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Sample records for neu differentiation factor

  1. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  2. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu overexpression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and its prognostic significance: Is it worth hype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu expression has been reported over 10 years, but there is no clear correlation between prognosis and recurrence rate. The present study evaluates prognostic implication of HER-2/neu expression. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of primary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were processed. HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry staining procedure used for the study. Results: A total of 70 (70% patients were positive for overexpression of HER-2/neu. HER-2/neu was positive in patients with 42 (70% superficial tumor, 28 (70% muscle invasive tumor, 41 (75.9% high-grade tumor, 29 (63% low grade tumor, 31 (68.9% recurrent tumor, and 6 (66.6% had positive lymph nodes. Conclusions: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu over expression was not correlated with the tumor stage, lymphnode metastasis or recurrence of the disease. HER-2/neu overexpression was statistically insignificantly correlated with the differentiation grade (P < 0.161 as compared to previous studies. Future studies on HER-2 expression with chemo-sensitivity and efficacy of HER-2-targeted therapies in urothelial carcinomas is needed.

  3. FACTORES PRONOSTICOS DEL CANCER DE MAMA Y ONCOGEN HER2/NEU

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    F.J. Martín Gil

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: PRONOSTIC FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER AND HER2/NEUThe breast cancer constitutes the main cause of death by cancer in women of our country. In spite of the efforts directed in campaigns of precocious detection, the incidence continues increasing in a 1% approximately per year and the rate of mortality stay constant. Therefore it is of great importance to consolidate efforts directed towards the development and use of therapeutic and diagnostic methods. The development of neoplasia is directly related to successive genetic mutations in which cellular oncogenes are involved.It is known that in case of breast cancer the Her2/neu oncogene (Human epidermal growth receptor-2 factor is amplified and/or overexpressed in approximately a 30% of the cases. The knowledge of a positive result for Her2/neu overexpression has an important value in prognosis as it is associated to a greater aggressiveness of the disease. Also, this gene can be an answer marker to certain treatments like trastuzumab. RESUMEN:El cáncer de mama (CM constituye la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres de nuestro país. A pesar de los esfuerzos dirigidos hacia las campañas de detección precoz, la incidencia sigue aumentando aproximadamente en un 1% por año y la tasa de mortalidad sigue manteniéndose constante.Es por ello de gran importancia aunar esfuerzos dirigidos al desarrollo y utilización de métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El desarrollo de una neoplasia está directamente relacionado con mutaciones genéticas sucesivas en las que están involucrados oncogenes celulares.En el caso del cáncer de mama se sabe que el encogen Her2/neu (Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 está amplificado y/o sobreexpresado en aproximadamente un 30% de los casos. El conocimiento de la positividad del mismo tiene un importante valor pronóstico asociándose a una mayor agresividad de la enfermedad. Así mismo dicho gen puede ser un marcador predictivo de respuesta

  4. NeuN/Rbfox3 nuclear and cytoplasmic isoforms differentially regulate alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of Rbfox2.

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    B Kate Dredge

    Full Text Available Anti-NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei is a monoclonal antibody used extensively to specifically detect post-mitotic neurons. Anti-NeuN reactivity is predominantly nuclear; by western it detects multiple bands ranging in molecular weight from 45 kDa to >75 kDa. Expression screening putatively identified R3hdm2 as NeuN; however immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of the two major NeuN species at 45-50 kDa identified both as the RNA binding protein Rbfox3 (a member of the Fox family of alternative splicing factors, confirming and extending the identification of the 45 kDa band as Rbfox3 by Kim et al. Mapping of the anti-NeuN reactive epitopes in both R3hdm2 and Rbfox3 reveals a common proline- and glutamine-rich domain that lies at the N-terminus of the Rbfox3 protein. Our data suggests that alternative splicing of the Rbfox3 pre-mRNA itself leads to the production of four protein isoforms that migrate in the 45-50 kDa range, and that one of these splicing choices regulates Rbfox3/NeuN sub-cellular steady-state distribution, through the addition or removal of a short C-terminal extension containing the second half of a bipartite hydrophobic proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signal. Rbfox3 regulates alternative splicing of the Rbfox2 pre-mRNA, producing a message encoding a dominant negative form of the Rbfox2 protein. We show here that nuclear Rbfox3 isoforms can also enhance the inclusion of cryptic exons in the Rbfox2 mRNA, resulting in nonsense-mediated decay of the message, thereby contributing to the negative regulation of Rbfox2 by Rbfox3 through a novel mechanism.

  5. Steroid receptor coactivator 1 deficiency increases MMTV-neu mediated tumor latency and differentiation specific gene expression, decreases metastasis, and inhibits response to PPAR ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Seung; Crowe, David L

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily is activated by a variety of natural and synthetic ligands. PPARs can heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors, which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Ligand binding to PPAR/RXRs results in recruitment of transcriptional coactivator proteins such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding protein (CBP). Both SRC-1 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases, which by modifying nucleosomal histones, produce more open chromatin structure and increase transcriptional activity. Nuclear hormone receptors can recruit limiting amounts of coactivators from other transcription factor binding sites such as AP-1, thereby inhibiting the activity of AP-1 target genes. PPAR and RXR ligands have been used in experimental breast cancer therapy. The role of coactivator expression in mammary tumorigenesis and response to drug therapy has been the subject of recent studies. We examined the effects of loss of SRC-1 on MMTV-neu mediated mammary tumorigenesis. SRC-1 null mutation in mammary tumor prone mice increased the tumor latency period, reduced tumor proliferation index and metastasis, inhibited response to PPAR and RXR ligands, and induced genes involved in mammary gland differentiation. We also examined human breast cancer cell lines overexpressing SRC-1 or CBP. Coactivator overexpression increased cellular proliferation with resistance to PPAR and RXR ligands and remodeled chromatin of the proximal epidermal growth factor receptor promoter. These results indicate that histone acetyltransferases play key roles in mammary tumorigenesis and response to anti-proliferative therapies

  6. NEU3 sialidase is activated under hypoxia and protects skeletal muscle cells from apoptosis through the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α.

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    Scaringi, Raffaella; Piccoli, Marco; Papini, Nadia; Cirillo, Federica; Conforti, Erika; Bergante, Sonia; Tringali, Cristina; Garatti, Andrea; Gelfi, Cecilia; Venerando, Bruno; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    NEU3 sialidase, a key enzyme in ganglioside metabolism, is activated under hypoxic conditions in cultured skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). NEU3 up-regulation stimulates the EGF receptor signaling pathway, which in turn activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α), resulting in a final increase of cell survival and proliferation. In the same cells, stable overexpression of sialidase NEU3 significantly enhances cell resistance to hypoxia, whereas stable silencing of the enzyme renders cells more susceptible to apoptosis. These data support the working hypothesis of a physiological role played by NEU3 sialidase in protecting cells from hypoxic stress and may suggest new directions in the development of therapeutic strategies against ischemic diseases, particularly of the cerebro-cardiovascular system.

  7. Epidermal growth factor-induced mobilization of a ganglioside-specific sialidase (NEU3) to membrane ruffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Hata, Keiko; Wada, Tadashi; Moriya, Setsuko; Miyagi, Taeko

    2006-01-01

    Human ganglioside-specific sialidase, NEU3, localized at cell membranes is thought to regulate various biological processes at cell surfaces. We here explored functional subcellular localization of the sialidase by immunofluorescence and found accumulation at leading edges of cell membranes in the presence of serum in culture. In response to EGF, the sialidase redistributed rapidly to ruffling cell membranes of squamous carcinoma A431 cells and co-localized with Rac-1. NEU3 overexpression enhanced Rac-1 activation and cell migration as compared with controls in HeLa cells as well as in A431 cells. Consistent with co-localization with Rac-1 by immunofluorescence, NEU3 was found to co-precipitate with activated Rac bound to GST-PAK-1 fusion protein. NEU3 silencing by siRNA, in contrast, resulted in inhibition of Rac-1 activation. These results indicate that NEU3 is able to mobilize to membrane ruffles in response to growth stimuli and activate the Rac-1 signaling by co-localization with Rac-1, leading to increased cell motility

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor coexpression modulates susceptibility to Herceptin in HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells via specific erbB-receptor interaction and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diermeier, Simone; Horvath, Gabor; Knuechel-Clarke, Ruth; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Szoellosi, Janos; Brockhoff, Gero

    2005-01-01

    Background: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. Methods: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. Results: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and

  9. Expression of Her-2/neu in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

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    Shamekh R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rania Shamekh,1,* Marilin Rosa,2,* Zena Sayegh,2 Masoumeh Ghayouri,2 Richard Kim,3 Mokenge P Malafa,3 Domenico Coppola2 1Department of Pathology, University of South Florida, 2Department of Anatomic Pathology, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, which is also frequently called human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2 or Her-2/neu, has been found to be overexpressed in various human cancers.Hypothesis: The aim of this pilot study was to explore the frequency of Her-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHBC. We used the World Health Organization classification criteria for EHBC.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study using 88 tissue samples, including 45 samples from non-neoplastic biliary tissue (NNB and 43 samples of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHBC. A tissue microarray including NNB and EHBC was constructed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC and dual in situ hybridization for Her-2/neu protein expression and amplification, respectively. The Her-2/neu expression was scored following the guidelines used for the ToGA study.Results: All NNB samples and all but one EHBC samples showed no expression of Her-2/neu by IHC. The one EHBC case immunohistochemically positive for Her-2/neu had an IHC score of 3+. Her-2/neu gene amplification was present in two EHBC samples only and included the case found to be positive by IHC.Conclusion: Our findings are similar to those reported in the literature. Although Her-2/neu overexpression has been documented in many types of cancer, Her-2/neu protein overexpression tends to have no role in the development and/or progression of EHBC. Keywords: extrahepatic, cholangiocarcinoma, Her-2/neu, ToGA, immunohistochemistry

  10. HER 2/neu protein expression in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuell, B; Gruenberger, T; Scheithauer, W; Zielinski, Ch; Wrba, F

    2006-01-01

    Conflicting data exist about the prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in colorectal cancer ranging from 0 to 83 %. In our study we tried to clarify the extent of expression and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters. This study involved 77 specimens of malignant colorectal cancer lesions of surgically resected patients. HER-2/neu immunohistochemistry was performed using the Hercep-Test Kit. Out of 77 specimens, 56 were Her-2/neu negative (70%), 20 (26%) showed a barely immunostaining (1+), only 1 (1%) was moderately (2+) and 2 (3%) were strongly positive (3+). Her-2/neu staining (moderately and strongly positive) was only detected in primary tumours of patients with confirmed metastases. No relationship was found between membranous HER-2 expression and patients' gender or differentiation. The median survival time of patients with positive HER-2/neu immunostaining was 21 versus 39 months in patients without HER-2/neu expression (p = 0.088). The c-erbB protein expression was observed in colorectal cancer but rarely in the therapeutic range (2+ and 3+). There was no significant association with tumour grade, gender, localization of the primary tumour or survival. These data indicate that c-erbB-2 is unlikely to play a major role in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer

  11. Efficacy of neratinib in the treatment of HER2/neu-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

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    Menderes, Gulden; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bellone, Stefania; Black, Jonathan D; Lopez, Salvatore; Pettinella, Francesca; Masserdotti, Alice; Zammataro, Luca; Litkouhi, Babak; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies. There is a need to optimize the currently available treatment strategies and to urgently develop novel therapeutic agents against chemotherapy-resistant disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate neratinib's preclinical efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer. Neratinib's efficacy in treating HER2-amplified ovarian cancer was studied in vitro utilizing six primary tumor cell lines with differential HER2/neu expression. Flow cytometry was utilized to assess IC 50 , cell signaling changes, and cell cycle distribution. Neratinib's in vivo efficacy was evaluated in HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Three of six (50%) ovarian cancer cell lines were HER2/neu-amplified. Neratinib showed significantly higher efficacy in treating HER2/neu-amplified cell lines when compared to the non-HER2/neu-amplified tumor cell lines (mean ± SEM IC 50 :0.010 μM ± 0.0003 vs. 0.076 μM ± 0.005 p Neratinib treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylation of the transcription factor S6, leading to arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Neratinib prolonged survival in mice harboring HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma xenografts (p = 0.003). Neratinib inhibits proliferation, signaling, cell cycle progression and tumor growth of HER2-amplified epithelial ovarian carcinoma in vitro. Neratinib inhibits xenograft growth and improves overall survival in HER2/neu-amplified ovarian cancer in vivo. Clinical trials are warranted.

  12. Neu/Now tuleb varsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Neu/Now festivalil saab 17.-20. novembril Tallinna vanalinnas näha 35 kunstiprojekti 17 riigist. Cian McKenna (Iirimaa) disainiprojektist "Digitaalne teraapia", Richard Schwarzi (Austria) visuaalse kunsti projektist "Pikslitest" ja Maartje Meijeri (Holland) muusikaprojektist "Kuidas kirjutada fuugat?", mida tõstsid esile festivali kunstilised juhid Anthony Dean ja Paula Crabtree

  13. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...... that sarcosine is involved in the regulation of the oncoprotein HER2/neu. Thus, sarcosine may induce prostate cancer progression by increased HER2/neu expression. However, detailed information on cellular mechanisms remains to be elucidated....

  14. Overexpression of membrane sialic acid-specific sialidase Neu3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung-Kwon; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Jeon, Jae Heung; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Bo Yeon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The ganglioside-specific sialidase Neu3 has been suggested to participate in cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Recent reports suggest that sialidase may be involved in intimal thickening, an early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of the Neu3 gene in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) responses has not yet been elucidated. To determine whether a Neu3 is able to modulate VSMC growth, the effect of overexpression of the Neu3 gene on cell proliferation was examined. However, the results show that the overexpression of this gene has no effect on DNA synthesis and ERK phosphorylation in cultured VSMC in the presence of TNF-α. Because atherogenic effects need not be limited to proliferation, we decided to examine whether Neu3 exerted inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in TNF-α-induced VSMC. The expression of the Neu3 gene led to the inhibition of TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in VSMC as determined by zymography and immunoblot. Furthermore, Neu3 gene expression strongly decreased MMP-9 promoter activity in response to TNF-α. This inhibition was characterized by the down-regulation of MMP-9, which was transcriptionally regulated at NF-κB and activation protein-1 (AP-1) sites in the MMP-9 promoter. These findings suggest that the Neu3 gene represents a physiological modulator of VSMC responses that may contribute to plaque instability in atherosclerosis

  15. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

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    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  16. Predisposing factors differentiating adolescent dieters and nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, L

    1994-07-01

    To examine whether certain biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors differentiate dieters from nondieters in male and female, black and white adolescents. In each race-sex group adolescents were divided into nondieters and dieters (those who had lost at least 5 lb through dieting) and compared using factors associated with overweight and dieting. Participants were 1,269 high school seniors, with a mean (+/- standard deviation) age of 17.5 +/- 0.6 years, from 10 schools in a large metropolitan area (72% of enrolled students). Each student completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for this research, the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Eating Disorder Inventory. Comparisons were made of dieters and nondieters using their previous and current weights, parental weights, birth order, socioeconomic status, religious affiliation, self-esteem scores, and other psychological factors. Statistical analyses performed were chi 2 and t tests. Factors thought to be associated with overweight in adolescents, such as parental weights, birth order, and socioeconomic status, were not found to be significantly different in dieters and nondieters in any of the four race-sex groups. In fact, the majority of dieters in this study were not overweight (ie, above the 85th percentile of body mass index). Instead, what most clearly distinguished dieters from nondieters was their perception of being overweight before kindergarten, after kindergarten, and at the time of the study, and the feelings of body dissatisfaction and wanting to be thinner that being overweight engenders. Because most adolescents diet because they perceive themselves to be overweight when they are not, adolescent dieters are not easy to identify. Instead, dietitians can offer educational programs that help all adolescents accept more realistic weights and adopt patterns of eating and exercise that remove or reduce the need to diet.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu in patients with lung carcinoma and its prognostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrusevska, G.; Banev, S.; Ilievska-Poposka, B.; Smickova, S.; Spirovski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The HER-2 protein or p185her2 is a membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity encoded by HER-2/neu gene. Overexpression of HER-2/neu has been observed in many human cancers, including lung cancer. In the study, the expression of HER-2 protein is determined in the spectrum of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma). Patients and methods. The study population consisted of two groups: 19 patients that had undergone surgical treatment and 10 patients that had undergone fiber-optic bronchoscopy and biopsy for primary diagnosis only. Tissue specimens were neutral formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Standard histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used for diagnosis. Expression of HER-2/neu protein was determined by immunohistochemical staining with Hercep Test (DAKO). The results were graded 0-1 as negative and 2-3 as positive. Results. Overall incidence of HER-2/neu overexpression was 34.4% (10 of 29). Higher incidence was found in the patients with adenocarcinoma 45.4% (5 of 11). In squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma, the overexpression incidence was 30.7% (4 of 13) and 20% (1 of 5), respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen given the age and gender. HER-2/neu overexpression was more pronounced in the patients with advanced tumour: all patients with squamous cell carcinoma and HER-2/neu overexpression had stage IIIB and stage IV disease, while 80 % of adenocarcinoma patients with HER-2/neu overexpression had stage IIIA and IIIB disease. Conclusions. These results are satisfactory and encourage us to continue this work in the follow-up study to evaluate HER-2/neu role as predictive and prognostic factor for the patients with lung cancer. (author)

  18. Correlation and comparison of immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu, using the antibody SP3 and chromogenic in situ hybridization in breast carcinomas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele F. Wolf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Advances in the field of molecular biology have provided the differentiation of molecular subtypes of breast tumors, providing better prognosis and important tools for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Among these subtypes, the changes in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu, increase its copy number and generating HER2 protein amplification. Studies show that patients with breast cancer HER2/neu amplified tend to relapse earlier and have shorter survival time, the monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is the therapy indicated. The eligibility of patients for therapy is initially made by the immunohistochemistry (IHC technique, which evaluates the expression level of the HER2 protein. After this evaluation, the cases with equivocal diagnosis (score 2+, are referred to a more accurate technique, the chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Objective: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the antibody SP3, and determine their level of agreement with the CISH technique. Material and methods: Retrospective study in the database of the anatomy-pathology laboratory, in CISH tests reports for HER2/neu. Conclusion: The results revealed that clone SP3 showed 100% specificity and 92% sensitivity. IHC reveals variability in its results; however, it is known that the technique is an important tool in the daily routine of laboratories, contributing to the initial screening of patients with breast cancer, which later showed satisfactory results when compared with the CISH technique.

