WorldWideScience

Sample records for neumann-based languages translation

  1. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  2. Wearable Language Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    VIA Team Mission Statement: To develop a near real time, two way, mobile, lightweight, robust and low cost multi-lingual language translation device that can be operated with minimal training in a hands free manner...

  3. Language Theory and Translation Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, M.A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The reason l chose the title "Language theory and translation practice" was to suggest, not that there is no theory of translation, but that the concept of translation theory is problematic: it means a different thing to a translator from what it means to us who work in linguistics. lf you are a translator, a theory of translation relates to how you ~ translate - how best to achieve a good and effective translation. lt tends to be normativa and evaluative; whereas what...

  4. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  5. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  6. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  7. Speech and Language and Language Translation (SALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    which characters to retain, based on the character ranges for the following set of languages: English, French, Arabic, Russian, Greek , Hindi, and...Translation (Molto) system.9 Another advantage of Molto is that there are existing Molto language resources such as grammars for Hindi and Urdu, and...www.molto-project.eu/ 16 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; 88ABW-2013-2896, cleared 18 June 2013 Dari grammars

  8. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  9. Wavelets for sign language translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beth J.; Anspach, Gretel

    1993-10-01

    Wavelet techniques are applied to help extract the relevant parameters of sign language from video images of a person communicating in American Sign Language or Signed English. The compression and edge detection features of two-dimensional wavelet analysis are exploited to enhance the algorithms under development to classify the hand motion, hand location with respect to the body, and handshape. These three parameters have different processing requirements and complexity issues. The results are described for applying various quadrature mirror filter designs to a filterbank implementation of the desired wavelet transform. The overall project is to develop a system that will translate sign language to English to facilitate communication between deaf and hearing people.

  10. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  11. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  12. Bidirectional American Sign Language to English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cate, Hardie; Hussain, Zeshan

    2017-01-01

    We outline a bidirectional translation system that converts sentences from American Sign Language (ASL) to English, and vice versa. To perform machine translation between ASL and English, we utilize a generative approach. Specifically, we employ an adjustment to the IBM word-alignment model 1 (IBM WAM1), where we define language models for English and ASL, as well as a translation model, and attempt to generate a translation that maximizes the posterior distribution defined by these models. T...

  13. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translation also occurs from the national languages into English, but this involves mainly literary texts with historical and cultural significance. English literature produced by Zimbabwean writers also displays this kind of translation. Translation between indigenous languages is minimal, as is the involvement of minority ...

  14. Translation as Adaptation for Language Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Laviosa Sara

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004), the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language educatio...

  15. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical texts, being translated from this language into chiShona and isiNdebele, which are national languages.

  16. Machine Translation in a Modern Languages Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Derek

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the current state of Machine Translation (MT), i.e., computer systems attempting automatic natural language translation. Describes the experiences of teaching MT to modern language college students using a commercially available system and overviews the main features of the system. (Nine references) (Author/CK)

  17. Native language, spoken language, translation and trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melitz, Jacques; Toubal, Farid

    2014-01-01

    We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguistic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1...

  18. Network Basic Language Translation System: Security Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittrick, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    .... The Network Basic Language Translation System (NetBLTS) was proposed and accepted as part of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's offering of initiatives within the Horizontal Fusion portfolio in 2003...

  19. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  20. Beyond Literal Translation | Nginye | Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no gainsaying the importance of capturing intended meanings while translating a document from one language into another. This means that literal translations where only surface meanings or denotations are analyzed dissimulate deeper pragmatic considerations that are indispensable in the production of sense ...

  1. Exploring Power & Ethnocentrism in Sign language Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneham, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates that theories intended to prevent ethnocentric influence for one pair of languages may, in fact, be the catalyst for the phenomenon it purports to prevent in another pair. While it explores the issue in relation to sign language translation, the article raises the question of whether the findings can be extrapolated to…

  2. Translation and the Messiah of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting a different outlook, the present study endeavors to explain Walter Benjamin’s The Translator’s Task as an attempt to introduce new dimensions to translation studies. To do so, first the intention behind the creation of The Translator’s Task was explained through studying key elements proposed in The Translator’s Task and searching for instances of these significant factors. It was concluded that The Translator’s Task is a reply to the indeterminist nature of languages in the field of translation. Secondly, a translation model based on The Translator’s Task was provided and explained. The model used target language lexicon and source language syntax to fully accommodate what was proposed in The Translator’s Task. This model was used to produce a sample translation from English to Persian, which was later compared with a published translation. In order to determine the quality of translation, level of determinacy by the ST was assigned as a criterion. To achieve this, each TT was compared with the ST through a back-translation bottom-up analysis and each unit of translation was later categorized as D – determined and positive – or U – undetermined and negative. Finally, the results highlighted the high levels of determinacy by the ST in the sample translation based on the provided model. The published translation, which was a domesticated one, showed lower levels of determinacy by the ST as these kinds of translations are mainly based on the interpretations of the ST.   Keywords: Walter Benjamin, The Translator’s Task, pure language, radical literalism

  3. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  4. Intelligent Thai Text--Thai Sign Translation for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangsaart, Srisavakon; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Sirinaovakul, Booncharoen

    2008-01-01

    We present the Intelligent Thai text--Thai sign translation for language learning (IT[superscript 3]STL). IT[superscript 3]STL is able to translate Thai text into Thai sign language simply and conveniently anytime, anywhere. Thai sign language is the language of the deaf in Thailand. In the translation process, the distinction between Thai text…

  5. Dutch professional language usage and problems of translation into Czech

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Dutch Professional Language Usage and Problems of Translation into Czech Abstract This thesis analyzes the Dutch technical language with a focus on the legal language. The first part is devoted to general problems of translation and translation of the technical language, including theoretical elaboration on terminology and equivalence. After that the thesis deals with specific problems of the translation of the legal language. Next part of the thesis is devoted to a linguistic analysis of the...

  6. Statistical machine translation with local language models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Part-of-speech language modeling is commonly used as a component in statistical machine translation systems, but there is mixed evidence that its usage leads to significant improvements. We argue that its limited effectiveness is due to the lack of lexicalization. We introduce a new approach that

  7. Translation as Adaptation for Language Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviosa Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004, the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language education in the 21st century (cf. MLA 2007:2. The first part of the paper introduces the theoretical framework that conceptualises translation as being closely related to adaptation. It then analyses salient scenes from Gianni Amelio’s bilingual drama La stella che non c'è/The Missing Star/L'Étoile Imaginaire (2006 filmed in Italy and China and screened in competition as part of the 2006 Venice Film Festival. Moving on from research to pedagogic practice, the final part of the paper outlines a teaching unit that is based on the film and is aimed at undergraduate L1 Chinese learners of Italian and L1 Italian learners of Chinese. The objective of the pedagogic unit is to raise awareness of the transformative power enshrined in linguistic and cultural exchanges mediated by audio-visual translation as an eminent example of adaptation.

  8. Developing Deployable Spoken Language Translation Systems given Limited Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Approaches are presented that support the deployment of spoken language translation systems. Newly developed methods allow low cost portability to new language pairs. Proposed translation model pruning techniques achieve a high translation performance even in low memory situations. The named entity and specialty vocabulary coverage, particularly on small and mobile devices, is targeted to an individual user by translation model personalization.

  9. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  10. LANGUAGE CHANGES, APPROXIMATIVE VARIETIES AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gorovitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the media and communicative demands in a globalized context comes the need of using loan words for interaction and entertainment purposes. Using approximative varieties makes the languages to diachronically undergo changes in their syntactic organization as well as in their lexicon and semantic value, especially by producing neologisms incorporated to the language. Thus, sociolinguistics aims to understand how languages change, through recurring and cyclic processes of mutual influence which may occur diachronically and synchronously according to the speakers’ production. Indeed, the several incidences caused by constant language contact provoke new linguistic creations, which disseminate according to the needs, sometimes substituting previous terminologies and expressions. They result in direct influence whose echo is observed in ulterior grammatical processes, which are deployments of the modifications introduced before. The speakers determine which changes will be consolidated and, over the generations, they treat neologisms as belonging to the language in a lexical expansion phenomenon. Therefore, we analyze their importance for the translation and how they are directly affected, by establishing connections among the sociolinguistic studies developed by Calvet (2002, Faraco (2004, Labov (2008 and Bortoni-Ricardo (2014 about the pidgins, the creole languages and the possible linguistic changes that may occur within a communicative context of two or more languages in contact, we will do an analysis of its importance in the communication range and about which way they are directly affected.

  11. The Use of Translation Tool in Efl Learning: Do Machine Translation Give Positive Impact in Language Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahardika, Rizka

    2017-01-01

    Translation tools are commonly used for translating a text written in one language (source language) into another language (target language). They are used to help translators in translating big numbers of translation works in effective time. There are three types of translation tools being studied in the article entitled Machine Translation Tools: Tools of the Translator's Trade written by Peter Katsberg published in 2012. They are Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided M...

  12. Effects of translation and performance on memory of words of Sign Language as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    松見, 法男

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of translation and performance on memory of words of Sign Language as a second language. An intermediate class of Sign Language learners, whose first language was Japanese, was required to carried out four tasks : translating from Japanese word into Sign Language word, oral reading of Japanese word, translating from Sign Language word into Japanese word, and performing (expressing) of Sign Language word. The subjects were then asked unexpe...

  13. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available as well as the more modern statistical machine translation systems [2]. However, the latter require large bilingual corpora to train on, and in the case of SASL, such a corpus is not available. Hence, at the time of implementa- tion, the rule....A. Stewart, Reflections on language programs for the hearing impaired, Journal of Special Education, 20(2), 1986, 153–165. [14] J. Fourie, The design of a generic signing avatar ani- mation system (MScEng thesis, Stellenbosch Univer- sity, South Africa...

  14. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Neural networks for sign language translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beth J.; Anspach, Gretel

    1993-09-01

    A neural network is used to extract relevant features of sign language from video images of a person communicating in American Sign Language or Signed English. The key features are hand motion, hand location with respect to the body, and handshape. A modular hybrid design is under way to apply various techniques, including neural networks, in the development of a translation system that will facilitate communication between deaf and hearing people. One of the neural networks described here is used to classify video images of handshapes into their linguistic counterpart in American Sign Language. The video image is preprocessed to yield Fourier descriptors that encode the shape of the hand silhouette. These descriptors are then used as inputs to a neural network that classifies their shapes. The network is trained with various examples from different signers and is tested with new images from new signers. The results have shown that for coarse handshape classes, the network is invariant to the type of camera used to film the various signers and to the segmentation technique.

  16. Framework based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Translating Food Menu in Thai Language to Malay Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Pu; Nazatul Aini Abd Majid; Bahari Idrus

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to design a food menu translation framework from Thai to Malay language based on mobile AR, develop a translator application and to test the effectiveness of the translator application...

  17. Sequoyah Foreign Language Translation System - Business Case Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, Wing S. S

    2007-01-01

    Sequoyah, which is the Department of Defense (DoD)'s Program of Record for automated foreign language translation, is to identify current and developing technologies to meet warfighter requirements for foreign language support...

  18. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  19. Culture, Diversity, and Language: What Is Culturally Competent Translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.

    2009-01-01

    As the cultural and ethnic diversity of the student population rises within school districts across the nation, the matter of translating materials in a language that is understandable and meaningful to the target population becomes more pressing. There are multitude of problems inherent in translation of materials from one language to another. To…

  20. "See Translation": Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendus, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…

  1. Harry Potter in Translation: Making Language Learning Magical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook for teachers documents the "Harry Potter in Translation" project undertaken at the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. The guide also offers 5 sample lesson plans for teachers of grades three to twelve for teaching world languages using the Harry Potter books in translation to engage students. (Contains…

  2. Literary translation into indigenous languages in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study makes out a case for the thorny problem of literary translation into Nigeria's indigenous languages and its role in national development. In this paper, we outline the way forward given the fact that literary translation into Nigerian languages had gone through a sticky patch. Federal, State and Local governments in ...

  3. The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASL) are more accessible than written or printed biblical texts for deaf-born South African people who use sign language as their first language. The study made use of the functionalist approach in translation to translate six parts from the Bible into ...

  4. Translation in language learning: a ‘what for’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo E. Balboni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature about translation in language learning and teaching shows the prominence of the ‘for and against’ approach, while a ‘what for’ approach would be more profitable. In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests the use of a formal model of communicative competence, to see which of its components can profit of translation activities. The result is a map of the effects of translation in the wide range of competences and abilities which constitute language learning.

  5. The Simpsons: Translation and language teaching in an EFL class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Pavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available My point of departure for this paper is that translation, so long neglected in foreign language teaching, can not only improve students’ linguistic competences in both a foreign language and their mother tongue, but also their awareness of cultural and intercultural elements. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in language teaching, that linguistic competences are the key to learning a language and to communicating in a foreign language; consequently, they assume that translation ought to play a major role in the study of a foreign language. Indeed, late 20th century theories of language teaching, apart from the grammar-translation method, have largely ignored or criticized the role of translation. I will focus on a translation course I taught to a class of a year three Italian undergraduate students studying foreign languages, and discuss the advantages of using translation to improve students’ linguistic competences, in their mother tongue and in the foreign language, and to develop their intercultural communicative competences and their cultural (Bassnett, 2002, 2007 and intercultural awareness (Kramsch, 1993, 1998. The translated text was taken from The Simpsons, season 21, episode 16.

  6. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  7. THE COURSE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION PUBLICATIONS OF BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN SOME BRAZILIAN TRANSLATION JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the course of publications about Translation and Interpretation of Brazilian sign language in some Brazilian Translation journals. Results show a sum of 36 works published, distributed over Translation journals of different regions of Brazil. The established subjects and the ones that emerged from 1990 to 2014 were also examined in these publications.

  8. Sequoyah Foreign Language Translation System - Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    placards, detainees, local language Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), linguist support, and teaching rudimentary English to local nationals...and BabelFish. 1. Complexities with Speech-to-text Translation MLT systems may occasionally produce incorrect pronunciation and thus introduce the...exercises being conducted annually with coalition partners where English is not the primary language of communication. Hence, language capability becomes

  9. A prototype Malayalam to Sign Language Automatic Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Jestin; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Sign language, which is a medium of communication for deaf people, uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning, as opposed to using sound. This paper presents a prototype Malayalam text to sign language translation system. The proposed system takes Malayalam text as input and generates corresponding Sign Language. Output animation is rendered using a computer generated model. This system will help to disseminate information to the deaf people in public utility places like ra...

  10. Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Translating Food Menu in Thai Language to Malay Language

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Muhammad; Abd Majid, Nazatul Aini; Idrus, Bahari

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology is a technique that combines the real world and the virtual world digitally using mobile devices. Mobile AR technology is expected to help Malaysian tourists who have difficulties to understand the Thai language when visiting the country. Hence, a prototype called ARThaiMalay translator was developed to translate printed Thai food menu to Malay language. The objective of this study is to design a food menu translation framework from Thai to Malay language ba...

  11. ELSIE: The Quick Reaction Spoken Language Translation (QRSLT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Christine

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a prototype, hand-held or body-mounted spoken language translator to assist military and law enforcement personnel in interacting with non-English-speaking people...

  12. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon (Foreign Area Language Converter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…

  13. Clean translation of an imperative reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2011-01-01

    We describe the translation techniques used for the code generation in a compiler from the high-level reversible imperative programming language Janus to the low-level reversible assembly language PISA. Our translation is both semantics preserving (correct), in that target programs compute exactly...... the same functions as their source programs (cleanly, with no extraneous garbage output), and efficient, in that target programs conserve the complexities of source programs. In particular, target programs only require a constant amount of temporary garbage space. The given translation methods are generic......, and should be applicable to any (imperative) reversible source language described with reversible flowcharts and reversible updates. To our knowledge, this is the first compiler between reversible languages where the source and target languages were independently developed; the first exhibiting both...

  14. Sign language translation and interpreting studies: a new academic field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Brazilian researches on translation and interpreting from/into/between sign languages can be combined into what is known as Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Studies (SLTIS, we carry out a reflection on the emergence of this new academic field and its direct connection to Translation Studies (TS and Interpreting Studies (IS. Hence, we shall present the interdependence and fundamental distinction between TS and IS, search for references in the interpreting and translation of sign languages in major TS and IS writings, and reflect on the SLTIS in Brazil. This reflection is based on sign language translation and interpreting research carried out in graduate school and on the four editions of the National Conference on Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Research. We have observed that while the SLTIS stand out for involving a visual-gestural language, they also maintain an undeniable and necessary link to their origins, since they have no existence beyond the TS and IS academic fields.

  15. Sign language translation and interpreting studies: a new academic field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Brazilian researches on translation and interpreting from/into/between sign languages can be combined into what is known as Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Studies (SLTIS, we carry out a reflection on the emergence of this new academic field and its direct connection to Translation Studies (TS and Interpreting Studies (IS. Hence, we shall present the interdependence and fundamental distinction between TS and IS, search for references in the interpreting and translation of sign languages in major TS and IS writings, and reflect on the SLTIS in Brazil. This reflection is based on sign language translation and interpreting research carried out in graduate school and on the four editions of the National Conference on Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Research. We have observed that while the SLTIS stand out for involving a visual-gestural language, they also maintain an undeniable and necessary link to their origins, since they have no existence beyond the TS and IS academic fields.

  16. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment…

  17. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  18. Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

  19. Grounding the Translation: Intertwining analysis and translation in cross-language grounded theory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shklarov, MD, RSW, PhD Candidate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research in cross-language, cross-cultural context is associated with the challenges of linguistic sensitivity of conceptualization. The author, a bilingual researcher, offers reflection on her experience of doing grounded theory research, assuming a dual role of a theorist and a translator. The reflection is based on self-observations. Grounding the translation is shown to be acheived through the strategy of intertwining the activities of translation and conceptual analysis, performed by one person. The two activities are inseparable in time and take place along with constant comparison across language boundaries. Intertwining requires that theoretical sensitivity of the researcher be enriched with the sensitivity to linguistic and cultural meanings. Intertwining, through revealing differences between linguistic meanings or language structures, facilitates the emergence of concepts and theoretical categories from the very act of translation. Combining the functions of translation and analysis and using the strategy of intertwining worked effectively for this researcher.

  20. Correlation of Translation and Other Language Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkova, Nataliya; Davtyan, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    International cooperation in all professional settings makes translation a very important tool of interpersonal and professional relations of specialists in different domains. Training of undergraduates and graduates' translation skills in a special setting is included in the curriculum of non-linguistic higher education institutions and studied…

  1. Translating Interviews, Translating Lives: Ethical Considerations in Cross-Language Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Through two narrative inquiries, in this article I explore the challenges for qualitative researchers in working with multiple languages in capturing, translating, analyzing, and representing narratives. I discuss the effect on research when we engage in these processes considering what was happening as we translated both texts and experience from…

  2. "The Simpsons": Translation and Language Teaching in an EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    My point of departure for this paper is that translation, so long neglected in foreign language teaching, can not only improve students' linguistic competences in both a foreign language and their mother tongue, but also their awareness of cultural and intercultural elements. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in…

  3. Activation of lexical and syntactic target language properties in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, C; Paredes, N; Macizo, P; Bajo, M T

    2008-07-01

    Is reading for translation equal to reading in monolingual contexts? Horizontal/parallel theories of translation propose that normal reading and reading for translation differ because the translator engages in partial reformulation while reading for translating the source text. In contrast, vertical/serial theories assume that the translators first extract the meaning of the message, and only then they proceed to reformulate it. In two experiments, we manipulated lexical and syntactic properties of the target language (TL) while translators read for repetition or for translation. On-line sentence comprehension was affected by the lexical frequency of words in the TL (Experiment 1) and the syntactic congruency between the source language (SL) and TL sentences (Experiment 2). However, the influence of lexical and syntactic TL properties was restricted to the reading for translation task. According to our results, the horizontal view of translation includes code-to-code links between the SL and TL involving at least the lexical and syntactic level of processing.

  4. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  5. Beyond Literal Translation | Nginye | Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2015v16n2p101 This paper is the result of an initial attempt to establish a connection between Brazil and Mozambique regarding sign language translation and interpreting. It reviews some important landmarks in language policies aimed at sign languages in these countries and discusses how certain actions directly impact political decisions related to sign lan­guage translation and interpreting. In this context, two lines of argument are developed. The first one addresses the role of sign language translation and interpreting in the Por­tuguese-speaking context, since Portuguese is the official language in both countries; the other offers some reflections about the Deaf movements and the movements of sign lan­guage translators and interpreters, the legal recognition of sign languages, the develop­ment of undergraduate courses and the contemporary challenges in the work of transla­tion professionals. Finally, it is suggested that sign language translators and interpreters in both Brazil and Mozambique undertake efforts to press government bodies to invest in: (i area-specific training for translators and interpreters, (ii qualification of the ser­vices provided by such professionals, and (iii development of human resources at mas­ter’s and doctoral levels in order to strengthen research on sign language translation and interpreting in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.

  7. Interdialect Translatability of the Basic Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Gerald L.

    A study was made of several dialects of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC). The purpose was to determine if it was possible to identify a set of interactive BASIC dialects in which translatability between different members of the set would be high, if reasonable programing restrictions were imposed. It was first…

  8. APPLICATION OF GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM IN TRANSLATING NARATIVE TEXTS FROM ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hartono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential problem of this research was rigidness of translation result of narrative text from English into Indonesian language. The main objective of this research was to apply the Grammar Translation Method (GTM to improve the quality of narrative text translation result from English into Indonesian language that would be more natural and accepted in the target language users. This research used Classroom Action Research Method applied four steps in each cycle: 1 Identifying the problem, 2 Data gathering, 3 Data interpretation, and 4 Action, 5 Observing, and Reflection. Sources of data in this research were translation documents, field notes, interviews and questionnaires. The research data were the translation of narrative texts, questionnaire answers, result of interviews, and observation notes. The data were obtained by using test, interview, questionnaire, and observation. Based on the result of research it was found that application of GTM could improve students‘ translation products of narrative texts from English into Indonesian significantly. It can be seen through the progress score 13.43 gained from the preliminary average score 71.21 (Good to the final average score 84.64 (Very Good. Thus the GTM can improve students‘ translation ability and the result of the research is very significant.

  9. The Influence of Neutral Gender Words on Translating Job Titles from English Language into Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubaideen, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…

  10. Differences in semantic and translation priming across languages: the role of language direction and language dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, we examined bilingual memory organization, using the priming paradigm. Many of the previous studies in which this experimental technique has been used in the bilingual domain appear to have had several differences in methodology that have caused there to be a lot of variation in the data reported. The aim of the present work was to create an experimental situation that was well constrained so that automatic processes could be observed. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals participated in an unmasked semantic- and translation-priming study in which a lexical decision task was used. The results revealed significant translation-priming effects in both language directions and, unexpectedly, significant semantic priming in the L2-L1 direction only. In Experiment 2, we examined semantic- and translation-priming effects with a forward mask design. The results indicated that significant priming was obtained only for translation word pairs in both language directions. These results are discussed with regard to current models of bilingual memory representation.

  11. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  12. The third language: A recurrent textual restriction that translators come across in audiovisual translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Corrius Gimbert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart rom technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be considered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropriate to the channel of communication. Bearing in mind that most of the films we are continually seeing on our screens were and are produced in the United States, there is an increasing need to translate them into the different languages of the world. But sometimes the source audiovisual text contains more than one language, and, thus, a new problem arises: the ranslators face additional difficulties in translating this “third language” (language or dialect into the corresponding target culture. There are many films containing two languages in the original version but in this paper we will focus mainly on three films: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969, Raid on Rommel (1999 and Blade Runner (1982. This paper aims at briefly illustrating different solutions which may be applied when we come across a “third language”.

  13. Translating programming languages for intermediate codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the important data structures used in a compiler are intermediate representations of the program being compiled. Often these representations take the form of trees, with several node types, each of which has different attributes. Tree representations can be described with grammars, just like programming languages. For each grammar rule, there is one constructor that belongs to the class for its left-hand-side symbol. I simply extend the abstract class with a concrete class for each grammar rule. Each grammar rule has right hand side components that must be represented in the data structures.

  14. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.

  15. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  16. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  17. Language Differentiation: Collaborative Translation to Support Bilingual Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzio, Kelly; Keyes, Christopher S.; Cole, Mikel W.; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Although a variety of research has investigated the use and benefits of home language in school settings, research on using translation to support school learning is scarce. With the goal of designing a differentiated and culturally relevant strategy that supports the reading of bilingual students, we worked with seventh-grade students in pull-out…

  18. Found in Translations: Using Multiple Versions of Translated Text for Close Analysis of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To prepare students for the rigorous tasks of the unseen written commentary and the oral commentary on an extract from a studied text, the author has had to explore new ways of engaging students in attending to the subtleties of language. Inspired by a classroom mishap regarding translations of Elie Wiesel's "Night," the author uses multiple text…

  19. Class-Based Language Modeling for Translating into Morphologically Rich Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisazza, A.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Class-based language modeling (LM) is a long-studied and effective approach to overcome data sparsity in the context of n-gram model training. In statistical machine translation (SMT), differ- ent forms of class-based LMs have been shown to improve baseline translation quality when used in

  20. Languaging in Translation Tasks Used in a University Setting: Particular Potential for Student Agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallkvist, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the value of judiciously used first language (L1)-to-second language (L2) translation in meaning-focused, advanced-level academic language education. It examines languaging in the teacher-led discourse (TLD) that arises when translation tasks are used and compares it to languaging during the TLD engendered by 4 other…

  1. Translation of the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire into Hausa language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Bashir; Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Idowu, Opeyemi A; Odole, Adesola C; Saidu, Anas M; Fawole, Henrietta O; Ibrahim, Maryam

    2014-11-17

    Self-report measures of fear-avoidance beliefs are widely used in clinical practice and research. To date there is no Hausa version of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). This is important as the Hausa language is a widely spoken language in West Africa. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate the Hausa version of the FABQ in patients with non-specific neck pain. Two independent bilingual Hausa translators translated the English version of the FABQ into Hausa which was thereafter back translated by one independent bilingual translator. A professional expert panel revised the translations to produce a consensus version. The psychometric testing of the final translated instrument was investigated by surveying 54 Hausa speaking patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Cross-sectional construct validity was evaluated by comparing Hausa Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-H) with the English version of the FABQ. Internal consistency of the FABQ-H was examined by Cronbach alpha by comparing the scores between the FABQ-H and its subscales. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by administering the Hausa version twice. The translated Hausa version of FABQ proved to be acceptable. The FABQ-H showed strong correlations (r=0.94, p=0.000) with the original English version. There was also high internal consistency between the FABQ-H and its subscales (physical activity component-alpha=0.88, p=0.000 and work component- alpha=0.94, p= 0.000). The FABQ-H also showed a high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient =0.98). The FABQ-H demonstrated excellent psychometric properties similar to other existing versions. The FABQ-H is recommended for clinical practice.

  2. Speech to Text Translation for Malay Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-khulaidi, Rami Ali; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2017-11-01

    The speech recognition system is a front end and a back-end process that receives an audio signal uttered by a speaker and converts it into a text transcription. The speech system can be used in several fields including: therapeutic technology, education, social robotics and computer entertainments. In most cases in control tasks, which is the purpose of proposing our system, wherein the speed of performance and response concern as the system should integrate with other controlling platforms such as in voiced controlled robots. Therefore, the need for flexible platforms, that can be easily edited to jibe with functionality of the surroundings, came to the scene; unlike other software programs that require recording audios and multiple training for every entry such as MATLAB and Phoenix. In this paper, a speech recognition system for Malay language is implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio C#. 90 (ninety) Malay phrases were tested by 10 (ten) speakers from both genders in different contexts. The result shows that the overall accuracy (calculated from Confusion Matrix) is satisfactory as it is 92.69%.

  3. Machine Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Language Learners' and Tutors' Perceptions of Its Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot of what has been investigated in terms of the relationship between machine translation (MT) and foreign language (FL) teaching and learning. For this purpose four different roles of MT in the language class have been identified: MT as a bad model, MT as a good model, MT as a vocational training tool (especially in…

  4. Whose "Crisis in Language"? Translating and the Futurity of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, David J.; Warner, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    This contribution questions to whom and to whose learning experience has the idiom of crisis that so pervades the domain of U.S. foreign language teaching been addressed. The authors report on an advanced foreign language classroom-based study from 2013, in which undergraduate German learners translated a 14-page prose poem about translingual…

  5. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  6. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  7. Translation modalities applied to the interpretation in brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nicoloso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed from a chapter in a doctoral thesis from the first author, towards a specific focalized discussion, related to the practice of simultaneous interpretation in Brazilian Sign Language, based on translation modalities as proposed by Aubert (1998.  The interpreted text is called “Discovering who we are”, extracted from the book Learning to see, by Sherman, Wilcox and Phyllis, and translated by Tarcisio de Arantes Leite. The interpretations were recorded in a media studio, with the official consent from the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and the data was analyzed by means of the software ELAN. Results indicate that using a research method which considers translation modalities may contribute to obtain a clearer view regarding the similarities and differences between the selected linguistic pairs.

  8. Translation modalities applied to the interpretation in brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nicoloso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed from a chapter in a doctoral thesis from the first author, towards a specific focalized discussion, related to the practice of simultaneous interpretation in Brazilian Sign Language, based on translation modalities as proposed by Aubert (1998. The interpreted text is called “Discovering who we are”, extracted from the book Learning to see, by Sherman, Wilcox and Phyllis, and translated by Tarcisio de Arantes Leite. The interpretations were recorded in a media studio, with the official consent from the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and the data was analyzed by means of the software ELAN. Results indicate that using a research method which considers translation modalities may contribute to obtain a clearer view regarding the similarities and differences between the selected linguistic pairs.

