/2 and functional groups on the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) and fluorescent (FL) properties of CDs. The C-related dangling bonds and functional groups of SCDs were tuned by chemical reduction with NaBH4. There have several main findings via investigating the ECL and FL properties of SCDs before and after the chemical reduction. First, the FL and ECL of SCDs are highly dependent on their concentration, and luminescent resonance energy transfer is observed in ECL when the concentration of SCDs is in high level. Second, the ECL activity of SCDs is greatly enhanced as the C-related dangling bonds increase, proving that the ECL of SCDs originates from the C-related dangling bonds. Third, the FL of SCDs is the synthesis of the inner FL originated from the contained isolated sp2 units and the defect FL from the C-related dangling bonds. The inner FL of SCDs is enhanced greatly by removing the carboxyl groups, while the defect FL is increased slightly due to the increased C-related dangling bonds. We believe this study would promote our understanding in the ECL and FL mechanisms of CDs, advancing the applications of CDs based on their ECL and FL properties. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An Analysis of Bank Service Satisfaction Based on Quantile Regression and Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank service satisfaction is vital to the success of a bank. In this paper, we propose to use the grey relational analysis to gauge the levels of service satisfaction of the banks. With the grey relational analysis, we compared the effects of different variables on service satisfaction. We gave ranks to the banks according to their levels of service satisfaction. We further used the quantile regression model to find the variables that affected the satisfaction of a customer at a specific quantile of satisfaction level. The result of the quantile regression analysis provided a bank manager with information to formulate policies to further promote satisfaction of the customers at different quantiles of satisfaction level. We also compared the prediction accuracies of the regression models at different quantiles. The experiment result showed that, among the seven quantile regression models, the median regression model has the best performance in terms of RMSE, RTIC, and CE performance measures.

  15. Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. B. Haeufle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE, a parallel damper element (PDE, and a serial element (SE exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.

  16. Research on Interfacial Bond-Slip Constitutive Relation Between FRP and Concrete Based on Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yushi; Fan, Yingfang

    2018-01-01

    The paper is to quantify and assess the roughness of 108 concrete samples with 6 kinds of interface roughness to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the bond property of FRP-concrete interface. And in order to solve the problem of so many parameters in interfacial stress-slip constitutive relation between FRP and concrete that hard to practise for engineers, so adopting shear test to establish two parameters (f c0, fi ) constitutive relation which are more suitable for engineers’ construction design. Results shows that the compressive strength (f c0) and interfacial roughness (fi ) are the two keys who influence the interfacial bond strength; The closed-form solution of τm and sf can be solved by the two factors f c0, fi , this method supplies a new algorithm for the interface calculation, due to the theoretical value is less than the measured values, so there is a certain safety stock to construction.

  17. A quantum uncertainty relation based on Fisher's information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, P; Plastino, A R; Dehesa, J S, E-mail: pablos@ugr.es, E-mail: arplastino@ugr.es, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    We explore quantum uncertainty relations involving the Fisher information functionals I{sub x} and I{sub p} evaluated, respectively, on a wavefunction {Psi}(x) defined on a D-dimensional configuration space and the concomitant wavefunction {Psi}-tilde(p) on the conjugate momentum space. We prove that the associated Fisher functionals obey the uncertainty relation I{sub x}I{sub p} {>=} 4D{sup 2} when either {Psi}(x) or {Psi}-tilde(p) is real. On the other hand, there is no lower bound to the above product for arbitrary complex wavefunctions. We give explicit examples of complex wavefunctions not obeying the above bound. In particular, we provide a parametrized wavefunction for which the product I{sub x}I{sub p} can be made arbitrarily small.

  18. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  19. Tighter Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequality based on the sum-uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Ananda G.; Datta, Shounak; Majumdar, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the uncertainty bound on the sum of variances of two incompatible observables in order to derive a corresponding steering inequality. Our steering criterion, when applied to discrete variables, yields the optimum steering range for two-qubit Werner states in the two-measurement and two-outcome scenario. We further employ the derived steering relation for several classes of continuous-variable systems. We show that non-Gaussian entangled states such as the photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum state and the two-dimensional harmonic-oscillator state furnish greater violation of the sum steering relation compared to the Reid criterion as well as the entropic steering criterion. The sum steering inequality provides a tighter steering condition to reveal the steerability of continuous-variable states.

  20. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)