  19. NEU3 Sialidase Protein Interactors in the Plasma Membrane and in the Endosomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Federica; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Fania, Chiara; Piccoli, Marco; Torretta, Enrica; Tettamanti, Guido; Gelfi, Cecilia; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    NEU3 sialidase has been shown to be a key player in many physio- and pathological processes, including cell differentiation, cellular response to hypoxic stress, and carcinogenesis. The enzyme, peculiarly localized on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, has been shown to be able to remove sialic acid residues from the gangliosides present on adjacent cells, thus creating cell to cell interactions. Nonetheless, herein we report that the enzyme localization is dynamically regulated between the plasma membrane and the endosomes, where a substantial amount of NEU3 is stored with low enzymatic activity. However, under opportune stimuli, NEU3 is shifted from the endosomes to the plasma membrane, where it greatly increases the sialidase activity. Finally, we found that NEU3 possesses also the ability to interact with specific proteins, many of which are different in each cell compartment. They were identified by mass spectrometry, and some selected ones were also confirmed by cross-immunoprecipitation with the enzyme, supporting NEU3 involvement in the cell stress response, protein folding, and intracellular trafficking. PMID:26987901

  20. Growth/differentiation factor-15 inhibits differentiation into osteoclasts - A novel factor involved in control of osteoclast differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňhara, P.; Lincová, Eva; Kozubík, Alois; Jurdic, P.; Souček, Karel; Šmarda, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2009), s. 213-222 ISSN 0301-4681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0036; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/08/H054; GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : osteoclast differentiation * GDF-15 * prostate cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.311, year: 2009

  1. Elevated expression of NEU1 sialidase in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provokes pulmonary collagen deposition, lymphocytosis, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, Irina G; Lockatell, Virginia; Hyun, Sang W; Kopach, Pavel; Kang, Phillip H; Noor, Zahid; Liu, Anguo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lee, Chunsik; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Todd, Nevins W; Goldblum, Simeon E; Atamas, Sergei P

    2016-05-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) poses challenges to understanding its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and the development of better therapies. Previous studies suggest a pathophysiological role for neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), an enzyme that removes terminal sialic acid from glycoproteins. We observed increased NEU1 expression in epithelial and endothelial cells, as well as fibroblasts, in the lungs of patients with IPF compared with healthy control lungs. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of NEU1 to cultured primary human cells elicited profound changes in cellular phenotypes. Small airway epithelial cell migration was impaired in wounding assays, whereas, in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, NEU1 overexpression strongly impacted global gene expression, increased T cell adhesion to endothelial monolayers, and disrupted endothelial capillary-like tube formation. NEU1 overexpression in fibroblasts provoked increased levels of collagen types I and III, substantial changes in global gene expression, and accelerated degradation of matrix metalloproteinase-14. Intratracheal instillation of NEU1 encoding, but not control adenovirus, induced lymphocyte accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and lung tissues and elevations of pulmonary transforming growth factor-β and collagen. The lymphocytes were predominantly T cells, with CD8(+) cells exceeding CD4(+) cells by nearly twofold. These combined data indicate that elevated NEU1 expression alters functional activities of distinct lung cell types in vitro and recapitulates lymphocytic infiltration and collagen accumulation in vivo, consistent with mechanisms implicated in lung fibrosis.

  2. Clinical significance of assessing Her2/neu expression in gastric cancer with dual tumor tissue paraffin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaowen; Wang, Haixing; Zeng, Haiying; Jin, Xuejuan; Sujie, Akesu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yalan; Huang, Jie; Ji, Yuan; Tan, Yunshan; Liu, Tianshu; Hou, Yingyong; Qin, Jing; Sun, Yihong; Qin, Xinyu

    2015-06-01

    One paraffin block is routinely used for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu) immunohistochemistry (IHC) assessment. Here, we investigated if picking 2 paraffin blocks for Her2/neu evaluation on 1 slide is an economical, efficient, and practical method, which may reduce false negativity of Her2/neu IHC assessment due to intratumoral heterogeneity. A total of 251 gastric cancer (GC) patients were divided into a cohort using 1 tumor tissue paraffin block (single-block group, n = 132) and a cohort using dual tumor tissue paraffin blocks (dual-block group, n = 119) when evaluating Her2/neu expression status by IHC. In dual-block group, we combined the results from 2 different paraffin blocks and used the higher one as the final score. The number of IHC 1+, 2+, and 3+ specimens in the single-block group was 31 (23.5%), 40 (30.3%), and 19 (14.4%), respectively. The combined final IHC score in the dual-block group of 1+, 2+, and 3+ was 26 (21.8%), 34 (28.6%), and 23 (19.3%), respectively. Inconsistent Her2/neu expression between blocks was found in 36 (30.3%) cases in the dual-block group. The pooled data in the single-block group and the dual-block group indicated that, when using dual blocks, the Her2/neu-positive (3+) rate of GC was higher compared to that in the single-block group. Our results implied that using dual paraffin blocks to assess Her2/neu expression of GC may help identify more patients with Her2/neu-positive GC who could benefit from targeted therapy, by reducing false-negative rate of Her2 status assessment. This is an efficient, economical, and practical method for Her2/neu evaluation of GC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  4. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant transcription factors and insect defence si. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. HUNLIN. PIN. RUOXUE LIŲ, BEIBEI LÜ, XIAOMENG WANG, CHUNLING ZHANG, SHUPING ZHANG, JUN QIAN, LEI CHEN,.

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation Of HER-2/NEU In Human Breast Cancer By Immunohistochemistry And Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, H.I.; Seif, A.A.; El Hadidi, E.S.; Mohamed, A.A.; El Shinawi, M.E.; Shabaan, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnostic assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) is essential and a prerequisite for appropriate application of the humanized anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) to the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The food drug administration (FDA) approved immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2/neu evaluation. IHC is the most widely applicable diagnostic modality in studying HER-2 status. FISH is used for HER2/neu assessment in cases with an equivocal IHC status (score 2+). Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the amplification and/or expression of HER2/neu in breast cancer using FISH and IHC techniques and to evaluate these applied techniques for their potential and clinical application, with special consideration of equivocal cases by IHC (2+). Subjects and Methods: Assessment of HER2/neu gene expression was made by FISH analysis using the HER2/CEP dual color probe (Vysis) in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 32 breast cancer patients who were grouped into stages 1+, 2+ or 3+ based on IHC (CBII monoclonal antibody), 4 were classified as IHC 0, 4 were classified as IHC 1 +, 22 were classified as the borderline group; IHC 2+, and 2 were classified as IHC 3+. ER, PR, CEA and CA15-3 were performed to all cases. Survival data was obtained from 25 patients only. Results: The cut-off suggested for HER2/neu amplification by FISH ratio was > 1.3. No statistical significance was found between HER2/neu -by either FISH or IHC- and the different prognostic parameters. The overall survival for the studied patients -in average 3 years- was 16/25 (64%). A significant statistical association was revealed between breast cancer patients’ survival outcome and HER2/neu amplification (p < 0.05) using chi square test. Conclusion: All breast cancer patients should be assessed for HER2/neu status. IHC is a well established method for assessing HER2/neu status in

  6. Growth differentiation factor-15 secreted by prostate cancer cells inhibits differentiation of osteoclasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňhara, P.; Lincová, Eva; Souček, Karel; Šmarda, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2009), s. 226 ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA301/09/1115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : growth-differentiation factor-15 * osteoclasts * differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. Vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol promotes cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus of mice via the increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Seung Min; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il-Jun

    2016-04-01

    4-Hydroxy‑3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA) are well‑known phenolic compounds, which possess various therapeutic properties and are widely found in a variety of plants. In the present study, the effects of vanillin and 4‑HBA were first investigated on cell proliferation, as well as neuronal differentiation and integration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adolescent mice using Ki‑67, doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry and 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU)/feminizing Locus on X 3 (NeuN) double immunofluorescence. In both the vanillin and 4‑HBA groups, the number of Ki‑67+ cells, DCX+ neuroblasts and BrdU+/NeuN+ neurons were significantly increased in the subgranular zone of the DG, as compared with the vehicle group. In addition, the levels of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin‑related kinase B (TrkB), a BDNF receptor, were significantly increased in the DG in the vanillin and 4‑HBA groups compared with the vehicle group. These results indicated that vanillin and 4‑HBA enhanced cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration of granule cells in the DG of adolescent mice . These neurogenic effects of vanillin and 4‑HBA may be closely associated with increases in BDNF and TrkB.

  8. Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňhara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2012), s. 320-328 ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012

  9. Neu/Now testib talenti kontekstis / Mart Niineste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineste, Mart, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    17.-20. novembrini toimuvast rahvusvahelisest kunstifestivalist Neu/Now. Kahetasandilise festivali raames toimuvast online-festivalist ja live-festivalist. Festivali Eesti poolne kuraator Marje Lohuaru

  10. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lammel, Justus; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs) or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF®) came recently into the physicians' focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10) and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin) differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo. PMID:28808357

  11. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF® came recently into the physicians’ focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10 and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo.

  12. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity. PMID:23878131

  13. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catherine M; Jenner, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity.

  14. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  15. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Andreas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lammel, Justus; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs) or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF?) came recently into the physicians' focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiatio...

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of Her-2/neu overexpression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for Her-2/neu was performed on 10% formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded primary carcinoma of the breast from 83 patients, between 2003 and 2007 using anti-Her-2/neu rabbit polyclonal antibody (DakoCytomation, CA, USA) and reactivity detected by an avidin-biotin ...

  17. Prognostic value of HER-2/neu expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Guan, Chenan; Yu, Junhui; Jin, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Ling; Zheng, Lingzhi; Xia, Liang; Zhang, Yuquan

    2017-09-26

    This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the association between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) expression and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). HER-2/neu is one of the most frequently studied molecular biological parameters in EOC, but its prognostic impact has not been fully assessed. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that reported HER-2/neu expression and survival in patients with EOC. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. Publication bias was investigated using funnel plots and Egger's test. A total of 56 studies (N=7212) were included in the analysis. The results showed that patients possessing HER-2/neu expression had significant disadvantages in OS (HR = 1.41; 95%CI, 1.31 to 1.51; P present study findings provided further indication that HER-2/neu expression in patients with EOC has an adverse impact on OS and PFS.

  18. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Manuelito A; Lo, Raymundo W

    2004-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 selected cases were equally stratified randomly into the four IHC categories (scores of 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+). We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/neu. We were able to perform and evaluate CISH successfully on all cases. The agreement between 3+ IHC and CISH-amplified cases as well as between all IHC and CISH Her-2/neu negative cases was 100%, and the concordance on all positive cases was 72.50%, with an overall agreement of 86.25%. All the discordant cases had 2+ IHC scores. Although we noted Her-2/neu positivity more in premenopausal women, the age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with IHC or CISH results. Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. CISH is easily integrated into routine testing in our laboratory. It is a necessary adjunct in determining the subset of non-amplified IHC-positive invasive tumors that will not benefit from trastuzumab therapy. Those cases with 2+ IHC results will be triaged and subjected to CISH. Her-2/neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade.

  19. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Manuelito A; Lo, Raymundo W

    2004-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 selected cases were equally stratified randomly into the four IHC categories (scores of 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+). We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/neu. We were able to perform and evaluate CISH successfully on all cases. The agreement between 3+ IHC and CISH-amplified cases as well as between all IHC and CISH Her-2/neu negative cases was 100%, and the concordance on all positive cases was 72.50%, with an overall agreement of 86.25%. All the discordant cases had 2+ IHC scores. Although we noted Her-2/neu positivity more in premenopausal women, the age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with IHC or CISH results. Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. CISH is easily integrated into routine testing in our laboratory. It is a necessary adjunct in determining the subset of non-amplified IHC-positive invasive tumors that will not benefit from trastuzumab therapy. Those cases with 2+ IHC results will be triaged and subjected to CISH. Her-2/neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade

  20. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  1. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  2. Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Velthof, Gerard L.; Vries, Wim de; Kros, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N 2 O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N 2 O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach. - Highlights: → We developed an N 2 O emission factor inference scheme for agricultural soils. → This scheme accounts for different N-input sources and environmental conditions. → The derived EF inference scheme performed better than the default IPCC EF. → The use of differentiated EFs allows for better accounting of mitigation measures. - Emission factors for nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are derived as a function of N-input sources and environmental conditions on the basis of empirical information.

  3. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Angela L; Knelson, Erik H; Blobe, Gerard C

    2017-05-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival. HBEGF protein is expressed only in stromal compartments of human neuroblastoma specimens, with tissue from high-stage disease containing very little stroma or HBEGF expression. In 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE2, and SH-SY5Y), soluble HBEGF is sufficient to promote neuroblast differentiation and decrease proliferation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin derivatives further enhance HBEGF-induced differentiation by forming a complex with the epidermal growth factor receptor, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and up-regulation of the inhibitor of DNA binding transcription factor. These data support a role for loss of HBEGF in the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.-Gaviglio, A. L., Knelson, E. H., Blobe, G. C. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation. © FASEB.

  4. Analysis of E2F factors during epidermal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The multigene E2F family of transcription factors is central in the control of cell cycle progression. The expression and activity of E2F proteins is tightly regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally as a function of the proliferation and differentiation status of the cell. In this chapter, we review protocols designed to determine E2F mRNA abundance in tissues by in situ hybridization techniques. The ability to culture primary epidermal keratinocytes and maintain them as either undifferentiated or terminally differentiated cells allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of changes in E2F expression and activity. Thus, we also discuss in detail methods to analyze E2F protein abundance by immunoblot and their ability to bind DNA in cultured cells using electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

  5. Palmitate-induced ER stress increases trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Jan; Wong, Jason; Sun, Yan; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells have recently been shown to use a unique Warburg-like metabolism for survival and aggressive behavior. These cells exhibit increased fatty acid synthesis and storage compared to normal breast cells or other tumor cells. Disruption of this synthetic process results in apoptosis. Since the addition of physiological doses of exogenous palmitate induces cell death in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells, the pathway is likely operating at its limits in these cells. We have studied the response of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells to physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate to identify lipotoxicity-associated consequences of this physiology. Since epidemiological data show that a diet rich in saturated fatty acids is negatively associated with the development of HER2/neu-positive cancer, this cellular physiology may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of the disease. We sought to identify signaling pathways that are regulated by physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate specifically in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanism and its relevance to disease prevention and treatment. Transcriptional profiling was performed to assess programs that are regulated in HER2-normal MCF7 and HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells in response to exogenous palmitate. Computational analyses were used to define and predict functional relationships and identify networks that are differentially regulated in the two cell lines. These predictions were tested using reporter assays, fluorescence-based high content microscopy, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Physiological effects were confirmed in HER2/neu-positive BT474 and HCC1569 breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous palmitate induces functionally distinct transcriptional programs in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. In the lipogenic HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 cell line, palmitate induces a G2 phase cell cycle delay and

  6. Prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, D.; Kalemba, B.; Roskosz, J.; Kukulska, A.; Puch, Z.; Jarzab, B.; Wloch, J.; Lange, D.

    2001-01-01

    Standard therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) comprises thyroid surgery, radioiodine treatment and L-thyroxine suppressive treatment. However, in the case of young patients the extent of surgery and the need for radioiodine treatment are questioned by some authors on the basis of the overall good prognosis in this group. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid cancer in patients in the first three decades of their life. The study included 274 patients who were younger than 28 years at the day of diagnosis of DTC and were observed for a mean time of 5 years. Uni- and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for disease - free survival was performed with Cox's regression method. The actuarial survival rate was 100%, the 5 and 10-year actuarial disease free survival was 85% and 75%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis lymph node metastases, the extent of surgery and radioiodine therapy were estimated as statistically significant, independent prognostic factors for DTC relapse. Radical treatment of DTC more advanced than pT1NOMO should include total thyroidectomy and postoperative complementary radioiodine therapy. Such procedure is also justified in young patients, as it ensures a decrease of the risk of recurrence. (author)

  7. Prospective risk factors for adolescent PTSD: sources of differential exposure and differential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-02-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age = 13.5), the current study differentiates these two sources of risk for developing PTSD in response to violence exposure. Five domains of potential risk and protective factors were examined: community context (e.g., neighborhood poverty), family risk (e.g., family conflict), behavioral maladjustment (e.g., internalizing symptoms), cognitive vulnerabilities (e.g., low IQ), and interpersonal problems (e.g., low social support). Time 1 interpersonal violence history, externalizing behaviors, and association with deviant peers were the best predictors of subsequent violence, but did not further increase the likelihood of PTSD in response to violence. Race/ethnicity, thought disorder symptoms, and social problems were distinctly predictive of the development of PTSD following violence exposure. Among youth exposed to violence, Time 1 risk factors did not predict specific event features associated with elevated PTSD rates (e.g., parent as perpetrator), nor did interactions between Time 1 factors and event features add significantly to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis. Findings highlight areas for refinement in adolescent PTSD symptom measures and conceptualization, and provide direction for more targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jason W; Barrett, Terry L; Kies, Merrill; Ross, Merrick I; Sneige, Nour; Diwan, A Hafeez; Lazar, Alexander J F

    2007-01-01

    A 44-year-old man was referred for a right chest nodule of 3 months duration. A 'benign' nodule had been excised from this location 8 years prior. On examination, palpable nodes were noted in the right axilla. Radiographic studies were significant only for right axillary lymphadenopathy. Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor. Features of a clear cell hidradenoma were noted focally. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed reactivity for HMW cytokeratins, CK5 and CK7, p53, p63, CEA (focal), androgen receptor, EGFR, estrogen receptor (ER), MUC5AC, and strong/diffuse membranous staining for Her-2/neu. Negative stains included villin, TTF-1, CDX2, S-100 protein, vimentin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), mammoglobulin, and MUC2. A wide local excision and axillary node dissection was performed. Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis. The patient has completed adjuvant and radiotherapy, including trastuzumab, and is asymptomatic. We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor. In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.