  9. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  10. Taking the Time. Studying language effects in the translation class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brusasco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The current translation market places growing emphasis on technological tools that assist or even replace the translator in quickly producing adequate target texts. As a person involved in cultural processes that affect public discourse and society at large, both as a practising literary translator and as a teacher of translation, I feel that academia should not only pursue market-oriented translation skills, such as procedural knowledge of computer-assisted translation (CAT-tools and machine translation (MT, but also aim at strengthening would-be translators' processes of interpretation and making them autonomous language experts, aware of both the effects generated by language and their responsibility in using it. To support my position, I will draw on cognitive linguistics and critical discourse analysis (CDA. Adopting a constructivist approach, I will then refer to works by Kiraly (2000, Venuti (2013 and Laviosa (2014, and add some methodological proposals. Students will initially work individually and in groups, focusing on source texts, their translations and comparable texts in order to identify key language items and work toward meaning. By deploying CDA analytical tools, they will discuss the role played by individual items as well as the overall effect of both STs and TTs. New source texts will then be analysed in preparation for translation. The actual translation, effect analysis and final editing, carried out as team work, will complete a cycle aimed at 1 helping students to build knowledge through experience; 2 sensitising them to the complexity of the translation process and the paramount value of meaning-making within every single context.Riassunto – Il settore della traduzione attribuisce crescente importanza a strumenti tecnologici che aiutano o sostituiscono il traduttore nella rapida produzione di testi adeguati. In qualità di traduttrice letteraria e docente, coinvolta quindi in processi culturali che possono

  11. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  12. Data extraction from machine-translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. Methods We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages (Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish). Fluent speakers double-extracted original-language articles. Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Results Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results. Translated Spanish articles yielded the highest percentage of items (93%) that were correctly extracted more than half the time (followed by German and Japanese 89%, French 85%, and Chinese 78%) but Chinese articles yielded the highest percentage of items (41%) that were correctly extracted >98% of the time (followed by Spanish 30%, French 26%, German 22%, and Japanese 19%). In general, extractors’ confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Conclusions Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages, using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data. There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews

  13. Data extraction from machine-translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Ethan M; Chung, Mei; Chen, Minghua L; Chang, Lina Kong Win; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-11-07

    Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages (Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish). Fluent speakers double-extracted original-language articles. Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results. Translated Spanish articles yielded the highest percentage of items (93%) that were correctly extracted more than half the time (followed by German and Japanese 89%, French 85%, and Chinese 78%) but Chinese articles yielded the highest percentage of items (41%) that were correctly extracted >98% of the time (followed by Spanish 30%, French 26%, German 22%, and Japanese 19%). In general, extractors' confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages, using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data. There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews (including all available studies) and risk of

  14. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since

  15. Word Translation Prediction for Morphologically Rich Languages with Bilingual Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, K.; Bisazza, A.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Translating into morphologically rich languages is a particularly difficult problem in machine translation due to the high degree of inflectional ambiguity in the target language, often only poorly captured by existing word translation models. We present a general approach that exploits source-side

  16. Topical Review: Mind Your Language-Translation Matters (A Narrative Review of Translation Challenges).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiing, Jennifer S H; Rajgor, Dimple; Toh, Teck-Hock

    2016-11-01

    Translation of developmental-behavioral screening tools for use worldwide can be daunting. We summarize issues in translating these tools.  METHODS:  Instead of a theoretical framework of "equivalence" by Pena and International Test Commission guidelines, we decided upon a practical approach used by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS). We derived vignettes from the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status manual and published literature and mapped them to AAOS.  RESULTS:  We found that a systematic approach to planning and translating developmental-behavioral screeners is essential to ensure "equivalence" and encourage wide consultation with experts.  CONCLUSION:  Our narrative highlights how translations can result in many challenges and needed revisions to achieve "equivalence" such that the items remain consistent, valid, and meaningful in the new language for use in different cultures. Information sharing across the community of researchers is encouraged. This narrative may be helpful to novice researchers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Language Model Adaptation Using Machine-Translated Text for Resource-Deficient Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensson ArnarThor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Text corpus size is an important issue when building a language model (LM. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine-translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated (MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis. LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse.

  18. Language Model Adaptation Using Machine-Translated Text for Resource-Deficient Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaoki Furui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Text corpus size is an important issue when building a language model (LM. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine-translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated (MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis. LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse.

  19. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  20. Understanding the Language, the Culture, and the Experience: Translation in Cross-Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Choi RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving conceptual equivalence between two languages is a challenge in cross-cultural, cross-language research, as the research is conducted in a language that is not the researcher's or research team's first language. Therefore, translation provides an additional challenge in cross-cultural research. The comprehension and interpretation of the meaning of data is central in cross-cultural qualitative analysis. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the translation process and explore some of the challenges, such as difficulties in finding a suitable translator, and the importance of communication between the researcher and the translator.

  1. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  2. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a "Hub" of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the "control network" showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  3. Challenges in language, culture, and modality: translating English measures into American sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elaine G; Mallinson, R Kevin; Phillips, Linda; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    Few health-related questionnaires have been translated into American Sign Language (ASL), precluding Deaf adults from full participation in health-related research. To translate self-report measures (written English) into sign language and to evaluate the equivalence of the ASL versions to the original English versions of the measures. A descriptive-comparative design with a derived etic (outsider) perspective was used to evaluate equivalency between the English version of the Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices (SRAHP) and an ASL version. Both versions were administered to 24 bilingual (English and ASL) adults. Analysis included correlation between total scores and comparison of internal consistency of both versions; psychometric properties of the signed SRAHP were computed for 105 Deaf adults who participated in a study of the Deaf Heart Health Intervention (DHHI). The correlation between total scores on ASL and English versions was .92, item-to-total correlations ranged from .08 to .80 on the English version and from .33 to .80 on the ASL version. Cronbach's alpha was .91 for the English version and .90 for the ASL version. Mean scores on the ASL version were significantly lower for the all-Deaf DHHI sample (n = 105) than for the bilingual subjects (n = 24) although internal consistency remained high (Cronbach's alpha of .93 and item-to-total correlation of .38-.74) for the new ASL version. The use of an adapted translation model resulted in a sound ASL version of a health-related measure. Results support use of the derived etic strategy for translating measures from their original language into new languages. The approach is also appropriate for changing modalities from written form to other modalities, such as the visual-manual modality of ASL.

  4. Determinants of translation ambiguity: A within and cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals.

  5. TRANSLATION QUALITY OF SEXIST LANGUAGE IN THE NOVEL LITTLE WOMEN BY LOISA MAY ALCOTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurochman Nurochman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to find out the quality of translation from novel Little Women and its translations in Indonesian translated by man and woman (different gender. The reason why the researcher chose the topic is that there are differences of translation techniques applied by translators (different gender in translating sexist language and it can affect the quality of translation. The aims of the study are (1 to find out the types of sexist language in the novel Litt le Women, (2 to find out the techniques of translation, (3 to analyze the quality of translation based on gender of translator. The study uses a descriptive qualitative method. In this case, the researcher collects, classifies, and describes the data using the method. To get the data, the writer read the English and the Indonesian novel carefully and identified the kinds of sexist language. The researcher got 170 data. After finding out the data from the English and Indonesian versions, the data were verified by the expert and the translations were analyzed by raters related to the quality of translation. The result of the analysis shows that there are 12 man as Standard, 116 women are different, 8 Non Human Terms, 20 Negative Words, and 20 Sex Role Descriptor. It‘s found different techniques of translation applied by translators as well as the quality of translation.

  6. Shakespeare in Three Languages Reading and Analyzing Sonnet 130 and Its Translations in Light of Semiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Sündüz; Tuna, Didem

    2017-01-01

    Among the literary genres, poetry is the one that resists translation the most. Creating a new and innovative language that breaks the usual rules of the standard language with brand-new uses and meanings is probably one of the most important goals of the poet. Poetry challenges the translator to capture not only original images, exceptional…

  7. Using Online Translators in the Second Language Classroom: Ideas for Advanced-Level Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth; Mejias-Bikani, Errapel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using online translators in the foreign language classroom. Specifically, we discuss how faulty online translator output can be used to create activities that help raise metalinguistic awareness of second language grammar and of the differences between grammatical constructions in the first and second…

  8. Machine Translation Projects for Portuguese at INESC ID's Spoken Language Systems Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Barreiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language technologies, in particular machine translation applications, have the potential to help break down linguistic and cultural barriers, presenting an important contribution to the globalization and internationalization of the Portuguese language, by allowing content to be shared 'from' and 'to' this language. This article aims to present the research work developed at the Laboratory of Spoken Language Systems of INESC-ID in the field of machine translation, namely the automated speech translation, the translation of microblogs and the creation of a hybrid machine translation system. We will focus on the creation of the hybrid system, which aims at combining linguistic knowledge, in particular semantico-syntactic knowledge, with statistical knowledge, to increase the level of translation quality.

  9. Left Dislocation and its translation in some Germanic languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the theoretical framework of an influential recent model of Bible translation, Left Dislocation (=LD) can be regarded as a “communicate clue” that translators must try to interpretively resemble in their target text translation. This exploratory study investigates how twenty translations (fifteen English, three Afrikaans, ...

  10. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The challenge of translation Between portuguese language and signal Brazilian language in the face of the phenomenon of synonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Monteiro Carvalho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the synonymy phenomenon in translation between the Portuguese language and Brazilian sign language - LIBRAS, focused on the work of Libras professional interpreter. The objective is to analyze the synonymy in the Portuguese language and LIBRAS as well as verify the semantic value of the sentences translated by LIBRAS interpreters. The theoretical basis is formed by Lyons (1981; Fernandes & Correia (2011; Chomsky (2006 and Saussure (2006, and studies of the Quadros (2004 and Rosa (2008. We use quantitative and qualitative approach. We obtain the translation for analyzes from sentences written in Portuguese and submitted to translations by LIBRAS interpreters of the Abaetetuba city. Concluded that the synonymy, as a constitutive process of translation, is essential to ensure the meaning in the target language. So any semantic loss as verified in the analyzes in translation with the literal meaning and information increase the interpreter translating for LIBRAS synonymic caused damage to the process. Consequently, the LIBRAS interpreter’s work is very important for the deaf and the translation must be carried out with ethics and responsibility. To be a resource to help the understanding of the deaf in a language that he does not hear.

  12. Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3...

  15. Portable Language-Independent Adaptive Translation from OCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natarajan, Prem

    2008-01-01

    .... The Multilingual Automatic Document Classification, Analysis and Translation (MADCAT) program will develop an end-to-end system to automatically translate handwritten and printed foreign documents into English with very high accuracy...

  16. The Effect of Data-Based Translation Program Used in Foreign Language Education on the Correct Use of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darancik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that data-based translation programs are often used both in and outside the class unconsciously and thus there occurs many problems in foreign language learning and teaching. To draw attention to this problem, with this study, whether the program has satisfactory results or not has been revealed by making translations from…

  17. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hip Outcome Score to the Portuguese language,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszt Palmeira de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to translate the Hip Outcome Score clinical evaluation questionnaire into Portuguese and culturally adapt it for Brazil.METHODS: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated into Portuguese following the methodology consisting of the steps of translation, back-translation, pretesting and final translation.RESULTS: the pretesting was applied to 30 patients with hip pain without arthrosis. In the domain relating to activities of daily living, there were no difficulties in comprehending the translated questionnaire. In presenting the final translation of the questionnaire, all the questions were understood by more than 85% of the individuals.CONCLUSION: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and can be used in clinical evaluation on the hip. Additional studies are underway with the objective of evaluating the reproducibility and validity of the Brazilian translation.

  18. Where do borders lie in translated literature? The case of the changing English-language market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Michael Mansell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal accounts suggest that one reason for the perceived resistance to translated literature in English-language markets is that commissioning editors are averse to considering texts that they cannot read. In an attempt to overcome this barrier, English translations are increasingly commissioned by publishers of source texts and agents of source authors and used to stimulate interest in a book (not just in English-language markets, a phenomenon this article terms ‘source-commissioned translations’. This article considers how this phenomenon indicates a shift in the borders between literatures, how it disrupts accepted commercial practices, and the consequences of this for the industry and the role of English in the global book trade. In particular, it considers consequences for the quality of translations, questions regarding copyright, and the uncertain position for the translator when, at the time of translating, a contract is not in place between the translator and the publisher of the translation.

  19. Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Daniel Rodrigues Dinarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, based in sign language translation researches, and at the same time entering discussions with inspiration in contemporary theories on the concept of "deconstruction" (DERRIDA, 2004 DERRIDA e ROUDINESCO, 2004 ARROJO, 1993, to reflect on some aspects concerning to the definition of the role and duties of translators and interpreters. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity.

  20. Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Daniel Rodrigues Dinarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, based in sign language translation researches, and at the same time entering discussions with inspiration in contemporary theories on the concept of "deconstruction" (DERRIDA, 2004 DERRIDA e ROUDINESCO, 2004 ARROJO, 1993, to reflect on some aspects concerning to the definition of the role and duties of translators and interpreters. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity.

  1. A pragmatic approach ensuring accuracy in language translation in tuberculosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Timothy W; Engova, Dita; Bates, Ian

    2008-12-01

    To research patient perceptions of medicines and illness in a multicultural setting, it is appropriate to translate research materials. However, the translation procedures should be valid and reliable to assure accuracy. To translate into 3 languages-Turkish, Urdu, and Bengali-a research questionnaire investigating illness and medicines perceptions of tuberculosis patients and to validate the translation. A 4-stage protocol for the translation and validation of research questionnaires investigating illness and medicines perceptions was designed and implemented. This involved forward and back-translation, group-validation, and post hoc conceptual equivalence rating in 3 different languages. The translation protocol was found to be very useful in identifying discrepancies between original and translated versions; a total of 83 amendments were required. Post hoc evaluations also demonstrated improvements for 2 of the 3 language translations. Some redundancy was apparent and an improved protocol was suggested by the authors. This study demonstrated that including a protocol for translation and validation of the translation is crucial to assure accuracy in multicultural research.

  2. [What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mićović, Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    What is translation--a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication) is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals) in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,...). Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors) standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  3. Intercultural language learning: cultural mediation within the curriculum of Translation and Interpreting studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Clouet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the interrelationship of languages and cultures in the process of learning/teaching English in Translation Faculties in Spain. The fact that languages cannot be separated from their social and cultural contexts of use is widely recognised nowadays. In addition, for the last decade, intercultural language learning has been highlighted as a main objective of language acquisition, the term “intercultural” implying a back-and-forth movement across languages and cultures, a development of an understanding of one’s own language and culture in relation to a second one. Building on a comprehensive review of the literature in the field of culture in language teaching, intercultural competence, and intercultural learning and teaching, the present paper aims at providing a framework for designing a curriculum for intercultural language learning and cultural mediation in Translation Faculties in Spain.

  4. INDIVIDUAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TRANSLATING AS A LANGUAGE ABILITIES COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ya Bolshunova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the differential-psychological aspect of translating abilities as a component of language abilities. The peculiarity of translation is described including both linguistic and paralinguistic aspects of translating a content and a sense from one language into another accompanied by linguistic and cognitive actions. A variety of individual and psychological peculiarities of translation based on the translation dominant were revealed. It was demonstrated that these peculiarities are relevant to communicative and linguistic types of language abilities discovered byM.K. Kabardov. Valid assessment methods such as M.N. Borisova’s test for investigation “artistic” and “thinking” types of Higher Nervous Activity (HNA, D. Wechsler’ test of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, and a test developed by the authors of the article for individual specificity of interpreter’s activity as communicative and linguistic types of translating abilities assessment were used. The results suggest that all the typological differences are based on special human types of HNA. Subjects displaying the “thinking” type use linguistic methods when translating, whereas subjects displaying the “artistic” type try to use their own subjective life experience and extralinguistic methods when translating foreign language constructions. Extreme subjects of both types try to use the most developed components of their special abilities in order to compensate the components of the other type which are not well developed to accomplish some language tasks. In this case subjects of both types can fulfill these tasks rather successfully.

  5. Prepositional phrases with verba dicendi from Dalmatin's translation of the Bible (1584 in relation to foreign language translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Orel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In a diachronic perspective from the 16th century to the present, this article inves­ tigates translated interlinguistic agreement and difference in the use of the temporally marked Slovenian prepositional phrases that appeared in the semantic group of verba dicendi in the first two books of the Old Testament and the New Testament of the old­ est Slovenian translation of the Bible, from 1584, and that were replaced in the mod­ em literary language in the 19th century by the introduction of prepositionless or other prepositional patterns. A comparison is made on the basis of Internet publications of parallel sections of six foreign language translations (Latin, German, two English [17th century and modem], French and Russian, and the extent to which these preposition­ al phrases are covered by older or modem literary Slovenian syntactic patterns is deter­ mined .

  6. Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for Foreign Language and Speech Translation Technologies in a Coalition Military Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall, Susan L

    2005-01-01

    .... It pursues this goal by introducing the human language translation problem followed by nine characteristic descriptors of ALT technology devices to provide a basic comparison framework of existing technologies...

  7. Sociolinguistic Aspects of the First Translations of the Bible into the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kravetsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first translations of the New Testament into the Russian language, which were carried out at the beginning of the 19th century, are usually regarded as a missionary project. But the language of these translations may prove that they were addressed to a rather narrow audience. As is known, the Russian Bible Society established in 1812 began its activities not with translations into Russian but with the mass edition of the Church Slavonic text of the Bible. In other words, it was the Church Slavonic Bible that was initially taken as the “Russian” Bible. Such a perception correlated with the sociolinguistic situation of that period, when, among the literate country and town dwellers, people learned grammar according to practices dating back to Medieval Rus’, which meant learning by heart the Church Slavonic alphabet, the Book of Hours, and the Book of Psalms; these readers were in the majority, and they could understand the Church Slavonic Bible much better than they could a Russian-language version. That is why the main audience for the “Russian” Bible was the educated classes who read the Bible in European languages, not in Russian. The numbers of targeted readers for the Russian-language translation of the Bible were significantly lower than those for the Church Slavonic version. The ideas of the “language innovators” (who favored using Russian as a basis for a new national language thus appeared to be closer to the approach taken by the Bible translators than the ideas of “the upholders of the archaic tradition” (who favored using the vocabulary and forms of Church Slavonic as their basis. The language into which the New Testament was translated moved ahead of the literary standard of that period, and that was one of the reasons why the work on the translation of the Bible into the Russian language was halted.

  8. Der Uebersetzungsvergleich und seine Rolle im Zweitsprachenunterricht (Translation Comparison: Its Role in Second Language Teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, Karl J.

    1980-01-01

    In comparing original text and translation, the teaching goal should be the comparison of alternative forms and structures, in the native and the target language. Specific problems in translating jokes and comic strips are examined. Suggestions are given for dealing with morphology, syntax, and semantics. (IFS/WGA)

  9. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  10. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  11. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  12. TRANSLATION ACQUISITION, TRANSLATION COMPERISON AND IST USAGE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COURSES UBERSETZUNGSFERTIGKEIT, UBERSETZUNGSVERGLEICH UND IHRE ANWENDUNG IM FREMDSPRACHENUNTERRICHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Zeki KARAKAYA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to enlighten the definition of translation acquisition, the differentiation from language acquisition by comparing translations of two authors having translation acquisition in different levels and through using these differences how can it be used in language teaching.In the first section, translation acquisition issue has been accentuated; by giving place to the definitions of different Scientifics a general survey about translation acquisition has been elicited. Moreover, in this section, in order to see how translation acquisition will be differentiated from language acquisition and bring out the difference; an application has been conducted on Students and the results have been ascertained.As it is known, translation comparison is a appliance for bringing in language teaching, comparative linguistics, comparative graphology, translation criticism and translation acquisition. However, in this study it has been tried out representing some suggestions and examples about translation on the subject of how can be benefited only in language teaching with translation comparison which is one of the medium of methodology. In the study comparative translation method has been applied and examples and suggestions about its functions on language teaching have been presented. Bu çalışmanın amacı çeviri edincinin tanımına, dil edincinden ayrışımına, farklı düzeylerde çeviri edincine sahip iki yazarın çevirilerinin karşılaştırılmasıyla bu farklılıklardan yararlanarak nasıl dil öğretiminde kullanılabileceğine ışık tutmaktır.İlk bölümde çeviri edinci konusu üzerine durulmuş, farklı bilim adamlarının tanımlarını yer vererek, çeviri edincine yönelik genel bir bakış sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu bölümde çeviri edincinin dil edincinden nasıl ayırt edileceğini görmek, aradaki farkı göz önüne sermek için öğrencilerle uygulama yapılmış ve sonuçları tespit edilmi

  13. Left Dislocation and its translation in some Germanic languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrason, A, Dr

    In terms of the theoretical framework of an influential recent model of Bible translation, Left. Dislocation (=LD) can be .... its practical value in a major current translation of the Bible in Afrikaans.9 However, Gutt provides little insight into the ..... NBV which reflect some sort of shift from vs.22–26 to vs. 27). Only in the DBV a ...

  14. The Difficulty of Translation: Decoding Cultural Signs in Other Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netley, Noriko Shimoda

    1992-01-01

    Describes how the Japanese translation of Roald Dahl's novel, "Matilda," shifts the literal and cultural meanings of the text. Compares and contrasts the styles and narrative voices of the English and Japanese versions. Argues for the difficulty of translating cultural codes. (HB)

  15. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  16. SHAKESPEARE IN THREE LANGUAGES READING AND ANALYZING SONNET 130 AND ITS TRANSLATIONS IN LIGHT OF SEMIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sündüz ÖZTÜRK KASAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the literary genres, poetry is the one that resists translation the most. Creating a new and innovative language that breaks the usual rules of the standard language with brand-new uses and meanings is probably one of the most important goals of the poet. Poetry challenges the translator to capture not only original images, exceptional symbolism, and subjective connotations but also its musicality, rhythm, and measure. Faced with this revolutionary use of language, the translator needs a guide so as to not get lost in the labyrinths of the poetic universe. The universe of sound and meaning unique to each language and the incompatibility of these languages with each other makes the duty of the translator seem impossible. At this point, semiotics may function as a guide, opening up the mysteries of the universe built by the poet and giving clues as to how it can be conveyed in the target language. This allows us to suggest the cooperation of semiotics and translation. From this perspective, we aim to present a case study that exemplifies this cooperation. Our corpus comprises Shakespeare’s sonnet 130 and its Turkish and French translations. The study treats the translator as the receiver of the source text and the producer of the target text in the light of the Theory of Instances of Enunciation propounded by Jean-Claude Coquet. Further, through the Systematics of Designificative Tendencies propounded by Sündüz Öztürk Kasar, the study compares the translators’ creations to the original sonnet to see the extent to which the balance of the original text’s meaning and form is preserved in the translations and how skillfully and competently the signs that constitute the universe of meaning are transmitted in the target languages.

  17. Language Labs and Translation Booths: Simultaneous Interpretation as a Learner Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Sane M.

    2000-01-01

    Reports successful outcomes for a Teaching English as a Foreign Language module based on simultaneous oral translation from Arabic into English. Learners worked individually in a traditional language laboratory. Results show that simultaneous interpretation significantly improves learner performance and is an excellent tool for diagnosing learner…

  18. Web-Based Machine Translation as a Tool for Promoting Electronic Literacy and Language Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses a pervasive problem of concern to teachers of many foreign languages: the use of Web-Based Machine Translation (WBMT) by students who do not understand the complexities of this relatively new tool. Although networked technologies have greatly increased access to many language and communication tools, WBMT is still…

  19. "Traduction" et didactique des langues ("Translation" and Language-Teaching Methodology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1975-01-01

    Attempts, through clarification of the term "translation," to define and put in place, from a methodological point of view, the latent tendency to reach back to the native language system, and its effect on the learning of the target language. (Text is in French.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Crawl and crowd to bring machine translation to under-resourced languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toral Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We present a widely applicable methodology to bring machine translation (MT) to under-resourced languages in a cost-effective and rapid manner. Our proposal relies on web crawling to automatically acquire parallel data to train statistical MT systems if any such data can be found for the language

  1. Pakistani Government Secondary Schools Students' Attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching and Grammar Translation in Quetta, Balochistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards an English language teaching approach play an important role for its implementation success or failure. This study measured Pakistani government school students' attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation (GT). A survey instrument was used to assess students' attitudes. Data were…

  2. Translated Versions of Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-30 across Languages: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEIFPANAHI, Sadegh; JALAIE, Shohreh; NIKOO, Mohammad Reza; SOBHANI-RAD, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this systematic review, the aim is to investigate different VHI-30 versions between languages regarding their validity, reliability and their translation process. Methods: Articles were extracted systematically from some of the prime databases including Cochrane, googlescholar, MEDLINE (via PubMed gate), Sciencedirect, Web of science, and their reference lists by Voice Handicap Index keyword with only title limitation and time of publication (from 1997 to 2014). However the other limitations (e.g. excluding non-English, other versions of VHI ones, and so on) applied manually after studying the papers. In order to appraise the methodology of the papers, three authors did it by 12-item diagnostic test checklist in “Critical Appraisal Skills Programme” or (CASP) site. After applying all of the screenings, the papers that had the study eligibility criteria such as; translation, validity, and reliability processes, included in this review. Results: The remained non-repeated articles were 12 from different languages. All of them reported validity, reliability and translation method, which presented in details in this review. Conclusion: Mainly the preferred method for translation in the gathered papers was “Brislin’s classic back-translation model (1970), although the procedure was not performed completely but it was more prominent than other translation procedures. High test-retest reliability, internal consistency and moderate construct validity between different languages in regards to all 3 VHI-30 domains confirm the applicability of translated VHI-30 version across languages. PMID:26056664

  3. Translating genetics leaflets into languages other than English: lessons from an assessment of Urdu materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2004-08-01

    Genetic counselors frequently counsel clients whose first language is not English, relying on interpreters and on supplementary translated written material. This paper highlights factors that counselors need to consider before using or commissioning translated leaflets. It is based on an assessment of leaflets translated into Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, which are available through U.K. genetics clinics for use with Pakistani-origin clients. The 2 authors, who know Urdu as their 2nd and 1st languages respectively, independently read each leaflet, checking for accuracy of information, ease of reading and understanding, cultural sensitivity, and contact details for Urdu-speaking professionals. There were factual errors and confusing or very difficult text in all leaflets; some leaflets also contained culturally insensitive messages that could alienate users of genetics services. The paper discusses the reasons for these pitfalls and makes recommendations to guide the future production of translated genetics leaflets.

  4. Some considerations over the use of translation in teaching and learning Italian as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Paleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the translation has not been recommended and has even been banned in language teaching and learning. Recently, it seems to regain some success at this field. In this article we briefly analyze how the role of this technique has changed throughout the years within the major language teaching theories so as to get to the reasons for its reassessment we can observe nowadays. Finally, we present some considerations on how we can use activities based on translation in the classroom with a particular regard to Italian language teaching to adult learners who are native speakers of Polish.

  5. Sign Language Translation in State Administration in Germany: Barrier Free Web Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lišková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe Web accessibility in state administration in the Federal Republic of Germany in relation to the socio-demographic group of deaf sign language users who did not have the opportunity to gain proper knowledge of a written form of the German language. The demand of the Deaf to information in an accessible form as based on legal documents is presented in relation to the theory of translation. How translating from written texts into sign language works in pract...

  6. Word translation at three levels of proficiency in a second language: the ubiquitous involvement of conceptual memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Poot, R.

    1997-01-01

    Three groups of 20 unbalanced bilinguals, different from one another in second language (L2) fluency, translated one set of words from L1, Dutch, to L2, English (forward translation), and a second set of matched words from L2 to L1 (backward translation). In both language sets we orthogonally

  7. Reading and American Sign Language: Strategies for Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Kim

    1999-01-01

    A hearing teacher for whom American Sign Language is a second language identifies nine strategies developed for reading and telling stories to deaf children. These include: ask obvious questions related to the story, portray written dialog as conversation, emphasize points by saying the same thing with different signs, and adapt the story to…

  8. Rethinking translation in language teaching: a needs assessment to prepare curriculum guidelines specific for the translation course at YADIM, Çukurova University

    OpenAIRE

    Şat, Figen

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 109-111. The role of translation in language teaching has long been questioned; it has alternatively been encouraged or restricted. Recently educators and methodologists have expressed their doubts about ignoring the role of translation in language teaching and have suggested use of translation at all stages, par...

  9. Finding Translation Examples for Under-Resourced Language Pairs or for Narrow Domains; the Case for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyberspace is populated with valuable information sources, expressed in about 1500 different languages and dialects. Yet, for the vast majority of WEB surfers this wealth of information is practically inaccessible or meaningless. Recent advancements in cross-lingual information retrieval, multilingual summarization, cross-lingual question answering and machine translation promise to narrow the linguistic gaps and lower the communication barriers between humans and/or software agents. Most of these language technologies are based on statistical machine learning techniques which require large volumes of cross lingual data. The most adequate type of cross-lingual data is represented by parallel corpora, collection of reciprocal translations. However, it is not easy to find enough parallel data for any language pair might be of interest. When required parallel data refers to specialized (narrow domains, the scarcity of data becomes even more acute. Intelligent information extraction techniques from comparable corpora provide one of the possible answers to this lack of translation data.

  10. Translation and adaptation of five English language self-report health measures to South Indian Kannada language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoorthi Thammaiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life – 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i forward translation; ii common translation synthesis; iii backward translation; iv expert committee review; v pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language.

  11. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life – 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language. PMID:27588165

  12. Dubbing Projects for the Language Learner: A Framework for Integrating Audiovisual Translation into Task-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a series of exploratory L1 to L2 dubbing projects for which students translated and used editing software to dub short American film and TV clips into their target language. Translating and dubbing into the target language involve students in multifaceted, high-level language production tasks that lead to enhanced vocabulary…

  13. Translating Biobank Science into Patient-Centered Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Marilyn E; Westfall, Noah; Zittleman, Linda; Taylor, Matthew; Westfall, John M

    2017-11-30

    This project used Boot Camp Translation (BCT) to translate the complex medical jargon of biobanking into locally relevant evidence-based messages and materials to support increased knowledge and understanding in the local community. Biobank BCT was a partnership of 16 community members and 5 academic researchers. The partnership met for 8 months. The partnership developed five main and seven submessages to assist patients and community members in making an informed decision about enrollment in a biobank. The resulting messages balance an individual's right to privacy and choice, while encouraging participation for the greater good.

  14. Translation between written spanish and video-recorded uruguayan sign language: a new challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Peluso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of deferred textuality which is more comprehensive than writing, as it allows the inclusion of sign language video-recordings. If one considers that sign language video-recordings are deferred textuality, it can also be argued that a literate culture can be developed around them, understood as the culture built around deferred textuality and the social and institutional practices they spawn. From this idea, I will show that the translation between oral languages written texts and sign languages video-recorded texts is also possible. I will also point out that, in the case of Uruguay and its sign language (LSU, this kind or translation is imperative in front of an increasingly demanding Deaf Community, occupying new social spaces.

  15. Translation between written spanish and video-recorded uruguayan sign language: a new challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Peluso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of deferred textuality which is more comprehensive than writing, as it allows the inclusion of sign language video-recordings. If one considers that  sign language video-recordings are deferred textuality, it can also be argued that  a literate culture can be developed around them, understood as the culture built around deferred textuality and the social and institutional practices they spawn. From this idea, I will show that the translation between oral languages written texts and sign languages video-recorded texts is also possible. I will also point out that, in the case of Uruguay and its sign language (LSU, this kind or translation is imperative in front of an increasingly demanding Deaf Community, occupying new social spaces.

  16. Lost in translation: impact of language barriers on children's healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Pratichi K

    2016-10-01

    As the cultural and linguistic diversity of the United States grows, a greater number of patients with limited English proficiency will enter the healthcare system. Best practices for the care of these individuals include identification of their language assistance needs and prompt provision of interpreter services. This review will summarize the legal basis for providing language access in the healthcare setting, discuss the impact of interpretation services on clinical care, and explore the effects of language barriers on health outcomes. There has been greater awareness of language as an important and independent determinant in the racial and ethnic disparities that exist in healthcare. Studies have shown that there is suboptimal identification of patients who require linguistic assistance and, as such, there are missed opportunities to bridge language gaps with many of our patients. The lack of interpretation, or use of informal, untrained interpreters, has significant effects on patient safety, quality of care, and patient satisfaction. Though federal and regulatory guidelines mandate meaningful access to language services, such processes are still a work in progress in many healthcare settings. Further research and quality improvement initiatives are needed to provide clinicians the knowledge and skills needed to effectively communicate with their limited English proficient patients.

  17. An international language: The Translation and Interpretation Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikonomou, Haakon

    2017-01-01

    the viewers to all the aspects of the Secretariat, gives the Translation and Interpretation Service a rather prominent place as the first in line. And no wonder: for it was one of the peculiar procurements of the Secretariat – indeed, one of the features that made it international in all its doings....

  18. Machine Translation As a Tool in Second Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Don D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of Computronics Corporations'"Targumatic" (Hebrew into English), a PC-based machine translation system running under DOS, and shows how each problem and potential obstruction to learning can be overcome through discovery procedures using a set of tools and procedures called the "learning algorithm." (22…

  19. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  20. Lost (and Found) in Translation: Learning from German Language Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay introduces two presentations (or "Vorträge") by Ulf Abraham and Thomas Zabka that were originally published in the German journal, "Didaktik Deutsch." I reflect on the complexities of translation and intercultural communication, and ask how we might meaningfully compare the policy environment of one country with that…

  1. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md. Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. Methods The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The transl...

  2. Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages: A study of the Holy Bible translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Jamaati, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages, for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. All studied languages in some families have Zipf's exponent lower/higher than unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent. The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language, but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.

  3. Translating processes and elementary writing in German as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first results of a qualitative research study on writing in a foreign language with the help of Google Translator. It examines the processes of  the construction of verbal and discursive forms during group discussion on the translation of a tourist website structures ensuing from a tourist website const. This study took place in the 2013/2014 academic year, and it was based on a video recording of about 12 hours of group work by 16 students while planning and producing a draft of the German translation of the homepage of an Italian tourist site. This study highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the use of an online translation resource by students with basic knowledge of a foreign language.

  4. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  5. Between-language repetition priming in antonym generation: evidence that translation-equivalent adjectives have shared conceptual representations across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Randolph S; Francis, Wendy S

    2017-03-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated conceptual repetition priming across languages in bilinguals. This between-language priming effect is taken as evidence that translation equivalents have shared conceptual representations across languages. However, the vast majority of this research has been conducted using only concrete nouns as stimuli. The present experiment examined conceptual repetition priming within and between languages in adjectives, a part of speech not previously investigated in studies of bilingual conceptual representation. The participants were 100 Spanish-English bilinguals who had regular exposure to both languages. At encoding, participants performed a shallow processing task and a deep-processing task on English and Spanish adjectives. At test, they performed an antonym-generation task in English, in which the target responses were either adjectives presented at encoding or control adjectives not previously presented. The measure of priming was the response time advantage for producing repeated adjectives relative to control adjectives. Significant repetition priming was observed both within and between languages under deep, but not shallow, encoding conditions. The results indicate that the conceptual representations of adjective translation equivalents are shared across languages.

  6. Original Article : Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Masudur Rahman; ; Uday C Ghoshal; A H M Rowshon; Faruque Ahmed; Md Golam Kibria; Mahmud Hasan; Kok-ann Gwee; William E Whitehead

    2016-01-01

    .... As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language...

  7. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-01-01

    .... As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language...

  8. The Si's and Nein's of Computer-Aided Language Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is an American invention, and though it has spread around the world, the bulk of the communication conducted through it is still in English. Even so, depending on what one is searching for, he/she can come across web pages, blogs, and other content in many other languages. To deal with this multilingualism, various free…

  9. Incremental Syntactic Language Models for Phrase-Based Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cocke and Jacob Schwartz. 1970. Program- ming languages and their compilers. Technical report, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York...Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran, Richard Zens, Chris Dyer, Ondrej Bojar, Alexandra Con- stantin, and Evan Herbst. 2007

  10. Translating Message Sequence Charts to other Process Languages using Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van Dongen, Boudewijn F.

    2008-01-01

    Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are a well known language for speci- fying scenarios that describe how different actors (e.g., system components, people, or organizations) interact. MSCs are often used as a starting point for software analysts to discuss the behavior of a system with different...

  11. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  12. From English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian: extending research visibility with language translations of a conference slide presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Hoffecker, PhD, MLS

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.

  13. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  14. Translation of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire to an Indian language: A description of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, Shoba Sreenath; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Seshadri, Shekar P; Philip, Mariamma; Shivashankar, N; Morgan, Parlier; Piven, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) which is a reliable, efficient and easy to administer instrument is used to assess the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). In order to understand cross cultural perspectives using this instrument, a key process is translation of the instrument. The process of translation is often overlooked and hence the quality of the translated instrument may suffer. This paper highlights the robust process adopted for translating the BAPQ into one of the Indian languages - Kannada, using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. The translated instrument was tested on a pilot sample of parents of 10 children with ASD and parents of 11 typically developing children. The results are in congruence with the published literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Humor as a pedagogical tool in foreign language and translation courses

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, JR

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the presentation and study of humor should be an important component in foreign language and translation courses. The use of humor in language courses, in addition to making classes more enjoyable, can contribute to improving students' proficiency. Humor is useful for the development of listening comprehension and reading. An analysis of the vast bibliography on humorology has led to the organization of humorous discourse into three groups: (i) universal or reality-...

  16. Translation of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) to Norwegian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råholm, Maj-Britt; Thorkildsen, Kari; Löfmark, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The translation and adaptation of English instruments to be used with populations speaking other languages is an important and complex process which is attracting increased attention in nursing and health-related research. The aim of this article is to describe the translation process of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) for testing in Norway. The instrument is a 28-item-questionnaire with a Likert-type (1-5) scale ranging from the descriptions "strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5)". The aim of the instrument is to measure the efficiency of, and satisfaction with the supervision received from the nurse students' perspective. The NCFQ questionnaire was translated in six phases. The translation process was conducted systematically by applying the three methods described in the literature: the methods of forward-translation, back-translation and comparison followed by an empirical study (pilot test). The methods were chosen to test the quality of translation, establish semantic equivalence of the translated instrument and to estimate the cross-cultural relevance of the instrument. The translation process has given prerequisites to use the NCFQ questionnaire in a larger study and a possibility to compare different models for supervision of nursing students in the clinical part of their education. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales for Users of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samady, Waheeda; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Nakaji, Melanie; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Trybus, Raymond; Athale, Ninad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales into American Sign Language (ASL). Translation is an essential first step toward validating the instrument for use in the Deaf community, a commonly overlooked minority community. This translated MHLC/ASL can be utilized by public health nurses researching the Deaf community to create and evaluate targeted health interventions. It can be used in clinical settings to guide the context of the provider-patient dialogue. The MHLC was translated using focus groups, following recommended procedures. Five bilingual participants translated the MHLC into ASL; five others back-translated the ASL version into English. Both focus groups identified and addressed language and cultural problems before the final ASL version of the MHLC was permanently captured on by motion picture photography for consistent administration. Nine of the 24 items were directly translatable into ASL. The remaining items required further discussion to achieve cultural equivalence with ASL expressions. The MHLC/ASL is now ready for validation within the Deaf community. PMID:18816365

  18. Translation of the multidimensional health locus of control scales for users of American sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samady, Waheeda; Samady, Waheedy; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Nakaji, Melanie; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Trybus, Raymond; Athale, Ninad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales into American Sign Language (ASL). Translation is an essential first step toward validating the instrument for use in the Deaf community, a commonly overlooked minority community. This translated MHLC/ASL can be utilized by public health nurses researching the Deaf community to create and evaluate targeted health interventions. It can be used in clinical settings to guide the context of the provider-patient dialogue. The MHLC was translated using focus groups, following recommended procedures. 5 bilingual participants translated the MHLC into ASL; 5 others back-translated the ASL version into English. Both focus groups identified and addressed language and cultural problems before the final ASL version of the MHLC was permanently captured by motion picture photography for consistent administration. Nine of the 24 items were directly translatable into ASL. The remaining items required further discussion to achieve cultural equivalence with ASL expressions. The MHLC/ASL is now ready for validation within the Deaf community.

  19. Foreign language translation of chemical nomenclature by computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Roger

    2009-03-01

    Chemical compound names remain the primary method for conveying molecular structures between chemists and researchers. In research articles, patents, chemical catalogues, government legislation, and textbooks, the use of IUPAC and traditional compound names is universal, despite efforts to introduce more machine-friendly representations such as identifiers and line notations. Fortunately, advances in computing power now allow chemical names to be parsed and generated (read and written) with almost the same ease as conventional connection tables. A significant complication, however, is that although the vast majority of chemistry uses English nomenclature, a significant fraction is in other languages. This complicates the task of filing and analyzing chemical patents, purchasing from compound vendors, and text mining research articles or Web pages. We describe some issues with manipulating chemical names in various languages, including British, American, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Polish, and Hungarian, and describe the current state-of-the-art in software tools to simplify the process.

  20. Translation from the Classical Languages in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system, the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the 1860s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna (Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc.. More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The first longer classical texts published in Slovene were individual books of the Homeric epics, Xenophon’s Memorabilia, Plato’s dialogues Apology and Crito, Virgil's Georgics, and Sophocles' Ajax (the complete Bible, of course, had been translated much earlier, but it holds a special place in the history of translation. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers . Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical-language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds (the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages, particularly Slavic ones. A noteworthy example of these unpublished translations is Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as prepared by the Franciscan Ladislav Hrovat. From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority.

  1. Translation in the Teaching of a Foreign Language As a Means and As an End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmin Suparmin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the history of foreign language teaching translation has alternately been praised and condemned. Unfortunately, the praise and condemnation were based on a rather simplistic, biased, and extreme view of the role of translation. In this view no clear, explicit distinction was made between translation as a means and as an end although in practice people already showed a tendency to be more concerned with one aspect than the other. Moreover, in their treatment of translation people tended to take an "either ... or ..." position. Either take it or leave it. This paper proposes a more explicit, balanced, and moderate attitude towards translation and its two aspects. It is suggested that a clear distinction be made between translation as a means and as an end and that each be treated accordingly in a better programmed way. The treatment should consider the level of instruction. At the beginning level translation should be treated more as a means than as an end. Gradually, as the level of instruction progresses the role of translation as a means is reduced, while its role as an end is increased so that at the more advanced levels translation will be treated more as an end than as a means. Accordingly, translation should not be totally abandoned or too liberally used. However, the use and disuse should be based on a careful and well-prepared program. In line with the idea that translation be treated as an end at the more advanced level, and considering its importance for a developing nation, it is also proposed here that translating be adopted as a "fifth skill" to be pursued

  2. Translation in the Teaching of a Foreign Language As a Means and As an End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmin Suparmin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of foreign language teaching translation has alternately been praised and condemned. Unfortunately, the praise and condemnation were based on a rather simplistic, biased, and extreme view of the role of translation. In this view no clear, explicit distinction was made between translation as a means and as an end although in practice people already showed a tendency to be more concerned with one aspect than the other. Moreover, in their treatment of translation people tended to take an “either … or …” position. Either take it or leave it. This paper proposes a more explicit, balanced, and moderate attitude towards translation and its two aspects. It is suggested that a clear distinction be made between translation as a means and as an end and that each be treated accordingly in a better programmed way. The treatment should consider the level of instruction. At the beginning level translation should be treated more as a means than as an end. Gradually, as the level of instruction progresses the role of translation as a means is reduced, while its role as an end is increased so that at the more advanced levels translation will be treated more as an end than as a means. Accordingly, translation should not be totally abandoned or too liberally used. However, the use and disuse should be based on a careful and well-prepared program. In line with the idea that translation be treated as an end at the more advanced level, and considering its importance for a developing nation, it is also proposed here that translating be adopted as a “fifth skill” to be pursued.

  3. WTF! Taboo Language in TV Series: An Analysis of Professional and Amateur Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micòl Beseghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the topic of censorship associated with the use of strong language and swear words in the translation of contemporary American TV series. In AVT, more specifically in Italian dubbing, the practice of censorship, in the form of suppression or toning down of what might be perceived as offensive, disturbing, too explicit or inconvenient, still remains a problematic issue. By focusing on two recent successful TV series - Girls and Orange is the New Black – which are characterized by the use of strong language (swear words, politically incorrect references and the presence of taboo subjects (homosexuality, sex, drugs, violence – this study will consider the different translation choices applied in dubbing and fansubbing. Previous academic studies have underlined the fact that professional translators tend to remove, more or less consciously, the disturbing elements from the source text, while fansubbers try to adhere as much as possible to the original text, not only in terms of linguistic contents but also in terms of register and style. The results of this analysis seem on the one hand to confirm that there is still not a systematic set of rules that govern the translation of strong language in dubbing, and on the other to indicate that the gap between professional and amateur translation is perhaps becoming less pronounced.

  4. Use of free on-line machine translation for interactive cross-language question answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zazo Rodríguez, Ángel Francisco; Figuerola, Carlos G.; Alonso Berrocal, José Luis; Fernández Marcial, Viviana

    2006-01-01

    Free on-line machine translation systems are employed moreand more by Internet users. In this paper we have explored the use of these systems for Cross-Language Question Answering, in two aspects:in the formulation of queries and in the presentation of information. Two topic-document language pairs were used, Spanish-English and Spanish-French. For each of these, two groups of users were created, depending on the level of reading skills in document language. When machine translationof the que...

  5. African Language Publishing for Children in South Africa: Challenges for Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Viv; Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2011-01-01

    The commitment to multilingualism embedded in the 1996 South African Constitution has wide ranging implications for many aspects of education. This paper focuses on the dearth of teaching and learning materials in African languages required to deliver effective bilingual education, and on the potential role of translation in offering solutions for…

  6. Dependency-Based Bilingual Language Models for Reordering in Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garmash, E.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to improve reordering in phrase-based machine translation by using richer, syntactic representations of units of bilingual language models (BiLMs). Our method to include syntactic information is simple in implementation and requires minimal changes in the

  7. Rendering of Foreign Language Inclusions in the Russian Translations of the Novels by Graham Greene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Martynova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the problem under discussion is preconditioned by the scientific inquiry of the best variants of foreign language inclusions translation which would suite original narration in the source text stylistically, emotionally and conceptually and also fully projects the author's communicative intention in every particular case. The…

  8. A Translation and Interpreting Primer for Foreign Language PhDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew Steven

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates the possibilities that accrue through development of a dual professional life in college-level teaching and translating. In addition to encouraging those with academic training to look for intellectual satisfaction in the field associated with language and literature, the article offers a wealth of information on training,…

  9. Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautin, Harvey

    This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…

  10. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  11. Setting Learning Objectives in Translation at the Department of Foreign Language Teaching through the Concept of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    At the department of foreign language teaching, a variety of courses are offered in order for students to acquire translation competence. The courses are often carried out by translating a text from one language into the other. Learning by experience is an effective approach. However, it is inevitable that there are some aspects that we need to…

  12. Reading Parallel Texts in the Target Language: A Way to Improve Literary Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shadman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of reading Persian literary texts on the quality of literary translations. To this end, 52 students majoring in English translation were randomly assigned to two groups. A Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT was administered to check the homogeneity of the participants. The treatment for the experimental group consisted of reading 60 Persian short stories and poems. In the meantime, the control group went through their ordinary course curriculum. Both groups were asked to translate extracts of two short stories. The translations were then rated. Through statistical analysis, it was revealed that reading Persian literary works, indeed, improves the quality of literary translations. Therefore, to promote a more fruitful instruction on literary translation, it is suggested that translation teachers attempt to consider reading Persian literary works as part of the curriculum and ask students to read Persian texts to the extent possible, so that more qualified translations would be rendered in the area of literature.

  13. Preparing technical text for translation: A comparison between International English and methods for simplifying language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, I.; Hriscu, V.; Amador, M.

    1994-07-01

    For the past four and a half years, the International Communication Committee at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a set of guidelines for writing technical and scientific documents in International English, that is, English for those whose native language is not English. Originally designed for documents intended for presentation in English to an international audience of technical experts, the International English guidelines apply equally well to the preparation of English text for translation. This is the second workshop in a series devoted to the topic of translation. The authors focus on the advantages of using International English, rather than various methods of simplifying language, to prepare scientific and technical text for translation.

  14. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  15. SNOMED CT in a language isolate: an algorithm for a semiautomatic translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is officially released in English and Spanish. In the Basque Autonomous Community two languages, Spanish and Basque, are official. The first attempt to semi-automatically translate the SNOMED CT terminology content to Basque, a less resourced language is presented in this paper. Methods A translation algorithm that has its basis in Natural Language Processing methods has been designed and partially implemented. The algorithm comprises four phases from which the first two have been implemented and quantitatively evaluated. Results Results are promising as we obtained the equivalents in Basque of 21.41% of the disorder terms of the English SNOMED CT release. As the methods developed are focused on that hierarchy, the results in other hierarchies are lower (12.57% for body structure descriptions, 8.80% for findings and 3% for procedures). Conclusions We are in the way to reach two of our objectives when translating SNOMED CT to Basque: to use our language to access rich multilingual resources and to strengthen the use of the Basque language in the biomedical area. PMID:26100112

  16. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca’s area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1, whereas the other brain regions of the control network showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2 translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  17. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the “control network” showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation. PMID:27746729

  18. Using Cognitive Interviews to Evaluate the Spanish-Language Translation of Dietary Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Levin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a qualitative evaluation of the Spanish-language version of a dietary intake questionnaire and characterize the types of findings which emerged from several rounds of cognitive testing. Cognitive interviews were used to test the Spanish translation of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS Cancer Control Supplement dietary questions, with 36 Spanish-speaking and 9 English-speaking participants. Analyses of the results identified (a translation issues, (b culture-specific issues, and (c general design issues that affected both English and Spanish speakers. Results indicated that general design-oriented difficulties were particularly frequent. Our findings suggest that when appropriately structured, cognitive interviews that feature flexible probing can be useful for identifying a range of problems in survey translations, even after translations have been developed using currently accepted methods. We make several recommendations concerning practices that may be optimal in the conduct of empirical cross-cultural questionnaire evaluations.

  19. [Morse Fall Scale: translation and transcultural adaptation for the Portuguese language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Urbanetto, Janete Souza; Creutzberg, Marion; Franz, Flávia; Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; da Gustavo, Andreia Silva; Bittencourt, Hélio Radke; Steinmetz, Quézia Lidiane; Farina, Veronica Alacarini

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to translate and adapt the Morse Fall Scale from English into the Portuguese language. This was performed in seven steps: authorization by the author of the scale; translation into Portuguese; evaluation and structuring of the translated scale; reverse translation into English; evaluation and validation of the scale by a committee of experts; evaluation of clarity of items and operational definitions with 45 professionals; evaluation of agreement between raters and the reliability of reproducibility, related to data from the evaluation of 90 patients, performed by four evaluators/judges. The clarity of the scale was considered very satisfactory, with a confidence interval of 73.0% to 100% in the option very clear. For the concordance of responses, the results showed Kappa coefficients of approximately 0.80 or higher. It was concluded that the adaptation of the scale was successful, indicating that its use is appropriate for the population of Brazilian patients.

  20. Assessment of Temperament in Children: Translation of Instruments to Portuguese (Brazil Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Caroline Klein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International research has increasingly considered temperament as a relevant personal variable in child developmental pathways. The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology for translation to Portuguese (Brazil of three child temperament assessment instruments based on Rothbart´s theoretical approach. An original translation was modified, based on feedback by two professional translators, three bilingual psychologists, and a sample of 15 Brazilian mothers. A backtranslation by a professional translator was then assessed by the authors of the original (English language instruments. For the final version of the measure, authors of the original instrument judged that 100% of items were consistent with the original items, and a second sample of 15 Brazilian mothers identified no problems with the Portuguese items.

  1. Translating medical documents into plain language enhances communication skills in medical students--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (planguage translation of a medical report they scored significantly higher with respect to communicative aspects (planguage under near-peer supervision is associated with improved communication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  3. Discovery learning in the language-for-translation classroom: corpora as learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bernardini

    2016-04-01

    This contribution reviews the idea of discovery learning with corpora, proposed in the 1990s, evaluating its potential and its implications with reference to the education of translators today. The rationale behind this approach to data-driven learning, combining project-based and form-focused instruction within a socio-constructivistically inspired environment, is discussed. Examples are also provided of authentic, open-ended learning experiences, thanks to which students of translation share responsibility over the development of corpora and their consultation, and teachers can abandon the challenging role of omniscient knowledge providers and wear the more honest hat of "learning experts". Adding to the more straightforward uses of corpora in courses that aim to develop thematic, technological and information mining competences – i.e., in which training is offered in the use of corpora as professional aids –, attention is focused on foreign language teaching for translators and on corpora as learning aids, highlighting their potential for the development of the three other European Master's in Translation (EMT competences (translation service provision, language and intercultural ones.

  4. Translation and foreign language teaching, a theoretical and practical point of view: the italian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Di Sabato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the last century, translation employed as a tool for foreign language acquisition has suffered alternate fates. From being the approach, par excellence, employed in rote learning in the days of lexicogrammatical-translation methodology, it soon slipped into disuse (and disgrace with the advent of progressive communicative educational theories. Though never wholly absent in actual classroom practice and always present in the work of some bold scholars, it has recently been rehabilitated on the wave of studies regarding the use of the learners’ own language within the classroom, against the theoretical backdrop of research in the field of cross-lingual teaching, translanguaging and intercomprehension; all activities which recognize the fundamental role of the interlinguistic and intercultural component in language learning. This paper focuses on the Italian scenario, it traces the role translation has played and currently plays in the Italian foreign language university curricula and outlines the many benefits which can derive from its inclusive use as a learning technique in the light of contemporary didactic methodologies.

  5. An intuitive Python interface for Bioconductor libraries demonstrates the utility of language translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Laurent

    2010-12-21

    Computer languages can be domain-related, and in the case of multidisciplinary projects, knowledge of several languages will be needed in order to quickly implements ideas. Moreover, each computer language has relative strong points, making some languages better suited than others for a given task to be implemented. The Bioconductor project, based on the R language, has become a reference for the numerical processing and statistical analysis of data coming from high-throughput biological assays, providing a rich selection of methods and algorithms to the research community. At the same time, Python has matured as a rich and reliable language for the agile development of prototypes or final implementations, as well as for handling large data sets. The data structures and functions from Bioconductor can be exposed to Python as a regular library. This allows a fully transparent and native use of Bioconductor from Python, without one having to know the R language and with only a small community of translators required to know both. To demonstrate this, we have implemented such Python representations for key infrastructure packages in Bioconductor, letting a Python programmer handle annotation data, microarray data, and next-generation sequencing data. Bioconductor is now not solely reserved to R users. Building a Python application using Bioconductor functionality can be done just like if Bioconductor was a Python package. Moreover, similar principles can be applied to other languages and libraries. Our Python package is available at: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/rpy2-bioconductor-extensions/.

  6. Learning Morphological Normalization for Translation from and into Morphologically Rich Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlot Franck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When translating between a morphologically rich language (MRL and English, word forms in the MRL often encode grammatical information that is irrelevant with respect to English, leading to data sparsity issues. This problem can be mitigated by removing from the MRL irrelevant information through normalization. Such preprocessing is usually performed in a deterministic fashion, using hand-crafted rules and yielding suboptimal representations. We introduce here a simple way to automatically compute an appropriate normalization of the MRL and show that it can improve machine translation in both directions.

  7. Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Niamh; Bruen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on language teaching reveals predominantly negative attitudes towards the use of translation in language teaching (TILT) (Cook, 2010). The purpose of this article is to explore the question of whether this negativity is reflected in the attitudes and behaviours of university lecturers engaged in language teaching as well…

  8. V2S: Voice to Sign Language Translation System for Malaysian Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mean Foong, Oi; Low, Tang Jung; La, Wai Wan

    The process of learning and understand the sign language may be cumbersome to some, and therefore, this paper proposes a solution to this problem by providing a voice (English Language) to sign language translation system using Speech and Image processing technique. Speech processing which includes Speech Recognition is the study of recognizing the words being spoken, regardless of whom the speaker is. This project uses template-based recognition as the main approach in which the V2S system first needs to be trained with speech pattern based on some generic spectral parameter set. These spectral parameter set will then be stored as template in a database. The system will perform the recognition process through matching the parameter set of the input speech with the stored templates to finally display the sign language in video format. Empirical results show that the system has 80.3% recognition rate.

  9. The VHI-10 and VHI Item Reduction Translations-Are we all Speaking the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie L; Rosen, Clark A

    2017-03-01

    The Vocal Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) was designed as an item reduction of the original VHI to provide a quick, reliable, and quantifiable measure of patients' own vocal handicap perception. Many translations of the VHI-10 have been produced, but methodologies of translation vary between articles and do not always mirror that of the English VHI-10. This discrepancy leads to confusion about normative values and the applicability of published data in non-English-speaking cultures. This article examines the various item reductions of the VHI-10 from the VHI and the differing methodologies of translation of the VHI-10. This is an invited review article. Published item reductions and translations of the VHI-10 were reviewed. Normative values for each translation, where available, were calculated. The World Health Organization recommendations for the translation of instruments are reviewed. There are substantial differences between the original VHI-10 (created and published in American English) and many of the translations of the VHI-10 and other proposed item reductions, both in the actual questions used and the order of the questions. We have to conclude that for a number of the non-English VHI-10/VHI reductions, the instruments are not equivalent, meaning the results from different languages are not comparable. Our recommendation for future patient-reported instrument translations is to translate and validate the instrument according to the World Health Organization protocol while maintaining item consistency and order, allowing studies to be better focused and decrease unnecessary replication of well-performed studies, as well as allowing metadata to be combined from different countries and cultures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Xhosa language translation of the CORE-OM using South African university student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan M; Young, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students. Clinical and general samples were drawn from English-medium South African universities. Clinical samples were generated from university student counselling centres. General student samples were generated through random stratified cluster sampling of full-time university students. Qualitative feedback from the translation process and results from quantitative piloting of the 34-item CORE-OM English and Xhosa versions supported the reduction of the scale to 10 items. This reduced scale is referred to as the South African CORE-10 (SA CORE-10). A measurement and structural model of the SA CORE-10 English version was developed and cross-validated using an English-speaking university student sample. Equivalence of this model with the SA CORE-10 Xhosa version was investigated using a first-language Xhosa-speaking university sample. Partial measurement equivalence was achieved at the metric level. The resultant SA CORE-10 Xhosa and English versions provide core measures of distress and dysfunction. Additional, culture- and language-specific domains could be added to increase sensitivity and specificity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Translation and validation of chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) in Tamil language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Amit; Arivazhagan, Karunanithi; Sasi, Avani; Shanmugam, Vanathy; Koshi, Seleena; Pottakkat, Biju; Lakshmi, C P; Awasthi, Ashish

    2017-05-01

    Chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ), a self-administered quality-of-life (QOL) instrument for chronic liver disease (CLD) patients, was originally developed in English language. We aimed to translate and validate CLDQ in Tamil language (CLDQ-T). CLDQ-T, prepared by two forward and two backward independent translations by four bilingual (Tamil and English) persons, and repeated iterative modifications, was validated in adult, native-Tamil patients with CLD. CLDQ-T was re-tested in some patients 2 weeks later. Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman's correlation, and discriminant validity by comparison with World Health Organization's brief QOL tool (WHOQOL-BREF). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation). Cutoff used for statistical significance was p0.700 for individual domains. CLDQ-T was easily understood and showed good performance characteristics in assessing QOL in Tamil-speaking patients with CLD.

  12. MELT - a Translated Domain Specific Language Embedded in the GCC Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Starynkevitch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The GCC free compiler is a very large software, compiling source in several languages for many targets on various systems. It can be extended by plugins, which may take advantage of its power to provide extra specific functionality (warnings, optimizations, source refactoring or navigation by processing various GCC internal representations (Gimple, Tree, .... Writing plugins in C is a complex and time-consuming task, but customizing GCC by using an existing scripting language inside is impractical. We describe MELT, a specific Lisp-like DSL which fits well into existing GCC technology and offers high-level features (functional, object or reflexive programming, pattern matching. MELT is translated to C fitted for GCC internals and provides various features to facilitate this. This work shows that even huge, legacy, software can be a posteriori extended by specifically tailored and translated high-level DSLs.

  13. WTF! Taboo Language in TV Series: An Analysis of Professional and Amateur Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Micòl Beseghi

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the topic of censorship associated with the use of strong language and swear words in the translation of contemporary American TV series. In AVT, more specifically in Italian dubbing, the practice of censorship, in the form of suppression or toning down of what might be perceived as offensive, disturbing, too explicit or inconvenient, still remains a problematic issue. By focusing on two recent successful TV series - Girls and Orange is the New Black – which are characte...

  14. The problems of translation french medical terms – eponвms into ukrainian language

    OpenAIRE

    Tomka, Inna; Rak, Alexandr; Lekhkun, Gennadii

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the problems of translating French and German medical terms - eponyms into the Ukrainian language. There are different views of scientists about the advisability of using terms - eponyms. Analysis of terms - eponyms allowed to identify the most important lexical and semantic groups. The problems of the use of terms - eponyms in modern medical discourse are considered. In the future it is desirable to compile specialized dictionaries with medical terms - eponyms.