  9. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  10. Evaluation of tumor markers (HER-2/neu oncoprotein, CEA, and CA 15.3) in patients with locoregional breast cancer: prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; Augé, Jose M; Escudero, Jose M; Filella, Xavier; Zanon, Gabriel; Pahisa, Jaume; Farrus, Blanca; Muñoz, Montserrat; Velasco, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Tumor markers were studied in the sera of 883 untreated patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2007. Abnormal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu levels (>15 ng/mL) were found in 9.5%, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 15.9%, and cancer antigen (CA) 15.3 in 19.7% of the patients. One or more tumor markers were abnormal in 305 (34.5%) of the 883 studied patients. Significantly higher serum HER-2/neu levels were found in patients with tissue overexpression of this oncoprotein (p CEA, CA 15.3, and HER-2/neu (only in those patients with tissue overexpression) serum levels were related with tumor stage (tumor size and nodal involvement) and steroid receptors (higher values in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) tumors). Univariate analysis showed that HER-2/neu serum levels were prognostic factors in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) only in patients with tissue overexpression. Multivariate analysis in 834 patients show that nodal involvement, tumor size, ER, CEA, and adjuvant treatment were independent prognostic factors in DFS and OS. When only patients with HER-2/neu overexpression in tissue were studied, tumor size, nodal involvement, and tumor markers (one or another positive) were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. HER-2/neu serum levels were also an independent prognostic factor, with CEA, ER, and nodes in 106 patients treated with neoadjuvant treatment. In summary, serum HER-2/neu, CEA, and CA 15.3 are useful tools in the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary breast cancer.

  11. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution — that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations R = [ r s ] we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family (the trefoil and the figure-eight knot) and provide the exhaustive answer for the first unknown case of R = [33]. The answer includes HOMFLY of arbitrary twist and double-braid knots and Racah matrices overline{S} and S — what allows to calculate [33]-colored polynomials for arbitrary arborescent (double-fat) knots. For generic rectangular representations fully described are only the contributions of the single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  12. Promotion of breast cancer by β-Hexachlorocyclohexane in MCF10AT1 cells and MMTV-neu mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Patrick S; Matsumura, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), a contaminant of the hexachlorohexane pesticide lindane, has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of breast cancers in epidemiological studies. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of β-HCH to elicit its actions via a ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor through increased c-Neu (= erbB 2 or HER-2) expression and kinase activation in both the BG-1 and MCF-7 cell lines. In addition, long term exposure (33 passages) to β-HCH was shown to promote the selection of MCF-7 cells which exhibit a more metastatic phenotype. In this current study, we decided to investigate the long-term effects of β-HCH in both the MCF10AT1 cell line which was derived from a normal epithelial cell line by stably transfecting a mutated c-Ha-ras and a MMTV-Neu mouse model for mammary cancer in vivo. MCF10AT1 cells were exposed for 20 passages with β-HCH, 4-OH-Tamoxifen (Tam), or 17-β-estradiol (E 2 ) after which cells were analyzed for proliferation rates and mRNA expression by RT-PCR. In our in vivo studies, MMTV-Neu mice were injected with β-HCH and observed for tumor formation over a 70 week period. β-HCH and Tam selected MCF10AT1 cells demonstrated increased mRNA expression of MMP-13 (collagenase-3) a marker of increased invasiveness. β-HCH treatment was also seen to increase the expression in a number of proto-oncogenes (c-Neu, Cyclin D1, p27), cell status markers (Met-1, CK19), and the inflammatory marker NFκB. Previous studies, have demonstrated the role of these markers as evidence of malignant transformations, and further illustrate the ability of β-HCH to be carcinogenic. To demonstrate β-HCH's tumorigenic properties in an in vivo system, we used an MMTV-Neu mouse model. MMTV-Neu is a c-Neu overexpressing strain which has been shown to spontaneously develop mammary tumors at later stages of aging. In this experiment, β-HCH exposure was shown to both accelerate

  13. Differential expression of growth factors in irradiated mouse testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauduit, Claire; Siah, Ahmed; Foch, Marie; Chapet, Olivier; Clippe, Sebastien; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Benahmed, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: By using as an experimental model the male mouse gonad, which contains both radiosensitive (germ) and radioresistant (somatic) cells, we have studied the growth factor (and/or receptor) expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβ RI), stem cell factor (SCF), c-kit, Fas-L, Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF R55), and leukemia inhibiting factor receptor (LIF-R) after local irradiation. Methods and Materials: Adult male mice were locally irradiated on the testes. Induction of apoptosis in the different testicular cell types following X-ray radiation was identified by the TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) approach. Growth factor expression was evidenced by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Apoptosis, identified through the TUNEL approach, occurred in radiosensitive testicular (premeotic) germ cells with the following kinetics: the number of apoptotic cells increased after 24 h (p<0.001) and was maximal 48 h after a 2-Gy ionizing radiation (p<0.001). Apoptotic cells were no longer observed 72 h after a 2-Gy irradiation. The number of apoptotic cells increased with the dose of irradiation (1-4 Gy). In the seminiferous tubules, the growth factor expression in premeiotic radiosensitive germ cells was modulated by irradiation. Indeed Fas, c-kit, and LIF-R expression, which occurs in (radiosensitive) germ cells, decreased 24 h after a 2-Gy irradiation, and the maximal decrease was observed with a 4-Gy irradiation. The decrease in Stra8 expression occurred earlier, at 4 h after a 2-Gy irradiation. In addition, a significant (p<0.03) decrease in Stra8 mRNA levels was observed at the lowest dose used (0.5 Gy, 48 h). Moreover, concerning a growth factor receptor, such as TGFβ RI, which is expressed both in radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, we observed a differential expression depending on the cell radiosensitivity after irradiation. Indeed, TGFβ RI expression was increased after irradiation in

  14. Antibody against Microbial Neuraminidases Recognizes Human Sialidase 3 (NEU3: the Neuraminidase/Sialidase Superfamily Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiguang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuraminidases (NAs are critical virulence factors for several microbial pathogens. With a highly conserved catalytic domain, a microbial NA “superfamily” has been proposed. We previously reported that murine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN sialidase activity was important in leukocyte trafficking to inflamed sites and that antibodies to Clostridium perfringens NA recognized a cell surface molecule(s, presumed to be a sialidase of eukaryotic origin on interleukin-8-stimulated human and murine PMNs. These antibodies also inhibited cell sialidase activity both in vitro and, in the latter instance, in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that mammalian sialidases share structural homology and epitopes with microbial NAs. We now report that antibodies to one of the isoforms of C. perfringens NA, as well as anti-influenza virus NA serum, recognize human NEU3 but not NEU1 and that antibodies to C. perfringens NA inhibit NEU3 enzymatic activity. We conclude that the previously described microbial NA superfamily extends to human sialidases. Strategies designed to therapeutically inhibit microbial NA may need to consider potential compromising effects on human sialidases, particularly those expressed in cells of the immune system.

  15. MRPC prototypes for NeuLAND tested using the single electron mode of ELBE/Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Kempe, Mathias; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Ciobanu, Mircea; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Nusair, Omar; Reifarth, Rene; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Maroussov, Vassili; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). Prototypes for the NeuLAND detector have been built at FZD and GSI and then studied using the 32 MeV pulsed electron beam at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE in Dresden, Germany. Owing to the new, single-electron per bunch mode of operation, a rapid validation of the design criteria ({>=}90% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles, {sigma} {<=} 100 ps time resolution) was possible. Tested properties of the prototypes include glass thickness, spacing of the central anode, and a comparison of single-ended and differential readout. Tested frontend electronics schemes include FOPI (single-ended), PADI-based (both single-ended and differential mode tested), and ALICE (differential).

  16. Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125 I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

  17. Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.

  18. Status of the neutron detector NeuLAND in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Kenjiro; Caesar, Christoph; Scheit, Heiko [IKP, TU-Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU-Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Gasparic, Igor [RBI, Zagreb (Croatia); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We report on the present status of the new neutron detector NeuLAND designed for the R3B facility at FAIR. The NeuLAND is a segmented large-volume plastic scintillation detector with a designed volume of 2.5(width) x 2.5(height) x 30 (depth) m{sup 3}, which will provide high efficiency, good timing resolution and high multi-neutron resolving power. Ten planes of scintillator walls, corresponding to the depth of 0.5 m, have been constructed and tested so far. The performance of this NeuLAND demonstrator was studied with fast neutrons from heavy-ion beams in GSI. The {sup 48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 236,238}U beams with incident energies from 400 to 800 MeV/u were impinged on C, Pb, or U target, and neutrons produced around 0 degrees were detected by the NeuLAND. Neutron hit distributions were obtained for one and multiple neutron events, allowing us for detailed response studies. An excellent timing resolution of typically 150 psec (σ) was determined online. The presentation includes the detailed explanation of the experimental setups and obtained results. The outlook comprises further NeuLAND construction and data taking during the next year.

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 All antigens Neural Induced neural progeni....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 All antigens Neural Induced neural progeni....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  1. NeuLand submodules exposed to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparic, Igor [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Jaehrling, Simon [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Within the R{sup 3}B collaboration (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams), a new neutron detector NeuLAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) is being developed. The technical design was finalized in November 2011, a fully active scintillator concept was chosen. It will be a box-shaped 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 m{sup 3} detector consisting of 3000 scintillator bars arranged in 60 planes with mutually orthogonal orientation. An array of 150 NeuLAND bars was exposed to fast ''mono-energetic'' neutrons stemming from quasi-free deuteron breakup reactions on a CH{sub 2} target (250 to 1500 AMeV). The experiment carried out at GSI in Nov. 2012 aims for determination of both time resolution and efficiency of NeuLAND submodules. Preliminary results of the analysis are presented.

  2. NeuLAND prototype: response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehrling, Simon; Scheit, Heiko [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Kresan, Dmytro; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gasparic, Igor [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Within the R3B collaboration (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams), a new neutron detector NeuLAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) is being developed. It will be a fully active scintillation detector consisting of 3000 scintillator bars, arranged in 30 double layers. Within a double layer 50 bars are horizontal and 50 vertical orientated. The whole detector measures 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 m{sup 3}. A prototype with 150 NeuLAND bars was tested at GSI using quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with different energies from 200 to 1500 MeV stemming from quasi-free deuteron breakup reactions on a CH{sub 2} target. The experimental setup is described, and preliminary results for the time resolution and efficiency of the NeuLAND prototype detector are presented.

  3. Silencing of the HER2/neu Gene by siRNA Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HER2/neu-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Faltus

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, double-stranded (ds RNA induces sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression referred to as RNA interference (RNAi. We exploited RNAi to define the role of HER2/neu in the neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells. We transfected SK-BR-3, BT-474, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells with short interfering RNA (siRNA targeted against human HER2/neu and analyzed the specific inhibition of HER2/neu expression by Northern and Western blots. Transfection with HER2/neu-specific siRNA resulted in a sequence-specific decrease in HER2/neu mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, transfection with HER2/neu siRNA caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR-3 and BT-474, consistent with a powerful RNA silencing effect. siRNA treatment resulted in an antiproliferative and apoptotic response in cells overexpressing HER2/neu, but had no influence in cells with almost no expression of HER2/neu proteins like MDA-MB-468 cells. These data indicate that HER2/neu function is essential for the proliferation of HER2/neuoverexpressing breast cancer cells. Our observations suggest that siRNA targeted against human HER2/neu may be valuable tools as anti proliferative agents that display activity against neoplastic cells at very low doses.

  4. Her-2/neu expression in node-negative breast cancer: direct tissue quantitation by computerized image analysis and association of overexpression with increased risk of recurrent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, M F; Pike, M C; Chazin, V R; Hung, G; Udove, J A; Markowicz, M; Danyluk, J; Godolphin, W; Sliwkowski, M; Akita, R

    1993-10-15

    The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene (also known as c-erb B-2) is homologous with, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. Amplification of this gene in node-positive breast cancers has been shown to correlate with both earlier relapse and shorter overall survival. In node-negative breast cancer patients, the subgroup for which accurate prognostic data could make a significant contribution to treatment decisions, the prognostic utility of HER-2/neu amplification and/or overexpression has been controversial. The purpose of this report is to address the issues surrounding this controversy and to evaluate the prognostic utility of overexpression in a carefully followed group of patients using appropriately characterized reagents and methods. In this report we present data from a study of HER-2/neu expression designed specifically to test whether or not overexpression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancers. From a cohort of 704 women with node-negative breast cancer who experienced recurrent disease (relapsed cases) 105 were matched with 105 women with no recurrence (disease-free controls) after the equivalent follow-up period. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HER-2/neu expression in archival tissue blocks from both relapsed cases and their matched disease-free controls. Importantly, a series of molecularly characterized breast cancer specimens were used to confirm that the antibody used was of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify those cancers overexpressing the HER-2/neu protein in this formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cohort. In addition, a quantitative approach was developed to more accurately assess the amount of HER-2/neu protein identified by immunostaining tumor tissue. This was done using a purified HER-2/neu protein synthesized in a bacterial expression vector and protein lysates derived from a series of cell lines, engineered to express a defined range of HER-2/neu oncoprotein

  5. Molecular analysis of expansion, differentiation, and growth factor treatment of human chondrocytes identifies differentiation markers and growth-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Karin; Breit, Stephen; Lukoschek, Martin; Mau, Hans; Richter, Wiltrud

    2002-04-26

    This study is intended to optimise expansion and differentiation of cultured human chondrocytes by growth factor application and to identify molecular markers to monitor their differentiation state. We dissected the molecular consequences of matrix release, monolayer, and 3D-alginate culture, growth factor optimised expansion, and re-differentiation protocols by gene expression analysis. Among 19 common cartilage molecules assessed by cDNA array, six proved best to monitor differentiation. Instant down-regulation at release of cells from the matrix was strongest for COL 2A1, fibromodulin, and PRELP while LUM, CHI3L1, and CHI3L2 were expansion-related. Both gene sets reflected the physiologic effects of the most potent growth-inducing (PDGF-BB) and proteoglycan-inducing (BMP-4) factors. Only CRTAC1 expression correlated with 2D/3D switches while the molecular phenotype of native chondrocytes was not restored. The markers and optimised protocols we suggest can help to improve cell therapy of cartilage defects and chondrocyte differentiation from stem cell sources.

  6. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill-Eubanks, D.C.; Parker, C.G.; Lollar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated 125 I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function

  7. At least two Fc Neu5Gc residues of monoclonal antibodies are required for binding to anti-Neu5Gc antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chuanfei; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Meng; Wormald, Mark R.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Wang, Junzhi

    2016-01-01

    Two non-human glycan epitopes, galactose-Į-1,3-galactose (Į-gal) and Neu5Gc-Į-2-6-galactose (Neu5Gc) have been shown to be antigenic when attached to Fab oligosaccharides of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) , while Į-gal attached to Fc glycans were not. However, the antigenicity of Neu5Gc on the Fc glycans remains unclear in the context that most mAbs carry only Fc glycans. After studying two clinical mAbs carrying significant amounts of Fc Neu5Gc, we show that their binding activity with anti-Ne...

  8. At least two Fc Neu5Gc residues of monoclonal antibodies are required for binding to anti-Neu5Gc antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Meng; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; Wang, Junzhi

    2016-01-29

    Two non-human glycan epitopes, galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) and Neu5Gc-α-2-6-galactose (Neu5Gc) have been shown to be antigenic when attached to Fab oligosaccharides of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) , while α-gal attached to Fc glycans was not. However, the antigenicity of Neu5Gc on the Fc glycans remains unclear in the context that most mAbs carry only Fc glycans. After studying two clinical mAbs carrying significant amounts of Fc Neu5Gc, we show that their binding activity with anti-Neu5Gc antibody resided in a small subset of mAbs carrying two or more Fc Neu5Gc, while mAbs harboring only one Neu5Gc showed no reactivity. Since most Neu5Gc epitopes were distributed singly on the Fc of mAbs, our results suggest that the potential antigenicity of Fc Neu5Gc is low. Our study could be referenced in the process design and optimization of mAb production in murine myeloma cells and in the quality control of mAbs for industries and regulatory authorities.

  9. Scintillator concept of NeuLAND at R3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, Thomas; Ignatov, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Maroussov, Vassili [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Zilges, Andreas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    For the R3B experiment at FAIR a detection system for fast neutrons, NeuLAND (new Large Area Neutron Detector), is foreseen. Besides a time resolution of {sigma}{sub t}{approx_equal} 100 ps, spatial resolutions of {sigma}{sub x,y,z}{approx_equal} 1 cm, the detection efficiency of above 90% for neutrons of 0.2-1 GeV and a dedicated multi-neutron recognition capability are demanded. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code we studied a NeuLAND detector concept relying entirely on bars of a plastic scintillator (BC408). With a detector depth of 2 m the required efficiency is reached and the fraction of incident neutrons detected within resolution requirements varies from {proportional_to}70% to 80% in the desired energy range. Simulations have verified that the introduction of an inactive converter like iron deteriorates the timing performance. Due to the low density of the scintillator secondary protons typically cross several modules, thus allowing the tracking of secondaries. The status of the multi-hit recognition algorithm using the tracking information is presented along with the latest results for the scintillator prototypes for NeuLAND. Using the same framework a competing concept for NeuLAND based on MRPCs was studied as well and is contrasted to the scintillator concept.

  10. NeuCode Proteomics Reveals Bap1 Regulation of Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Baughman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce neutron-encoded (NeuCode amino acid labeling of mice as a strategy for multiplexed proteomic analysis in vivo. Using NeuCode, we characterize an inducible knockout mouse model of Bap1, a tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase whose in vivo roles outside of cancer are not well established. NeuCode proteomics revealed altered metabolic pathways following Bap1 deletion, including profound elevation of cholesterol biosynthetic machinery coincident with reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipid homeostasis proteins in liver. Bap1 loss increased pancreatitis biomarkers and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. These alterations accompany a metabolic remodeling with hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic lipid loss, and acinar cell degeneration. Liver-specific Bap1 null mice present with fully penetrant perinatal lethality, severe hypoglycemia, and hepatic lipid deficiency. This work reveals Bap1 as a metabolic regulator in liver and pancreas, and it establishes NeuCode as a reliable proteomic method for deciphering in vivo biology.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of Neu-Laxova syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Ibrahim

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality involving multiple systems. We report a case of Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound examination. Case presentation A 29-year-old gravida 3, para 2 woman was first seen in our antenatal clinic at 38 weeks' pregnancy. Except for the consanguinity and two previous abnormal stillborn babies her medical history was unremarkable. On ultrasound examination microcephaly, flat forehead, micrognathia, intrauterine growth restriction, generalized edema of the skin, hypoplastic chest, excessive soft tissue deposition of hands and feet, joint contractures and a penis without scrotal sacs were detected. She delivered a 2000 g male fetus. He died five minutes after delivery. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of Neu-Laxova syndrome. Conclusion Because of the autosomal recessive inheritance of Neu-Laxova syndrome genetic counseling and early-serial ultrasound examination should be performed at risk families. Early diagnosis of the disease may offer termination of the pregnancy as an option.