  15. The Universality of Tudor Arghezi’s Work: Translating the Renewed Language of Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirel ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of Tudor Arghezi was a phase in the Romanian literature during which the poetic language was renewed. The poet stressed the importance of the expressive power of the word in creating new images. The universality of the Arghezian lyric was imposed in the literary world after his second volume of poetry, «Flower of Mildew» (1931. Translations were the only way for the Romanian poet to escape the «literary exile» in which he was held by the Communist political regime between 1948-1956. He was allowed to publish only by translating the work of French (Francois Villon, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, La Fontaine, Anatole France and Soviet writers (Krîlov, A.I. Cuprin, M. Saltâkov-Scedrin. Starting with 1956 the Arghezian poetry finds its way to other cultures through translations made in English, French, German, Hungarian, Greek, Swedish, Polish, Russian etc.

  16. A translator writing system for microcomputer high-level languages and assemblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. R.; Knight, J. C.; Noonan, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    In order to implement high level languages whenever possible, a translator writing system of advanced design was developed. It is intended for routine production use by many programmers working on different projects. As well as a fairly conventional parser generator, it includes a system for the rapid generation of table driven code generators. The parser generator was developed from a prototype version. The translator writing system includes various tools for the management of the source text of a compiler under construction. In addition, it supplies various default source code sections so that its output is always compilable and executable. The system thereby encourages iterative enhancement as a development methodology by ensuring an executable program from the earliest stages of a compiler development project. The translator writing system includes PASCAL/48 compiler, three assemblers, and two compilers for a subset of HAL/S.

  17. Gendered Language in Recent Short Stories by Japanese Women, and in English Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fraser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses five recent Japanese short stories written by women, with female first person narrators, and the English translations of these stories. I examine how the writers interact with the culturally loaded concept of gendered language to develop characters and themes. The strategies used by translators to render gendered styles into English are also discussed: case-by-case creative solutions appear most effective. ‘Feminine’ and other gendered styles are used to index social identity, to highlight the difference between the social and inner self, and different styles are mixed together for impact. Gendered styles, therefore, are of central importance and translators wishing to adhere closely to the source text should pay close attention to them. All the narrators of the stories demonstrate an understanding of ‘social sanction and taboo’. Two accustom themselves to a socially acceptable future, another displays an uneasy attitude to language and convention, while others fall into stereotypes imposed on them or chastise themselves for inappropriate behaviour. The stories illustrate the way in which gendered language styles in Japanese can be manipulated, as both the writers and the characters they create deliberately use different styles for effect.

  18. LEXICAL CONSTRAINTS IN TRANSLATION AND LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Priyono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the process of translating and learning English as a foreign language may be attributed to lexical constraints. Problems exist in both processes (translating and learning because the two languages involved represent two different systems of expression. The differences in lexical structure between English and Indonesian are predicted to be the main cause of difficulties for EFL learners and translators. Using lexical conceptual structure (LCS, this study has collected data from authentic sources including English novels, brochures, textbooks, bulletins and newspapers. From this data we have identified five types of problems: These problems will be referred to as denominalized verbs or nouns surface as verbs, deadjectival verbs or adjectives surface as verbs, verb semantic structure, collocational combination, and transitive-intransitive alternation. The analysis of these cases has demonstrated that potential problems associated with each case are all lexically related. Therefore it will be argued in this paper that these five cases are part of the main causes for the problems faced by translators and EFL learners.

  19. The challenges of translating the clinical outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) into British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Evans, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses translation issues arising during the production of a British Sign Language (BSL) version of the psychological outcome measure "Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure" (CORE-OM). The process included forward translation, meeting with a team of translators, producing a second draft of the BSL version and back translating into English. Further modifications were made to the BSL version before piloting it with d/Deaf populations. Details of the translation process are addressed, including (a) the implications of translating between modalities (written text to visual language); (b) clarity of frequency anchors: analog versus digital encoding; (c) pronouns and the direction of signing; and (iv) the influence of the on-screen format. The discussion of item-specific issues encountered when producing a BSL version of the CORE-OM includes the expression of precise emotional states in a language that uses visual modifiers, problems associated with iconic signs, and the influence of Deaf world knowledge when interpreting specific statements. Finally, it addresses the extent to which lessons learned through this translation process are generalizable to other signed languages and spoken language translations of standardized instruments. Despite the challenges, a BSL version of the CORE-OM has been produced and found to be reliable.

  20. How Will the Use of Technology in Translation and Testing Affect Language Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Bourne

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology has an ever increasing impact on how we work and live. Article adressed the issue of the impact of technology in two key areas of language learning. On the one side learners increasingly used technology to translate. Given this trend, was there any real need to learn a language. On the other side, educational institutions increasingly used technology to rate language proficiency. Given this trend, would the work of the teacher become less and less important. The survey was conducted by using quantitative method. The respondents’ age range was 18-25. There were 53 respondents, 35% were male and 65% were female. The instrument was a questionaire having 9 questions describing the students’ reliance on computer in translation. It can be concluded that learners of English indicate that they accept and welcome the role of technology in language learning, but there is a doubt that the role and participation of humans in the learning process will be completely replaced. The human element remains an important ingredient. (EE

  1. A descriptive study of culture related terms in translation of Harry Potter Novel from English to Urdu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of children fantasy novels and problems faced by translators in translating these novels into different languages is one of the core issues in the field of translation studies. This issue has got attention of many researchers and an extensive study has been carried out on various novels. The Harry Potter series of novels written by British author J.K. Rowling is one of the famous children fantasy novels that gained popularity worldwide and was translated into 73 languages. The use of various cultural terms and made up words in the novel has posed a great challenge for the translators. The purpose of the present study is to identify these cultural related terms and made up words in the novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets” and to investigate the strategies used by the translator in translating them into Urdu language. A descriptive analysis of the translation of culture related items and made up words was made using the strategies proposed by Davies (2003. The findings of this research showed that translator mostly emphasized and predominantly used localization and transformation strategies for food items, magical objects and imaginative words.

  2. Language dominance in translation priming: evidence from balanced and unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    It is well established in the masked translation priming literature that the priming effect is sensitive to language direction with noncognates-namely, the priming effect is consistently observed from first language (L1) to second language (L2), but not always from L2 to L1. Several recent reports demonstrated both L1-L2 and L2-L1 priming and attributed the restoration of L2-L1 priming to high proficiency in L2. Here, the current study tested two groups of highly proficient Chinese-English bilinguals, with one group more dominant in English and the other more balanced in both languages. The L2-L1 priming effect was only observed with the balanced bilinguals, but not the English-dominant ones. Based on these results, I argue that the language proficiency account is not sufficient to explain the priming asymmetry and that the relative bilingual balance is a more accurate account. Theoretically, the cross-language balance is determined by the representational difference between L1 and L2 at the semantic level. I discuss the results in relation to various bilingual models, in particular, the sense model and the distributional representational model (DRM), which capture the semantic representations of bilinguals.

  3. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  4. Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of

  5. Translating Language Policy into Practice: Language and Culture Policy at a Dutch University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of internationalization at a Dutch university. We describe some the…

  6. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giovanny Barreto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distance of Colombia-UNAD. The didactic proposal focus on the model of the efforts (Gile, specifically in the production and listen efforts. A criticism about translating competence is presented. Minifiction is literary genre with multiple semiotic and philosophical translation possibilities. These literary texts have elements with great potential to render on visual, gestural and spatial depictions of Colombian sign language which is profitable to interpreter training and education. Through El Dinosaurio sign language translation, we concludes with an outline and reflections on the pedagogical and didactic potential of minifiction and depictions in the design of training activities in sign language interpreters.

  7. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giovanny Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distance of Colombia-UNAD. The didactic proposal focus on the model of the efforts (Gile, specifically in the production and listen efforts. A criticism about translating competence is presented. Minifiction is literary genre with multiple semiotic and philosophical translation possibilities. These literary texts have elements with great potential to render on visual, gestural and spatial depictions of Colombian sign language which is profitable to interpreter training and education. Through El Dinosaurio sign language translation, we concludes with an outline and reflections on the pedagogical and didactic potential of minifiction and depictions in the design of training activities in sign language interpreters.

  8. La Traduccion Simultanea como Materia en Una Carrera de Lenguas (Simultaneous Translation as a Course in a Foreign Language Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the foreign language curriculum at the university level in which courses in simultaneous translation are required. The size and composition of the groups are described as well as methods used to develop skill in translating and interpreting. Results are assessed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  9. A Novel String Grammar Unsupervised Possibilistic C-Medians Algorithm for Sign Language Translation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atcharin Klomsae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is a basic method for solving communication problems between deaf and hearing people. In order to communicate, deaf and hearing people normally use hand gestures, which include a combination of hand positioning, hand shapes, and hand movements. Thai Sign Language is the communication method for Thai hearing-impaired people. Our objective is to improve the dynamic Thai Sign Language translation method with a video captioning technique that does not require prior hand region detection and segmentation through using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT method and the String Grammar Unsupervised Possibilistic C-Medians (sgUPCMed algorithm. This work is the first to propose the sgUPCMed algorithm to cope with the unsupervised generation of multiple prototypes in the possibilistic sense for string data. In our experiments, the Thai Sign Language data set (10 isolated sign language words was collected from 25 subjects. The best average result within the constrained environment of the blind test data sets of signer-dependent cases was 89–91%, and the successful rate of signer semi-independent cases was 81–85%, on average. For the blind test data sets of signer-independent cases, the best average classification rate was 77–80%. The average result of the system without a constrained environment was around 62–80% for the signer-independent experiments. To show that the proposed algorithm can be implemented in other sign languages, the American sign language (RWTH-BOSTON-50 data set, which consists of 31 isolated American Sign Language words, is also used in the experiment. The system provides 88.56% and 91.35% results on the validation set alone, and for both the training and validation sets, respectively.

  10. An intuitive Python interface for Bioconductor libraries demonstrates the utility of language translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Computer languages can be domain-related, and in the case of multidisciplinary projects, knowledge of several languages will be needed in order to quickly implements ideas. Moreover, each computer language has relative strong points, making some languages better suited than others for a given task to be implemented. The Bioconductor project, based on the R language, has become a reference for the numerical processing and statistical analysis of data coming from high-throughput biological assays, providing a rich selection of methods and algorithms to the research community. At the same time, Python has matured as a rich and reliable language for the agile development of prototypes or final implementations, as well as for handling large data sets. Results The data structures and functions from Bioconductor can be exposed to Python as a regular library. This allows a fully transparent and native use of Bioconductor from Python, without one having to know the R language and with only a small community of translators required to know both. To demonstrate this, we have implemented such Python representations for key infrastructure packages in Bioconductor, letting a Python programmer handle annotation data, microarray data, and next-generation sequencing data. Conclusions Bioconductor is now not solely reserved to R users. Building a Python application using Bioconductor functionality can be done just like if Bioconductor was a Python package. Moreover, similar principles can be applied to other languages and libraries. Our Python package is available at: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/rpy2-bioconductor-extensions/ PMID:21210978

  11. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire into Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certal, Victor; de Lima, Filipa Flor; Winck, João C; Azevedo, Inês; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro

    2015-02-01

    The need for culturally appropriate and linguistically accessible instruments for assessing sleep quality among children has expanded. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) is a validated tool for sleep disordered breathing among children. Our aim was to cross-culturally translate and adapt the PSQ into Portuguese language for use in clinical and research settings. The PSQ was translated into Portuguese language in accordance with the stages recommended by International Guidelines and reviewed by a panel of experts. The caregivers of 180 children (aged from 4 to 12 years) answered the Portuguese version of PSQ. The reliability of the translated questionnaire was measured by Cronbach α, Pearson correlation and Kappa statistics. Reliability analysis yielded an overall Cronbach α of 0.781, confirming the survey's consistency. The Cronbach α of the Portuguese PSQ domains ranged between 0.61 and 0.7. Test-retest reliability for all items was robust with correctness of >90.0% in all items, and the Kappa statistic ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. The Portuguese version of PSQ has sufficient reliability and validity to measure sleep disordered breathing outcomes, and showed to be linguistically accurate and acceptable for use by children in Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  13. Advances to the development of a basic Mexican sign-to-speech and text language translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bautista, G.; Trujillo-Romero, F.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.

    2016-09-01

    Sign Language (SL) is the basic alternative communication method between deaf people. However, most of the hearing people have trouble understanding the SL, making communication with deaf people almost impossible and taking them apart from daily activities. In this work we present an automatic basic real-time sign language translator capable of recognize a basic list of Mexican Sign Language (MSL) signs of 10 meaningful words, letters (A-Z) and numbers (1-10) and translate them into speech and text. The signs were collected from a group of 35 MSL signers executed in front of a Microsoft Kinect™ Sensor. The hand gesture recognition system use the RGB-D camera to build and storage data point clouds, color and skeleton tracking information. In this work we propose a method to obtain the representative hand trajectory pattern information. We use Euclidean Segmentation method to obtain the hand shape and Hierarchical Centroid as feature extraction method for images of numbers and letters. A pattern recognition method based on a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to interpret the hand gestures. Finally, we use K-Fold Cross Validation method for training and testing stages. Our results achieve an accuracy of 95.71% on words, 98.57% on numbers and 79.71% on letters. In addition, an interactive user interface was designed to present the results in voice and text format.

  14. Does Language Input Matter in Bilingual Writing? Translation versus Direct Composition in Deaf School Students' Written Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoubou, Maria; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which 20 Greek Deaf students produced written texts under two different conditions of language input: (1) a translation from a videotaped story in Greek sign language, and (2) a direct composition produced from a picture story--a neutral non-linguistic input. Placing Deaf writing within a…

  15. A Multilingual Monologue: Alexander Lenard’s Self-Translated Autobiography in Three Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Lénárt-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the question of self-translation in the work of Alexander Lenard (Lénárd Sándor. Lenard, a polyglot writer and translator, rewrote his autobiography three times, in three different languages (in German, English, and Hungarian. This process of self-translation created a fascinating web of autobiographical texts, which invite a multiscopic reading. Following in the footsteps of 18th century parodists, Lenard challenges a great number of protocols associated with life-writing. The most important among these is the authority of the proper name as a guarantee of autobiographical authenticity. To challenge the authority of the proper name Lenard purposely multiplies his own authorial identities, for example by claiming that “A. L. is only a pseudonym.” Thus, the word ‘self-plagiarism’ acquires in Lenard’s case a double meaning, implying both that the author plagiarizes his own text and that he plagiarizes his own self. The paper explains why existing theories of self-translation cannot be applied to Lenard’s texts, and why his unique case can enrich future studies of this topic.

  16. Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Goel, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language. Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity. RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (PHindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.

  17. Translation of a Tobacco Survey into Spanish and Asian Languages: The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Gordon; Lawrence, Deirdre; Hartman, Anne; Kudela, Martha Stapleton; Levin, Kerry; Forsyth, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Because of the vital need to attain cross-cultural comparability of estimates of tobacco use across subgroups of the U.S. population that differ in primary language use, the NCI Tobacco Use Special Cessation Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUSCS-CPS) was translated into Spanish, Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese), Korean, Vietnamese, and Khmer (Cambodian). The questionnaire translations were extensively tested using an eight-step process that focused on both translation procedures and empirical pretesting. The resulting translations are available on the Internet (at http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/studies/tus-cps/translation/questionnaires.html) for tobacco researchers to use in their own surveys, either in full, or as material to be selected as appropriate. This manuscript provides information to guide researchers in accessing and using the translations, and describes the empirical procedures used to develop and pretest them (cognitive interviewing and behavior coding). We also provide recommendations concerning the further development of questionnaire translations. PMID:18584471

  18. The Impact of Persuasive Language on Ideology Perceived in Translated Children’s Literature: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Akbarpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the impact of persuasive language on ideology perceived by children while reading translated children’s books. To do so, the author studied the ideological manipulations made in children's literature translation (ChLT through analyzing the two abridged Persian translations of Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The researcher also was looking for major strategies used by the translators to reinforce the ideological attitudes of the recipients. In this regard, a model of critical discourse analysis (CDA, that of Fairclough, was used to analyze the translations in terms of their vocabulary. The model introduces three values of words, namely, experiential, relational, and expressive. Making use of the expressive value, the researcher found that the translators of the novel tried to fit the translated novel into the Iranian culture, using modification, addition, and deletion strategies. Those strategies were determining factors of the ideologies perceived by the young readers.

  19. Analysis and research of influence factors ranking of fuzzy language translation accuracy in literary works based on catastrophe progression method

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    Wei Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the problem of decline in translation accuracy caused by language “vagueness” in literary translation, and proposes to use the catastrophe model for importance ranking of various factors affecting the fuzzy language translation accuracy in literary works, and finally gives out the order of factors to be considered before translation. The multi-level evaluation system can be used to construct the relevant catastrophe progression model, and the normalization formula can be used to calculate the relative membership degree of each system and evaluation index, and make evaluation combined with the evaluation criteria table. The results show that, in the fuzzy language translation, in order to improve the translation accuracy, there is a need to consider the indicators ranking: A2 fuzzy language context → A1 words attribute → A3 specific meaning of digital words; B2 fuzzy semantics, B3 blur color words → B1 multiple meanings of words → B4 fuzzy digital words; C3 combination with context and cultural background, C4 specific connotation of color words → C1 combination with words emotion, C2 selection of words meaning → C5 combination with digits and language background.

  20. Manipulation in Dubbing: The Translation of English-language Films into Persian

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    Mohammad Sadegh Kenevisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the decline in linguistic oriented approaches, Translation Studies witnessed a move towards a more descriptive and cultural direction in the 1990s. Accordingly, translation was no longer confined solitary to an isolated linguistic context and the socio-cultural aspects of translation were emphasized. It was during this turn that Andrew Lefevere (1992 set forth the notion of “rewriting” and asserted the pressures that the prevailing cultural environment and the three factors of ideology, poetics and patronage have on translation. This present study looks at the impact of ideology and patronage in dubbing of eight English-language films into Persian. This was carried out through an analysis of the social context of the receptor language and community. In view of the rules and regulations in the area of media distribution, we attempted to trace the reflection of these social laws in the form of manipulative operations in the Persian dubbed version of the films. The analysis of the corpus revealed that manipulation of the source soundtracks occurred when there was a disconformity with the ideology of the prevailing culture and the source soundtracks. The areas of manipulation were assorted into four groups of religion, politics, sexually forbidden content, and profanity. The result of the study confirmed that manipulations were generally in line with the ideology and values which are rooted in the socio-cultural context of the Iranian community. Nonetheless, there were rare exceptions which could be ascribed to the function of dissimilar agencies as cultural innovators. These agencies have apparently attempted to familiarize the receptor community with a new culture by rendering the ideologically taboo content of the source text intact.

  1. Audiovisual Translation in LSP – A Case for Using Captioning in Teaching Languages for Specific Purposes

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    Jaroslaw Krajka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation, or producing subtitles for video materials, had long been out of reach of language teachers due to sophisticated and expensive software. However, with the advent of social networking and video sharing sites, it has become possible to create subtitles for videos in a much easier fashion without any expense. Subtitled materials open up interesting instructional opportunities in the classroom, giving teachers three channels of information delivery for flexible use. The present paper deals with the phenomenon of subtitling videos for the ESP classroom. The author starts with a literature review, then presents implementation models and classroom procedures. Finally, technical solutions are outlined.

  2. [Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3) technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4) conduct validation by professional experts (judges); (5) assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6) evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends), clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80). The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed good content validity, verbal comprehensibility, and internal consistency. Further analysis of external validity, equivalence of measurement, and reproducibility are necessary.

  3. The interdependence of language and translational math skills among bilingual hispanic engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Jose P.; Gerace, William J.; Lochhead, Jack

    The performance of 43 Hispanic engineering and science majors on a task that consists of reading a sentence describing a mathematical relationship between two variables, and then writing an equation describing the relationship, is investigated in both English and Spanish. Results are compared with grade point average and with language proficiency. Comparison of the bilingual group to a monolingual group consisting of 52 engineering and science students shows that performance, as measured by either the mathematical translation task or grade point average, is more strongly correlated with language proficiency for the bilingual group. Clinical interviews conducted with samples from each group reveal large differences in the interpretation of the mathematical task between Hispanics and monolinguals. Suggestions are made for the improvement of the technical education of Hispanics.

  4. An intuitive Python interface for Bioconductor libraries demonstrates the utility of language translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    time, Python has matured as a rich and reliable language for the agile development of prototypes or final implementations, as well as for handling large data sets. Results The data structures and functions from Bioconductor can be exposed to Python as a regular library. This allows a fully transparent...... and native use of Bioconductor from Python, without one having to know the R language and with only a small community of translators required to know both. To demonstrate this, we have implemented such Python representations for key infrastructure packages in Bioconductor, letting a Python programmer handle...... annotation data, microarray data, and next-generation sequencing data. Conclusions Bioconductor is now not solely reserved to R users. Building a Python application using Bioconductor functionality can be done just like if Bioconductor was a Python package....

  5. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  6. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

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    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  7. The priming effect of translation equivalents across languages for concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Cui, Peng; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-11-01

    The present study used a masked priming paradigm and two language tasks (lexical decision, semantic categorical judgment) to investigate whether concrete and abstract words share the same degree of conceptual representation across languages for bilinguals. The results showed that the priming effect of translation equivalents did not differ for concrete and abstract words in the lexical decision task, in both prime-target directions (in Experiment 1). The same results were also found in the semantic categorical judgment task in either prime-target direction (in Experiment 2). Our results do not provide support for the representation difference hypothesis of concrete and abstract words of Distributed Representation Model (De Groot, 1992a, 1992b; Van Hell & De Groot, 1998), which assumes that concrete words share more semantic components in the conceptual representations across languages, compared with abstract words. Rather, our findings suggest that both concrete and abstract words have the same degree of overlap in conceptual representations across a bilingual's two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM AND COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT IN TEACHING INTEGRATED ENGLISH

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    Hari Prastyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluency and accuracy are the target of learning English. Both of them have important role for the students who learn English. Consequently, a teacher should consider fluency and accuracy of the English used by the students in the classroom. It means that teaching English should teach both linguistics and communicative competence. To teach lingusitics competence, a teacher can use Grammar Translation Method (GTM. Furthermore, a teacher needs Communicative Language Teaching (CLT Method to teach commuicative competence. This article will study about the “The Implementation of Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Comunicative Language Teaching (CLT Method in Teaching Integrated English” which are applied in Basic English Station (BEST Course of Jombang. This English course can combine both GTM and CLT to teach the students. For the first time, the writer will discuss about GTM and CLT theory. Then he will describe the programs and the materials applied in this course. Afterward, the writer will discuss about the implementation of GTM and CLT which are used to explain the materials and how GTM and CLT are applied in the programs that this course has. It means that, GTM and CLT will be applied both in the classroom and the programs of this English course

  9. The Implementation of Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching (CLT in Teaching Integrated English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prastyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluency and accuracy are the target of learning English. Both of them have important role for the students who learn English. Consequently, a teacher should consider fluency and accuracy of the English used by the students in the classroom. It means that teaching English should teach both linguistics and communicative competence. To teach lingusitics competence, a teacher can use Grammar Translation Method (GTM. Furthermore, a teacher needs Communicative Language Teaching (CLT Method to teach commuicative competence. This article will study about the “The Implementation of Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Comunicative Language Teaching (CLT Method in Teaching Integrated English” which are applied in Basic English Station (BEST Course of Jombang. This English course can combine both GTM and CLT to teach the students. For the first time, the writer will discuss about GTM and CLT theory. Then he will describe the programs and the materials applied in this course. Afterward, the writer will discuss about the implementation of GTM and CLT which are used to explain the materials and how GTM and CLT are applied in the programs that this course has. It means that, GTM and CLT will be applied both in the classroom and the programs of this English course

  10. On the Time Course of Accessing Meaning in a Second Language: An Electrophysiological and Behavioral Investigation of Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Taomei; Misra, Maya; Tam, Joyce W.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments, relatively proficient Chinese–English bilinguals decided whether Chinese words were the correct translations of English words. Critical trials were those on which incorrect translations were related in lexical form or meaning to the correct translation. In Experiment 1, behavioral interference was revealed for both distractor types, but event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed a different time course for the 2 conditions. Semantic distractors elicited effects primarily on the N400 and late positive component (LPC), with a smaller N400 and a smaller LPC over the posterior scalp but a larger LPC over the anterior scalp relative to unrelated controls. In contrast, translation form distractors elicited a larger P200 and a larger LPC than did unrelated controls. To determine whether the translation form effects were enabled by the relatively long, 750-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between words, a 2nd ERP experiment was conducted using a shorter, 300-ms, SOA. The behavioral results revealed interference for both types of distractors, but the ERPs again revealed different loci for the 2 effects. Taken together, the data suggest that proficient bilinguals activate 1st-language translations of words in the 2nd language after they have accessed the meaning of those words. The implications of this pattern for claims about the nature of cross-language activation when bilinguals read in 1 or both languages are discussed. PMID:22686844

  11. The application of intersemiotic translation combined with multimodal activities in the English as a foreign language classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara de Oliveira Branco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the application of activities using films and the intersemiotic category of translation as a tool for the practice of the abilities of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The theoretical framework is based on the Functionalist Approach of Translation, Translation Categories, the Theory of Translation and Culture, as well as the Theory of Translation and Cinema. Four activities were created to use the English language with beginner students of the Modern Languages Course (Letras-Inglês of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG. The activities were created based on the films Finding Neverland and Tim Burton's Alice in Wonderland. A questionnaire was also created to assess the students' opinion concerning the validity of such activities for the study of the English language. Findings have shown that the use of activities involving the intersemiotic category of translation and multimodality, when applied together with specific theories, helps the study of the English language, promoting more participation and interaction between teacher and students.

  12. Towards the Development of a Mexican Speech-to-Sign-Language Translator for the Deaf Community

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    Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Una parte significativa de la población mexicana es sorda. Esta discapacidad restringe sus habilidades de interacción social con personas que no tienen dicha discapacidad y viceversa. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de un traductor Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas del español mexicano para asistir a personas sin discapacidad a interactuarcon personas sordas. La metodología de diseño propuesta considera limitados recursos para(1 el desarrollo del Reconocedor Automático del Habla (RAH mexicano, el cual es el módulo principal del traductor, y (2 el vocabulario del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LSM disponible para representar las oraciones reconocidas. La traducción Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas fue lograda con un nivel de precisión mayor al 97% para usuarios de prueba diferentes de aquellos seleccionados para el entrenamiento del RAH.A significant population of Mexican people are deaf. This disorder restricts their social interac-tion skills with people who don't have such disorder and viceversa. In this paper we presentour advances towards the development of a Mexican Speech-to-Sign-Language translator toassist normal people to interact with deaf people. The proposed design methodology considerslimited resources for (1 the development of the Mexican Automatic Speech Recogniser (ASRsystem, which is the main module in the translator, and (2 the Mexican Sign Language(MSL vocabulary available to represent the decoded speech. Speech-to-MSL translation wasaccomplished with an accuracy level over 97% for test speakers different from those selectedfor ASR training.

  13. Translation and validation of restless leg syndrome quality of life questionnaire in Hindi language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kirti; Lahan, Vivekananda; Gupta, Ravi; Goel, Deepak; Dhasmana, Dilip Chander; Sharma, Taruna; Kalra, Juhi

    2012-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) itself as well as the problems that are secondary to RLS may worsen the quality of life. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life (RLS-QOL) questionnaire in Hindi language. Patients attending psychiatry OPD and sleep clinic in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Thirty four consecutive patients of RLS and twenty nine control subjects were included in the study. Permission for translation and validation of RLS-QOL questionnaire scale was obtained. Translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, the final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find the reliability and validity. SPSS, version 17.0 was used for the analysis. Independent sample t test was used to compare age. Chi-square test was applied to compare non-parametric variables. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used to find out the correlation between parametric and non-parametric items, respectively. Reliability analysis was done by using Cronbach's alpha. Among the RLS subjects, mean Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score, International Restless Legs Syndrome Severity Rating Scale (IRLS) score and Computed Score of RLS-QOL questionnaire were 25.43 (7.39), 12.7 (8.34) and 29.8 (8.39), respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between both the groups on all these scores (ISI: t= -11.2, PHindi version of the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life (RLS-QOL) questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of the quality of life in patients with RLS.

  14. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  15. Cross-lingual numerical distance priming with second-language number words in native- to third-language number word translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Wouter; Depestel, Isabel; Fias, Wim; Reynvoet, Bert

    2008-09-01

    An important question in research about bilingualism is whether translation from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1) is semantically mediated or whether it occurs through word associations at the lexical level. Recent research has shown that both L1 and L2 number word translation imply semantic access, suggesting strong L2 lexicosemantic mappings for number words (Duyck & Brysbaert, 2004). In the present study, this assumption was further explored by means of a cross-lingual number distance priming paradigm with Dutch-English-French trilinguals. We found that number word translation from L1 to the third language (L3), and vice versa, was facilitated by L2 number masked word primes that represented the same magnitude as the target (translation equivalents), relative to primes that are numerically less close. This confirms the existence of strong L2 lexicosemantic mappings for number words and generalizes previous semantic effects in L1-L2 translation to translation processes between L1 and L3.

  16. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...

  17. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the protocol of orofacial myofunctional evaluation with scores for Italian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, Cláudia M de; Folha, Gislaine A; Ferreira, Claudia Lucia Pimenta; Paskay, Licia Coceani; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-01-01

    The protocol of orofacial myofunctional evaluation with scores (OMES-protocol or AMIOFE in Portuguese language) is a validated instrument for the diagnosis of orofacial myofunctional disorders that can be used in clinical practice for speech-language pathologists. Because in the Italian language there is no validated tool for such purpose, this study was developed. To translate and culturally adapt the OMES-protocol for Italian language and determine the normal score value in a group of young Italian adults. The OMES-protocol was translated from English to Italian by three bilingual individuals. From these translations, a consensus version was prepared by a research committee (three speech therapists and one physician and submitted to a committee of judges composed by eight speech therapists experienced in the area. The authors of the original version verified and approved the Italian version of the protocol. The instrument was tested via evaluations of 40 young and grown-up Italians (age range: 18-56 years) performed by two speech therapists. A cutoff score, previously described, was used to determine the mean and standard deviation. The translation stage and the final Italian version of the OMES-protocol are shown. The mean of scores for individuals with and without orofacial myofunctional disorders were presented. The Italian version of the OMES-protocol was developed, translated, and cross-culturally adapted. Normal values for young and adult Italian subjects are presented.

  18. Language, silence and translation in Emanuele Crialese’s polyglot migration film Nuovomondo – Golden Door (2006

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    Lorena Carbonara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to examine various aspects of Emanuele Crialese’s Nuovomondo – Golden Door (Italy-France, 2006, with particular attention given to the use of multiple languages (English, Italian and Sicilian dialect in this migration film, and to their subtitle translation for the DVD version of the film. The language interplay in Nuovomondo raises a series of questions concerning the possibility – and impossibility – of translating culturally bound material from a polyglot multi-semiotic product into another language/culture. Assuming the transnational importance of this film as an epitome of cultural (untranslatability, this essay will scrutinize and enlarge on a series of questions relating to the role of language, silence and translation. The film represents a perfect example of how language played a crucial role in defining power relationships between migrants and Americans at the “(unwelcoming” harbor in the twentieth century. It also raises questions on how forms of inclusion, subversion and legitimation were articulated in a dominant culture – such as that of the US – in response to otherness, and on the role of translation also as an exercise of power and identity (renegotiation.

  19. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  20. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de

    2015-01-01

    In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  1. Translation and adaptation into the Romanian language of the Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Minjina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed at the translation and adaptation from English into the Romanian language of the Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF, developed by Raymark, Schmit, and Guion. Within it, the job of operational non-commissioned officer (NCO employed in the mobile structures of the Romanian Gendarmerie was analyzed. Four subsamples of participants were used: two subsamples of subject-matter experts in relation to the analyzed job, 87 job incumbents, and 32 supervisors, one subsample with 133 analyzed job incumbents and one subsample composed of supervisors of the participants from the previously mentioned subsample. The vast majority of reliability coefficients calculated for evaluating the inter-rater agreement had very good values both for the inventory's dimensions and subdimensions. Regarding the concurrent criterion-related validity, acceptable results were found by using the partial- and full-weighting approaches for criterion-related validation of job analysis tools.

  2. From English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian: extending research visibility with language translations of a conference slide presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffecker, Lilian; Abbey, Dana

    2017-01-01

    The research demonstrates that a conference slide presentation translated into non-English languages reaches significantly larger and different audiences than an English presentation alone. The slides of a presentation from the Medical Library Association annual meeting were translated from English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian and posted along with the English version to SlideShare, an open slide-hosting website. View counts, traffic sources, and geographic origins of the traffic for each language version were tracked over a twenty-two-month period. Total view counts for all 4 language versions amounted to 3,357 views, with the Chinese version accounting for 71% of the total views. The trends in view counts over time for the Japanese, Russian, and English versions were similar, with high interest at the beginning and a rapid drop and low level of viewing activity thereafter. The pattern of view counts for the Chinese version departed considerably from the other language versions, with very low activity at the beginning but a sharp rise 10 months later. This increase in activity was related to access to the presentations via a Taiwanese website that embedded the SlideShare website code. Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.

  3. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  4. [Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Salt Knowledge Questionnaire to the Spanish language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros-Reyes, C; Marcionelli-Sandhaus, T; Mayta-Tristán, P

    2017-11-03

    In order to reduce salt consumption in Spanish speaking countries it is necessary to know the level of salt knowledge in the population. However, there are no tools in Spanish to measure salt knowledge, but the only valid tool of measurement is the 'Salt Knowledge Questionnaire' (SKQ) developed in Australia, in English. A validation study was conducted in three phases: (Phase1) Translation of the original Australian version into Spanish; (Phase2) Cultural adaptation based on a Spanish-speaking population such as Peru and following criteria used in the development of the original questionnaire which was evaluated by a panel of experts; (Phase3) Construct validity by comparing the scores of three groups (experts, medical students and non-experts) and reliability by performing a test retest. The translation of the SKQ into Spanish maintained a semantic equivalence with the original questionnaire and a panel of experts accepted the cultural adaptation. The SKQ enables discrimination between those who know and those who do not because differences of scores were found between the group of experts, students and non-experts (P.05). The SKQ questionnaire in Spanish is valid, reliable and is a suitable first tool to measure knowledge about salt in the Spanish language. It is considered possible to adapt it culturally to the Spanish-speaking country that wishes to use it. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) into Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate and test the validity and reliablity of the Persian version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire in foot and ankle patients. We translated the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire to Persian language according to the accepted guidelines, then assessed the psychometric properties including the validity and reliability on 308 patients with long-standing foot and ankle problems. To test the reliability, we calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and measured Cronbach's alpha to test the internal consistency. To test the construct validity of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire we also administered the Short-Form 36 to patients. Construct validity was supported by significant correlation with SF36 subscales except for pain subscale of the persian MOXFQ with mental health of the SF36 (r=0.207). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ and ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 for the three subscales. Cronbach's alpha for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction was 0.86, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ showing good internal consistency in each domain. The Persian Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire health scoring system is a valid and reliable patient-reported instrument for foot and ankle problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Translation and validation of the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale in Nepali language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sharmila; Adachi, Kumiko; Shrestha, Sarita

    2016-05-01

    a mother׳s lack of confidence in the early postnatal period may negatively influence their ability to care for their infant. Parenting confidence contributes to the parent-infant relationship and other aspects of infant development. The Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale is a 15-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure parents' subjective confidence in their parenting abilities, or 'perceived parenting self-efficacy', and is designed for mothers with infants aged 0-12 months. to translate the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale into Nepali language and assess the validity and reliability among Nepalese postnatal mothers. cross-sectional study. outpatient department of maternity and women׳s hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. one hundred postnatal mothers within 5-6 weeks of childbirth were recruited using the convenience sampling method. following back-translation procedures, mothers completed questionnaires during follow-up visit at immunisation/postnatal clinics. For the validity and reliability have been assessed internal consistency, discriminant validity, and construct validity. the translated Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale mean score was 35.47±5.48, ranging from 32 to 42. Cronbach׳s alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.87. A difference was found between primiparous and multiparous mothers׳ confidence scores. There was a significant correlation between maternal confidence and anxiety scores. Demographic response patterns suggest that the maternal confidence level was affected by education level. the Nepali version of Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale showed adequate reliability and validity. Therefore, the Nepali Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale is considered a suitable instrument to assess maternal confidence in Nepali postnatal mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  8. Visual and motor cortices differentially support the translation of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Yildiz, Izzet B; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-16

    At present, it is largely unclear how the human brain optimally learns foreign languages. We investigated teaching strategies that utilize complementary information ("enrichment"), such as pictures or gestures, to optimize vocabulary learning outcome. We found that learning while performing gestures was more efficient than the common practice of learning with pictures and that both enrichment strategies were better than learning without enrichment ("verbal learning"). We tested the prediction of an influential cognitive neuroscience theory that provides explanations for the beneficial behavioral effects of enrichment: the "multisensory learning theory" attributes the benefits of enrichment to recruitment of brain areas specialized in processing the enrichment. To test this prediction, we asked participants to translate auditorily presented foreign words during fMRI. Multivariate pattern classification allowed us to decode from the brain activity under which enrichment condition the vocabulary had been learned. The visual-object-sensitive lateral occipital complex (LOC) represented auditory words that had been learned with pictures. The biological motion superior temporal sulcus (bmSTS) and motor areas represented auditory words that had been learned with gestures. Importantly, brain activity in these specialized visual and motor brain areas correlated with behavioral performance. The cortical activation pattern found in the present study strongly supports the multisensory learning theory in contrast to alternative explanations. In addition, the results highlight the importance of learning foreign language vocabulary with enrichment, particularly with self-performed gestures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M.

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  10. Strategies used in the translation of fixed expressions in magazines: A comparison of selected texts with Afrikaans as source language and South African English as target language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the translation of idioms and other types of fixed expressions from Afrikaans (the source language into South African English (the target language, from selected texts in Huisgenoot and You magazines from a study conducted over the 10-week period from 18 July 2013 to 19 September 2013. The article will start by looking at the difficulties in defining idioms and other types of fixed expressions and will draw on the work of Rosamund Moon for this. It then uses the strategies on the translation of idioms (and other types of fixed expressions in Mona Baker’s In Other Words to categorise a set of 70 such expressions according to the strategy used to translate them and concludes by looking at whether equivalence is obtained.

  11. China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI): Test Review Based on the Language Pairing of English and Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hulin; Gu, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Test Purpose: The CATTI aims to measure competence in translation and interpreting (including simultaneous and consecutive interpreting) between Chinese and seven foreign languages: English, Japanese, French, Arabic, Russian, German, or Spanish. The test is intended to cover a wide range of domains including business, government, academia, and…

  12. The English Department in the Arab World Re-Visited: Language, Literature, or Translation? A Student's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharabsheh, Aladdin; Al-Azzam, Bakri; Obeidat, Marwan M.

    2009-01-01

    The remarkably prolonged controversial issue of which academic component among language, linguistics, literature and translation must be given the priority and take precedence over the other in the English departments in the Arab World during the college years has not only preoccupied a number of specialists and scholars in the field for a…

  13. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  14. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeiko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  15. Does the quality of interlingual translation influence the quality of the intersemiotic translation? On the English language film adaptations of S. Lem's The Futurological Congress and Solaris in the light of their translations into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majcher Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare two English language film adaptations (by Steven Soderbergh and Ari Folman with each other and with the books they are based on. Stanisław Lem’s novels - The Futurological Congress and Solaris - were translated into English and the directors of the films mentioned above were able to work with them. However, while one translation was appreciated by many, including the author of the original, the other one did not get much credit and features many inaccuracies, which will be presented below. The question of how much the quality of translation influences the intersemiotic translation, which adaptation is believed to be, will be examined in the paper. As, according to translation scholars, preliminary interpretation is vital for any translations, it seems justified to state that without being able to refer to the author’s original thoughts the film-makers cannot produce a good adaptation. This will be revised on the basis of comparing examples from the books and films. The analysis will be drawn on an account of translation and film adaptation theories together with the outlining of cultural background for each work.

  16. Translation of the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into three South Asian languages and preliminary evaluation of SDI-21(Urdu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Naheed; Dharni, Nimarta; Smith, Adam; Chattoo, Sangeeta; Velikova, Galina; Bradley, Chris; Stark, Dan; Wright, Penny

    2011-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires would allow for inclusivity in assessment in cancer clinics for non-English speakers. The aim was to translate the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into Urdu, Punjabi and Hindi and undertake preliminary evaluation of translated versions. The study comprised three stages: (1) translation/back translation and evaluation of cultural equivalence of the SDI-21, (2) south Asian (SA) patient evaluation of SDI-21 translations and (3) evaluation using Rasch analysis comparing English and Urdu SDI-21 from data pooled from this and three other studies. Forward/backward translation resulted in minor amendments particularly in forward translation of SDI-21(Hindi). The majority of the 55 patients interviewed found the SDI-21 acceptable and clear, resulting in no amendments (all versions). Rasch analysis demonstrated good fit. Differential item functioning (DIF) was found for one item, in the comparison of white English (WE)- and SA Urdu-speaking groups. Detailed DIF analysis comparing self-completion and read-aloud administration by language group demonstrated this DIF only held for the comparison between SA English speakers (self-completion) and SA Urdu (read out). Translated versions are culturally and linguistically acceptable. The SDI-21 (Urdu) performs similarly to the English version when self-completed.

  17. An overview of translation in language teaching methods: implications for EFL in secondary education in the region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marqués Aguado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various activities and resources have been used across time to promote and enhance the learning of foreign languages. Among these, translation has been cherished or dismissed depending on the preferred teaching method at each period. With the arrival of the Communicative approach, which focuses on communicative competence, its role has apparently become even more unstable.This article seeks to explore the role of translation in the main teaching methods used in Spain. This will in turn serve as the background against which the current educational scenario (with the communicative approach and the tenets of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages will be measured with a view to ascertaining the role that translation may currently play. The particular situation of Secondary Education in the Region of Murcia will be discussed in the light of the curricula for this stage.

  18. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  19. Translation and Validation of Enhanced Asian Rome III Questionnaires in Bengali Language for Diagnosis of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Masudur; Ghoshal, Uday C; Rowshon, A H M; Ahmed, Faruque; Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Mahmud; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Whitehead, William E

    2016-04-30

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translatedvalidated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population.

  20. [Meeting the challenge of Easy-to-Read language - Translating the North Rhine-Westphalian Public Health Report 2015 into Easy-to-Read language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; Borrmann, Brigitte

    2017-12-18

    Background and Methods The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities determines amongst others the right of access to information. Information for the general public must be made accessible for persons with disabilities in formats and technologies appropriate to different kinds of disabilities. The language poses the largest barrier for people with learning difficulties. Therefore, we translated parts of the Public Health Report 2015 of North Rhine-Westphalia into an Easy-to-Read language.The translation was performed by a professional translation agency in cooperation with an assessment group, composed by people with learning problems, and the NRW Centre for Health (LZG.NRW).During the translation the population health monitoring group of the LZG.NRW experienced several challenges. The scope of these challenges and the chosen solutions are described in detail in this paper. Results 3 challenges were experienced clearly during the translation of the Public Health Report: (1) (Large) numbers and rates are a key element in population health monitoring but they should be avoided in texts in Easy-to-Read language. (2) The translation of the age-standardization approach and the related effects appeared to be difficult. (3) Finding the right balance between the description of lifestyle influences and the influence of the wider health determinants as well as finding a non-discriminatory wording regarding the influence of social health determinants were challenging.The following approaches were chosen to counteract these challenges: (1) We avoided to report numbers and rates. In some cases simple fractions are presented. In addition, all of these fractions were explained and visualized in the introductory section of the translated report. (2) We resigned to describe time trends. In some cases time trends were mentioned as crude rates and an explanation of potential effects (e.g., demographic change) was added. If gender specific differences

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Manny

    1994-05-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) Γ and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given Γ and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

  3. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  4. Language Representation of Phenomenon of Smile in L.Tolstoy Novel "War and Peace" and Its Translation in German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira T. Kostousova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the context of L. Tolstoy’s novel «War and Peace» and its translation into German, performed by B. Conrad in 2010. It is considered the contextual descriptions of smile implication. According to the author, a smile phenomenon in the novel serves as a means of emotional expression and transmission of information on the surrounding reality. It has been distinguished the features of the translation of metaphorical description of a smile in the German language.

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and reproducibility of the Brazilian portuguese-language version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Junior, Boanerges Lopes de; Jardim, José Roberto; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Souza, George Márcio da Costa e; Baker, Timothy B; Santoro, Ilka Lopes

    2012-01-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

  6. CALL in Second Language Acquisition: Introducing a German Textbook Based Translation Game in a Geneva Middle School Class

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an exercise where CALL-SLT, a web-based spoken translation game, was integrated into in a Geneva middle school class. It shows how the usage of a CALL application as a complement to traditional school teaching can help pupils improve their productive language skills and how it can help them overcome their inhibition to communicate in a foreign language. In this paper the CALL-SLT platform and its adaption to a German textbook are described, as well as the ...

  7. [False pairs in expert registers: the word drug, its collocations and translation equivalents from English to Serbian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelić-Nikolendžić, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of false pairs in English and Serbian languages, and the issues stemming from and related to this phenomenon. Special attention was given to false pairs in occupational registers, and particularly to the register of medical profession. The author gives a number of examples showing that translators often fail to perceive the differences in semantic fields covered by the pairs observed in the two languages, which may cause serious misunderstanding. While in everyday life such a misunderstanding can be a source of amusement or embarrassment, in scientific or academic registers it could have more serious consequences.

  8. Lifting the Veil of Illusion: Transparency and Invisibility in English Language Translations of Pelle Erobreren

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sophie-Anne Cobby

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The ever-increasing importance of translation in today’s globalised world has inspired a corresponding explosion of interest in the discipline of translation studies. This can be seen not only through the wealth of research, academic courses, journals and teaching materials focusing on translation studies that are currently produced but also in the increase in conferences and forums for discussion that have opened up for scholars and practicing translators alike. Alongside this b...

  9. English-Latvian SMT: the challenge of translating into a free word order language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches to statistical machine translation (SMT) and their application to a task of English-to-Latvian translation, which is still an open research line in the field of automatic translation. We consider a state-of-the-art phrase-based SMT and an

  10. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale: translation into Norwegian language with validation and reliability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrebø, Kirsten Lerum; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the Ostomy Adjustment Scale to a Norwegian version and to assess its construct validity and 2 components of its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability). One hundred fifty-eight of 217 patients (73%) with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy participated in the study. Slightly more than half (56%) were men. Their mean age was 64 years (range, 26-91 years). All respondents had undergone ostomy surgery at least 3 months before participation in the study. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale was translated into Norwegian according to standard procedures for forward and backward translation. The questionnaire was sent to the participants via regular post. The Cronbach alpha and test-retest were computed to assess reliability. Construct validity was evaluated via correlations between each item and score sums; correlations were used to analyze relationships between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The Cronbach alpha was 0.93, and test-retest reliability r was 0.69. The average correlation quotient item to sum score was 0.49 (range, 0.31-0.73). Results showed moderate negative correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (-0.37 and -0.40), and moderate positive correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (0.30-0.45) with the exception of the pain domain in the Short Form 36 (0.28). Regression analysis showed linear associations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and sociodemographic and clinical variables with the exception of education. The Norwegian language version of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale was found to possess construct validity, along with internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The instrument is

  11. ‘Lâmu’l-Âkibe’ in Arabic Language and its Reflection on Turkish Translation of Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan UÇAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter ‘lam’ in Arabic language is one of the letters which has a large meaning spectrum. The term ‘Lamu’l Akibe’, which reflects one of these meanings, is used as the cause of the primary verb, usually with the intention of putting forward the unwanted and dispensable results with a different manner. The preposition mentioned with different names in the sources has not completely been reflected in Quran translation apart from some limited basic examples. This preposition, which appears in ‘Lâmu’l-ille’, ‘lâmu’l-garaz’ and ‘key’ meanings, comes to a state of truly meaningless in the translation of some verses of Quran. In this study, eleven example verses in more than fifty different translations have been inspected in the frame of related preposition.

  12. Assisting the translation of SNOMED CT into French using UMLS and four representative French-language terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Michel; Abdoune, Hocine; Merabti, Tayeb; Darmoni, Stéfan; Fieschi, Marius

    2009-11-14

    To provide a semantics-based method to assist the translation of SNOMED CT into French. To do so, we selected four French-language terminologies: ICD-10, SNOMED International, MedDRA, MeSH, as they are dedicated to different uses - epidemiology, clinical medicine, adverse reactions, medical literature, respectively - in order to map them to SNOMED Clinical Terms (CT), and thus associate French terms with SNOMED CT concepts. In this way, we measured the number of SNOMED CT concepts to be found in French-language terminologies. We used the UMLS Metathesaurus. The mapping method was based on the coincidence of identifiers and on the explicit mappings present in the Metathesaurus. The study dealt exclusively with preferred terms (PTs) in the terminologies. The terminologies are mapped with varying success as regards PTs mapped to SNOMED terms (from 52% to 96%). Conversely, 45% of SNOMED CT terms are mapped by uniting the four terminologies. A more effective mapping technique than the current method is under consideration. The method presented will be refined. It could certainly provide useful assistance in the translation of SNOMED CT into French. Due to its general nature, it could be used to translate SNOMED CT into other languages than French.

  13. Thoughts about the work of translation and interpretation in sign language as ethical and political practice in self care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyenne Matos da Costa Vieira-Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Think about the work of sign language translator and interpreter (SLTI as ethical and political practice in self care constitutes an urgent question in our time and it is the main objective of this paper. With this constitution of academic and specialized knowledge of the translation and interpretation studies of sign language e its affiliation with the Translation Studies field, the displacement of the SLTI is emergent. Besides the introduction and final conclusions, the text will be divided in three parts. The first part, we will discuss about research and political questions that emerges about the SLTI. Those are undertaken by government devices with the objective to locate the relevance of the purpose of this text that is beyond prescriptive and descriptive ethics and discuss it as practical life. In the second part of the text it will be problematized, questions, inspired by Foucault, that penetrates the ethical practice of the SLTI starting from the comprehension of its function as intellectual in the area and its responsibility that asumes in the elaboration of its own subjectivity. To finish, in the last part of this paper, the commitment with the translation and the text and with the other as an ethical position adopted.

  14. Thoughts about the work of translation and interpretation in sign language as ethical and political practice in self care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyenne Matos da Costa Vieira-Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Think about the work of sign language translator and interpreter (SLTI as ethical and political practice in self care constitutes an urgent question in our time and it is the main objective of this paper. With this constitution of academic and specialized knowledge of the translation and interpretation studies of sign language e its affiliation with the Translation Studies field, the displacement of the SLTI is emergent. Besides the introduction and final conclusions, the text will be divided in three parts. The first part, we will discuss about research and political questions that emerges about the SLTI. Those are undertaken by government devices with the objective to locate the relevance of the purpose of this text that is beyond prescriptive and descriptive ethics and discuss it as practical life. In the second part of the text it will be problematized, questions, inspired by Foucault, that penetrates the ethical practice of the SLTI starting from the comprehension of its function as intellectual in the area and its responsibility that asumes in the elaboration of its own subjectivity. To finish, in the last part of this paper, the commitment with the translation and the text and with the other as an ethical position adopted.

  15. A Spanish-Language Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes: Translation Process and Assessment of Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Kevin L; Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Kennedy, Christine; Chen, Jyu-Lin; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Janson, Susan L

    2016-12-01

    Create a Spanish-language version of the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes (RPS-DD) and assess psychometric properties. The Spanish-language version was created through translation, harmonization, and presentation to the tool's original author. It was field tested in a foreignborn Latino sample and properties evaluated in principal components analysis. Personal Control, Optimistic Bias, and Worry multi-item Likert subscale responses did not cluster together. A clean solution was obtained after removing two Personal Control subscale items. Neither the Personal Disease Risk scale nor the Environmental Health Risk scale responses loaded onto single factors. Reliabilities ranged from .54 to .88. Test of knowledge performance varied by item. This study contributes to evidence of validation of a Spanish-language RPS-DD in foreign-born Latinos.

  16. Ellipsis and its Translation from Arabic into Malay Language: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Abd Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellipsis is one of the linguistic phenomena which can be found in Quranic and Arabic texts. Ellipsis is also used to denote specific meanings and purposes in a text. It is one of the conjunctional elements in the text linguistics that functionsas cohesion which connects parts of the text and provides explicit and implicit meanings accordingly that could be comprehended and guessed by the readers from the text. Readers could benefit from the ellipsis in a text by referring to the previous sentences in other paragraphs in order to understand the text. This paper, thus, attempts to study this linguistic phenomenon by analyzing the translation of the Quranic text in order to investigate the techniquesof translating a foreign text as well as to crystalize possible ways in dealing with ellipsis by the translators.This is to ascertain the importance of cohesion in a text as well as to facilitate and assist the translators to use sensible and correct translation techniques in dealing with ellipsis in the Quran.Ways of dealing with ellipsis are vary between translators that some of them are very concern about it and highlight it in their translation, but some only mention it briefly; and even worse, some of them just neglect it totally. Intrinsically, the translations of ellipsis in the Quranic text are very helpful and essential in providing clear and accurate meaning of the text as well as to maintain cohesiveness between the translated verses.

  17. A NEED FOR CONCEPTUALLY FLUENT LANGUAGE LEARNERS: RETHINKING THE USE OF TRANSLATION METHOD IN THE TEACHING OF IDIOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma YUVAYAPAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the notion of conceptual fluency has attracted much attention owing to its potential to native-like use of foreign language. It has conclusively been shown that comprehending the concepts of the target language, L2 learners may acquire the ability to speak as native speakers. Situated within the framework of developing conceptual fluency of L2 learners, this study examined whether the type of instruction has an effect on the conceptual fluency development of beginner level adult EFL learners. The participants consisting of 38 beginner level preparatory students of School of Foreign Languages of Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University were divided into two groups. The experimental group was exposed to a translation method rested on the comparison of L1 and L2 concepts to learn idioms taken from the songs while the control group learned these idioms through traditional translation method. The data included students’ one minute response paper gathered after each treatment which lasted 3 weeks and a 20 item-multiple-choice post-test. An ANCOVA analysis of the post-test scores showed that the experimental group accomplished better than the control group. The content analysis of the students’ one minute response paper also highlighted that translation method rested on the comparison of L1 and L2 concepts increased the awareness of the participants towards the non-literal meaning of English idioms. It appears that translation method comparing L1 and L2 concepts might contribute to the conceptual fluency development of beginner level adult L2 learners.

  18. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  19. Complications of Translating the Meanings of the Holy Qur'an at Word Level in the English Language in Relation to Frame Semantic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Asjad Ahmed Saeed; Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the problems resulting from the lexical choice in the translation of the Holy Qur'an to emphasize the importance of the theory of "Frame Semantics" in the translation process. It has been conducted with the aim of measuring the difference in concept between the two languages Arabic and…

  20. Considerations for Providing Test Translation Accommodations to English Language Learners on Common Core Standards-Based Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-14-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Oliveri, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review translation, adaptation policies, and practices in providing test accommodation for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We collected documents and conducted interviews with officials in the 12 states that provide translation accommodations to ELLs on content assessments. We then summarized challenges…

  1. Evaluating the Use of Machine Translation Post-Editing in the Foreign Language Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Generalised access to the Internet and globalisation has led to increased demand for translation services and a resurgence in the use of machine translation (MT) systems. MT post-editing or the correction of MT output to an acceptable standard is known to be one of the ways to face the huge demand on multilingual communication. Given that the use…

  2. BILINGUALISM AND CONCEPT TRANSLATIONS FROM RUSSIAN LANGUAGE INTO TATAR TURKISH / İKİ DİLLİLİK VE RUSÇADAN TATAR TÜRKÇESİNE GEÇEN KAVRAM TERCÜMELERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of concepts is one of the aspects occurring as a result of relationships among languages. In this study, concept translations borrowed from Russian language by Kazan Tatar Turks who are bilingual Turkic clan were investigated. The words used in colloquial language were especially searched and classified under several titles. In this context, it was stressed how Russian language affected Tatar Turkish and the process of concept translations were searched.

  3. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. CONCLUSION: When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. PRACTICE...

  4. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Neto, Jorge Raduan; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Pereira, Carina Nascimento Mastrocinque; Dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flavio

    2014-09-01

    The use of patient-reported outcome questionnaires is recommended in orthopedic studies. However, validated tools are necessary to ensure the comparability of results across different studies, centers, and countries. The Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire (BMHQ) can be used for outcome measures in self-evaluation after carpal tunnel release. This study aimed to translate the BMHQ to Portuguese to permit cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilians patients. We translated the Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire from the original version (English) to Brazilian Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation of the content of this tool consisted of six stages, according to the methodology proposed by medical literature: (1) initial translation of the questionnaire by two independent translators; (2) synthesis of translations and reconciliation; (3) back-translation to English of the reconciled version; (4) verification of the cultural equivalence process by an expert committee; (5) pre-testing in a sample of patients to verify understanding of the items; and (6) development of a final version of the BMHQ. The pre-final version of the tool was applied to 43 patients to verify its understanding. Pre-testing showed that the questions and options were satisfactorily understood. The number of items from the original English version was maintained in the Brazilian Portuguese version of BMHQ. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the BMHQ is easily understood by patients and will be useful to clinicians and researchers.

  5. Translation and validation of the insomnia severity index in hindi language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahan, Vivekananda; Gupta, Ravi

    2011-07-01

    Translation of the Insomnia Severity Index from English to Hindi and Validation of the Hindi version. The translation process of the Insomnia Severity Index was initiated after obtaining due permission from the author of the original version of the same. Translation was carried out by using standard translation procedures, such as combined translation, decentering, and pretest method. The final version of the Insomnia Severity Index in Hindi was finally validated. A randomly selected sample size of 65 subjects was enrolled for the purpose of validation and testing the reliability of Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia was present in 45 subjects and they constituted the insomnia group. The rest 20 subjects did not have insomnia and were included in the control group. The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index was applied to both the groups. The total sample constituted of 50.8% males and 49.2% females. The mean age in the control group was 30.8±8.3 years and that in the insomnia group was 40.3±4 years (t=3.04; P=0.001). The translated version of the Insomnia Severity Index showed a reliability of 0.91 (Cronbach's α=0.91). This was not just simple translation, but many of the words were changed to adapt it for the local population. The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a valid and reliable tool that can be administered for the assessment of severity of insomnia.

  6. The Reception of Arabic-Language Works Translated into English and Published in the U.S. before and after September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayaheen, Bilal Najeh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the reception of Arabic language works translated into English and published in the U.S. before and after September 11 as reflected in paratexts. This study seeks to explicitly answer these questions: 1) What are the socio-cultural factors that shaped the production and reception of Arabic language works…

  7. A Typology of LLD Translation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Gyorgy

    1987-01-01

    Discusses several concerns of translating "Languages of Limited Diffusion" (LLD) including: (1) the lack of knowledge of the language; (2) the role of word-for-word or computer translation; (3) translating from a translation or from the translator's native language; (4) common elements in the source and target languages; (5) uncommon languages'…

  8. Translation of a German Professional Text Used at University Level Foreign Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Michňová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays knowing professional language is an essential part of professional success and career growth for university graduates majoring in non-philological studies. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to further enhancement and efficiency of foreign language teaching at university level. Based on the theoretical background and confirmation of hypotheses, the paper describes and explains why it is appropriate to include, in addition to training of basic language skills (passive: list...

  9. Computer-Aided Clinical Trial Recruitment Based on Domain-Specific Language Translation: A Case Study of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reusing the data from healthcare information systems can effectively facilitate clinical trials (CTs). How to select candidate patients eligible for CT recruitment criteria is a central task. Related work either depends on DBA (database administrator) to convert the recruitment criteria to native SQL queries or involves the data mapping between a standard ontology/information model and individual data source schema. This paper proposes an alternative computer-aided CT recruitment paradigm, based on syntax translation between different DSLs (domain-specific languages). In this paradigm, the CT recruitment criteria are first formally represented as production rules. The referenced rule variables are all from the underlying database schema. Then the production rule is translated to an intermediate query-oriented DSL (e.g., LINQ). Finally, the intermediate DSL is directly mapped to native database queries (e.g., SQL) automated by ORM (object-relational mapping).