  12. Designing a HER2/neu promoter to drive α1,3galactosyltransferase expression for targeted anti-αGal antibody-mediated tumor cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanteri, Marion; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Our goal was to specifically render tumor cells susceptible to natural cytolytic anti-αGal antibodies by using a murine α1,3galactosyltransferase (mαGalT) transgene driven by a designed form of HER2/neu promoter (pNeu), the transcription of which is frequently observed to be above basal in breast tumors. Indeed, the αGalT activity that promotes Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R (αGal) epitope expression has been mutationally disrupted during the course of evolution, starting from Old World primates, and this has led to the counter-production of large amounts of cytotoxic anti-αGal antibodies in recent primates, including man. Expression of the endogenous c-erbB-2 gene was investigated in various cell lines by northern blotting. A mαGalT cDNA was constructed into pcDNA3 vector downstream of the original CMV promoter (pCMV/mαGalT) and various forms of pNeu were prepared by PCR amplification and inserted in the pCMV/mαGalT construct upstream of the mαGalT cDNA, in the place of the CMV promoter. These constructs were transferred into HEK-293 control and breast tumor cell lines. Stably transfected cells were analyzed by northern blotting for their expression of αGalT and c-erbB-2, and by flow cytometry for their binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia/isolectin B4. We show that expression of the mαGalT was up- or down-modulated according to the level of endogenous pNeu activity and the particular form of constructed pNeu. Among several constructs, two particular forms of the promoter, pNeu250 containing the CCAAT box and the PEA3 motif adjacent to the TATAA box, and pNeu664, which has three additional PEA3 motifs upstream of the CCAAT box, were found to promote differential αGalT expression. Our results strengthen current concepts about the crucial role played by the proximal PEA3 motif of pNeu, and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the development of targeted transgene expression

  13. Modeling Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities within the Higher-Order Factor Model Using Moderated Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The general differentiation hypothesis states that the strength of the correlations among a set of IQ subtests varies with a given variable. Instances of the general differentiation hypothesis that have been considered in the literature include age and ability differentiation. Traditionally, the differentiation effect is attributed to the varying…

  14. Prospective Risk Factors for Adolescent PTSD: Sources of Differential Exposure and Differential Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age =…

  15. Origin of cells cultured in vitro from human breast carcinomas traced by cyclin D1 and HER2/neu FISH signal numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Eva; Kudláčková, Iva; Chaloupková, Alena; Brožová, Markéta; Netíková, I.; Veselý, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 25, 2A (2005), s. 1051-1058 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : breast carcinomas * primary cultures of carcinoma cells * cyclin D1 and HER2/neu by FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2005

  16. The Plasma Membrane Sialidase NEU3 Regulates the Malignancy of Renal Carcinoma Cells by Controlling β1 Integrin Internalization and Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Cristina; Lupo, Barbara; Silvestri, Ilaria; Papini, Nadia; Anastasia, Luigi; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The human plasma membrane sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme in the catabolism of membrane gangliosides, is crucial in the regulation of cell surface processes, and has been demonstrated to be significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In this report, we show that NEU3 regulates β1 integrin trafficking in RCC cells by controlling β1 integrin recycling to the plasma membrane and controlling activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. NEU3 silencing in RCC cells increased the membrane ganglioside content, in particular the GD1a content, and changed the expression of key regulators of the integrin recycling pathway. In addition, NEU3 silencing up-regulated the Ras-related protein RAB25, which directs internalized integrins to lysosomes, and down-regulated the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3), which induces the recycling of internalized integrins to the plasma membrane. In this manner, NEU3 silencing enhanced the caveolar endocytosis of β1 integrin, blocked its recycling and reduced its levels at the plasma membrane, and, consequently, inhibited EGFR and FAK/AKT. These events had the following effects on the behavior of RCC cells: they (a) decreased drug resistance mediated by the block of autophagy and the induction of apoptosis; (b) decreased metastatic potential mediated by down-regulation of the metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP7; and (c) decreased adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. Therefore, our data identify NEU3 as a key regulator of the β1 integrin-recycling pathway and FAK/AKT signaling and demonstrate its crucial role in RCC malignancy. PMID:23139422

  17. Role of microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) in melanoma differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekmine, Fatima; Chang, C.K.; Sethakorn, Nan; Das Gupta, Tapas K.; Salti, George I.

    2007-01-01

    We transfected the melanocyte-specific Mitf-M isoform into the aggressive melanoma UISO-Mel-6 cell lines. Our data show that Mitf decreases cell proliferation and results in cells which grow in clusters. By analyzing the expression of the markers of differentiation, we demonstrate that Mitf favored increased expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. In addition, Mitf induces Bcl-2 expression following transfection of UISO-Mel-6 cells. We also showed that Mitf gene affects cell-cycle distribution by resting cells preferentially in G2/G1 phase, and inducing the expression of p21 and p27. Moreover, we performed in vivo studies using subcutaneous injection of UISO-Mel-6 and UISO-Mel-6-Mitf in Balb/c nude mice. Our data show that Mitf inhibits tumor growth and decreases Ki67 expression. Tumors induced by UISO-Mel-6 cells were ulcerated and resulted in metastases to liver. None of the mice injected with UISO-Mel-6 Mitf+ cells harbored liver metastases. Our results suggest that Mitf is involved in melanoma differentiation and leads to a less aggressive phenotype

  18. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  19. Detecting Differential Transcription Factor Activity from ATAC-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio J. Tripodi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are managers of the cellular factory, and key components to many diseases. Many non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms affect transcription factors, either by directly altering the protein or its functional activity at individual binding sites. Here we first briefly summarize high-throughput approaches to studying transcription factor activity. We then demonstrate, using published chromatin accessibility data (specifically ATAC-seq, that the genome-wide profile of TF recognition motifs relative to regions of open chromatin can determine the key transcription factor altered by a perturbation. Our method of determining which TFs are altered by a perturbation is simple, is quick to implement, and can be used when biological samples are limited. In the future, we envision that this method could be applied to determine which TFs show altered activity in response to a wide variety of drugs and diseases.

  20. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  1. Prognostic factors in well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.; Parikh, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The choice of treatment for a well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC) of the thyroid has remained controversial for several decades. This is unfortunate because WDC occurs in the young, particularly in women, and is compatible with several years of survival. A retrospective analysis of 417 cases of WDC of the thyroid treated by definitive surgery at the Tata Memorial Hospital for the 15-year period (1970 to 1985) form the basis of the conclusion drawn in the present report. These include cases that were referred primarily and those who underwent revision or completion thyroidectomy at the hospital after being treated elsewhere. All relevant data of the cases with WDC, including histopathology slides, were reviewed by an experienced pathologist

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits differentiation of myogenic cells in human urethral rhabdosphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mayuka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Kiyono, Tohru; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-06-01

    To examine the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on myogenic differentiation of human urethral rhabdosphincter cells. A rhabdosphincter sample was obtained from a patient who underwent total cystectomy. To expand the lifespan of the primary cultured cells, rhabdosphincter myogenic cells were immortalized with mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1 and telomerase. The differential potential of the cells was investigated. The transfected human rhabdosphincter cells were induced for myogenic differentiation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α and/or the tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist etanercept at different concentrations, and activation of signaling pathways was monitored. Human rhabdosphincter cells were selectively cultured for at least 40 passages. Molecular analysis confirmed the expression of myosin heavy chain, which is a specific marker of differentiated muscle cells, significantly increased after differentiation induction. Although tumor necrosis factor-α treatment reduced the myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner, etanercept inhibited this suppression. Tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38, whereas etanercept pretreatment promoted phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits differentiation of urethral rhabdosphincter cells in part through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α might be a useful strategy to treat stress urinary incontinence. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Exposure to depleted uranium does not alter the co-expression of HER-2/neu and p53 in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Toriahi Kaswer M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the extensive literature on immunohistochemical profile of breast cancer, very little is found on populations exposed to a potential risk factor such as depleted uranium. This study looked at the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2 and p53 in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, where the population has been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. Findings The present investigation was performed over a period starting from September 2008 to April 2009. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 70 patients with breast cancer (62 ductal and 8 lobular carcinoma were included in this study. A group of 25 patients with fibroadenoma was included as a comparative group, and 20 samples of normal breast tissue sections were used as controls. Labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB+ complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of HER-2/neu and p53. The detection rate of HER-2/neu and p53 immunohistochemical expression were 47.14% and 35.71% respectively in malignant tumors; expression was negative in the comparative and control groups (p HER-2/neu immunostaining was significantly associated with histological type, tumor size, nodal involvement, and recurrence of breast carcinoma (p p Both biomarkers were positively correlated with each other. Furthermore, all the cases that co-expressed both HER-2/neu and p53 showed the most unfavorable biopathological profile. Conclusion P53 and HER-2/neu over-expression play an important role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma. The findings indicate that in regions exposed to high levels of depleted uranium, although p53 and HER-2/neu overexpression are both high, correlation of their expression with age, grade, tumor size, recurrence and lymph node involvement is similar to studies that have been conducted on populations not exposed to depleted uranium. HER-2/neu expression in breast cancer was higher

  4. Growth differentiation factor 15 deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by attenuating CCR2-mediated macrophage chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, S.C.A.; Bermúdez, B.; Bot, I.; Koenen, R.R.; Bot, M.; Kavelaars, A.; de Waard, V.; Heijnen, C.J.; Muriana, F.J.G.; Weber, C.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Kuiper, J.; Lee, S.J.; Abia, R.; Biessen, E.A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor. (TGF-beta) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show

  5. Myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient bone marrow cells improve Alzheimer's disease-related symptoms and pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, W.; Liu, Y.; Liu, S.; Walter, S.; Grimm, M.O.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Penke, B.; Hartmann, T.; Rube, C.E.; Menger, M.D.; Fassbender, K.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid beta peptide in the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that amyloid beta peptide injures neurons both directly and indirectly by triggering neurotoxic innate immune responses. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 is the key

  6. NeuRad detector prototype pulse shape study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalevsky, I.; Chudoba, V.; Belogurov, S.; Kiselev, O.; Bezbakh, A.; Fomichev, A.; Krupko, S.; Slepnev, R.; Kostyleva, D.; Gorshkov, A.; Ovcharenko, E.; Schetinin, V.

    2018-04-01

    The EXPERT setup located at the Super-FRS facility, the part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany, is intended for investigation of properties of light exotic nuclei. One of its modules, the high granularity neutron detector NeuRad assembled from a large number of the scintillating fiber is intended for registration of neutrons emitted by investigated nuclei in low-energy decays. Feasibility of the detector strongly depends on its timing properties defined by the spatial distribution of ionization, light propagation inside the fibers, light emission kinetics and transition time jitter in the multi-anode photomultiplier tube. The first attempt of understanding the pulse formation in the prototype of the NeuRad detector by comparing experimental results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is reported in this paper.

  7. Differentiating Bullish from Bearish Factors in the Arbitrage Pricing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a teaching note on a proposed approach that will correct a common flaw in the way the return-generating process within the APT framework is illustrated in textbooks. The problem can be resolved by dichotomizing the risk factors into two kinds. Based on this approach, the author eliminated the main source of confusion and developed an…

  8. A brief tool to differentiate factors contributing to insomnia complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Donald; Kazaglis, Louis; Savik, Kay; Smerud, Adam; Iber, Conrad

    2017-03-01

    A complaint of insomnia may have many causes. A brief tool examining contributing factors may be useful for nonsleep specialists. This study describes the development of the Insomnia Symptoms Assessment (ISA) for examining insomnia complaints. ISA questions were designed to identify symptoms that may represent 1 of 8 possible factors contributing to insomnia symptoms, including delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mental health, chronic pain, restless leg syndrome (RLS), poor sleep hygiene, and psychophysiological insomnia (PI). The ISA was completed by 346 new patients. Patients met with a sleep specialist who determined primary and secondary diagnoses. Mean age was 45 (18-85) years and 51% were male. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 217) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 129) supported 5 factors with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), including RLS (.72), OSA (.60), SWSD (.67), DSPS (.64), and PI (.80). Thirty percent had 1 sleep diagnosis with a mean of 2.2 diagnoses per patient. No diagnosis was entered for 1.2% of patients. The receiver operating characteristics were examined and the area under the curves calculated as an indication of convergent validity for the primary diagnosis (N = 346) were .97 for SWSD, .78 for OSA, .67 for DSPS, .54 for PI, and .80 for RLS. The ISA demonstrated good internal consistency and corresponds well to expert diagnoses. Next steps include setting sensitivity/specificity cutoffs to suggest initial treatment recommendations for use in other settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Her4 and Her2/neu tyrosine kinase domains dimerize and activate in a reconstituted in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsey, John; Shen, Wei; Schlesinger, Paul; Bose, Ron

    2010-03-05

    Her4 (ErbB-4) and Her2/neu (ErbB-2) are receptor-tyrosine kinases belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Crystal structures of EGFR and Her4 kinase domains demonstrate kinase dimerization and activation through an allosteric mechanism. The kinase domains form an asymmetric dimer, where the C-lobe surface of one monomer contacts the N-lobe of the other monomer. EGFR kinase dimerization and activation in vitro was previously reported using a nickel-chelating lipid-liposome system, and we now apply this system to all other members of the EGFR family. Polyhistidine-tagged Her4, Her2/neu, and Her3 kinase domains are bound to these nickel-liposomes and are brought to high local concentration, mimicking what happens to full-length receptors in vivo following ligand binding. Addition of nickel-liposomes to Her4 kinase domain results in 40-fold activation in kinase activity and marked enhancement of C-terminal tail autophosphorylation. Activation of Her4 shows a sigmoidal dependence on kinase concentration, consistent with a cooperative process requiring kinase dimerization. Her2/neu kinase activity is also activated by nickel-liposomes, and is increased further by heterodimerization with Her3 or Her4. The ability of Her3 and Her4 to heterodimerize and activate other family members is studied in vitro. Her3 kinase domain readily activates Her2/neu but is a poor activator of Her4, which differs from the prediction made by the asymmetric dimer model. Mutation of Her3 residues (952)ENI(954) to the corresponding sequence in Her4 enhanced the ability of Her3 to activate Her4, demonstrating that sequence differences on the C-lobe surface influence the heterodimerization and activation of ErbB kinase domains.

  10. Alanud on Neu/Now online-festival

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    4. okt.-l avatud Neu/Now festivali online-keskonnas esitletakse 23 riigi 135 noore kunstiprojekte. Nimetatud Eestist festivalile pääsenud 9 tööd. 17.-20. nov.-ni toimuval live-festivail esitletakse Tallinnas 17 riigi 35 kunstiprojekti (Eestist 5). Kandideerida said lõpetavad või äsja lõpetanud kunsti- ja muusikaerialade tudengid ELIA võrgustikku kuuluvatest ülikoolidest

  11. Efficiency measurement of the NeuLAND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernqvist, Hans; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Holl, Matthias; Horvat, Andrea; Kahlbow, Julian; Miki, Kenjiro; Rossi, Dominic; Scheit, Heiko; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Simon, Haik [GSI Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gasparic, Igor [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    NeuLAND is the next-generation high-energy and high-efficiency neutron detector currently under construction at GSI/FAIR by the R{sup 3}B collaboration. This detector will be used in a wide variety of experiments, ranging from nuclear-structure measurements of neutron-rich species to the investigation of the equation-of-state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The design goals of the full NeuLAND detector are a >95% detection efficiency for single neutrons, a time resolution of σ{sub t} ≤ 150 ps and a position resolution of σ{sub x,y,z} ≤ 1.5 cm, with a detection volume of 250 x 250 x 300 cm{sup 3}. While still under construction, a set of 4 of the 30 planned NeuLAND double-planes were used for a series of experiments at the SAMURAI setup at RIKEN. In particular, the time resolution and one-neutron efficiency were measured using neutrons from the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The test setup at RIKEN are described, and the resolution and efficiency results are discussed.

  12. THYDE-NEU: Nuclear reactor system analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro

    2002-03-01

    THYDE-NEU is applicable not only to transient analyses, but also to steady state analyses of nuclear reactor systems (NRSs). In a steady state analysis, the code generates a solution satisfying the transient equations without external disturbances. In a transient analysis, the code calculates temporal NRS behaviors in response to various external disturbances in such a way that mass and energy of the coolant as well as the number of neutrons conserve. The first half of the report is the description of the methods and models for use in the THYDE-NEU code, i.e., (1) the thermal-hydraulic network model, (2) the spatial kinetics model, (3) the heat sources in fuel, (4) the heat transfer correlations, (5) the mechanical behavior of clad and fuel, and (6) the steady state adjustment. The second half of the report is the users' mannual containing the items; (1) the program control, (2) the input requirements, (3) the execution of THYDE-NEU jobs, (4) the output specifications and (5) the sample calculation. (author)

  13. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-10-01

    Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.

  14. Dyslipidemia patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, is prevalent among Korean adults, but little is known about the associations between overall lipid profiles and dietary factors. We identified dyslipidemia patterns among lipid indicators and examined dietary factors associated with dyslipidemia patterns in Korean adults. Subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Family Medicine Division or the Health Examination Center of the general hospital in Seoul between 2010 and 2012. Measurements of biochemical and dietary variables repeated three times were collected from a total of 138 subjects at 3- to 4-month intervals when the subjects visited the hospital. Dietary intake data were obtained using 24-h recalls. In order to estimate typical values for biochemical and dietary variables, the averages of repeated measures for each subject were calculated. To identify dyslipidemia patterns, factor analysis was used based on total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two dyslipidemia patterns, (1) TC & LDLC and (2) TG & HDLC, were identified. Dietary fat and cholesterol intakes were positively associated with the TC & LDLC pattern score, but not associated with the TG & HDLC pattern score. The TG & HDLC pattern was significantly associated with low intakes of calcium, potassium, milk and dairy products. Two dyslipidemia patterns were associated with dietary factors in Korean adults. Further studies should investigate specific dietary recommendations according to lipid profiles in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia in Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Trait anxiety and attenuated negative affect differentiation: a vulnerability factor to consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Lindsey M; Fresco, David M; Coifman, Karin G

    2016-11-01

    Describing emotional experiences using distinct terms, or affect differentiation, has been associated with emotion regulation and adaptive behavior under stress. There is little data, however, examining the association between differentiation and dispositional factors underlying psychopathology. The current study examines the association between differentiation and trait anxiety (TA) given prior evidence of cognitive biases in TA relevant to higher order processing of emotional experiences. We examined cross-sectionally, via lab-based repeated assessment, the association between differentiation of negative and positive experiences and TA. Two hundred twenty-two adults completed an emotion reactivity task including repeated assessments of affect. We hypothesized that individuals higher in trait anxiety (HTA) would have greater difficulty differentiating their experiences. HTA individuals exhibited lower levels of negative affect (NA) differentiation even when controlling for depression. Although negative emotion intensity was consistently associated with lower differentiation, this did not account for the influence of HTA on differentiation. These data suggest that HTA individuals have greater difficulty differentiating negative emotions, regardless of negative emotion intensity and depression. As HTA is common to many emotional disorders; this evidence suggests that poor differentiation may also be an important transdiagnostic consideration in models of risk and of affective disease.