  10. Translation, validity and reliability of the British Sign Language (BSL) version of the EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Pilling, Mark; Davies, Linda; Belk, Rachel; Nassimi-Green, Catherine; Young, Alys

    2016-07-01

    To translate the health questionnaire EuroQol EQ-5D-5L into British Sign Language (BSL), to test its reliability with the signing Deaf population of BSL users in the UK and to validate its psychometric properties. The EQ-5D-5L BSL was developed following the international standard for translation required by EuroQol, with additional agreed features appropriate to a visual language. Data collection used an online platform to view the signed (BSL) version of the tests. The psychometric testing included content validity, assessed by interviewing a small sample of Deaf people. Reliability was tested by internal consistency of the items and test-retest, and convergent validity was assessed by determining how well EQ-5D-5L BSL correlates with CORE-10 BSL and CORE-6D BSL. The psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L BSL are good, indicating that it can be used to measure health status in the Deaf signing population in the UK. Convergent validity between EQ-5D-5L BSL and CORE-10 BSL and CORE-6D BSL is consistent, demonstrating that the BSL version of EQ-5D-5L is a good measure of the health status of an individual. The test-retest reliability of EQ-5D-5L BSL, for each dimension of health, was shown to have Cohen's kappa values of 0.47-0.61; these were in the range of moderate to good and were therefore acceptable. This is the first time EQ-5D-5L has been translated into a signed language for use with Deaf people and is a significant step forward towards conducting studies of health status and cost-effectiveness in this population.

  11. Literature in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    An examination of literature in translation is vital to literary interpretation and, ultimately, essential to mutual understanding among peoples from different cultures. Teaching translations requires consideration of linguistic, social, and temporal areas. Translations require alterations in language since languages never translate precisely from…

  12. The consequences of language proficiency and difficulty of lexical access for translation performance and priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Tokowicz, Natasha; Kroll, Judith F

    2014-01-01

    Repetition priming was used to assess how proficiency and the ease or difficulty of lexical access influence bilingual translation. Two experiments, conducted at different universities with different Spanish-English bilingual populations and materials, showed repetition priming in word translation for same-direction and different-direction repetitions. Experiment 1, conducted in an English-dominant environment, revealed an effect of translation direction but not of direction match, whereas Experiment 2, conducted in a more balanced bilingual environment, showed an effect of direction match but not of translation direction. A combined analysis on the items common to both studies revealed that bilingual proficiency was negatively associated with response time (RT), priming, and the degree of translation asymmetry in RTs and priming. An item analysis showed that item difficulty was positively associated with RTs, priming, and the benefit of same-direction over different-direction repetition. Thus, although both participant accuracy and item accuracy are indices of learning, they have distinct effects on translation RTs and on the learning that is captured by the repetition-priming paradigm.

  13. Beitrag Der Überzetzung Zu Den Rezeptiven Srachfertigkeiten The contribution of translation to perceptual language skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe UYANIK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of foreign language teaching is to make students gain thebasic language skills such as reading, speaking, writing and listeningcomprehension. The preparation of subject content and configuration ofmaterials are formed in line with this purpose. Translation contributesto these developments of skills significantly. But this translation’scontribution has been ignored all the time in teaching process of foreignlanguage. But being made in support of teaching methods are thetalents translations in the native language as well as the targetlanguage. Besides, thanks to translation events, simplify the transferfrom gain grammatical instructions. Next to it is the transmission ofgrammatical structures, which is also supported by the EuropeanFramework, facilitates. The aim of this study is to point out the positivecontributions to the development of translation event so perceptualskills that including listening and reading comprehension in teaching offoreign language. How to improve both types of skills has been showedwith applicable examples in the class environment. It’s beenexperienced that translation events improve reading and listeningcomprehension skills in main language as well as target language andalso enriches foreign language student’s vocabulary. And it has beenseen that translation makes them gain grammatical instructions moreconsciously. It was determined that translation exercises from readingand listening texts expand the perception fortune, of learners andfacilitate sense-from the text context. Also be obtained by reading andlistening to their language skills in both languages continued visuallearners, using these assets, rather than memorized expressions canmake personal remarks. The enrichment of the vocabulary of learnersin the reciprocal languages is another contribution of the translation. Yabancı dil öğretiminde amaç, öğrenciye duyduğunu anlama, okuduğunu anlama, konuşma ve yazma gibi temel dil becerilerini

  14. Translating into Understanding: Language Brokering and Prosocial Development in Emerging Adults from Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shu-Sha A.; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Orellana, Marjorie F.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study assessed the nature of language brokering and the relationship between language brokering and prosocial capacities in a sample of 139 college students from ethnically diverse immigrant families. The prosocial capacities of interest were empathic concern and two forms of perspective-taking: general perspective-taking…

  15. The Parameters of Sign Language Defined: Translation and Definition Rules. Research Report No. 83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Robert J.; And Others

    Presented are rules of sign language structure which have provided a framework for linguistic analysis in a project studying the acquisition of sign language by 10 deaf children of deaf parents. Two levels of rules are outlined: definition rules, which deal with definitions of terms used in the analysis and their relation to terms used in other…

  16. Scientific-Based Translation of Standardized Questionnaires into Sign Language of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, A.S.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Ens-Dokkum, M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Nicodemus, B.; Metzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare, the accuracy of interpretation is the most critical component of safe and effective communication between providers and patients in medical settings characterized by language and cultural barriers. Although medical education should prepare healthcare providers for common issues they

  17. Multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the OARSI/OMERACT measure of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillefert, J F; Kloppenburg, M; Fernandes, L; Punzi, L; Günther, K-P; Martin Mola, E; Lohmander, L S; Pavelka, K; Lopez-Olivo, M A; Dougados, M; Hawker, G A

    2009-10-01

    To conduct a multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain (ICOAP) questionnaire for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The questionnaires were translated and cross-culturally adapted in parallel, using a common protocol, into the following languages: Czech, Dutch, French (France), German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish (Castillan), North and Central American Spanish, Swedish. The process was conducted following five steps: (1)--independent translation into the target language by two or three persons; (2)--consensus meeting to obtain a single preliminary translated version; (3)--backward translation by an independent bilingual native English speaker, blinded to the English original version; (4)--final version produced by a multidisciplinary consensus committee; (5)--pre-testing of the final version with 10-20 target-language-native hip and knee OA patients. The process could be followed and completed in all countries. Only slight differences were identified in the structure of the sentences between the original and the translated versions. A large majority of the patients felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand and complete. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Moreover, a majority of patients found the concepts of constant pain and pain that comes and goes to be of a great pertinence and were very happy with the distinction. The ICOAP questionnaire is now available for multi-center international studies.

  18. Development of a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Chinese immigrants to the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Christine Ml; Napoles, Anna M; Chou, Jeyling; Seligman, Hilary K

    2015-02-01

    To develop a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. In the current qualitative study, we (i) highlight methodological challenges which arise in developing survey instruments that will be used to make comparisons across language groups and (ii) describe the development of a Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module, called the San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module. Community sites in San Francisco, CA, USA. We conducted cognitive interviews with twenty-two community members recruited from community sites hosting food pantries and with five professionals recruited from clinical settings. Development of conceptually equivalent surveys can be difficult. We highlight challenges related to dialect, education, literacy (e.g. preferences for more or less formal phrasing), English words and phrases for which there is no Chinese language equivalent (e.g. 'balanced meals' and 'eat less than you felt you should') and response formats. We selected final translations to maximize: (i) consistency of the Chinese translation with the intent of the English version; (ii) clarity; and (iii) similarities in understanding across dialects and literacy levels. Survey translation is essential for conducting research in many communities. The challenges encountered illustrate how literal translations can affect the conceptual equivalence of survey items across languages. Cognitive interview methods should be routinely used for survey translation when such non-equivalence is suspected, such as in surveys addressing highly culturally bound behaviours such as diet and eating behaviours. Literally translated surveys lacking conceptual equivalence may magnify or obscure important health inequalities.

  19. Translatress, Translator, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Margala, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    I still manage to surprise a few scholars from other fields when they hear that there is such a thing as research of gender issues within the field of translation studies. It may seem as such a narrow niche – but only deceivingly so. It is language, linguistics, pragmatics, culture, history, literature, anthropology, gender metaphorics, communication, interpreting, cultural politics, social studies and politics, psychology and I can go on and on. History seems to be a very appropriate startin...

  20. A good practice guide for translating and adapting hearing-related questionnaires for different languages and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah A; Zaragoza Domingo, Silvia; Hamdache, Leila Z; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Evans, Chris; Wong, Lena L N

    2017-11-21

    To raise awareness and propose a good practice guide for translating and adapting any hearing-related questionnaire to be used for comparisons across populations divided by language or culture, and to encourage investigators to publish detailed steps. From a synthesis of existing guidelines, we propose important considerations for getting started, followed by six early steps: (1) Preparation, (2, 3) Translation steps, (4) Committee Review, (5) Field testing and (6) Reviewing and finalising the translation. Not applicable. Across these six steps, 22 different items are specified for creating a questionnaire that promotes equivalence to the original by accounting for any cultural differences. Published examples illustrate how these steps have been implemented and reported, with shared experiences from the authors, members of the International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology and TINnitus research NETwork. A checklist of the preferred reporting items is included to help researchers and clinicians make informed choices about conducting or omitting any items. We also recommend using the checklist to document these decisions in any resulting report or publication. Following this step-by-step guide would promote quality assurance in multinational trials and outcome evaluations but, to confirm functional equivalence, large-scale evaluation of psychometric properties should follow.

  1. Health related quality of life measure in systemic pediatric rheumatic diseases and its translation to different languages: an international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Lakshmi Nandini; Roy, Elizabeth; Kurra, Vamsi; Peterson, Margaret G E; Hassett, Afton L; Lehman, Thomas J A; Scott, Christiaan; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia; Saad, Shereen; El Feky, Reem; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman; Dolezalova, Pavla; Malcova, Hana; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Wulffraat, Nico; van Royen, Annet; Marks, Stephen D; Belot, Alexandre; Brunner, Jurgen; Huemer, Christian; Foeldvari, Ivan; Horneff, Gerd; Saurenman, Traudel; Schroeder, Silke; Pratsidou-Gertsi, Polyxeni; Trachana, Maria; Uziel, Yosef; Aggarwal, Amita; Constantin, Tamas; Cimaz, Rolando; Giani, Theresa; Cantarini, Luca; Falcini, Fernanda; Manzoni, Silvia Magni; Ravelli, Angelo; Rigante, Donato; Zulian, Fracnceso; Miyamae, Takako; Yokota, Shumpei; Sato, Juliana; Magalhaes, Claudia S; Len, Claudio A; Appenzeller, Simone; Knupp, Sheila Oliveira; Rodrigues, Marta Cristine; Sztajnbok, Flavio; de Almeida, Rozana Gasparello; de Jesus, Adriana Almeida; de Arruda Campos, Lucia Maria; Silva, Clovis; Lazar, Calin; Susic, Gordana; Avcin, Tadej; Cuttica, Ruben; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Faugier, Enrique; Anton, Jordi; Modesto, Consuelo; Vazquez, Liza; Barillas, Lilliana; Barinstein, Laura; Sterba, Gary; Maldonado, Irama; Ozen, Seza; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Demirkaya, Erkan; Benseler, Susa

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases in children are associated with significant morbidity and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There is no health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scale available specifically for children with less common rheumatic diseases. These diseases share several features with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) such as their chronic episodic nature, multi-systemic involvement, and the need for immunosuppressive medications. HRQOL scale developed for pediatric SLE will likely be applicable to children with systemic inflammatory diseases. We adapted Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY©) to Simple Measure of Impact of Illness in Youngsters (SMILY©-Illness) and had it reviewed by pediatric rheumatologists for its appropriateness and cultural suitability. We tested SMILY©-Illness in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases and then translated it into 28 languages. Nineteen children (79% female, n=15) and 17 parents participated. The mean age was 12±4 years, with median disease duration of 21 months (1-172 months). We translated SMILY©-Illness into the following 28 languages: Danish, Dutch, French (France), English (UK), German (Germany), German (Austria), German (Switzerland), Hebrew, Italian, Portuguese (Brazil), Slovene, Spanish (USA and Puerto Rico), Spanish (Spain), Spanish (Argentina), Spanish (Mexico), Spanish (Venezuela), Turkish, Afrikaans, Arabic (Saudi Arabia), Arabic (Egypt), Czech, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Japanese, Romanian, Serbian and Xhosa. SMILY©-Illness is a brief, easy to administer and score HRQOL scale for children with systemic rheumatic diseases. It is suitable for use across different age groups and literacy levels. SMILY©-Illness with its available translations may be used as useful adjuncts to clinical practice and research.

  2. Language Centres as Translation-Service Providers: Joining Forces at European Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Julia; Owen, David; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The Translation Focus Group (TFG) within CercleS has paid particular attention to issues concerning the production of multilingual institutional texts within the context of European higher education, specifically in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of terminology and style in ways that ensure the availability of the best possible…

  3. A Survey of Word Reordering in Statistical Machine Translation : Computational Models and Language Phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisazza, A.; Federico, M.

    Word reordering is one of the most difficult aspects of statistical machine translation (SMT), and an important factor of its quality and efficiency. Despite the vast amount of research published to date, the interest of the community in this problem has not decreased, and no single method appears

  4. Second Language Learners' Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Alsheikh, Negmeldin Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students' performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students' strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy…

  5. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  6. From community training to university training (and vice-versa: new sign language translator and interpreter profile in the brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina de Oliveira Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the new profile of sign language translators/interpreters that is taking shape in Brazil since the implementation of policies stimulating the training of these professionals. We qualitatively analyzed answers to a semi-open questionary given by undergraduate students from a BA course in translation and interpretation in Brazilian sign language/Portuguese. Our results show that the ones to seek for this area are not, as it used to be, the ones who have some relation with the deaf community and/or need some kind of certification for their activity as a sign language interpreter. Actually, the students’ choice for the course in discussion had to do with their score in a unified profession selection system (SISU. This contrasts with the 1980, 1990, 2000 sign language interpreter’s profile. As Brazilian Sign Language has become more popular, people search for a university degree have started to see sign language translation/interpreting as an interesting option for their career. So, we discuss here the need to take into account the need to provide students who cannot sign with the necessary pedagogical means to learn the language, which will promote the accessibility of Brazilian deaf communities.

  7. From community training to university training (and vice-versa: new sign language translator and interpreter profile in the brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina de Oliveira Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the new profile of sign language translators/interpreters that is taking shape in Brazil since the implementation of policies stimulating the training of these professionals. We qualitatively analyzed answers to a semi-open questionary given by undergraduate students from a BA course in translation and interpretation in Brazilian sign language/Portuguese. Our results show that the ones to seek for this area are not, as it used to be, the ones who have some relation with the deaf community and/or need some kind of certification for their activity as a sign language interpreter. Actually, the students’ choice for the course in discussion had to do with their score in a unified profession selection system (SISU. This contrasts with the 1980, 1990, 2000 sign language interpreter’s profile. As Brazilian Sign Language has become more popular, people search for a university degree have started to see sign language translation/interpreting as an interesting option for their career. So, we discuss here the need to take into account the need to provide students who cannot sign with the necessary pedagogical means to learn the language, which will promote the accessibility of Brazilian deaf communities.

  8. The Slavonic Translation of the Life of Saint Euthymius the Great: Observations on Language and Authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Evgenyevich Afinogenov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Slavonic translation of the Life of Saint Euthymius the Great (BHG 647 by Cyril of Scythopolis, attested at the earliest manuscript of the late 14th c., was probably made by a person originating from South-East Rus in the 11th c., as it displays some grammatical, lexical, and phonetic features peculiar for this area and time, and visible, in particular, in Ipatiev Chronicle and the Tale of Igor’s Campaign. It may have formed a part of the collection comprising several writings by Cyril, including the Life of Saint Sabas and the Praise of Euthymius and Sabas (lost in the Greek original. This collection was later incorporated into the Great Lectionary Menologion of Metropolitan Makarij. The details added by the translator to the description of certain realia pertaining to the Monastery of Saint Euthymius in Palestine suggest a personal knowledge of that monastic complex (the Laura and the coenobium. The proposed author of the translation is Saint Anthony of the Cave Monastery in Kiev († 1073, who could perfectly well have visited the Holy Land during his stay on Mount Athos prior to 1051.

  9. Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the French language translation of the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, C; Balg, F; Godbout, V; Pelet, S; Djahangiri, A; Griffin, S; Rouleau, D M

    2014-02-01

    The WOSI (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index) is a self-administered quality of life questionnaire designed to be used as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials on shoulder instability, as well as to measure the effect of an intervention on any particular patient. It is validated and is reliable and sensitive. As it is designed to measure subjective outcome, it is important that translation should be methodologically rigorous, as it is subject to both linguistic and cultural interpretation. To produce a French language version of the WOSI that is culturally adapted to both European and North American French-speaking populations. A validated protocol was used to create a French language WOSI questionnaire (WOSI-Fr) that would be culturally acceptable for both European and North American French-speaking populations. Reliability and responsiveness analyses were carried out, and the WOSI-Fr was compared to the F-QuickDASH-D/S (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand-French translation), and Walch-Duplay scores. A French language version of the WOSI (WOSI-Fr) was accepted by a multinational committee. The WOSI-Fr was then validated using a total of 144 native French-speaking subjects from Canada and Switzerland. Comparison of results on two WOSI-Fr questionnaires completed at a mean interval of 16 days showed that the WOSI-Fr had strong reliability, with a Pearson and interclass correlation of r=0.85 (P=0.01) and ICC=0.84 [95% CI=0.78-0.88]. Responsiveness, at a mean 378.9 days after surgical intervention, showed strong correlation with that of the F-QuickDASH-D/S, with r=0.67 (Planguage translation of the WOSI questionnaire was created and validated for use in both Canadian and Swiss French-speaking populations. This questionnaire will facilitate outcome assessment in French-speaking settings, collaboration in multinational studies and comparison between studies performed in different countries. Multicenter cohort study. II. Copyright © 2013. Published

  10. Sign Language Recognition and Translation: A Multidisciplined Approach from the Field of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research has progressed steadily in regard to the use of computers to recognize and render sign language. This paper reviews significant projects in the field beginning with finger-spelling hands such as "Ralph" (robotics), CyberGloves (virtual reality sensors to capture isolated and continuous signs), camera-based…

  11. Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying, Ed.; Zhao, Wei, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    As an area of research that continues to develop, the study of linguistics worldwide presents the opportunity for the improvement of cross-cultural communication through education and research. Language educators are charged with the task of instructing students to effectively communicate across cultures in a multi-lingual world. The…

  12. Translating Message Sequence Charts to other Process Languages using Process Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van Dongen, Boudewijn; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.

    Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are a well known language for specifying scenarios that describe how different actors (e.g., system components, people, or organizations) interact. MSCs are often used as a starting point for software analysts to discuss the behavior of a system with different...

  13. Thinking for translating and intra-typological variation in satellite-framed languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    -framed typological group, Polish provides less diversified Manner and Path descriptions than German, which exploits the satellite lexicalization pattern by far more productively. We relate these contrasts in the rhetorical style to the particular morpho-syntactic and semantic characteristics of the languages under...

  14. Similarities of L1 (Mother Tongue) in Terms of Grammar and Language Structure in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vijayaletchumy

    2011-01-01

    Malaysian philosophy, purpose and objective of the education system are rooted and based on policies stated in the National Education Policy 1956 and Education Act 1961. Whereas the Education Ordinance 1952 urged all Chinese and Tamil schools to be given an equal opportunity to learn English and Malay language together with their L1 (mother…

  15. Legal integration and language diversity: The case for source-oriented EU translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union ("EU"), law and language are inherently connected. On the one hand, the EU pursues legal integration, i.e. the incremental harmonization and unification of its Member States’ laws, for the purpose of reducing national regulatory differences between Member States. On the other

  16. Cultural Asymmetry as a Problem in the Dutch-language Translations of Popiół i diament, Mała apokalipsa and Dukla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryczyńska Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Culture is present in texts created in a certain literary system and socio-cultural context on every level and becomes particularly visible in culture-specific items (CSIs. They anchor the texts into a certain culture and as such pose serious translation problems. At the same time culture is embedded in the system of transnational relations where there is always cultural asymmetry that exerts influence on the translation process. The position of the culture and the language in the international system tends to be reflected in translator’s choices. This paper addresses the issue of the cultural asymmetry and culturebound translation problems in the Dutch translations of modern Polish literature. For this purpose the author takes a close look at the translations of Popioł i diament [Ashes and Diamonds], Mała apokalipsa [A minor apocalypse] and Dukla [Dukla].

  17. Grammar Translation Method (GTM Versus Communicative Language Teaching (CLT; A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Natsir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology is one of the important elements to implement he objective of education in teaching learning process particularly in English classes. To give the information about two phenomenal methods namely GTM and CLT is the main purpose of this scientific writing since GTM is commonly used previously and CLT is very famous nowadays. In so doing, the strength of this paper is to improve the knowledge of educational practitioners especially in method of teaching English. The comparison between the two methods is elaborated clearly in terms of the principles. The principles are characteristic of teaching learning process, nature of instruction, handling the students’ feelings and emotions, the role of native language of students, the language skills that are emphasized, and the way of teacher’s response to students’ errors. The more beneficial method nowadays is CLT but GTM also still has some  positive things offer.

  18. Foreign Language Education and the Environment. Considerations from the Perspective of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valero-Garcés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Having been a teacher to foreign language students and as a current trainer totranslators, I can see how important it is to make connections between reality andformal education when preparing professionals to enter the job market once (or evenbefore their training is completed. Assuming, on one hand, that ecology is a dominantscience in today’s world with a far-reaching and powerful impact on humanity, and onthe other hand, that I have before me in class a generation of future teachers andtranslators with an environmental consciousness that needs to be raised, it is mypurpose in the following pages to give insights into language specialists’ (SLA andtranslators training and how it relates to the environment.

  19. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  20. The German translation and validation of the scale for the assessment of thought, language and communication: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Arne; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    The Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language and Communication (TLC) represents an instrument for the assessment of formal thought disorder (FTD). The factorial dimensionality of the TLC has yielded ambiguous results for a distinction between positive (e.g. circumstantiality) and negative (e.g. poverty of speech) FTD. The purpose of the current study was to first translate and validate the TLC scale in German. Second, the internal structure was explored in order to identify different FTD dimensions. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients with ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n = 63, schizophrenia n = 63, mania n = 20; 64 healthy subjects) were interviewed and FTD was rated with the TLC. The principal component analysis of the German TLC version revealed a 3-factor solution, reflecting a disorganized factor, an emptiness factor and a linguistic control factor. The current investigation yielded similar results to those originally reported for the TLC. Thus, a distinction between a positive disorganized, a negative and a semantic word level factor can be supported for the German translation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. THE COGNITIVE THEORY OF SPATIAL PREPOSITION AND ITS APPLICATION TO TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Kusmanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dichotomy of function and content words has for so long, precisely since Fries (1952, positioned the preposition as a subject of marginal interest in linguistic studies from the perspective of both formal and functional school of linguistics. If any, such studies have generally resulted merely in the description of its function and position. Yet, in English for instance, function words are not stressed in utterances and, therefore, considered to play a minor and an unimportant role in conveying messages in a communication. The paper does not discuss all types of preposition but focuses its discussion on the spatial preposition. This paper discusses (i what cognitive aspects drive and motivate the emergence of the lexical meaning of spatial preposition, (ii how English and Bahasa Indonesia differ and share the use of spatial preposition, and (iii how TEFL and teaching translation can take advantage of the answer of the second question. The first question forms the theoretical foundation of the discussion based on the Cognitive Linguistics perspective. The second question discusses the differences and the similarities of the spatial preposition in English and Bahasa Indonesia based on the above theoretical foundation. The third question is related to how TEFL and teaching translation can benefit from this comparative study between English and Indonesia spatial preposition. Finally, the discussion also shows that the lexical meaning of spatial preposition demonstrate how language, culture, and mind are intertwined.

  2. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  3. Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire: translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Anabela; Ambrósio, Catarina; Pereira da Silva, J A; McKenna, Stephen; Wilburn, Jeanette; Lopes Ferreira, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients. The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to measure the quality of life in patients with PsA. The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the questionnaire for Portugal and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with PsA. The original UK English version of the PsAQoL was translated into Portuguese by a bilingual and lay panel. Structured cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with ten PsA patients. The Portuguese PsAQoL was subsequently applied to PsA patients followed at the Rheumatology Department of Centro Hospitalar do Baixo Vouga, E.P.E. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients with PsA completed the Portuguese PsAQoL on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. A larger sample was recruited to determine internal consistency and construct validity. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator instrument. Translation and adaptation were successful. Cronbach´s alpha for the Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was 0.91 and the test-retest reliability was 0.93. The PsAQoL could distinguish between groups of patients defined by self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. There was a positive correlation between the total score of the PsAQoL and each of the sections of the NHP. The Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete, reliable and valid.

  4. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Translation and validation in Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Noemí; Ciaravino, Octavio; Zambrano, Olga; Villena, Rita; Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio; Squassi, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Health is currently recognized as lying in the individual process rooted in genes, personal habits, the social model and the understanding of the ideological standpoint from which it is viewed. The aim of this study was to validate the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for use in Latin American communities, in order to demonstrate its efficacy for determining the impact of dental condition on children under 5 years of age and their families. The ECOHIS explores two domains: impact on children (9 questions) and on families (4 questions). Validation in Spanish was done in four stages. Stage I included translation and back-translation of the questionnaire (English-Spanish-English). Stage II was a pilot test on families in Venezuela to test stability (test-retest) and make semantic adjustments. Stage III included validation of the questionnaire applied to a Venezuelan sample (n = 50) and two Argentine samples (A and B, made up of families with and without social risk, respectively; n = 95), and consisted of statistical analysis to check the questionnaire's internal consistency and discriminant capacity. In the final stage, parents were given feedback on the results and significance of each domain in the questionnaire. From the results of this study it may be concluded that the Spanish version of the ECOHIS was reliable and valid for administering to populations with homogeneous social risk, and that parents without social risk factors (AC/B) have significantly greater perception of the impact of oral health on the family's quality of life. The trends recorded suggest that (a) larger samples should be used, including variables for diagnosing social vulnerability or general risk, (b) the association with dental condition should be established by applying indicators to discriminate distinct cut-off points in the dental caries process and (c) it should be ascertained whether there are changes in perception of the impact on quality of life before and after

  5. Defining behavior-environment interactions: translating and developing an experimental and applied behavior-analytic vocabulary in and to the national language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Martti T; Parkkinen, Lauri

    2012-05-01

    Verbal behavior, as in the use of terms, is an important part of scientific activity in general and behavior analysis in particular. Many glossaries and dictionaries of behavior analysis have been published in English, but few in any other language. Here we review the area of behavior analytic terminology, its translations, and development in languages other than English. As an example, we use our own mother tongue, Finnish, which provides a suitable example of the process of translation and development of behavior analytic terminology, because it differs from Indo-European languages and entails specific advantages and challenges in the translation process. We have published three editions of a general dictionary of behavior analysis including 801 terms relevant to the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis and one edition of a dictionary of applied and clinical behavior analysis containing 280 terms. Because this work has been important to us, we hope this review will encourage similar work by behavior analysts in other countries whose native language is not English. Behavior analysis as an advanced science deserves widespread international dissemination and proper translations are essential to that goal.

  6. Defining Behavior-Environment Interactions: Translating and Developing An Experimental and Applied Behavior-Analytic Vocabulary in and to the National Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Marti T.; Parkkinen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Verbal behavior, as in the use of terms, is an important part of scientific activity in general and behavior analysis in particular. Many glossaries and dictionaries of behavior analysis have been published in English, but few in any other language. Here we review the area of behavior analytic terminology, its translations, and development in…

  7. Attitudes of Undergraduates towards Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching in EFL Context: A Case Study of SBK Women's University Quetta, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hina

    2016-01-01

    CLT and GTM have been popular and much practiced methodologies in classrooms worldwide in teaching English language. The purpose of the current research is to examine students' attitude towards Grammar Translation Method and CLT in Pakistan at graduate level. The data for the current study was collected through questionnaire from undergraduate…

  8. The European general practice research network presents the translations of its comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine in ten European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Forward translation of the EGPRN's definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached. 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care.

  9. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  10. A Korean language translation of the Questions About Behavior Function: initial psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dennis R; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L

    2013-06-01

    Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The factor structure was examined in a sample of 153 QABF-K assessments, which yielded a five-factor-solution identical to the original English version. In terms of reliability, internal consistency was good with Chronbach's alpha ranging from 0.80 to 0.87 and test-retest reliability was found to be good with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.91. Based upon the present results, the QABF-K appears to be a promising tool for use with informants whose primary language is Korean. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glossing, transliterating and translating interactional data on languages other than English for international publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Hirataka, Fumiya; Sadeghi, Sima

    problems the authors have encountered in publishing in English on conversational data in three linguistically and pragmatically different languages (Japanese, Persian, German), and in conversations between native and nonnative speakers (e.g. Brazilians speaking Japanese). 1) Regarding the layout......In the area of pragmatics the numbers of studies on non-English data has been increasing. For the career of most researchers, it is highly desirable to publish internationally, and thus in English. When researchers transcribe and gloss non-English data for publications in English, they often need...... to make practical decisions that have an impact on the analysis and presentation of results. This paper argues methodologically that non-English data should be treated more faithfully. The paper starts by examining how researchers in different fields of pragmatics have handled this issue and what problems...

  12. Presupposti teorici per un progetto di insegnamento della traduzione dalla lingua straniera basato sull'analisi testuale (Theoretical Presuppositions for a Project to Teach Translation from a Foreign Language Based on Textual Analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrakh, Livio

    1987-01-01

    Discusses an approach to translation based on textual linguistics. The student/translator first looks at the foreign language text as a whole, then analyzes its parts, and finally arrives at a new synthesis (the translation) that is comparable to the original text. (CFM)

  13. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  14. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  15. Translation, Adaptation and Cross Language Validation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ammar

    2017-12-01

    Tinnitus is characterized as a perception of numerous auditory sounds in absence of external stimulus. Tinnitus can have a considerable consequence on a person's quality of life, and is considered to be very complicated to quantify. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of Urdu translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) in Pakistan. It was designed to assess the presence of various auditory sounds without the external stimulus. Scale consisted of 25 items having three subscales functional, emotional, and catastrophic. The study comprised into two stages, preliminary and main studies. The results of preliminary study revealed that the overall scale had high internal consistency [alpha coefficient of Urdu version of THI (THI-U)= 0.99, alpha coefficient of English version of THI=0.98]. The overall scale had test-retest correlation over a fifteen days period of interval (0.99). Main study was performed on 110 tinnitus patients. The results of main study showed that the internal consistency and reliability of Urdu version was (α=0.93). The THI-U and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability ( α =0.81 to 0.86). High to moderate correlations were noted between tinnitus symptom ratings. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the three subscales of THI-U, and high inter-correlations were found between the subscales also results revealed that a three-factor model for the THI-U was most tenable. The results displayed that the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed to validate the three subscales of THI-U. THI-U might present important information about precise facets of tinnitus distress along with diagnostic interviews in clinical practice.

  16. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis questionnaire (MHISS) into the Dutch language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouffoer, A A; Strijbos, E; Schuerwegh, A J M; Mouthon, L; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2013-11-01

    The Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis (MHISS) is a French-generic questionnaire evaluating mouth-opening restriction, dryness, and esthetic concerns. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the MHISS questionnaire into the Dutch language and evaluate its psychometric properties. The MHISS was translated according to international guidelines, field-tested among 16 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and adapted. Subsequently, the Dutch MHISS was administered to 52 SSc patients visiting the outpatient or day patient clinic of a university hospital and readministered after 2 weeks. Internal consistency was tested by computing Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was determined by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and validity by determining associations with measures of overall functioning (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), maximum mouth opening (MMO, in millimeter), subjective xerostomia (visual analog scale), and objective xerostomia (Saxon test). Patients had mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and disease duration of 55 ± 21 and 7.2 ± 7.3 years. Twenty-seven (52 %) patients had diffuse cutaneous SSc. The mean Dutch MHISS score was 17.5 (SD 10.0) with Cronbach's alpha being 0.862. Dutch MHISS scores differed significantly between patients with high and low disability levels (HAQ, MMO, and subjective and objective xerostomia divided according to the median; paired t test). Spearman rank correlations with HAQ (r = 0.599, p = 0.000), MMO (r = -0.518, p = 0.000), and subjective xerostomia (r = 0.536, p = 0.000) were moderate; correlation with objective xerostomia did not reach statistical significance. The ICC was 0.94. The Dutch version of the MHISS demonstrated good psychometric properties and is useful in assessing mouth disability in SSc patients.

  17. Culture in Translation and Translation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Christina

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of translation from an exchange of information within and across cultural boundaries to its current status as a scholarly endeavor. Translations may have far-reaching effects in the target and source culture. Translators should be cognizant of the foreign language and culture in order to successfully realize their role as…

  18. TRANSLATION TO PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF THE MODIFIED ROWE SCORE FOR OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes, Freddy Beretta; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Marchetto,Adriano; Andrade, André Luis Lugnani de; Filho, Américo Zoppi; Etchebehere, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Objetctive: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of translation, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the questionnaire, being the areas ?function? and ?pain? applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the ar...

  19. PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scales for adolescents in the Yoruba language: translation and general psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Stevanović, Dejan

    2014-04-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a universally accepted concept for measuring the impact of different aspects of life on general well-being. Adaptation of existing QOL instruments to local cultures has been identified as a better strategy than development of new ones. To translate and adapt the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) to the Yoruba language and culture and to test the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument among adolescents. Psychometric properties including internal consistency reliability, construct and factorial validity of the Yoruba version of PedsQL™ were evaluated using standard procedures. The self report and proxy scales of the Yoruba PedsQL™ were developed with good cultural relevance and semantic/conceptual equivalence. Results from 527 adolescents revealed a Cronbach's coefficient which exceeded 0.7 for internal consistency reliability for all scores. The healthy subjects reported higher PedsQL™ scores than those with mental health and physical problems, which confirmed construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Psychosocial Health score, but not for the other measures. The Yoruba PedsQL™ is culturally appropriate and with good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. More work is needed regarding its factorial validity.

  20. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...

  1. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  2. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  3. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  4. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  5. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  6. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  7. Translation and validation of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Brito, Luiz Gustavo; Malzone-Lott, Daniela Alves; Sandoval Fagundes, Mayra Fernanda; Magnani, Pedro Sérgio; Fernandes Arouca, Mariana Alves; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; Nogueira, Antônio Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF), also known as leiomyomas, are the most prevalent gynecological tumors. The Uterine Fibroid Symptoms and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) is the only specific questionnaire that assesses symptom intensity and quality-of-life issues for women with symptomatic UF; however, it only exists in the English language. Thus, we aimed to translate and culturally validate the UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Cross-sectional study, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, FMRP-USP. 113 patients with UF (case group) and 55 patients without UF (control group) were interviewed using the UFS-QOL questionnaire after translation and cultural adaptation. The Short Form-36 questionnaire was used as a control. Demographic and psychometric variables were analyzed. Women with UF presented higher mean age, body mass index, weight, parity and comorbidities than the control group (P translation to the Brazilian Portuguese language, with good internal consistency, discriminant validity, construct validity, structural validity and responsiveness, along with adequate test-retest results.

  8. INTRODUCING TRANSLATION-BASED ACTIVITIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: A STEP TOWARDS THE IMPROVEMENT OF LEARNERS’ ACCURATE USE OF WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS IN WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Delor Mbeudeu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL in the world in general and in Cameroon in particular has witnessed, over the last three decades, heated debates on which methodologies to adopt in the classroom and which learning strategies to apply for effective teaching and learning so that learners do not only acquire a linguistic competence but also communicative and sociolinguistic competences. This study aims at bringing to the limelight the so-criticised Grammar Translation Method in teaching/learning EFL in Cameroon. More specifically, this work investigates the perception of Anglophone and Francophone teachers of EFL on how the introduction of translation-based activities could be a step towards achieving accuracy in learners’ written productions. For data collection, a sample of certified secondary and high school EFL teachers were interviewed on the introduction of translation-based activities in their classroom practices. These teachers are unanimous that translation strategies must be adopted in the classroom for many reasons. This could foster students’ accuracy in writing; thus helping the achievement of another skill in learners namely, translation. But they all agree that the use of translation should be highly monitored by the classroom teacher; it should be mostly used at beginners’ level and gradually discarded as the learners progress to the end of the secondary school. From this, it is high time specialists in language planning and teaching policies rethought how the teaching of English should be done in Cameroon and this will go a long way to improve on educational success and effective official bilingualism.

  9. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  10. Machine Translation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  11. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  12. Ethics politics of translating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lovejoy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p237 Ethics and Politics of Translating, written by Henri Meschonnic and translated from the French by Pier-Pascale Boulanger provides an in-depth look at the theory of language in regard to translational studies.

  13. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one senior translator per classification. Allocate assistants to them as follows: each senior translator will be assisted by a language editor for the final editing, a subject specialist. (preferably a physician au fait with aerospace matters), and two good translators. Having all the resources at hand, the teams seclude themselves.

  14. Validation of a French translation of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) and comparison with other language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Annie; Pauzie, Aurelie; Richard, Celine

    2015-01-01

    To validate a French version of the speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale (SSQ), a subjective evaluation of patients' hearing disability, and to assess SSQ reproducibility across different language versions. The SSQ was translated in accordance with the principles of the 'Universalist approach' of cross-cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcome instruments. Scores from a normal-hearing and a hearing-impaired population were compiled and compared, whenever possible, with data from the literature, collected using other language versions. One hundred normal-hearing subjects and 230 hearing-impaired subjects. Good reproducibility of scores and inter-subject variability were obtained between several language versions, even if scores found using the French version were slightly lower than those obtained using Dutch or English versions. A comparison of factor analysis outcomes between the English and French versions confirmed good conceptual equivalence across languages and robustness of the SSQ for use in international settings. The three main subscales (speech, spatial, and qualities) confirmed their usefulness in assessing different aspects of hearing disability. This study validated a French-language version of the SSQ, and assessed the reproducibility of the SSQ across subject groups, administration modes, and different countries/languages, confirming its potential as an international standard for hearing disability evaluation.

  15. SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXT, PARALELL TEXT, AND MODEL TRANSLATED TEXT: A PILOT STUDY IN TEACHING TRANSLATION TEXTO LENGUA ORIGEN, TEXTO PARALELO Y TEXTO TRADUCIDO MODELO. ESTUDIO PILOTO EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA TRADUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette's (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper's (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (SLT is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.El desarrollo de las teorías traductológicas orientadas hacia la cultura en ocasiones ha opacado la naturaleza textolingüística de la traducción. Se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto para la enseñanza de la traducción con el fin de recalcar entre los estudiantes el carácter textolingüístico de la labor de traducción y para ayudarles a mejorar sus habilidades de traducción, con especial énfasis en las estrategias de autoconciencia y autocorrección. El marco teórico proviene del Modelo Traductológico Dinámico (2004, 2005, propuesto por el autor, con destacados aportes tomados de los fenómenos de transtextualidad de Genette (1982 (hipertexto, hipotexto, metatexto, paratexto, intertexto y de los marcadores de modalidad pragmática de House y Kasper (1981 (atenuadores, intensificadores. También se aborda el papel conceptual fundamental de la equivalencia como rasgo determinante de la traducci

  16. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  17. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  18. Do gênio da língua ao tradutor como gênio From the genius of language to the translator as genius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Seligmann-Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta dois modelos da tradução que caracterizaram o século XVII e XVIII mas que podem ser vistos como paradigmáticos na Teoria da Tradução. 1 O modelo retórico que defende a possibilidade de tradução e enfatiza a adaptação do original ao "gosto" do público de chegada. 2 O modelo que afirma a impossibilidade da tradução, a intraduzibilidade: a quer porque se valoriza no texto (e sobretudo na escrita dita poética justamente os seus aspectos mais sensuais e, portanto, indissociáveis da língua de partida; b quer porque se afirma o relativismo cultural e a intraduzibilidade entre as culturas; c quer porque se afirma não apenas a impossibilidade de separação entre os significados e os significantes, mas se define o próprio significante e as identidades de um modo geral como sendo um resultado de um jogo diferencial.The article presents two translation models that were typical in the XVII and XVIII centuries, but can also be seen as paradigmatics in the field of Translation Studies: 1 The rhetorical model that defends the possibility of translation and emphasizes the necessity of adapting the "original" to the "taste" of the target public. 2 The model that affirms the impossibility of translation, the non-translatability: a because the sensual elements that are linked to the language of the "original" are praised; b because there is a defense of the cultural relativism and of the non-translatability between cultures; c or because there is a defense not only of the impossibility to separate signifiers and meaning, but also because there is a definition of the signifier and of all identities as being the result of a differential game.

  19. The alternation of the verbs agapao and phileo in translations to Latin and Neo-Latin languages of the Bible text John 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Viana NASCIMENTO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is clear to see that a vast theoretical and analytical literature on the sacred texts of Christianity is produced nowadays in order to stimulate research in the field of biblical theology and to find the demands of a literary text well-known worldwide and considered as Divine Revelation by a considerable part of the world. Unfortunately, as we can be verified in the academy, there are still few the linguistic studies that cast its attention to investigate, in the sacred texts, aspects related to the science of language. Therefore influenced by such motives, this article aims to approach the problem of translation of three verses of the twenty first chapter and one of John’s Gospel, highlighting one pair of verbs (agapao and phileo that, in Koine Greek, are structurally different, according to the meaning each one evokes, but Bibles of Romance languages in closer so those used in Brazil, either Catholic or Protestant publishers, the verbs difference is not checked, nor it is the particular meaning that, in the Greek language, each one has. In order to deal with this aspect, the theory of dynamic equivalence, proposed by Nida (1964, has been the way in which these verses has been analyzed in order to reach for a translation that is closer to the original meaning of the text under consideration.

  20. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he

  1. Translation of Berlin Questionnaire to Portuguese language and its application in OSA identification in a sleep disordered breathing clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berlin Questionnaire (BQ, an English language screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in primary care, has been applied in tertiary settings, with variable results. Aims: Development of BQ Portuguese version and evaluation of its utility in a sleep disordered breathing clinic (SDBC. Material and methods: BQ was translated using back translation methodology and prospectively applied, previously to cardiorespiratory sleep study, to 95 consecutive subjects, referred to a SDBC, with OSA suspicion. OSA risk assessment was based on responses in 10 items, organized in 3 categories: snoring and witnessed apneas (category 1, daytime sleepiness (category 2, high blood pressure (HBP/obesity (category 3. Results: In the studied sample, 67.4% were males, with a mean age of 51 ± 13 years. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were positive in 91.6, 24.2 and 66.3%, respectively. BQ identified 68.4% of the patients as being in the high risk group for OSA and the remaining 31.6% in the low risk. BQ sensitivity and specificity were 72.1 and 50%, respectively, for an apnea-hipopnea index (AHI > 5, 82.6 and 44.8% for AHI > 15, 88.4 and 39.1% for AHI > 30. Being in the high risk group for OSA did not infl uence significantly the probability of having the disease (positive likelihood ratio [LR] between 1.44-1.49. Only the items related to snoring loudness, witnessed apneas and HBP/obesity presented a statistically positive association with AHI, with the model constituted by their association presenting a greater discrimination capability, especially for an AHI > 5 (sensitivity 65.2%, specificity 80%, positive LR 3.26. Conclusions: The BQ is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA in a SDBC, although snoring loudness, witnessed apneas, HBP/obesity have demonstrated being significant questionnaire elements in this population. Resumo: Introdução: O Questionário de Berlim (QB, originalmente desenvolvido em língua inglesa como um instrumento de

  2. The Impact of Translation Activities on the Development of African Languages in a Multilingual Society: Duramazwi reMimhanzi as a Case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Mheta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The article examines the impact of translation activities on the development of Afri-can languages in the multilingual Zimbabwean society. It analyses Shona musical terms created through translation processes and strategies such as borrowing, coining, compounding and deri-vation. Focus is on the way this ongoing term-creation is contributing to improving or hindering the development of Shona. The importance of such processes and strategies are discussed in the broader context of empowering African languages. The article also offers recommendations on how best to produce systematized terminology in music and other specialized fields.


    Keywords: TRANSLATION, DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES, MULTILIN-GUAL SOCIETIES, BORROWING, COINING, COMPOUNDING, DERIVATION, TERMINOL-OGY, TERMINOGRAPHY


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die uitwerking van vertaalaktiwiteite op die ontwikkeling van Afrikatale in 'n veeltalige samelewing: Duramazwi reMimhanzi as 'n ge-vallestudie. Die artikel ondersoek die uitwerking van vertaalaktiwiteite op die ontwikkeling van Afrikatale in die veeltalige Zimbabwiese samelewing. Dit ontleed Sjonamusiekterme geskep deur middel van vertaalprosesse en -strategieë soos ontlening, munting, samestelling en afleiding. Die fokus is op die manier hoe voortgaande termskepping bydra tot die verbetering of belemme-ring van Sjona. Die belangrikeid van sulke prosesse en strategieë word bespreek in die wyer kon-teks van die bemagtiging van die Afrikatale. Die artikel maak ook aanbevelings hoe om op die beste manier gesistematiseerde terminologie in musiek en ander gespesialiseerde gebiede voort te bring.

    Sleutelwoorde: VERTALING, ONTWIKKELING VAN AFRIKATALE, VEELTALIGE SA-MELEWINGS, ONTLENING, MUNTING, SAMESTELLING, AFLEIDING, TERMINOLOGIE, TERMINOGRAFIE

  3. Translation and validation of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Uterine fibroids (UF, also known as leiomyomas, are the most prevalent gynecological tumors. The Uterine Fibroid Symptoms and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL is the only specific questionnaire that assesses symptom intensity and quality-of-life issues for women with symptomatic UF; however, it only exists in the English language. Thus, we aimed to translate and culturally validate the UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, FMRP-USP. METHODS: 113 patients with UF (case group and 55 patients without UF (control group were interviewed using the UFS-QOL questionnaire after translation and cultural adaptation. The Short Form-36 questionnaire was used as a control. Demographic and psychometric variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Women with UF presented higher mean age, body mass index, weight, parity and comorbidities than the control group (P < 0.05. The most prevalent complaints were abnormal uterine bleeding (93.8%, pelvic pain (36.3% and extrinsic compression (10.6% and these presented adequate construct validity regarding UFS-QOL severity (P < 0.05. The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented good internal consistency regarding symptom severity and quality-of-life-related domains (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82/0.88. Structural validity presented correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.91. Test-retest comparison did not show differences among the UFS-QOL subscales. After treatment, women with UF presented improvements on all subscales. CONCLUSION: The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented adequate translation to the Brazilian Portuguese language, with good internal consistency, discriminant validity, construct validity, structural validity and responsiveness, along with adequate test-retest results.

  4. Strategic Use of Translation in Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) among Bahrain University Students1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Musawi, Numan M

    2014-01-01

    .... The Arabic Version of the Inventory for Translation as a Learning Strategy (AITLS) was prepared by the author and was administered randomly to 360 undergraduate students who majored in English at the College of Arts of the University of Bahrain...

  5. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  6. LEARNING LANGUAGES? WHY BOTHER, WHEN THERE’S GOOGLE TRANSLATE? REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE FROM THE INSPECTOR’S POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves Lorenzo Galés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning in academic environments is now tied to methodological approaches that are  interdisciplinary (CLIL, PBL, integrated (ILT-Integrated Learning Technologies, connectivist (ICT and CLT and pre-profesionalized (Blended, Apprenticeship, in an attempt to contextualize  language teaching and to facilitate the development of linguistic and communicative skills, beyond the world of Google Translate. New methodological tools are emerging in the classroom: Flipped Classrooms, Inquisitive Minds, Design Thinking, Problem Solving... What does the inspectorate of education need to know to ensure quality intervention in the classroom, the school and the territory? This communication reflects on context, and we propose specific lines of action  to enhance the role of the Inspectorate in this area.

  7. Evidence from Neurolinguistic Methodologies: Can It Actually Inform Linguistic/Language Acquisition Theories and Translate to Evidence-Based Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; González Alonso, Jorge; Pliatsikas, Christos; Rothman, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This special issue is a testament to the recent burgeoning interest by theoretical linguists, language acquisitionists and teaching practitioners in the neuroscience of language. It offers a highly valuable, state-of-the-art overview of the neurophysiological methods that are currently being applied to questions in the field of second language…

  8. When language becomes law: the methodology and criteria adopted by the South Tyrolean terminology commission for the standardisation of German and Italian translation equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chiocchetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available South Tyrol is a part of Northern Italy where a large German-speaking minority lives. In 1972 the local population was granted the right to use the minority language with the public administration, in court and in all realms of public life (DPR 672/1972. An urgent need for a clear and consistent German legal language that faithfully reflected the Italian legal system ensued. The task of responding to such terminological emergency was assigned to a commission of six legal experts and translators (DPR574/1988, who were to officially validate (i.e. standardise the German language equivalents to the existing legal and administrative Italian terms. The use of the newly standardised terminology is mandatory for all public bodies. After about 20 years of activity, the proposed paper aims at analysing the results obtained and difficulties faced by the Commission during their daunting task of creating a German language terminology to express the concepts of Italian law with a constant view to the neighbouring well-established German speaking legal systems. The paper will illustrate the decision-making process, term selection criteria and strategies of neologyas well as discuss the procedural problems and terminological inconsistencies on the basis of real examples.

  9. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  10. The methods of coin English neologisms and the characteristics of their translations in Russian and Chinese languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Ху Пэйпэй

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of coining new words in modern English language. Compound - a productive method of coining English neologisms. Blend became a trend of coining English new words.

  11. Relay in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cay Dollerup

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the phenomenon of relay in translation. Relay is by nature difficult to discuss and therefore it is no surprise that even scholars who know of its existence usually do so only in passing. Scholars unaware of relay occasionally come across a relayed translation (namely a translation using a first translation from the language of the original as a relay. When they do so in comparative studies, they tend to consider the relayed rendition as either a poor or heavily manipulated translation. Historically, relay has been an important factor in translational activity. It is obscured by e.g. the delay in the spread of ‘international fame’ of prominent writers in the past as well as the fact that not all translators and publishers informed audiences that the translation they published was based on a translation from another language than that of the original text. The article attempts to differentiate ‘relayed translations’ from other types of non-direct translation. It discusses their occurrence in translation, interpreting, and subtitling, and ends with a few comments on how relay can(not be tackled in practical translation work.

  12. THE TRANSLATION, VALIDATION AND CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF CHRONIC ILLNESS THERAPY - SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING 12 (FACIT-SP12) SCALE IN GREEK LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradelos, Evangelos C; Tzavella, Foteini; Koukia, Evmorfia; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Aroni, Adamantia; Alikari, Victoria; Ralli, Maria; Bredle, Jason; Zyga, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), spirituality is an important domain of quality of life especially in terminal, life threatens chronic diseases. For many people spirituality and religion are not just very important dimensions of their existence, but also a source of support that contributes to wellbeing and coping with everyday difficulties of life. Aim of the study was the translation of the Facit Spiritual Well Being Scale (Facit-Sp12) in Greek language and the validation of the scale for the Greek population. The Facit-Sp12 questionnaire is an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that contains twelve, four point Likert scale, closed questions (0=Not at all, 1=A little bit, 2=Some-what, 3=Quite a bit, 4=Very Much). The questionnaire was translated into Greek language and then back translated in the English in order to be checked for any inconsistencies. The sample of the study was 183 chronic kidney disease patients, undergoing hemodialysis. Exploratory factor analysis, with principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was performed for checking the construct validity of the questionnaire. The test-retest reliability and the internal consistency were also examined. Statistical analysis performed by the use of SPSS 21.0. Statistical significance level was set at p=0.05. The final Greek version of the questionnaire includes all of the twelve questions. The mean age of the participants was 61.81±13.9. Three factors were exported from the statistical analysis. The Cronbach-α coefficient was 0.77 for the total questionnaire and for each subscale was 0.70 for "meaning", 0.73 for "peace" and 0.87 for "faith". Between the three subscales "meaning" had the highest score (mean 12.49, SD=2.865). The Facit Spiritual Wellbeing Scale-Facit-Sp12, is a valuable and reliable questionnaire of three dimensions that can be used for assessing spirituality and spiritual wellbeing in Greek population.

  13. Natural versus Artificial Translation: A Case for Folk Etymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Olugoyega

    1981-01-01

    Uses examples of English-Yoruba translation to show that borrowing is a natural way of translating new concepts from source language into target language. Stresses importance of folk etymology in natural translation. (Author/BK)

  14. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    To adapt and assess the quality of life questionnaire called Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). To translate and adapt CCHS questionnaire to be used by the Spanish-speaking population since it is a specific questionnaire for celiac disease. To adapt the CCHS, which consists of 76 items divided into 11 different sections, was performed using translation-back-translation method and after being reviewed and agreed proceeded to conduct a pilot test with 25 people with celiac disease, individually and a member of the research group to assess the understanding of the items and their sections. The contributions were introduced, setting the final questionnaire. The greatest difficulty in the translation in question occurred where there were active and trade names of drugs, opting for it to those marketed nationwide. On the other hand, for the pilot study questionnaire showed a good value of the naturalness of understanding with values between 8.4 and 10.0. The specific tool CHCS allow the use of a questionnaire that can be used by the Spanish speaking population studies, clinical trials or health professional practice everyday, allowing a better understanding of the health of celiacs. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic Language Translation: Lexical and Technical Aspects, with Particular Reference to Russian. Harvard Monographs in Applied Science, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinger, Anthony G.

    The compilation of a dictionary for automatic translation from Russian to English is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on: (1) morphological and functional classifications of Russian words, (2) dictionary compilation, (3) the structure of signs, (4) automatic information-processing machines, (5) from the automatic dictionary to the automatic…

  16. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  17. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    , a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining......The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language...... a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  18. Language bias and self-rated health status among the Latino population: evidence of the influence of translation in a wording experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gabriel R; Vargas, Edward D

    2016-05-01

    This research uses a translation experiment to assess the Spanish translation of the "fair" response in the self-rated health measure among a representative study of the Latino population in the USA. Using a unique Latino-specific survey (n = 1200), researchers built in a split sample approach in the self-rated health status measure where half of the Spanish-speaking respondents (n = 600) were randomly given "regular" and the other half were given "Mas o Menos" in translating the English "fair" response. We first estimate a logistic regression model to estimate differences across language categories on the probability of reporting poor and fair health and then estimate a multinomial logistic regression to test whether respondents who took the survey in Spanish and given "regular" are more likely to rate their health as fair compared to English speakers and Spanish-speaking respondents who are given the "Mas o Menos" version. From our logistic regression model, we find that Spanish-speaking respondents given the "regular" response are more likely to report poor health relative to English-speaking respondents and Spanish-speaking respondents who were randomly given "Mas o Menos." The results from our multinomial logistic models suggest that Spanish respondents provided with "Mas o Menos" are more likely to rate their health as good relative to the base category of fair and relative to both English and Spanish speakers given "regular." This research informs the study of racial and ethnic disparities by providing a detailed explanation for mixed findings in the Latino health disparities literature. Researchers interested in self-rated health should translate the general self-rated health option "fair" to "Mas o Menos" as our wording experiment suggests that the current wording "regular" overinflates the reporting of poor health.

  19. Multinational trials-recommendations on the translations required, approaches to using the same language in different countries, and the approaches to support pooling the data: the ISPOR Patient-Reported Outcomes Translation and Linguistic Validation Good Research Practices Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Diane; Eremenco, Sonya; Mear, Isabelle; Martin, Mona; Houchin, Caroline; Gawlicki, Mary; Hareendran, Asha; Wiklund, Ingela; Chong, Lee Yee; von Maltzahn, Robyn; Cohen, Lawrence; Molsen, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    With the internationalization of clinical trial programs, there is an increased need to translate and culturally adapt patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Although guidelines for good practices in translation and linguistic validation are available, the ISPOR Patient-Reported Outcomes Translation and Linguistic Validation Task Force identified a number of areas where they felt that further discussion around methods and best practices would be beneficial. The areas identified by the team were as follows: 1) the selection of the languages required for multinational trials; 2) the approaches suggested when the same language is required across two or more countries; and 3) the assessment of measurement equivalence to support the aggregation of data from different countries. The task force addressed these three areas, reviewed the available literature, and had multiple discussions to develop this report. Decision aid tools have also been developed and presented for the selection of languages and the approaches suggested for the use of the same language in different countries. It is hoped that this report and the decision tools proposed will assist those involved with multinational trials to 1) decide on the translations required for each country; 2) choose the approach to use when the same language is spoken in more than one country; and 3) choose methods to gather evidence to support the pooling of data collected using different language versions of the same tool.

  20. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  1. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  2. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  3. The Problem of Literary Language and Dialect in Arab Countries. Preliminary Translations of Selected Works in Sociolinguistics, Number II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, V.M.

    The author notes the problems arising from the dichotomy between literary Arabic and the spoken varieties. The thousand-year-old system of teaching literary Arabic, the archaic elements of grammar, and the writing system are discussed. The written history of the literary language is presented in three stages--(1) the pre-Islamic classical, (2) the…

  4. Enhanced Awareness and Its Translation into Action: A Case Study of One Learner's Self-Directed Language Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The fostering of learner autonomy has become an essential element of modern pedagogy and an established object of research. There are many difficulties in providing evidence of learners' development towards autonomy, however, since it is not measurable in a traditional sense. As a learning advisor (LA) at a private language university in Japan, I…

  5. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  6. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  7. Attitudes of Undergraduates towards Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching in EFL Context: A Case Study of SBK Women’s University Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Durrani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available CLT and GTM have been popular and much practiced methodologies in classrooms worldwide in teaching English language. The purpose of the current research is to examine students’ attitude towards Grammar Translation Method and CLT in Pakistan at graduate level. The data for the current study was collected through questionnaire from undergraduate students of Baluchistan, Pakistan. The questionnaire was adapted from the studies of Palacios (2006 and McClintock (2011. Theoretical framework of Richard and Rodger (2001 was used as a guide for the study. However the data was analyzed quantitatively in SPSS. The overall results show that the students had a positive attitude towards GTM and their attitude was less favorable towards CLT. Keywords: CLT, GTM, Attitudes

  8. Poverty, Depression, or Lost in Translation? Ethnic and Language Variation in Patient-Reported Outcomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Patricia P; Barton, Jennifer; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Yazdany, Jinoos; Ruiz, Pedro J; Yelin, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in therapies, disparities in outcomes have been documented for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients for both ethnicity and English language proficiency. The goals of these analyses were to compare differences in RA patient-reported outcomes, by both self-identification of ethnicity and English language proficiency, and to identify factors that might explain differences among groups. Data were collected through structured telephone interviews of a longitudinal cohort with physician-diagnosed RA (n = 438); only women were included (n = 335). Three groups were defined based on self-reported ethnicity and English proficiency: white/English (n = 219), Hispanic/English (n = 39), and Hispanic/Spanish (n = 77). Outcomes examined were patient-reported physical functioning, pain, and presence of moderate or severe fatigue. Multivariate regression analyses compared outcomes among groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health and disease factors, and depression. Hispanic/Spanish women had worse function, pain, and fatigue than either English-proficient group. Depression was associated with all outcomes (P language proficiency. In interaction analyses, differences between women who were and were not depressed were greater for Hispanic/English than for Hispanic/Spanish. Nondepressed Hispanic/Spanish scores were significantly worse than nondepressed Hispanic/English, i.e., the impact of depression was less for Hispanic/Spanish women because both depressed and nondepressed women in this group reported worse outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and depression, language remained significantly associated with outcomes. Disparities in patient-reported outcomes may be driven less by ethnicity than by sociodemographic or psychological factors. Measurement instruments that are not culturally appropriate and equivalent may also hamper meaningful analyses of disparities. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure “Bienvenue À Paris”

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning us...