  16. Promotion of breast cancer by β-Hexachlorocyclohexane in MCF10AT1 cells and MMTV-neu mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumura Fumio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH, a contaminant of the hexachlorohexane pesticide lindane, has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of breast cancers in epidemiological studies. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of β-HCH to elicit its actions via a ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor through increased c-Neu (= erbB2 or HER-2 expression and kinase activation in both the BG-1 and MCF-7 cell lines. In addition, long term exposure (33 passages to β-HCH was shown to promote the selection of MCF-7 cells which exhibit a more metastatic phenotype. Methods In this current study, we decided to investigate the long-term effects of β-HCH in both the MCF10AT1 cell line which was derived from a normal epithelial cell line by stably transfecting a mutated c-Ha-ras and a MMTV-Neu mouse model for mammary cancer in vivo. MCF10AT1 cells were exposed for 20 passages with β-HCH, 4-OH-Tamoxifen (Tam, or 17-β-estradiol (E2 after which cells were analyzed for proliferation rates and mRNA expression by RT-PCR. In our in vivo studies, MMTV-Neu mice were injected with β-HCH and observed for tumor formation over a 70 week period. Results β-HCH and Tam selected MCF10AT1 cells demonstrated increased mRNA expression of MMP-13 (collagenase-3 a marker of increased invasiveness. β-HCH treatment was also seen to increase the expression in a number of proto-oncogenes (c-Neu, Cyclin D1, p27, cell status markers (Met-1, CK19, and the inflammatory marker NFκB. Previous studies, have demonstrated the role of these markers as evidence of malignant transformations, and further illustrate the ability of β-HCH to be carcinogenic. To demonstrate β-HCH's tumorigenic properties in an in vivo system, we used an MMTV-Neu mouse model. MMTV-Neu is a c-Neu overexpressing strain which has been shown to spontaneously develop mammary tumors at later stages of aging. In this experiment,

  17. Study of HER2/neu status in Qatari women with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, Kaki I.; Abdalla, Awidi S.; Mohammed, Kelta; Ahmad, Mubarak A.; Al-Homsi, Mohammed U.; Al-Hassan, Asma M.; Al-Alosi, Ahmad S.; Bener, A.

    2003-01-01

    The study is aimed at determining the prevalence of HER2/neu overexpression in Qatari women with breast cancer and to acess the survival in patients with HER2/neu positive tumors. This is a retropspective study of clinical data of 70 Qatari female patients diagonosed with breast cancer during the priod 1991through to 2001,at Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. We also performed a retrospective review of breast tissue for those patients using paraffin sections and applying immunohistochemistry staining -[Hercep test (DAKO Inc)] to determine the HER/neu status. Out of all the eighteen patients (26%) were HER2/neu positive(2+ and 3+) wih a mean age at diagonosis of 49.3 years, and 52 (74%) were negative (0and 1+)with mean age at diagonosis of 46.6 years.Of patients with positive HER2/neu, 5(28%) had a relapse of disease and 4 (22%) died of disease during followup. Of the patients with HER2/neu, negative test 9(17%) had a relapse of disease and10(19%) died of the disease . The median survival function at mean of covaritesfor HER2/neu positve patients was 26 months, and for HER2/neu negative patients was 28 months. The prevalence of HER2/neu and overexpression in Qatari female with breast cancer in study is 26%, but due to small sample size it may not reflect really the prevalence. Patients with HER/neu positive were older at diagonosis than ptients with HER2/neu negative also they had higher relapse rate and mortality. Median survival function was better for HER2/neu negative patients. (author)

  18. Synergistic induction of astrocytic differentiation by factors secreted from meninges in the mouse developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Katada, Sayako; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Iihara, Koji; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2017-11-01

    Astrocytes, which support diverse neuronal functions, are generated from multipotent neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) during brain development. Although many astrocyte-inducing factors have been identified and studied in vitro, the regions and/or cells that produce these factors in the developing brain remain elusive. Here, we show that meninges-produced factors induce astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs. Consistent with the timing when astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs increases, expression of astrocyte-inducing factors is upregulated. Meningeal secretion-mimicking combinatorial treatment of NS/PCs with bone morphogenetic protein 4, retinoic acid and leukemia inhibitory factor synergistically activate the promoter of a typical astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. Taken together, our data suggest that meninges play an important role in astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs in the developing brain. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible cytoplasmic factor involved in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Oishi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A previous report described an intracellular factor (differentiation-inducing factor I, or DIF-I) that seem to play a role in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The authors have detected another erythroid-inducing factor in cell-free extracts from dimethyl sulfoxide- or hexamethylenebis(acetamide)-treated MEL cells, which acts synergistically with DIF-I. The partially purified factor (termed DIF-II) triggered erythroid differentiation when introduced into undifferentiated MEL cells that had been potentiated by the induction of DIF-I. The activity in the extracts appeared in an inducible manner after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide or hexamethylenebis(acetamide), reached a maximum at 6 hr, and then rapidly decreased. The induction was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and also by cycloheximide. No induction was observed in a mutant MEL cell line defective in erythroid differentiation. These characteristics are consistent with the supposition that DIF-II is one of the putative dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible factors detected in previously reported cell-fusion and cytoplast-fusion experiments. The role of DIF-II in MEL-cell differentiation and in vitro differentiation in general is discussed

  20. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of HER-2/neu and VEGF expression in colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and VEGF expression is correlated with disease behaviors in various cancers. However, evidence for their expression in colon cancer is rather contradictory both for the protein expression status and prognostic value. HER-2/neu is found to participate in VEGF regulation, and has known correlation with VEGF expression in some tumors. In this study, we investigated HER-2/neu and VEGF expression in Chinese colon patients and explored whether there was any correlation between their expression patterns. Methods HER-2/neu and VEGF were investigated immunohistochemically using tumor samples obtained from 317 colon cancer patients with all tumor stages. Correlation of the degree of staining with clinicopathological parameters and survival was investigated. Results Positive expression rates of HER-2/neu and VEGF in colon cancer were 15.5% and 55.5% respectively. HER-2/neu expression was significantly correlated with tumor size and distant metastases (P (P > 0.05. Expression of VEGF was significantly correlated with tumor size, tumor stage, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases (P (P = 0.146. No correlation between HER-2/neu and VEGF expression was detected (P = 0.151. Conclusions HER-2/neu and VEGF are not important prognostic markers of colon cancer. The present results do not support any association between HER2/neu and VEGF expression in this setting.

  1. Alphavirus replicon particles containing the gene for HER2/neu inhibit breast cancer growth and tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Maughan, Maureen F; Lachman, Lawrence B

    2005-01-01

    Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer is associated with an increased incidence of metastatic disease and with a poor prognosis. Although passive immunotherapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has shown some effect, a vaccine capable of inducing T-cell and humoral immunity could be more effective. Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/neu (VRP-neu) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. VRP-neu prevented or significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-expressing murine breast cancer cells injected either into mammary tissue or intravenously. Vaccination with VRP-neu completely prevented tumor formation in and death of MMTV-c-neu transgenic mice, and resulted in high levels of neu-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes and serum IgG. On the basis of these findings, clinical testing of this vaccine in patients with HER2/neu + breast cancer is warranted

  2. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER 2)/neu expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... expression and gene amplification in colorectal cancer. Wei Deng 1, Wei-Guo .... patients whose clinical data (include diagnosis, age, sex, address, disease history, etc) intact ..... Anal Cell Pathol.10: 149-160. Tapia C, Glatz K, ...

  3. Extrinsic factors promoting insulin producing cell-differentiation and insulin expression enhancement-hope for diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be an autoimmune disorder leading to destruction of beta-cells resulting in to a loss of blood sugar control. Attempts using many pharmacological compositions including exogenous insulin have failed to show tight control of glycemia and associated manifestations. Stem cells are considered a potential tool for the supply of insulin-producing cells (IPC) generation in vitro. Stem cell differentiation in to pancreatic lineages requires influence of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Application of islet growth factors is considered to be potential for enhancement of beta-cell replication, function and survival. Use of certain extrinsic factors is known to facilitate expression of transcription factors known to be important for beta-cell differentiation and production of insulin enabling IPC generation. Hierarchies of secreted signals and transcription factors have been identified by studies from several laboratories that guide cell differentiation in to IPC. This knowledge provides insights for in vitro IPC differentiation from stem cells. Current advancement in medical knowledge promises an insulin independency for DM patients. The review sheds light on few specific extrinsic factors which facilitate differentiation of stem cells in to IPC in vitro have been discussed; which can be proven as a potential therapeutic option for treatment of DM and associated diseases.

  4. Which factors differentiate athletes with hip/groin pain from those without?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B; Agricola, Rintje; Weir, Adam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hip and groin injuries are common in many sports. Understanding the factors differentiating athletes with hip/groin pain from those without these injuries could facilitate management and prevention. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on factors...

  5. Insulin like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Nøhr, Jane; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2003-01-01

    that forced expression of the soluble form, FA1, or full-length Pref-1 did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells when differentiation was induced by standard treatment with methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and high concentrations of insulin. However, forced expression of either form...... of Pref-1/FA1 in 3T3-L1 or 3T3-F442A cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation when insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was omitted from the differentiation mixture. We demonstrate that the level of the mature form of the IGF-1 receptor is reduced and that IGF-1-dependent activation of p42/p44...... mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is compromised in preadipocytes with forced expression of Pref-1. This is accompanied by suppression of clonal expansion and terminal differentiation. Accordingly, supplementation with insulin or IGF-1 rescued p42/p44 MAPK activation, clonal expansion...

  6. ANTIBODIES TO LEUKEMIA DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR (HLDF IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Autenshlus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to leukemia differentiation factor (HLDF in patients with gastrointestinal cancer Abstract. Patients with gastric cancer exhibit higher levels of IgG4-antibodies to human leukemia differentiation factor (HLDF, as compared with healthy individuals, whereas, in patients with colorectal cancer, one may detect high levels of IgA anti-HDLF antibodies, along with lower levels of IgG1 class antibodies against HLDF than in control group. Among patients with gastrointestinal cancer, a positive correlation is revealed between contents of highly differentiated cells in the tumor, and IgM antibodies to HDLF. Meanwhile, a reverse relationship is noted between low differentiation of tumor cells and levels of IgG2 antibodies to HDLF in gastric cancer patients, or IgG3 antibodies to HDLF in patients with colorectal cancer.

  7. Robust Nonnegative Matrix Factorization via Joint Graph Laplacian and Discriminative Information for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential expression plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and classification. In recent years, many methods have been used to identify differentially expressed genes. However, the recognition rate and reliability of gene selection still need to be improved. In this paper, a novel constrained method named robust nonnegative matrix factorization via joint graph Laplacian and discriminative information (GLD-RNMF is proposed for identifying differentially expressed genes, in which manifold learning and the discriminative label information are incorporated into the traditional nonnegative matrix factorization model to train the objective matrix. Specifically, L2,1-norm minimization is enforced on both the error function and the regularization term which is robust to outliers and noise in gene data. Furthermore, the multiplicative update rules and the details of convergence proof are shown for the new model. The experimental results on two publicly available cancer datasets demonstrate that GLD-RNMF is an effective method for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  8. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: neu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  9. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C.; Sullivan, Aideen M.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on ne...

  10. Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Using Microfluidic Device-Generated Growth Factor Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Sim, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2018-04-11

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple nervous system cell types. During embryonic development, the concentrations of soluble biological molecules have a critical role in controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. In an effort to find optimal culture conditions for the generation of desired cell types in vitro , we used a microfluidic chip-generated growth factor gradient system. In the current study, NSCs in the microfluidic device remained healthy during the entire period of cell culture, and proliferated and differentiated in response to the concentration gradient of growth factors (epithermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor). We also showed that overexpression of ASCL1 in NSCs increased neuronal differentiation depending on the concentration gradient of growth factors generated in the microfluidic gradient chip. The microfluidic system allowed us to study concentration-dependent effects of growth factors within a single device, while a traditional system requires multiple independent cultures using fixed growth factor concentrations. Our study suggests that the microfluidic gradient-generating chip is a powerful tool for determining the optimal culture conditions.

  11. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, the stem cells responsible for male fertility, are one of a small number of cells with the abilities of both self-renewal and generation of large numbers of haploid cells. Technology improvements, most importantly, transplantation assays and in vitro culture systems have greatly expanded our understanding of SSC self-renewal and differentiation. Many important molecules crucial for the balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been recently identified although the exact mechanism(s remain largely undefined. In this review, we give a brief introduction to SSCs, and then focus on extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling SSCs self-renewal and differentiation.

  12. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xing-Xing; Wang, Jian; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the stem cells responsible for male fertility, are one of a small number of cells with the abilities of both self-renewal and generation of large numbers of haploid cells. Technology improvements, most importantly, transplantation assays and in vitro culture systems have greatly expanded our understanding of SSC self-renewal and differentiation. Many important molecules crucial for the balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been recently identified although the exact mechanism(s) remain largely undefined. In this review, we give a brief introduction to SSCs, and then focus on extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling SSCs self-renewal and differentiation.

  13. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  14. The transcription factor KLF2 restrains CD4⁺ T follicular helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Yong; Skon, Cara N; Lee, You Jeong; Oh, Soohwan; Taylor, Justin J; Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K; Rosenfeld, M Geoffrey; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jameson, Stephen C

    2015-02-17

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for efficient B cell responses, yet the factors that regulate differentiation of this CD4(+) T cell subset are incompletely understood. Here we found that the KLF2 transcription factor serves to restrain Tfh cell generation. Induced KLF2 deficiency in activated CD4(+) T cells led to increased Tfh cell generation and B cell priming, whereas KLF2 overexpression prevented Tfh cell production. KLF2 promotes expression of the trafficking receptor S1PR1, and S1PR1 downregulation is essential for efficient Tfh cell production. However, KLF2 also induced expression of the transcription factor Blimp-1, which repressed transcription factor Bcl-6 and thereby impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Furthermore, KLF2 induced expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 and enhanced Th1 differentiation. Hence, our data indicate KLF2 is pivotal for coordinating CD4(+) T cell differentiation through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: via control of T cell localization and by regulation of lineage-defining transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cdc6 is a rate-limiting factor for proliferative capacity during HL60 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkley, Laura R.; Hong, Hye Kyung; Kingsbury, Sarah R.; James, Michelle; Stoeber, Kai; Williams, Gareth H.

    2007-01-01

    The DNA replication (or origin) licensing pathway represents a critical step in cell proliferation control downstream of growth signalling pathways. Repression of origin licensing through down-regulation of the MCM licensing factors (Mcm2-7) is emerging as a ubiquitous route for lowering proliferative capacity as metazoan cells exit the cell division cycle into quiescent, terminally differentiated and senescent 'out-of-cycle' states. Using the HL60 monocyte/macrophage differentiation model system and a cell-free DNA replication assay, we have undertaken direct biochemical investigations of the coupling of origin licensing to the differentiation process. Our data show that down-regulation of the MCM loading factor Cdc6 acts as a molecular switch that triggers loss of proliferative capacity during early engagement of the somatic differentiation programme. Consequently, addition of recombinant Cdc6 protein to in vitro replication reactions restores DNA replication competence in nuclei prepared from differentiating cells. Differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing either wild-type Cdc6 or a CDK phosphorylation-resistant Cdc6 mutant protein (Cdc6A4) exhibit an extended period of cell proliferation compared to mock-infected cells. Notably, differentiating HL60 cells over-expressing the Cdc6A4 mutant fail to down-regulate Cdc6 protein levels, suggesting that CDK phosphorylation of Cdc6 is linked to its down-regulation during differentiation and the concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. In this experimental model, Cdc6 therefore plays a key role in the sequential molecular events leading to repression of origin licensing and loss of proliferative capacity during execution of the differentiation programme

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  1. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Neu.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Pol.Neu.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurons SRX032491,SRX032492,SRX0...85427,SRX032489,SRX085426,SRX032490 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Neurons SRX032491,SRX032492,SRX032...X085427,SRX798999,SRX032490 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurons SRX085427,SRX085426,SRX0...32490,SRX032491,SRX032492,SRX032489 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurons SRX032491,SRX032492,SRX0...32489,SRX085426,SRX085427,SRX032490 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Neurons SRX032491,SRX032492,SRX085...X032487,SRX798987,SRX032490 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurons SRX085427,SRX032490,SRX0...32491,SRX032492,SRX085426,SRX032489 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain mm9 Input control Neural Forebrain SRX377679,SRX377675,S...RX377677,SRX377673,SRX669236,SRX377671 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain mm9 No description Neural Midbrain ERX102458,ERX102459,ER...X102460,ERX102461,SRX002662 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain mm9 No description Neural Midbrain ERX102458,ERX102459,ER...X102460,ERX102461,SRX002662 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Input control Neural Cortical neuron SRX671676...74,SRX671672,SRX671651 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 TFs and others Neural Cortical neuron SRX80425...3,SRX1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Histone Neural Cortical neuron SRX671646,SRX10...759263,SRX759264,SRX759260,SRX759261,SRX759256,SRX759258,SRX759259,SRX759262,SRX759272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 All antigens Neural Cortical neuron SRX914998,...1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cortical neuron SRX21773...5,SRX759296,SRX217736,SRX759295,SRX759293,SRX759294 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cortical neuron SRX75929...5,SRX759296,SRX217735,SRX759294,SRX759293,SRX217736 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 All antigens Neural Cortical neuron SRX914998,...1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 TFs and others Neural Cortical neuron SRX67167...3,SRX1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Histone Neural Cortical neuron SRX1057033,SRX6...759261,SRX759255,SRX759258,SRX759262,SRX759257,SRX759259,SRX759272,SRX759267,SRX759264 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 TFs and others Neural Cortical neuron SRX67167...3,SRX1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 All antigens Neural Cortical neuron SRX217735,...1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Input control Neural Cortical neuron SRX671669...47,SRX671651,SRX671674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cortical neuron SRX21773...5,SRX217736,SRX759296,SRX759293,SRX759294,SRX759295 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cortical neuron SRX75929...5,SRX759296,SRX759293,SRX759294,SRX217735,SRX217736 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 All antigens Neural Cortical neuron SRX217735,...1057043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 TFs and others Neural Cortical neuron SRX67166...1,SRX1057043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Histone Neural Cortical neuron SRX671649,SRX67...759268,SRX759267,SRX759263,SRX759264,SRX759273,SRX759262,SRX759259,SRX759261,SRX759272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Input control Neural Cortical neuron SRX671659...76,SRX671651,SRX671655 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Histone Neural Cortical neuron SRX671649,SRX67...759260,SRX759258,SRX759267,SRX759262,SRX759259,SRX759261,SRX759263,SRX759264,SRX759272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 Input control Neural Cortical neuron SRX804268...76,SRX671651,SRX671655 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.05.Biotin.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.Biotin.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Biotin Neural SRX1057045,SRX1057047,SR...X1057049,SRX1057041,SRX1057051,SRX1057043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.Biotin.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Histone Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 DNase-seq Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 DNase-seq Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 Histone Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 All antigens Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... SRX435084,SRX435085 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cervical Ganglion... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.50.Biotin.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Putamen [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Putamen [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Putamen [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellum SRX062952,SRX14381...7,SRX026426,SRX026425,SRX026424,SRX026423 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellum SRX062952,SRX14381...7,SRX026426,SRX026423,SRX026425,SRX026424 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellum.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellum [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Midbrain mm9 All antigens Neural Midbrain SRX002662,SRX332682,ERX1...02458,ERX102459,SRX317037,ERX102460,ERX102461,SRX332681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Midbrain.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 No description Neural Fetal brain SRX056802,SRX14...2786,SRX142793,SRX031387,SRX031451,SRX031404,SRX031421 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 All antigens Neural Fetal brain SRX056802,SRX1427...60882 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 Histone Neural Fetal brain SRX860887,SRX860886,SR...X860885,SRX860881,SRX860879,SRX860888,SRX860880,SRX860883,SRX860884,SRX860882 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal brain SRX040380,SRX040395,...6,SRX121278 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal brain SRX040380,SRX040395,...6,SRX121278 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains hg19 No description Neural Adult brains ERX161917,SRX...019404 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain mm9 Histone Neural Forebrain SRX093315,SRX377672,SRX3776...70,SRX377678,SRX377676,SRX093314,SRX377674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain mm9 All antigens Neural Forebrain SRX002660,SRX093315,SR...SRX377673,SRX669235,SRX377671 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain mm9 All antigens Neural Midbrain SRX332682,ERX102458,ERX1...02459,ERX102460,ERX102461,SRX317037,SRX002662,SRX332681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 All antigens Neural Fetal brain SRX142786,SRX2096...60882 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain mm9 All antigens Neural Midbrain ERX102458,ERX102459,ERX1...02460,ERX102461,SRX317037,SRX002662,SRX332682,SRX332681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain mm9 Histone Neural Forebrain SRX093315,SRX377672,SRX3776...70,SRX377678,SRX377676,SRX093314,SRX377674 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain mm9 Histone Neural Forebrain SRX093315,SRX377678,SRX3776...72,SRX377670,SRX377676,SRX377674,SRX093314 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains hg19 All antigens Neural Adult brains SRX643470,SRX01...189408,SRX189413 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 No description Neural Fetal brain SRX142786,SRX05...6802,SRX031451,SRX031387,SRX142793,SRX031404,SRX031421 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal brain SRX040380,SRX040395,...6,SRX121278 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Neural S...6,SRX743834,SRX743838,SRX743840,SRX743832 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Neural S...1,SRX099887,SRX099886,SRX743834,SRX743832 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Neural... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.20.Biotin.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.Biotin.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Biotin Neural SRX1057041,SRX1057049,SR...X1057045,SRX1057047,SRX1057043,SRX1057051 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.Biotin.AllCell.bed ...

  17. The mannosylated extracellular domain of Her2/neu produced in P. pastoris induces protective antitumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriadis, Alexios; Gontinou, Chrysanthi; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Mamalaki, Avgi

    2009-01-01

    Her2/neu is overexpressed in various human cancers of epithelial origin and is associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Several attempts have been made using the extracellular domain of Her2/neu (ECD/Her2) as a prophylactic vaccine in mice with no success in tumor prevention. The extracellular domain of Her2/neu (ECD/Her2) was expressed in yeast P. pastoris, in a soluble highly mannosylated form. The immune response of the immunization with this recombinant ECD/Her2 was analyzed using immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis, proliferation and cytotoxicity assays as well as specific tumor growth assays. Mannosylated ECD/Her2 elicited a humoral response with HER2/neu specific antibodies in vaccinated mice, which were able to reduce the proliferation rate of cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, it elicited a cellular response with Her2/neu-specific CTL capable of lysing tumor cells, in vitro. When immunized Balb/c and HHD mice were challenged with Her2/neu-overexpressing cells, tumor growth was inhibited. Here we report on the efficacy of the extracellular domain of human Her2/neu produced in yeast P. pastoris, which confers mannosylation of the protein, to act as a potent anti-tumor vaccine against Her2/neu overexpressing tumors. Specific cellular and humoral responses were observed as well as efficacy

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.50.Fosb.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.Fosb.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Fosb Neural SRX671671,SRX671678,SRX67167...5,SRX671682,SRX671658,SRX671654,SRX671667,SRX671662 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.Fosb.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.20.Fosb.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.Fosb.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Fosb Neural SRX671675,SRX671671,SRX67167...8,SRX671682,SRX671658,SRX671654,SRX671667,SRX671662 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.Fosb.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Neu.10.Fosb.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.Fosb.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Fosb Neural SRX671671,SRX671678,SRX67167...5,SRX671662,SRX671654,SRX671658,SRX671682,SRX671667 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.Fosb.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Neu.05.Fosb.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.Fosb.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Fosb Neural SRX671675,SRX671671,SRX67166...7,SRX671682,SRX671678,SRX671658,SRX671662,SRX671654 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.Fosb.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Neural SRX643470,...RX1035591 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Neural SRX236086,S...X668239,ERX513118,SRX150263,ERX513117 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Neural SRX109476,S...X513118,SRX150261,ERX513117,SRX150263 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX323564,SRX323573 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX323573,SRX323564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX323564,SRX323573 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural pro...genitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1177283,SRX117...7282,SRX1177284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 Input control Neural Hippocampus SRX769389,SRX2484...70,SRX216313,SRX517457,SRX248471,SRX517454 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 Unclassified Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 Unclassified Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 Input control Neural Hippocampus SRX248470,SRX7693...89,SRX216313,SRX517457,SRX517454,SRX248471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1057076,SRX1057...17455,SRX248469,SRX216301 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 Unclassified Neural Hippocampus SRX1177283,SRX117...7282,SRX1177284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1430120,SRX1430...16300,SRX216301,SRX216299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 Input control Neural Hippocampus SRX248470,SRX7693...89,SRX517454,SRX517457,SRX216313,SRX248471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus hg19 Unclassified Neural Hippocampus SRX1177282,SRX117...7284,SRX1177283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 Input control Neural Hippocampus SRX248470,SRX7693...89,SRX517454,SRX517457,SRX216313,SRX248471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1430120,SRX1430...0107,SRX1430117,SRX216299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus mm9 All antigens Neural Hippocampus SRX1430128,SRX1430...16302,SRX216299,SRX216301 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus mm9 All antigens Neural Hypothalamus SRX956254,SRX956...253 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus mm9 All antigens Neural Hypothalamus SRX956253,SRX956...254 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei hg19 All antigens Neural Thalamic Nuclei SRX998288...,SRX998287,SRX998286 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei hg19 Histone Neural Thalamic Nuclei SRX998288,SRX9...98287,SRX998286 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei hg19 All antigens Neural Thalamic Nuclei SRX998288...,SRX998287,SRX998286 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus mm9 Unclassified Neural Hypothalamus SRX956253,SRX956...254 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Comparison of Chromogenic In Situ Hybridisation with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation and Immunohistochemistry for the Assessment of Her-2/neu Oncogene in Archival Material of Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothos, Alexios; Plastira, Konstantina; Plastiras, Aris; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Angelopoulou, Roxani

    2008-01-01

    The successful treatment of breast cancer is dependent upon a number of complex factors. Her-2/neu gene amplification is known to be one of the most common genetic alterations associated with breast cancer and its accurate determination has become necessary for the selection of patients for trastuzumab therapy. The aim of this study was to prove the consistency of chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) technique after analyzing the overexpression of the Her-2/neu proto-oncogene in 100 invasive breast carcinomas and by comparing CISH results with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Moreover, it was done to evaluate the possible correlation of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs), the proliferation marker Ki67 and the tumour suppressor gene p53 with HER-2/neu status of these breast carcinomas. Of the 100 breast carcinomas that were analysed, 22 cases showed HER-2/neu amplification, 66 cases showed no amplification, whereas 12 cases were non-interpretable in both assays (FISH and CISH). Consequently, the overall concordance between FISH and CISH was 100%. Additionally, it was observed that when HER-2/neu gene was overexpressed, there was an association with negative PRs and ERs status, negative p53 protein expression and high Ki67 labelling index. It is concluded that patients with tumours scoring 2+ with the CBE356 antibody (borderline immunohistochemistry-tested cases) would also benefit from CISH as it is shown to be highly accurate, practical and can be easily integrated into routine testing in any histopathology laboratory. Finally, CISH represents an important addition to the HER2 testing algorithm

  9. Results of the Italian neuART project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, A; Albertin, F; Brancaccio, R; Cotto, G; Dughera, G; Durisi, E; Ferrarese, W; Lo Giudice, A; Mereu, P; Mila, G; Pastrone, N; Prino, F; Bortolin, C; Corsi, J; Buscaglia, P; Giovagnoli, A; Grassi, N; Nervo, M; Gambaccini, M; Petrucci, F

    2012-01-01

    The neu A RT project aims at developing state of the art transmission imaging and computed tomography techniques, applied to art objects, by using neutrons as well as more conventional X-rays. In this paper a facility for digital X-ray radiography of large area paintings on canvas or wooden panels and for the X-ray tomography of large size wooden artifacts, recently installed in a protected area, is presented. The results of a K-edge radiography facility that will soon be installed in the same area are also shown.

  10. Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Matt; Liu, Siyuan John; Zou, Ling-Nan; Smith, Zack; Meissner, Alexander; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2011-06-10

    Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit that maintains pluripotency, we found that Oct4 and Sox2, proteins that maintain ESC identity, also orchestrate germ layer fate selection. Oct4 suppresses neural ectodermal differentiation and promotes mesendodermal differentiation; Sox2 inhibits mesendodermal differentiation and promotes neural ectodermal differentiation. Differentiation signals continuously and asymmetrically modulate Oct4 and Sox2 protein levels, altering their binding pattern in the genome, and leading to cell fate choice. The same factors that maintain pluripotency thus also integrate external signals and control lineage selection. Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  12. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... Cdk activity is low. In the remaining part of the cell cycle, Ste11 becomes Cdk-phosphorylated at Thr 82 (T82), which inhibits its DNA-binding activity. Since the ste11 gene is autoregulated and the Ste11 protein is highly unstable, this Cdk switch rapidly extinguishes Ste11 activity when cells enter...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  13. Factorization of a class of almost linear second-order differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, P G; Kuru, S; Negro, J; Nieto, L M

    2007-01-01

    A general type of almost linear second-order differential equations, which are directly related to several interesting physical problems, is characterized. The solutions of these equations are obtained using the factorization technique, and their non-autonomous invariants are also found by means of scale transformations

  14. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  15. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  16. Growth factors mediated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to cardiac polymicrotissue using hanging drop and bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Lei, Ming; Xia, Zhidao; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2015-04-01

    Heart disease is the major leading cause of death worldwide and the use of stem cells promises new ways for its treatment. The relatively easy and quick acquisition of human umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) and their properties make them useful for the treatment of cardiac diseases. Therefore, the main aim of this investigation was to create cardiac polymicrotissue from HUMSCs using a combination of growth factors [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and suramin] and techniques (hanging drop and bioreactor). Using designated culture conditions of the growth factors (100 nM S1P and 500 µM suramin), cardiomyocyte differentiation medium (CDM), hanging drop, bioreactor and differentiation for 7 days, a potential specific cardiac polymicrotissue was derived from HUMSCs. The effectiveness of growth factors alone or in combination in differentiation of HUMSCs to cardiac polymicrotissue was analysed by assessing the presence of cardiac markers by immunocytochemistry. This analysis demonstrated the importance of those growth factors for the differentiation. This study for the first time demonstrated the formation of a cardiac polymicrotissue under specific culture conditions. The polymicrotissue thus obtained may be used in future as a 'patch' to cover the injured cardiac region and would thereby be useful for the treatment of heart diseases. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Factor analysis of the scale of prodromal symptoms: differentiating between negative and depression symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The

  18. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  19. Growth/differentiation factor-I5 is an abundant cytokine in human seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Slabáková, Eva; Ovesná, P.; Malenovská, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Hampl, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2010), s. 2962-2971 ISSN 0268-1161 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : seminal plasma * growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15/MIC-1) * FOXP3 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.357, year: 2010

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  2. Deterministic factor analysis: methods of integro-differentiation of non-integral order

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    Valentina V. Tarasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize the methods of deterministic factor economic analysis namely the differential calculus and the integral method. nbsp Methods mathematical methods for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order the theory of derivatives and integrals of fractional nonintegral order. Results the basic concepts are formulated and the new methods are developed that take into account the memory and nonlocality effects in the quantitative description of the influence of individual factors on the change in the effective economic indicator. Two methods are proposed for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order for the deterministic factor analysis of economic processes with memory and nonlocality. It is shown that the method of integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order can give more accurate results compared with standard methods method of differentiation using the first order derivatives and the integral method using the integration of the first order for a wide class of functions describing effective economic indicators. Scientific novelty the new methods of deterministic factor analysis are proposed the method of differential calculus of nonintegral order and the integral method of nonintegral order. Practical significance the basic concepts and formulas of the article can be used in scientific and analytical activity for factor analysis of economic processes. The proposed method for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order extends the capabilities of the determined factorial economic analysis. The new quantitative method of deterministic factor analysis may become the beginning of quantitative studies of economic agents behavior with memory hereditarity and spatial nonlocality. The proposed methods of deterministic factor analysis can be used in the study of economic processes which follow the exponential law in which the indicators endogenous variables are power functions of the factors exogenous variables including the processes

  3. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

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    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies

  4. A virosomal formulated Her-2/neu multi-peptide vaccine induces Her-2/neu-specific immune responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase I study.

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    Wiedermann, Ursula; Wiltschke, C; Jasinska, J; Kundi, M; Zurbriggen, R; Garner-Spitzer, E; Bartsch, R; Steger, G; Pehamberger, H; Scheiner, O; Zielinski, C C

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown in mice that vaccination with three Her-2-peptides representing B-cell epitopes of the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu induces Her-2/neu-specific IgG antibodies with strong anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. We have now finalized a phase I clinical trial with an anti-Her-2/neu vaccine-construct of immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes with the three peptides in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Ten MBC patients with low protein overexpression of Her-2/neu of MBC (+ or ++ upon immunohistochemistry, FISH negative) and positive hormone receptor status were enrolled in a single center phase I study. The virosomal formulated vaccine, consisting of 10 microg/peptide, was intramuscularly applied three times on days 1, 28, and 56. The primary endpoint of the study, which lasted 12 weeks, was safety, the secondary endpoint immunogenicity. Local erythema at the injection site was the only vaccine-related side effect occurring in four patients. In 8 of 10 patients an increase in peptide-specific antibody titer measured by ELISA was found. Importantly, the induced antibodies were also directed against the native Her-2/neu protein. Cellular immune responses, as measured by in vitro production of IL-2, IFN-c, and TNF-a of PBMCs showed a marked increase after vaccination in the majority of vaccinees. Notably, the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T regulatory cells, which were significantly increased compared to healthy controls prior to vaccination, was markedly reduced following vaccination. In all, the immunological responses after vaccination indicated that the patients in stage IV of disease were immunocompetent and susceptible to vaccination. The Her-2/neu multipeptide vaccine was safe, well tolerated and effective in overcoming immunological tolerance to Her-2/neu. The induction of anti-Her-2-specific antibodies could result in clinical benefit comparable to passive anti-Her-2 antibody therapy.

  5. Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Immune Homeostasis Depend on the Transcription Factor Myb.

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    Dias, Sheila; D'Amico, Angela; Cretney, Erika; Liao, Yang; Tellier, Julie; Bruggeman, Christine; Almeida, Francisca F; Leahy, Jamie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Smyth, Gordon K; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-01-17

    FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells. The combination of transcriptome and genomic footprint analyses revealed that Myb directly regulated a large proportion of the gene expression specific to effector Treg cells, identifying Myb as a critical component of the gene regulatory network controlling effector Treg cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

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    Collu-Marchese, Melania; Shuen, Michael; Pauly, Marion; Saleem, Ayesha; Hood, David A

    2015-05-19

    The ATP demand required for muscle development is accommodated by elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, through the co-ordinated activities of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The most important transcriptional activator of the mitochondrial genome is mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam); however, the regulation of Tfam expression during muscle differentiation is not known. Thus, we measured Tfam mRNA levels, mRNA stability, protein expression and localization and Tfam transcription during the progression of muscle differentiation. Parallel 2-fold increases in Tfam protein and mRNA were observed, corresponding with 2-3-fold increases in mitochondrial content. Transcriptional activity of a 2051 bp promoter increased during this differentiation period and this was accompanied by a 3-fold greater Tfam mRNA stabilization. Interestingly, truncations of the promoter at 1706 bp, 978 bp and 393 bp promoter all exhibited 2-3-fold higher transcriptional activity than the 2051 bp construct, indicating the presence of negative regulatory elements within the distal 350 bp of the promoter. Activation of AMP kinase augmented Tfam transcription within the proximal promoter, suggesting the presence of binding sites for transcription factors that are responsive to cellular energy state. During differentiation, the accumulating Tfam protein was progressively distributed to the mitochondrial matrix where it augmented the expression of mtDNA and COX (cytochrome c oxidase) subunit I, an mtDNA gene product. Our data suggest that, during muscle differentiation, Tfam protein levels are regulated by the availability of Tfam mRNA, which is controlled by both transcription and mRNA stability. Changes in energy state and Tfam localization also affect Tfam expression and action in differentiating myotubes. © 2015 Authors.