  10. Computerized Instruction in Translation Strategies for Students in Upper Elementary and Middle School Grades With Persisting Learning Disabilities in Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedo, Jasmin; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Robert H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Students in grades 5 to 9 (ages 10 to 14; 6 girls, 27 boys) who had persisting specific learning disabilities in transcription (handwriting and spelling) completed three kinds of composition tasks requiring translation (thought to written language) on iPads using alternating transcription modes (stylus or keyboard) across every three lessons: personal narratives (6 lessons) and written summaries about read source material (integrated reading-writing) and heard source material (integrated listening-writing) (12 lessons). Before composing summaries, students clicked sequentially one at a time onto translation strategies, which they read and heard through earphones, and could click on again as needed during summary writing: (a) Level I composing of the very next sentence, and (b) Level II composing of a higher-level discourse structure. ANOVAs showed that Level I strategies were used significantly more often than Level II strategies; but the main effect for transcription mode was not significant. Written summaries of read source material had more errors in main ideas and factual details than heard source materials, but not more irrelevant statements. Applications of results are discussed for using computers for writing instruction, not just accommodations, for students with persisting transcription disabilities. PMID:28670103

  11. Computerized Instruction in Translation Strategies for Students in Upper Elementary and Middle School Grades With Persisting Learning Disabilities in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedo, Jasmin; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Robert H; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2016-01-01

    Students in grades 5 to 9 (ages 10 to 14; 6 girls, 27 boys) who had persisting specific learning disabilities in transcription (handwriting and spelling) completed three kinds of composition tasks requiring translation (thought to written language) on iPads using alternating transcription modes (stylus or keyboard) across every three lessons: personal narratives (6 lessons) and written summaries about read source material (integrated reading-writing) and heard source material (integrated listening-writing) (12 lessons). Before composing summaries, students clicked sequentially one at a time onto translation strategies, which they read and heard through earphones, and could click on again as needed during summary writing: (a) Level I composing of the very next sentence, and (b) Level II composing of a higher-level discourse structure. ANOVAs showed that Level I strategies were used significantly more often than Level II strategies; but the main effect for transcription mode was not significant. Written summaries of read source material had more errors in main ideas and factual details than heard source materials, but not more irrelevant statements. Applications of results are discussed for using computers for writing instruction, not just accommodations, for students with persisting transcription disabilities.

  12. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  13. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  14. Relay in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cay Dollerup

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of relay in translation. Relay is by nature difficult to discuss and therefore it is no surprise that even scholars who know of its existence usually do so only in passing. Scholars unaware of relay occasionally come across a relayed translation (namely a translation using a first translation from the language of the original as a relay). When they do so in comparative studies, they tend to consider the relayed rendition as either a poor or heavily manip...

  15. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  16. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advise clients and service provider(s) on language usage and vocabulary used in the Centre and may carry out some terminological research to responds to these requests; • Provide external translators with documentation needed to ensure the uniformity and quality of translations and to facilitate their work; • If a translation ...

  17. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....... treat one or few fields extensively thereby neglecting the discourse of the other fields. Furthermore, recent research shows that specialised translation is not limited to terms but also concerns domain-specific syntactic structures and genre conventions using various translation strategies. To meet...

  18. Behaviour of Reference in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdou Moindjie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference, which is one aspect of cohesion, may affect or enhance cohesiveness in its behaviour in translation. This study is an investigation of the behaviour of reference in translating from Arabic into English and French. The texts which are used as corpuses are literary texts whose findings are expected to be reflexive to other genres. The study reveals that reference, in translation depends often on certain language peculiarities; it is seldom depends on the translator’s choices. It is found that English is more cohesive in translation than Arabic and French due to some of its peculiarities. Although the Arabic language and the French languages have different peculiarities, they are found to have more in common as far as translating reference is concerned. The translators’ familiarity with the language peculiarities would make them avoid pitfalls and handle reference perfectly, which enhances more translation in terms of meaning, cohesiveness, and coherence. It is observed that the translators’ unfamiliarity with the languages peculiarities may affect reference in terms of meaning, cohesiveness, and coherence. It can, therefore, create translations in that reference is often found to be determined by language peculiarities. Keywords: Cohesion, Reference Translatability, Language Peculiarity, Syndeton, Asyndeton, Hypothaxis

  19. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation questionnaire into Danish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Erik Jorgensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by “The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache.” A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65–0.78. The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6–11 years of age and within 15 min (age 12–17 years of age respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6–11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically

  20. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  1. ELT STUDENTS’ BELIEFS ABOUT AND STRATEGY USE OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiye Çiğdem Aktekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the significance of translation for foreign language teaching had gone unnoticed for decades, the general attitude towards translation has begun to alter, and translation has started playing a vital role in language learning process and aids learners to comprehend and produce the English language. Nevertheless, solely a small number of studies have been devoted to the contribution of translation to language learning, specifically for the students in English Language Teaching (ELT departments. Thus, this study aims to explore the role of translation in ELT students’ English learning, notably regarding their learning beliefs and learning strategies about using translation in learning the language.

  2. Machine Translation: Developments and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the history and resurgence of machine translation, describing metalanguages and transfer languages as algorithms for transforming source languages into target languages and reviewing prospects for the future. Indicates that leadership in this field is held by Japan for both hardware and software development for Japanese/English…

  3. Translation and validation of the breast feeding self efficacy scale into the Kiswahili language in resource restricted setting in Thika – Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M Mituki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is one of the most cost‐effective, health‐ promoting, and disease‐preventing intervention and has been referred to as the cornerstone of child survival. Many mothers however discontinue EBF before the end of six months recommended by World Health Organization (WHO some due to psychosocial issues. Breast feeding self‐efficacy scale‐short form (BSES‐SF, has been used to establish mothers’ self‐efficacy towards breastfeeding by computing breast feeding self‐efficacy (BSE scores. These scores have been used globally to predict EBF duration. Internationally accepted tools can be used to compare data across countries. Such tools however need to be translated into local languages for different countries and set‐ups. Objectives The aim of the study was to translate and validate the English BSES‐SF into Kiswahili the national laguage in Kenya. Methods The study was a pilot study within the main cluster randomized longitudinal study. Pregnant women at 37 weeks gestation were randomly placed into, intervention (n=21 and comparison (n=21 groups. The BSES‐SF questionnaire was used to collect data on BSE at baseline and another questionnaire used to collect socio‐ economic data. Mothers in the intervention were educated on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF and skills required while those in the comparison group went through usual care provided at the health facility. Nutrition education was tailored to promoting maternal BSE. Results The translated BSES‐SF was found to be easy to understand, it showed good consistency and semantic validity. Predictive validity was demonstrated through significant mean differences between the groups. The intervention group had higher EBF rates at 6 weeks post‐partum (χ2=6.170, p=0.013. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Kiswahili version of the BSES‐SF was 0.91 with a mean score of 60.95 (SD ±10.36, an item mean of 4.354. Conclusion

  4. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  5. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  6. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  7. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  8. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  9. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  10. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  11. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  12. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  13. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  14. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score: a study protocol for the translation and validation of the Dutch language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Esther M M; De Boer, A Siebe; Meuffels, Duncan E; Den Hoed, P Ted; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J

    2017-02-27

    The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring the outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It combines a clinician-reported and a patient-reported part. A valid Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. Such a translated and validated instrument would allow objective comparison across hospitals or between patient groups, and with shown validity and reliability it may become a quality of care indicator in future. The main aims of this study are to translate and culturally adapt the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score questionnaire into Dutch according to international guidelines, and to evaluate the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score-Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle or hindfoot fracture. The design of the study will be a multicentre prospective observational study (case series) in patients who presented to the emergency department with a unilateral ankle or hindfoot fracture or (fracture) dislocation. A research physician or research assistant will complete the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score-DLV based on interview for the subjective part and a physical examination for the objective part. In addition, patients will be asked to complete the Foot Function Index (FFI) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness will be assessed for the AOFAS DLV. This study has been exempted by the Medical Research Ethics Committee (MREC) Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Each participant will provide written consent to participate and remain anonymised during the study. The results of the study are planned to be published in an international, peer-reviewed journal. NTR5613. pre-result. Published

  15. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES ON INDONESIAN SWORN TRANSLATOR’S LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryantoro, Aris; Edi Subroto, H.D.; Nababan, M. R

    2016-01-01

    Legal translation is the transferring the meaning from source language text into target language which not only consists of language system but also legal system. This research aims to analyze the translation  techniques  used  by  the  Indonesian  sworn  translators  in  translating  legal  texts  from English into Indonesian. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. Data obtained through content analysis on translations of the Indonesian sworn translators containing Certificate of...

  16. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  17. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  18. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  19. Tradutor: o inescapável hôte da língua do Outro The translator: the inescapable hôte of the Other´s language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de algumas concepções de língua, tradução e hospitalidade desenvolvidas pelo filósofo francês Jacques Derrida, pretende-se, neste trabalho, estabelecer uma relação entre as considerações derridianas sobre a tradução do termo francês hôte, palavra que designa tanto o anfitrião quanto o hóspede, e o trabalho do tradutor. Na primeira parte, veremos como a ideia da língua do hôte influenciou o pensamento derridiano e trouxe, já no início, a questão da tradução. Na segunda parte, será abordada a tradução 'propriamente dita' do termo hôte, enfatizada por Derrida em sua leitura do conto L'hôte, de Camus, e a relação do tradutor como hôte do texto do Outro. Pretende-se, assim, mostrar que a discussão sobre a tradução de hôte encena a impossibilidade de uma hospitalidade incondicional e desvela as relações por meio das quais o significado é constituído, em um jogo de múltiplas línguas que interagem no processo tradutório.Building on certain concepts of language, translation, and hospitality formulated by French philosopher Jacques Derrida, this essay aims to establish a relationship between Derrida's consideration of the translation of the French term hôte-a word that designates both the host and the guest-and the work of translators. The first part explores how the idea of the language of the hôte influenced Derridean thinking and brought forward, from early on, the issue of translation. The second part deals with the translation itself of the term hôte, as emphasized by Derrida in his own reading of Camus's short story L'hôte, as well as with the translator's relationship as hôte of the Other's text. The aim is to show that the discussion of the translation of hôte stages the impossibility of an unconditional hospitality and unveils the relationships through which meaning is formed, in a play of multiple languages that interact in the translation process.

  20. Climbing the Tower of Babel: Perfecting Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Translation, Inter-lingual Translation, and Transfer Translation. In Direct Translation, dictionaries and grammar sets are applied to translate a source...and target grammar structures, and performs a three-stage series of translations and logic- tree syntheses to achieve a more accurate product. Although...translation.‖ 24 For example, there isn’t enough richly-detailed data to translate from Greek directly into Thai, so a bridge language such as

  1. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    Machine Translation (MT) and Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) are considered complementary: the first one taking care of the translation process automatically and the latter getting the aid of human translators in order to get better translation outputs. With the demand for high quality...... translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...

  2. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  3. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  4. Translating in a Multilingual Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opubor, Alfred E.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for Nigerian translators and interpreters to perform adequately in the languages worked in as well as to understand nonverbal and paralinguistic elements of communication and their influence on national unity. (BK)

  5. Translation and back-translation in qualitative nursing research: methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Boore, Jennifer Rp

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of the procedure of translation and the techniques used on the collection and interpretation of original language qualitative data for English presentation. Nursing and health research increasingly use qualitative research for a broadened perspective on practice and research. In numerous qualitative nursing research papers, data are collected in the original language (example Chinese) and the findings are presented in English. No standardised procedures exist for evaluating the influences of translation on the trustworthiness of qualitative data in nursing research. Translation and back-translation related literature review was conducted. This is a methodological review paper. Discussion. This paper discusses the factors influencing the quality of translation including translator, back-translation, culture and language. Additionally, the translation procedures reported in the literature and the author's experiences are considered. The translation procedures described in qualitative nursing research can be summarised as: 1 Verbatim transcription of the content in original language, and then analysis of content; 2 Two bilingual translators are necessary to translate the emerged concepts and categories; 3 Back translate is employed; 4 An expert panel committee is involved in reaching final agreement on the translation. Development of the translation procedures could provide qualitative nursing researchers with a guide when collecting data in one language and presenting results in another language. In this way, the necessary rigour in qualitative nursing research could be achieved.

  6. A Critical Study of the Translation Textbooks:The Case of Translating “Al-Afaal-e naqesa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Saidavi; Mansooreh Zarkoob

    2012-01-01

    ... ** Abstract In textbooks of translation used in B.A. courses of Arabic language and literature, the prescriptive methods of teaching translation and presentation of strategies for translation of syntactic structures have been adopted...

  7. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale; translation and validation of the Dutch language version for ankle fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A Siebe; Tjioe, Roderik J C; Van der Sijde, Fleur; Meuffels, Duncan E; den Hoed, Pieter T; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It consists of a patient-reported and a physician-reported part. A validated, Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Dutch and to determine the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. Setting Multicentre (two Dutch hospitals), prospective observational study. Participants In total, 142 patients with a unilateral ankle fracture were included. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients completed the subjective (patient-reported) part of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale-DLV. A physician or trained physician-assistant completed the physician-reported part. For comparison and evaluation of the measuring characteristics, the Foot Function Index and the Short Form-36 were completed by the patient. Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), reliability (ie, internal consistency), construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test–retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness were determined. Results The AOFAS-DLV and its subscales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α >0.90). Construct validity and longitudinal validity were proven to be adequate (76.5% of predefined hypotheses were confirmed). Floor effects were not present. Ceiling effects were present from 6 months onwards, as expected. Responsiveness was adequate, with a smallest detectable change of 12.0 points. Conclusions The AOFAS-DLV is a reliable, valid and responsive measurement instrument for evaluating functional outcome in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. This implies that the questionnaire is suitable

  8. Acne-specific quality of life questionnaire (Acne-QoL): translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Brazilian-Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies.

  9. Acne-specific quality of life questionnaire (Acne-QoL): translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Brazilian-Portuguese language*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652

  10. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  11. How to Verify and Manage the Translational Plagiarism?

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The use of Google translator as a tool for determining translational plagiarism is a big challenge. As noted, plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated into other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Attempts to screen the translational plagiarism should be supported. The use of Google Translate tool might be helpful. Special focus should be on any non-English reference that might be the source of plagiarised material and no...

  12. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that ... are translatable since among the Niger-Congo language family, names have particular psycho-spiritual functions that are expressed through the “signs” that ...

  13. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  14. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphoedema into Portuguese Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Kamila Rodrigues; Carvalho, Raquel Boechat de Moura; de Andrade, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Bergmann, Anke

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to describe the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability, and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphoedema (Lymph-ICF-LL) into (Brazilian) Portuguese. The process was comprised of five steps - translation, back translation, revision by an expert panel, pretest, and final translation. The first translation was performed by two professionals of the healthcare area, and the back translation was performed by two translators. An expert panel assessed the questions for semantics and idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. The pretest was conducted on 10 patients with lymphedema. Small differences were identified between the translated and back-translated versions, which were revised by the expert panel. The patients included in the pretest found 10 questions difficult to understand; these questions were reassessed by the same expert panel. The results of the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Lymph-ICF-LL resulted in a Brazilian Portuguese version, which still requires validation with various samples of the local population. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  16. Statistical Machine Translation of Japanese

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapla, Erik A

    2007-01-01

    .... The best statistical machine translation methods implemented resulted in improvements that rivaled the best evaluations from the 2005 International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation from which training and test data was used. Recommendations, including how the methods presented may be altered for further improvements for future research, are also discussed.

  17. Copyrights for Machine Translations Considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, G. A.

    The translation of literature from one language into another is perhaps one of the most important problems in view of the fact that an inordinately large amount of human labor is expended on translation. A particularly complex problem arises before the scientists of all countries in connection with the need to become familiar with scientific…

  18. Translating Terms and Concepts in the Texts of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Birkan Baydan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator. Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency [i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.

  19. Issues in Translating Legal Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Myrteza MURIÇI

    2016-01-01

    We live in a world which is globalized and where international relations are much more active than ever. As people do not speak common language, need for translation and interpreting is more crucial in this regard. We cannot think of close contacts among states, societies, people and businesses without the mediation of translation and interpreting than before. Thus, translation and interpreting have became crucial and are playing a very important role in human interactions. International law,...

  20. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    It is a general assumption that 1) the readability and clarity of LSP texts written in a controlled language are better than uncontrolled texts and 2) that controlled languages produce better results with machine translation than uncontrolled languages. Controlled languages impose lexical...

  1. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  2. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  3. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  4. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language has the power to alienate or include, as is the case with the Afrikaans language. The apartheid ideology resulted in Afrikaans carrying a political yoke since it was used as a means to construct a cultural and national identity of the Afrikaners. A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the ...

  5. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  6. TRANSLATING FEMINISM

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Translating feminism Pointing to manifold and long-lasting connections between feminism and translation, the article first presents a selection of multilingual writers (Narcyza Żmichowska and Deborah Vogel), translators (Zofia Żeleńska and Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna) and translation commentators (Joanna Lisek and Karolina Szymaniak) to ponder why the work of early Polish feminists is neglected. It seems that one of the reasons might be the current colonization of Polish femini...

  7. Term-creation strategies used by Ndebele translators in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the scientific arena, many African languages face the challenge of a lack of terminology. That is, translators who translate from developed Western languages into African languages often encounter a lack of adequate terminology in their efforts to communicate between these languages. The health sector seems ...

  8. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  9. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  10. [Portuguese-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Fatigue domain of Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Sérgio Marques; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da

    2014-05-01

    The items bank of the Fatigue domain is part of an American system developed for evaluation of results reported by patients, called Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt this item bank for the Brazilian population, as a promising new tool for evaluating health-related quality of life. The items in this bank were translated using rigorous translation and back-translation protocols. The translated version was pre-tested in twenty Brazilians with a brief cognitive and retrospective interview in order to test the items' conceptual, cultural, and semantic equivalences. In the translation and back-translation process, only three of the 82 items had to be reworded due to the culturally inadequate content. In the pretest, only four items needed to be reworded, but without conceptual and semantic alterations. The results showed that the translated version of this item bank is conceptually, culturally, and semantically equivalent to the original version.

  11. Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in community and chronic disease populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, NK; Muller, M; Cohen, PDA; Essink-Bot, ML; Fekkes, M; Sanderman, R; Sprangers, MAG; Velde, AT; Verrips, E

    1998-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to translate; validate, and generate normative data on the SF-36 Health Survey for use among Dutch-speaking residents of the Netherlands. Translation of the SF-36 into Dutch followed the stepwise, iterative procedures developed by the IQOLA Project.

  12. Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in community and chronic disease populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, N. K.; Muller, M.; Cohen, P. D.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Fekkes, M.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M. A.; te Velde, A.; Verrips, E.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to translate, validate, and generate normative data on the SF-36 Health Survey for use among Dutch-speaking residents of the Netherlands. Translation of the SF-36 into Dutch followed the stepwise, iterative procedures developed by the IQOLA Project.

  13. Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in community and chronic disease populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, N.K.; Muller, M.; Cohen, P.D.A.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.; Fekkes, M.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M.A.G.; Velde, A. te; Verrips, E.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to translate, validate, and generate normative data on the SF-36 Health Survey for use among Dutch- speaking residents of the Netherlands. Translation of the SF-36 into Dutch followed the stepwise, iterative procedures developed by the IQOLA Project.

  14. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure “Bienvenue À Paris”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  15. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    -scratch translation with post-editing of machine translated texts, uncovering similarities and dierences between the two processes, overall and in interaction with other variables also investigated. These include gaze and keystroke behaviour, word and n-gram probabilities, participant variables including expertise......Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...

  16. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale; translation and validation of the Dutch language version for ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A Siebe; Tjioe, Roderik J C; Van der Sijde, Fleur; Meuffels, Duncan E; den Hoed, Pieter T; Van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2017-08-03

    The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It consists of a patient-reported and a physician-reported part. A validated, Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Dutch and to determine the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. Multicentre (two Dutch hospitals), prospective observational study. In total, 142 patients with a unilateral ankle fracture were included. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Patients completed the subjective (patient-reported) part of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale-DLV. A physician or trained physician-assistant completed the physician-reported part. For comparison and evaluation of the measuring characteristics, the Foot Function Index and the Short Form-36 were completed by the patient. Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), reliability (ie, internal consistency), construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness were determined. The AOFAS-DLV and its subscales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α >0.90). Construct validity and longitudinal validity were proven to be adequate (76.5% of predefined hypotheses were confirmed). Floor effects were not present. Ceiling effects were present from 6 months onwards, as expected. Responsiveness was adequate, with a smallest detectable change of 12.0 points. The AOFAS-DLV is a reliable, valid and responsive measurement instrument for evaluating functional outcome in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. This implies that the questionnaire is suitable to compare different treatment modalities within this population or to compare outcome across

  17. Postcoloniality as translation in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The postcolonial condition (or what I shall refer to as "postcoloniality", as distinct from "postcolonialism" which is better reserved, I think, for an intellectual movement with a number of distinguishing traits ultimately traceable to certain specific historical conditions is but another name for the politics of translation as it plays out today (RAJAGOPALAN 2002a. It lays bare the multiplicity of vested interests that have underpinned the history of translation through the ages. Furthermore, it forces us to rethink some of the time-honoured conceptual distinctions such intra-lingual vs. inter-lingual translation by problematising the very notion of "a language" (i.e. language in its individuating sense, as opposed to the generic or abstract senses. The main objective of this paper is to address the phenomenon of increasing hybridisation of the world's languages and its implications for the way we theorise about translation.

  18. Postcoloniality as translation in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The postcolonial condition (or what I shall refer to as "postcoloniality", as distinct from "postcolonialism" which is better reserved, I think, for an intellectual movement with a number of distinguishing traits ultimately traceable to certain specific historical conditions is but another name for the politics of translation as it plays out today (RAJAGOPALAN 2002a. It lays bare the multiplicity of vested interests that have underpinned the history of translation through the ages. Furthermore, it forces us to rethink some of the time-honoured conceptual distinctions such intra-lingual vs. inter-lingual translation by problematising the very notion of "a language" (i.e. language in its individuating sense, as opposed to the generic or abstract senses. The main objective of this paper is to address the phenomenon of increasing hybridisation of the world's languages and its implications for the way we theorise about translation.

  19. Translation: Towards a Critical-Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the place of translation in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a thriving field of inquiry. Many older language teaching methodologies such as the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method, and Natural and Communicative Approaches, tended to either neglect the role of translation, or prohibit it entirely as a…

  20. Distance and Defamiliarisation: Translation as Philosophical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I posit translation as philosophical operation that disrupts commonsense meaning and understanding. By defamiliarising language, translation can arrest thinking about a text in a way that assumes the language is understood. In recent work I have grappled with the phrase "ways of knowing", which, for linguistic and conceptual…

  1. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...

  2. Effects of transcription ability and transcription mode on translation: Evidence from written compositions, language bursts and pauses when students in grades 4 to 9, with and without persisting dyslexia or dysgraphia, compose by pen or by keyboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Beers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of transcription on translation products and processes of adolescent students in grades 4 to 9 with and without persisting specific language disabilities in written language (SLDs—WL. To operationalize transcription ability (handwriting and spelling and transcription mode (by pen on digital tablet or by standard US keyboard, diagnostic groups contrasting in patterns of transcription ability were compared while composing autobiographical (personal narratives by handwriting or by keyboarding: Typically developing students (n=15, students with dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling, n=20, and students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=19. They were compared on seven outcomes: total words composed, total composing time, words per minute, percent of spelling errors, average length of pauses, average number of pauses per minute, and average length of language bursts. They were also compared on automaticity of transcription modes—writing the alphabet from memory by handwriting or keyboarding (they could look at keys. Mixed ANOVAs yielded main effects for diagnostic group on percent of spelling errors, words per minute, and length of language burst. Main effects for transcription modes were found for automaticity of writing modes, total words composed, words per minute, and length of language bursts; there were no significant interactions. Regardless of mode, the dyslexia group had more spelling errors, showed a slower rate of composing, and produced shorter language bursts than the typical group. The total number of words, total time composing, words composed per minute, and pauses per minute were greater for keyboarding than handwriting, but length of language bursts was greater for handwriting. Implications of these results for conceptual models of composing and educational assessment practices are discussed.

  3. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  4. Machine Translations of Chinese Mathematical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Shiu-Chang; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A practical machine translation system called CULT (Chinese University Language Translator), capable of translating Chinese mathematical texts into readable English, has been developed during the period 1969-1977 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Programs for the system are written in Standard FORTRAN and run on the ICL1904A computer system.…

  5. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The

  6. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    study of La Chureca, the rubbish dump and slum of Managua, Nicaragua, and its renewal programme. The Acahualinca Programme was implemented via translation chains enacted by many policy translators. It was translated into residents' and waste collectors' interests, its language packaged in artefacts...

  7. Translation as a Way of Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alexeevna Laskovets

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of translation in teaching foreign languages to non-linguistic students and postgraduates. The translation is a way of intercultural communication. At present, the translation is not only a means of teaching and control, but also an objective of foreign language teaching and additional qualification, which is “translator of vocationally oriented texts”. The article highlights a number of issues of teaching specialized translation to non-linguistic students and postgraduates as a part of higher education in the Russian Federation.

  8. Phraseological comptence and the translation of phrasemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, that is based on my contribution to the workshop Multilingual phraseology and translation, I’ll focus on the aspects and the role of language competence in the translation of phrasemes, i.a. the phraseological competence. At first, I’ll describe the context of language competence...... in translation. Secondly, I’ll define and illustrate some aspects of the phraseological competence that are relevant in the act of translating, and finally, I’ll discuss the difference between phraseology in system and the conception of the translation as a text in relation to the praseological competence...

  9. Obstacles Faced by the Jordanian Novice Translators in Translating Arabic Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Saeed Dweik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the obstacles that Jordanian novice translators encountered when translating proverbs. To achieve this goal, a purposive sample of 20 Jordanian novice translators (males and females was selected. A translation test, consisting of 10 Arabic proverbs based on Speake's (2008 categorization of proverbs, was used in addition to carrying out informal interviews with four university translation Professors. The study revealed that the obstacles which Jordanian novice translators faced when translating proverbs from source language (SL i.e. Arabic into target language (TL i.e. English were: inability to translate culturally-bound words/expressions properly; using literal translation and misuse of the appropriate lexical words; committing linguistic, stylistic, and grammatical mistakes; and unfamiliarity with translation strategies and techniques.

  10. What’s in a domain? : Towards fine-grained adaptation for machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wees, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) uses software to translate texts in one language to another language. Modern-day MT systems are built using large amounts of example translations between these two languages, so-called parallel corpora. For many translation tasks, or domains, there are no sizable

  11. Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) and Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) Questionnaires into the Greek Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Lyrakos, George; Drachtidi, Kalliopi; Stamatiou, Georgia; Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2016-06-01

    The LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires represent two widely accepted and validated instruments used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain worldwide. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires into the Greek language. Forward and backward translations of both questionnaires were performed from the English to Greek language. The final versions were assessed by a committee of clinical experts, and they were then pilot-tested in 20 patients with chronic pain. Both questionnaires were validated in 200 patients with chronic pain (100 patients for each questionnaire), using as the "gold standard" the diagnosis of a clinical expert in pain management. Sensitivity and specificity of questionnaires were assessed, as well as the internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha coefficient) and correlation with the "gold standard" diagnosis (using Pearson correlation coefficient). Sensitivity and specificity of the LANSS questionnaire were calculated to be 82.76% and 95.24%, while for the S-LANSS 86.21% and 95.24%, respectively. Positive predictive value for neuropathic pain was 96% for the LANSS and 96.15% for the S-LANSS. Cronbach's alpha was revealed to be acceptable for both questionnaires (0.65 for LANSS and 0.67 for the S-LANSS), while a significant correlation was observed compared to the "gold standard" diagnosis (rLANSS   = 0.79 και tSLANSS   = 0.77, respectively, P = 0.01). The LANSS and the S-LANSS diagnostic tools have been translated and validated into the Greek language and can be adequately used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain in everyday clinical practice. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  12. The Importance of Culture in Translation: Should Culture be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of culture in translation, this article presents a descriptive study of translation of literary texts from English into Arabic. Using the data taken from works of Shakespeare and others which were translated by eminent translators, it first describes the study background, research contexts and procedures and problems. It then addresses some research questions on: (1 Will the translation be accepted by the new community of readers; 2 Is the relation between culture and translation important? It is worth noting that this study is significant for translators and readers of the target language, which is Arabic in this case. This has been substantiated by surveying the interests in cultural aspects of translation as early as the 19th Century. Thus translations do not only include lexical content  and syntax, but also ideologies, values and ways of  life in a given culture, which form translating problems. Therefore, translators have to know the audience.

  13. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  14. Translation competence and tools: Why does not technology substitute translation training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Piccioni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an experiment jointly carried out at the Universities of Trieste and Chieti (Italy with the aim to explore the relationship between translation competence and the use of ICT (including language corpora. Two groups were involved in the experiment: a group of students specialising in translation (Trieste and a group of students with limited translation training (Chieti. Both groups carried out two translation tasks (into and from their native language, while compiling a questionnaire illustrating the reasoning behind the translation of a number of problematic points previously identified by the authors. Results shed light on the decision-making process involved in translation and on the link between translation quality and type of ICT resources used. In particular, data suggest that ICT resources do not compensate the gap in language skills, specialised knowledge and specialised training in translation. The final discussion proposes a number of classroom considerations that address the problems detected in the experiment.

  15. Translating Veditz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol

    2004-01-01

    George Veditz's "The Preservation of the Sign Language" was a popular film about the deaf language. Sixty five years later, in 1977, Veditz's film was retrieved and screened at the opening of a conference on the research and teaching of American Sign Language. Despite the age and the condition of the film, the screening held the audience…

  16. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  17. Notes on Translation as Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Harrison

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Structured as a companion piece to "Translation as Research: A Manifesto", this essay argues that there are compelling reasons for translation to be one of the ways in which academics, notably in Modern Languages, spend their "research time". It speculates on the nature of possible misgivings or hesitations on this point; these seem to include the fear that embracing translation may undermine the discipline's commitment to reading in the original, and apprehension at the difficulty of assessing translations as research, especially where aesthetic criteria are involved. Rather than being drawn into debates over the definition of "research", however, the essay argues, we should start by committing to the broad intellectual and cultural value of translations, and recognize that, in the UK context, the REF already provides a framework in which translation can be embraced as a research practice, as a form of scholarship and/or creative writing.

  18. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  19. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  20. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    at different stages in the translation processes in the Trans-Atlantic and Pacific Project, a long-term cross-cultural virtual team. It describes the forms of collaborative learning practised in this multilateral international project in technical communication and translator training programmes and explores...