  7. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation.

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    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P; Pereira, Renata M; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T; Pipkin, Matthew E; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here we profiled the genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8 + T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that the expression and binding of TFs contributed to the establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal key TFs that influence the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8 + T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates and facilitate the identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8 + T cell differentiation.

  8. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors regulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100

  9. Derepression of the Iroquois Homeodomain Transcription Factor Gene IRX3 Confers Differentiation Block in Acute Leukemia

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    Tim D.D. Somerville

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor gene IRX3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, limb buds, and heart, and transcript levels specify obesity risk in humans. We now report a functional role for IRX3 in human acute leukemia. Although transcript levels are very low in normal human bone marrow cells, high IRX3 expression is found in ∼30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ∼50% with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and ∼20% with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, frequently in association with high-level HOXA gene expression. Expression of IRX3 alone was sufficient to immortalize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs in myeloid culture and induce lymphoid leukemias in vivo. IRX3 knockdown induced terminal differentiation of AML cells. Combined IRX3 and Hoxa9 expression in murine HSPCs impeded normal T-progenitor differentiation in lymphoid culture and substantially enhanced the morphologic and phenotypic differentiation block of AML in myeloid leukemia transplantation experiments through suppression of a terminal myelomonocytic program. Likewise, in cases of primary human AML, high IRX3 expression is strongly associated with reduced myelomonocytic differentiation. Thus, tissue-inappropriate derepression of IRX3 contributes significantly to the block in differentiation, which is the pathognomonic feature of human acute leukemias.

  10. CSK negatively regulates nerve growth factor induced neural differentiation and augments AKT kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Nandini; Howell, Brian W.; De, Pradip K.; Durden, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Src family kinases are involved in transducing growth factor signals for cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types. The activity of all Src family kinases (SFKs) is controlled by phosphorylation at their C-terminal 527-tyrosine residue by C-terminal SRC kinase, CSK. There is a paucity of information regarding the role of CSK and/or specific Src family kinases in neuronal differentiation. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, blocked NGF-induced activation of SFKs and obliterated neurite outgrowth. To confirm a role for CSK and specific isoforms of SFKs in neuronal differentiation, we overexpressed active and catalytically dead CSK in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. CSK overexpression caused a profound inhibition of NGF-induced activation of FYN, YES, RAS, and ERK and inhibited neurite outgrowth, NGF-stimulated integrin-directed migration and blocked the NGF-induced conversion of GDP-RAC to its GTP-bound active state. CSK overexpression markedly augmented the activation state of AKT following NGF stimulation. In contrast, kinase-dead CSK augmented the activation of FYN, RAS, and ERK and increased neurite outgrowth. These data suggest a distinct requirement for CSK in the regulation of NGF/TrkA activation of RAS, RAC, ERK, and AKT via the differential control of SFKs in the orchestration of neuronal differentiation

  11. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

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    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  12. pPKCδ activates SC35 splicing factor during H9c2 myoblastic differentiation.

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    Zara, Susi; Falconi, Mirella; Rapino, Monica; Zago, Michela; Orsini, Giovanna; Mazzotti, Giovanni; Cataldi, Amelia; Teti, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Although Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoforms' role in the neonatal and adult cardiac tissue development and ageing has been widely described "in vivo", the interaction of such enzymes with specific nuclear substrates needs to be investigated. The aim of our research has been the study of the expression, localization and interaction with the splicing factor SC35 of PKC isoforms (α, δ, ε, ζ) and their potential role in modulating the transcription machinery. H9c2 cells induced to myoblast differentiation in the presence of 1% Horse Serum (HS) have represented our experimental model. The expression of PKC isoforms, their distribution and interaction with SC35 have been evaluated by western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation and double gold immunolabeling for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show PKCδ as the most expressed isoform in differentiated cells. Surprisingly, the distribution of PKCδ and SC35 does not show any significant modification between 10%FBS and 1%HS treated samples and no co-localization is observed. Moreover the interaction between the phosphorylated form of PKCδ (pPKCδ) and SC35 increases, is distributed and co-localizes within the nucleus of differentiated H9c2. These data represent reasonable evidence of pPKCδ mediated SC35 splicing factor activation, suggesting its direct effect on transcription via interaction with the transcription machinery. Furthermore, this co-localization represents a crucial event resulting in downstream changes in transcription of components which determine the morphological modifications related to cardiomyoblast differentiated phenotype.

  13. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  14. [Biologically active fragment of the differentiation factor from HL-60 cell line. Identification and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanian, I A; Astapova, M V; Navolotskaia, E V; Lepikhova, T N; Dranitsyna, S M; Telegin, G B; Rodionov, I L; Baĭdakova, L K; Zolotarev, Iu A; Molotkovskaia, I M; Lipkin, V M

    2000-07-01

    Six-membered peptide fragment TGENHR (HLDF-6) was identified in the HL-60 cell culture of human promyelocyte leukemia treated with retinoic acid when studying the differentiation factor HLDF of this cell line. HLDF-6 retains the ability of the full-size factor to induce the differentiation and arrest the proliferation of the starting HL-60 cells. It was shown that the synthetic peptide HLDF-6 has no specific receptors on the surface of the HL-60 cells but can affect the binding of interleukin IL-1 beta, a cytokine involved in proliferation, to the cell surface. It was found on a model of transplantable NSO myeloma that HLDF-6 has an antitumor activity.

  15. Nannocystin A: an Elongation Factor 1 Inhibitor from Myxobacteria with Differential Anti-Cancer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastel, Philipp; Roggo, Silvio; Schirle, Markus; Ross, Nathan T; Perruccio, Francesca; Aspesi, Peter; Aust, Thomas; Buntin, Kathrin; Estoppey, David; Liechty, Brigitta; Mapa, Felipa; Memmert, Klaus; Miller, Howard; Pan, Xuewen; Riedl, Ralph; Thibaut, Christian; Thomas, Jason; Wagner, Trixie; Weber, Eric; Xie, Xiaobing; Schmitt, Esther K; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-08-24

    Cultivation of myxobacteria of the Nannocystis genus led to the isolation and structure elucidation of a class of novel cyclic lactone inhibitors of elongation factor 1. Whole genome sequence analysis and annotation enabled identification of the putative biosynthetic cluster and synthesis process. In biological assays the compounds displayed anti-fungal and cytotoxic activity. Combined genetic and proteomic approaches identified the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as the primary target for this compound class. Nannocystin A (1) displayed differential activity across various cancer cell lines and EEF1A1 expression levels appear to be the main differentiating factor. Biochemical and genetic evidence support an overlapping binding site of 1 with the anti-cancer compound didemnin B on EF-1α. This myxobacterial chemotype thus offers an interesting starting point for further investigations of the potential of therapeutics targeting elongation factor 1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors contribute to stem cell differentiation in musculoskeletal regeneration

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    Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-10-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

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    Yun Qian; Yun Qian; Qixin Han; Wei Chen; Wei Chen; Jialin Song; Jialin Song; Xiaotian Zhao; Yuanming Ouyang; Yuanming Ouyang; Weien Yuan; Cunyi Fan

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of differen...

  18. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation

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    Stephan Niebler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4 strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1, the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2′-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  19. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Robert T.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Hoey, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  20. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Robert T. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); O' Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Hoey, David A., E-mail: david.hoey@ul.ie [Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); The Centre for Applied Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Limerick (Ireland); Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  1. Refinement of immunohistologic parameters for Her2/neu scoring validation by FISH and CISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Anthony S-Y; Formby, Mark; Haffajee, Zenobia; Clarke, Megan; Morey, Adrienne

    2006-12-01

    The conventional method of scoring Her2/neu immunostaining is recognized to result in a high false-positive rate among 2+ cases when compared with results obtained with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); however, costs and convenience dictates that immunohistochemistry remains the screening test for Her2/neu status in patients with breast cancer. We describe refined criteria for scoring of Her2/neu on the basis of anatomic localization rather than the subjective assessment of intensity. The presence of a circumferential tram track pattern that results from the staining of apposing cell membranes in >25% of the tumor cells was necessary for a 3+ score (Her2/neu overexpressed) and the presence of the tram track pattern in CISH testing in selected cases from the other categories validated the revised scoring method. These criteria reduced the numbers of equivocal staining cases that required FISH testing.

  2. Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

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    Ozgur Arikan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2 and 40 healthy control group (Group 1 were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021. Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.

  3. The Onecut Transcription Factors Regulate Differentiation and Distribution of Dorsal Interneurons during Spinal Cord Development

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    Karolina U. Kabayiza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, the dorsal spinal cord generates numerous interneuron populations eventually involved in motor circuits or in sensory networks that integrate and transmit sensory inputs from the periphery. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the specification of these multiple dorsal neuronal populations have been extensively characterized. In contrast, the factors that contribute to their diversification into smaller specialized subsets and those that control the specific distribution of each population in the developing spinal cord remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Onecut transcription factors, namely Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6 (HNF-6 (or OC-1, OC-2 and OC-3, regulate the diversification and the distribution of spinal dorsal interneuron (dINs. Onecut proteins are dynamically and differentially distributed in spinal dINs during differentiation and migration. Analyzes of mutant embryos devoid of Onecut factors in the developing spinal cord evidenced a requirement in Onecut proteins for proper production of a specific subset of dI5 interneurons. In addition, the distribution of dI3, dI5 and dI6 interneuron populations was altered. Hence, Onecut transcription factors control genetic programs that contribute to the regulation of spinal dIN diversification and distribution during embryonic development.

  4. Temporally Regulated Neural Crest Transcription Factors Distinguish Neuroectodermal Tumors of Varying Malignancy and Differentiation

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    Timothy R. Gershon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroectodermal tumor cells, like neural crest (NC cells, are pluripotent, proliferative, and migratory. We tested the hypothesis that genetic programs essential to NC development are activated in neuroectodermal tumors. We examined the expression of transcription factors PAX3, PAX7, AP-2α, and SOX10 in human embryos and neuroectodermal tumors: neurofibroma, schwannoma, neuroblastoma, malignant nerve sheath tumor, melanoma, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and Ewing's sarcoma. We also examined the expression of P0, ERBB3, and STX, targets of SOX10, AP-2α, and PAX3, respectively. PAX3, AP-2α, and SOX10 were expressed sequentially in human NC development, whereas PAX7 was restricted to mesoderm. Tumors expressed PAX3, AP-2α, SOX10, and PAX7 in specific combinations. SOX10 and AP-2α were expressed in relatively differentiated neoplasms. The early NC marker, PAX3, and its homologue, PAX7, were detected in poorly differentiated tumors and tumors with malignant potential. Expression of NC transcription factors and target genes correlated. Transcription factors essential to NC development are thus present in neuroectodermal tumors. Correlation of specific NC transcription factors with phenotype, and with expression of specific downstream genes, provides evidence that these transcription factors actively influence gene expression and tumor behavior. These findings suggest that PAX3, PAX7, AP-2α, and SOX10 are potential markers of prognosis and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript promotes the differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells

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    Jin Jiali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tissue has limited potential to self-renew after neurological damage. Cell therapy using BM-MSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells seems like a promising approach for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the neural differentiation of stem cells influenced by massive factors and interactions is not well studied at present. Results In this work, we isolated and identified MSCs from mouse bone marrow. Co-cultured with CART (0.4 nM for six days, BM-MSCs were differentiated into neuron-like cells by the observation of optical microscopy. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that the differentiated BM-MSCs expressed neural specific markers including MAP-2, Nestin, NeuN and GFAP. In addition, NeuN positive cells could co-localize with TH or ChAT by double-labled immunofluorescence and Nissl bodies were found in several differentiated cells by Nissl stain. Furthermore, BDNF and NGF were increased by CART using RT-PCR. Conclusion This study demonstrated that CART could promote the differentiation of BM-MSCs into neural cells through increasing neurofactors, including BNDF and NGF. Combined application of CART and BM-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for neurological diseases.

  6. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

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    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  7. Regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4AII by MyoD during murine myogenic cell differentiation.

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    Gabriela Galicia-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Gene expression during muscle cell differentiation is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including translation initiation. The PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway exerts control over protein synthesis by regulating assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4F, a heterotrimeric complex that stimulates recruitment of ribosomes to mRNA templates. One of the subunits of eIF4F, eIF4A, supplies essential helicase function during this phase of translation. The presence of two cellular eIF4A isoforms, eIF4AI and eIF4AII, has long thought to impart equivalent functions to eIF4F. However, recent experiments have alluded to distinct activities between them. Herein, we characterize distinct regulatory mechanisms between the eIF4A isoforms during muscle cell differentiation. We find that eIF4AI levels decrease during differentiation whereas eIF4AII levels increase during myofiber formation in a MyoD-dependent manner. This study characterizes a previously undefined mechanism for eIF4AII regulation in differentiation and highlights functional differences between eIF4AI and eIF4AII. Finally, RNAi-mediated alterations in eIF4AI and eIF4AII levels indicate that the myogenic process can tolerate short term reductions in eIF4AI or eIF4AII levels, but not both.

  8. Valproic acid promotes neuronal differentiation by induction of proneural factors in association with H4 acetylation.

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    Yu, In Tag; Park, Jin-Yong; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon

    2009-02-01

    Valproate (VPA) influences the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cells. However, little is known about the downstream events, such as alterations in gene transcription, that are associated with cell fate choice. To determine whether VPA plays an instructive role in cell fate choice during hippocampal neurogenesis, the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and neuronal differentiation was investigated. Treatment with VPA during the progenitor stages resulted in strong inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of neuronal differentiation, accompanied by increases in the expression of proneural transcription factors and in neuronal cell numbers. The increased expression of Ngn1, Math1 and p15 points to a shift towards neuronal fate in response to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that acetylated histone H4 (Ac-H4) was associated with the Ngn1, Math1 and p15 promoters in cultured hippocampal neural progenitor cells. VPA-induced hippocampal neurogenesis was also accompanied by association of Ac-H4 with the Ngn1 promoter in hippocampal extracts. The discovery of an association between HDACi and the Ngn1, Math1 and p15 promoters extends the importance of HDAC inhibition as a key regulator of neuronal differentiation at the transcriptional level.

  9. Triple-negative (ER, PgR, HER-2/neu breast cancer in Indian women

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    Vinayak W Patil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinayak W Patil1, Rajeev Singhai1, Amit V Patil2, Prakash D Gurav21Department of Biochemistry, Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Miraj, IndiaAbstract: The aim of our study was to analyze triple-negative (TN breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER, the progesterone receptor (PgR, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu and which represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behavior. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India, from May 2007 to October 2010. Clinicopathological variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (<35 years, P = 0.003 and a higher histopathologic and nuclear grade (P < 0.001. It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.001, positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (P = 0.003, and a high level of p53 (P < 0.001 and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.00. The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median 56.8 months were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (P = 0.004. Relapse-free survival (RFS was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer: 3.5-year RFS rate 85.5% versus 94.2%, respectively; P = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had a higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathological

  10. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

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    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  11. Expression of HER2/Neu in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

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    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Pomerantz, Alan; Demichelis-Gomez, Roberta; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benitez, Olga; Aguayo-Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The expression of HER2/neu in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been reported in previous studies. The objective of this research was to study the expression of HER2/neu on the blasts of patients with acute leukemia from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran. From June 2015 to February 2016, a HER2/neu monoclonal antibody was added to the panel of antibodies that we routinely use in patients with acute leukemia. An expression of ≥ 30% was considered positive. We studied 33 patients: 19 had de novo leukemia (57.6%), three (9.1%) were in relapse, and in 11 (33.3%) their status could not be specified. Seventeen patients (51.5%) were classified as B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a median expression of HER2/neu of 0.3% (range 0-90.2). Three patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were positive for HER2/neu: 89.4%, 90.9%, and 62.4%. The first and third patient had de novo B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The second patient was in second relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplant. All three patients were categorized as high-risk at the time of diagnosis. In the studied Mexican population, we found a positive expression of HER2/neu in 17% of the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, similar to previous studies in which the expression was found in 15-50%.

  12. Factorization and resummation of Higgs boson differential distributions in soft-collinear effective theory

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    Mantry, Sonny; Petriello, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We derive a factorization theorem for the Higgs boson transverse momentum (p T ) and rapidity (Y) distributions at hadron colliders, using the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for m h >>p T >>Λ QCD , where m h denotes the Higgs mass. In addition to the factorization of the various scales involved, the perturbative physics at the p T scale is further factorized into two collinear impact-parameter beam functions (IBFs) and an inverse soft function (ISF). These newly defined functions are of a universal nature for the study of differential distributions at hadron colliders. The additional factorization of the p T -scale physics simplifies the implementation of higher order radiative corrections in α s (p T ). We derive formulas for factorization in both momentum and impact parameter space and discuss the relationship between them. Large logarithms of the relevant scales in the problem are summed using the renormalization group equations of the effective theories. Power corrections to the factorization theorem in p T /m h and Λ QCD /p T can be systematically derived. We perform multiple consistency checks on our factorization theorem including a comparison with known fixed-order QCD results. We compare the SCET factorization theorem with the Collins-Soper-Sterman approach to low-p T resummation.

  13. New extracellular factors in glioblastoma multiforme development: neurotensin, growth differentiation factor-15, sphingosine-1-phosphate and cytomegalovirus infection

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    Korbecki, Jan; Gutowska, Izabela; Kojder, Ireneusz; Jeżewski, Dariusz; Goschorska, Marta; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in understanding the biochemistry of cancer. For example, more significance is now assigned to the tumor microenvironment, especially with regard to intercellular signaling in the tumor niche which depends on many factors secreted by tumor cells. In addition, great progress has been made in understanding the influence of factors such as neurotensin, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) on the ‘hallmarks of cancer’ in glioblastoma multiforme. Therefore, in the present work we describe the influence of these factors on the proliferation and apoptosis of neoplastic cells, cancer stem cells, angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and cancer immune evasion in a glioblastoma multiforme tumor. In particular, we discuss the effect of neurotensin, GDF-15, S1P (including the drug FTY720), and infection with CMV on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), microglial cells, neutrophil and regulatory T cells (Treg), on the tumor microenvironment. In order to better understand the role of the aforementioned factors in tumoral processes, we outline the latest models of intratumoral heterogeneity in glioblastoma multiforme. Based on the most recent reports, we discuss the problems of multi-drug therapy in treating glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:29467963

  14. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 μM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure

  15. The role of growth differentiation factor 15 in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miura, Yasuo; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Iwasa, Masaki; Yao, Hisayuki; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Haga, Hironori; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Maekawa, Taira; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Elevated serum concentrations of this cytokine have been reported in patients with various malignancies. To assess the potential roles of GDF15 in hematologic malignancies, we measured its serum levels in patients with these diseases. We found that serum GDF15 levels were elevated in almost all these patients, particularly in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Immunohistochemical staining of bone marrow (BM) specimens revealed that GDF15 was strongly expressed by megakaryocytes, which may be sources of increased serum GDF15 in PMF patients. Therefore, we further assessed the contribution of GDF15 to the pathogenesis of PMF. Recombinant human (rh) GDF15 enhanced the growth of human BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), and it enhanced the potential of these cells to support human hematopoietic progenitor cell growth in a co-culture system. rhGDF15 enhanced the growth of human primary fibroblasts, but it did not affect their expression of profibrotic genes. rhGDF15 induced osteoblastic differentiation of BM-MSCs in vitro, and pretreatment of BM-MSCs with rGDF15 enhanced the induction of bone formation in a xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that serum levels of GDF15 in PMF are elevated, that megakaryocytes are sources of this cytokine in BM, and that GDF15 may modulate the pathogenesis of PMF by enhancing proliferation and promoting osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

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    Yun Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization and evaluation of prognostic factors in canine oral melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation.

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    Sánchez, J; Ramirez, G A; Buendia, A J; Vilafranca, M; Martinez, C M; Altimira, J; Navarro, J A

    2007-09-01

    Melanomas are the most common malignant oral neoplasm in dogs. Osteocartilaginous differentiation in oral melanomas is a rare feature described both in veterinary and human medicine. Here, 10 cases of this type of neoplasm were used to study their immunohistochemical, biological, and clinical characteristics. Reactivity for S100 and melan A antigen was evaluated, and 4 prognosis factors (mitotic index, invasiveness of epithelium, nuclear atypia, and proliferation index) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical course of the neoplasms after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the studied neoplasms, including the osteocartilaginous areas, showed positive immunoreaction for S100 and melan A, except in one dog, which was negative for melan A. Analysis of the results showed that oral melamonas with osteocartilaginous differentiation have a clinical course similar to that of other melanomas in the oral cavity. Analysis of the mitotic index and the expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 could be useful tools for predicting the biological behavior of these neoplasms.

  18. Factorization and the synthesis of optimal feedback kernels for differential-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Mark M.; Scheid, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of ideas from the theories of operator Riccati equations and Volterra factorizations leads to the derivation of a novel, relatively simple set of hyperbolic equations which characterize the optimal feedback kernel for the finite-time regulator problem for autonomous differential-delay systems. Analysis of these equations elucidates the underlying structure of the feedback kernel and leads to the development of fast and accurate numerical methods for its computation. Unlike traditional formulations based on the operator Riccati equation, the gain is characterized by means of classical solutions of the derived set of equations. This leads to the development of approximation schemes which are analogous to what has been accomplished for systems of ordinary differential equations with given initial conditions.

  19. A novel dendritic cell-based immunization approach for the induction of durable Th1-polarized anti-HER-2/neu responses in women with early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Gary K.; Koldovsky, Ursula; Xu, Shuwen; Mick, Rosemarie; Sharma, Anupama; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Weinstein, Susan; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Levine, Bruce L; Fox, Kevin; Zhang, Paul; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-seven subjects with HER-2/neu over-expressing ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast were enrolled in a neoadjuvant immunization trial for safety and immunogenicity of DC1-polarized dendritic cells (DC1) pulsed with six HER-2/neu promiscuous MHC class II-binding peptides, plus two additional HLA-A2.1 class I-binding peptides. DC1 were generated with IFN-γ plus a special clinical-grade bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and administered directly into groin lymph nodes four times at weekly intervals prior to scheduled surgical resection of DCIS. Subjects were monitored for the induction of new or enhanced anti-peptide reactivity by IFN-γ ELIspot and ELISA assays performed on Th cells obtained from peripheral blood or excised sentinel lymph nodes. Responses by CTL against HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were measured using peptide-pulsed T2 target cells or HER-2/neu-expressing or non-expressing tumor cell lines. DC1 showed surface phenotype indistinct from “gold standard” inflammatory cocktail-activated DC, but displayed a number of distinguishing functional characteristics including the secretion of soluble factors and enhanced “killer DC” capacity against tumor cells in vitro. Post-immunization, we observed sensitization of Th cells to at least 1 class II peptide in 22 of 25 (88%, 95% exact CI 68.8 – 97.5%) evaluable subjects, while eleven of 13 (84.6%, 95% exact CI 64 – 99.8%) HLA-A2.1 subjects were successfully sensitized to class I peptides. Perhaps most importantly, anti-HER-2/neu peptide responses were observed up to 52 months post-immunization. These data show even in the presence of early breast cancer such DC1 are potent inducers of durable type I-polarized immunity, suggesting potential clinical value for development of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22130160

  20. Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 enhances smooth muscle differentiation in embryonic mouse jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Randles, Michael J; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2017-01-13

    An ex vivo experimental strategy that replicates in vivo intestinal development would in theory provide an accessible setting with which to study normal and dysmorphic gut biology. The current authors recently described a system in which mouse embryonic jejunal segments were explanted onto semipermeable platforms and fed with chemically defined serum-free media. Over 3 days in organ culture, explants formed villi and they began to undergo spontaneous peristalsis. As defined in the current study, the wall of the explanted gut failed to form a robust longitudinal smooth muscle (SM) layer as it would do in vivo over the same time period. Given the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in SM differentiation in other organs, it was hypothesized that exogenous TGFβ1 would enhance SM differentiation in these explants. In vivo, TGFβ receptors I and II were both detected in embryonic longitudinal jejunal SM cells and, in organ culture, exogenous TGFβ1 induced robust differentiation of longitudinal SM. Microarray profiling showed that TGFβ1 increased SM specific transcripts in a dose dependent manner. TGFβ1 proteins were detected in amniotic fluid at a time when the intestine was physiologically herniated. By analogy with the requirement for exogenous TGFβ1 for SM differentiation in organ culture, the TGFβ1 protein that was demonstrated to be present in the amniotic fluid may enhance intestinal development when it is physiologically herniated in early gestation. Future studies of embryonic intestinal cultures should include TGFβ1 in the defined media to produce a more faithful model of in vivo muscle differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Esposito, Maria T.; Parisi, Silvia; Stifani, Stefano; Ramirez, Francesco; Porzio, Umberto di

    2010-01-01

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  2. Differential expression and interaction of host factors augment HIV-1 gene expression in neonatal mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Mehta, Roshni; Harris, David T.; Zack, Jerome A.; Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown a higher level of HIV-1 replication and gene expression in neonatal (cord) blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) compared with adult blood cells (PBMC), which could be due to differential expression of host factors. We performed the gene expression profile of CBMC and PBMC and found that 8013 genes were expressed at higher levels in CBMC than PBMC and 8028 genes in PBMC than CBMC, including 1181 and 1414 genes upregulated after HIV-1 infection in CBMC and PBMC, respectively. Several transcription factors (NF-κB, E2F, HAT-1, TFIIE, Cdk9, Cyclin T1), signal transducers (STAT3, STAT5A) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10) were upregulated in CBMC than PBMC, which are known to influence HIV-1 replication. In addition, a repressor of HIV-1 transcription, YY1, was down regulated in CBMC than PBMC and several matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, -12, -14) were significantly upregulated in HIV-1 infected CBMC than PBMC. Furthermore, we show that CBMC nuclear extracts interacted with a higher extent to HIV-1 LTR cis-acting sequences, including NF-κB, NFAT, AP1 and NF-IL6 compared with PBMC nuclear extracts and retroviral based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for STAT3 and IL-6 down regulated their own and HIV-1 gene expression, signifying that these factors influenced differential HIV-1 gene expression in CBMC than PBMC.

  3. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano, E-mail: caiazzo@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Istituto di diagnosi e cura ' Hermitage Capodimonte,' 80131 Naples (Italy); Colucci-D' Amato, Luca, E-mail: luca.colucci@unina2.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, Maria T., E-mail: maria_teresa.esposito@kcl.ac.uk [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Parisi, Silvia, E-mail: parisi@ceinge.unina.it [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Stifani, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.stifani@mcgill.ca [Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 (Canada); Ramirez, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ramirez@mssm.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Porzio, Umberto di, E-mail: diporzio@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  4. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  5. Integrable dissipative nonlinear second order differential equations via factorizations and Abel equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C. [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2013-09-02

    We emphasize two connections, one well known and another less known, between the dissipative nonlinear second order differential equations and the Abel equations which in their first-kind form have only cubic and quadratic terms. Then, employing an old integrability criterion due to Chiellini, we introduce the corresponding integrable dissipative equations. For illustration, we present the cases of some integrable dissipative Fisher, nonlinear pendulum, and Burgers–Huxley type equations which are obtained in this way and can be of interest in applications. We also show how to obtain Abel solutions directly from the factorization of second order nonlinear equations.

  6. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  7. Transcription factors SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 coordinate oocyte differentiation without affecting meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Ren, Yu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Golnoski, Kayla J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Mico, Vasil; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary. We found that SOHLH2 protein was expressed in the mouse germline as early as E12.5 and preceded SOHLH1 protein expression, which occurred circa E15.5. SOHLH1 protein appearance at E15.5 correlated with SOHLH2 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and was dependent on SOHLH1 expression. NOBOX oogenesis homeobox (NOBOX) and LIM homeobox protein 8 (LHX8), two important regulators of postnatal oogenesis, were coexpressed with SOHLH1. Single deficiency of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 disrupted the expression of LHX8 and NOBOX in the embryonic gonad without affecting meiosis. Sohlh1-KO infertility was rescued by conditional expression of the Sohlh1 transgene after the onset of meiosis. However, Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 transgene expression could not rescue Sohlh2-KO infertility due to a lack of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 expression in rescued mice. Our results indicate that Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are essential regulators of oocyte differentiation but do not affect meiosis I.

  8. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2012-04-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.

  9. Interventional management of neuropathic pain: NeuPSIG recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Kent, Joel; Mackey, Sean C.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Stacey, Brett R.; Levy, Robert M.; Backonja, Miroslav; Baron, Ralf; Harke, Henning; Loeser, John D.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Turk, Dennis C.; Wells, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is often refractory to pharmacologic and non-interventional treatment. On behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG), the authors evaluated systematic reviews, clinical trials, and existing guidelines for the interventional management of NP. Evidence is summarized and presented for neural blockade, spinal cord stimulation (SCS), intrathecal medication, and neurosurgical interventions in patients with the following peripheral and central NP conditions: herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN); painful diabetic and other peripheral neuropathies; spinal cord injury NP; central post-stroke pain; radiculopathy and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS); complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS); and trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy. Due to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials, no strong recommendations can be made. Four weak recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence, including degree of efficacy and safety, are: (1) epidural injections for herpes zoster; (2) steroid injections for radiculopathy; (3) SCS for FBSS; and (4) SCS for CRPS type 1. Based on the available data, we recommend not to use sympathetic blocks for PHN nor RF lesions for radiculopathy. No other conclusive recommendations can be made due to the poor quality of available of data. Whenever possible, these interventions should either be part of randomized clinical trials or documented in pain registries. Priorities for future research include randomized clinical trials; long-term studies; and head-to-head comparisons among different interventional and non-interventional treatments. PMID:23748119

  10. In vivo tracking of genetically engineered, anti-HER2/neu directed natural killer cells to HER2/neu positive mammary tumors with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Meier, Reinhardt; Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen; Piert, Morand; Uherek, Christoph; Wels, Winfried

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to optimize labeling of the human natural killer (NK) cell line NK-92 with iron-oxide-based contrast agents and to monitor the in vivo distribution of genetically engineered NK-92 cells, which are directed against HER2/neu receptors, to HER2/neu positive mammary tumors with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Parental NK-92 cells and genetically modified HER2/neu specific NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells, expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific to the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2/neu) antigen, were labeled with ferumoxides and ferucarbotran using simple incubation, lipofection and electroporation techniques. Labeling efficiency was evaluated by MR imaging, Prussian blue stains and spectrometry. Subsequently, ferucarbotran-labeled NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta (n=3) or parental NK-92 cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of six mice with HER2/neu-positive NIH 3T3 mammary tumors, implanted in the mammary fat pad. The accumulation of the cells in the tumors was monitored by MR imaging before and 12 and 24 h after cell injection (p.i.). MR data were correlated with histopathology. Both the parental NK-92 and the genetically modified NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells could be labeled with ferucarbotran and ferumoxides by lipofection and electroporation, but not by simple incubation. The intracellular cytoplasmatic iron-oxide uptake was significantly higher after labeling with ferucarbotran than ferumoxides (P 6 NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells into tumor-bearing mice, MR showed a progressive signal decline in HER2/neu-positive mammary tumors at 12 and 24 h (p.i.). Conversely, injection of 5 x 10 6 parental NK-92 control cells, not directed against HER2/neu receptors, did not cause significant signal intensity changes of the tumors. Histopathology confirmed an accumulation of the former, but not the latter cells in tumor tissue. The human natural killer cell line NK-92 can be efficiently labeled with clinically applicable iron-oxide contrast

  11. In vivo tracking of genetically engineered, anti-HER2/neu directed natural killer cells to HER2/neu positive mammary tumors with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [UCSF Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Meier, Reinhardt; Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technical University Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen [Technical University Munich, Institute of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Munich (Germany); Piert, Morand [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Uherek, Christoph; Wels, Winfried [University of Frankfurt, Georg Speyer House, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to optimize labeling of the human natural killer (NK) cell line NK-92 with iron-oxide-based contrast agents and to monitor the in vivo distribution of genetically engineered NK-92 cells, which are directed against HER2/neu receptors, to HER2/neu positive mammary tumors with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Parental NK-92 cells and genetically modified HER2/neu specific NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells, expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific to the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2/neu) antigen, were labeled with ferumoxides and ferucarbotran using simple incubation, lipofection and electroporation techniques. Labeling efficiency was evaluated by MR imaging, Prussian blue stains and spectrometry. Subsequently, ferucarbotran-labeled NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta (n=3) or parental NK-92 cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of six mice with HER2/neu-positive NIH 3T3 mammary tumors, implanted in the mammary fat pad. The accumulation of the cells in the tumors was monitored by MR imaging before and 12 and 24 h after cell injection (p.i.). MR data were correlated with histopathology. Both the parental NK-92 and the genetically modified NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells could be labeled with ferucarbotran and ferumoxides by lipofection and electroporation, but not by simple incubation. The intracellular cytoplasmatic iron-oxide uptake was significantly higher after labeling with ferucarbotran than ferumoxides (P<0.05). After intravenous injection of 5 x 10{sup 6} NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cells into tumor-bearing mice, MR showed a progressive signal decline in HER2/neu-positive mammary tumors at 12 and 24 h (p.i.). Conversely, injection of 5 x 10{sup 6} parental NK-92 control cells, not directed against HER2/neu receptors, did not cause significant signal intensity changes of the tumors. Histopathology confirmed an accumulation of the former, but not the latter cells in tumor tissue. The human natural killer cell line NK-92 can be efficiently

  12. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  13. Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects.

  14. Predictive Factors for Differentiating Between Septic Arthritis and Lyme Disease of the Knee in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Brusalis, Christopher M; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2016-05-04

    Differentiating between septic arthritis and Lyme disease of the knee in endemic areas can be challenging and has major implications for patient management. The purpose of this study was to identify a prediction rule to differentiate septic arthritis from Lyme disease in children presenting with knee pain and effusion. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients younger than 18 years of age with knee effusions who underwent arthrocentesis at our institution from 2005 to 2013. Patients with either septic arthritis (positive joint fluid culture or synovial white blood-cell count of >60,000 white blood cells/mm(3) with negative Lyme titer) or Lyme disease (positive Lyme immunoglobulin G on Western blot analysis) were included. To avoid misclassification bias, undiagnosed knee effusions and joints with both a positive culture and positive Lyme titers were excluded. Historical, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups to identify variables for comparison. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictive variables. One hundred and eighty-nine patients were studied: 23 with culture-positive septic arthritis, 26 with culture-negative septic arthritis, and 140 with Lyme disease. Multivariate binary logistic regression identified pain with short arc motion, history of fever reported by the patient or a family member, C-reactive protein of >4 mg/L, and age younger than 2 years as independent predictive factors for septic arthritis. A simpler model was developed that showed that the risk of septic arthritis with none of these factors was 2%, with 1 of these factors was 18%, with 2 of these factors was 45%, with 3 of these factors was 84%, or with all 4 of these factors was 100%. Although septic arthritis of the knee and Lyme monoarthritis share common features that can make them difficult to distinguish clinically, the presence of pain with short arc motion, C-reactive protein of >4.0 mg/L, patient-reported history of

  15. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 on Myogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Aboalola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are critical components of the stem cell niche, as they regulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells into different lineages, including skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6, which has high affinity for IGF-2, alters the differentiation process of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs into skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined the roles of IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their interactions with IGFBP-6. We showed that IGF-1 increased IGFBP-6 levels within 24 hours but decreased after 3 days, while IGF-2 maintained higher levels of IGFBP-6 throughout myogenesis. IGF-1 increased IGFBP-6 in the early phase as a requirement for muscle commitment. In contrast, IGF-2 enhanced muscle differentiation as shown by the expression of muscle differentiation markers MyoD, MyoG, and MHC. IGF-1 and IGF-2 had different effects on muscle differentiation with IGF-1 promoting early commitment to muscle and IGF-2 promoting complete muscle differentiation. We also showed that PMSCs acquired increasing capacity to synthesize IGF-2 during muscle differentiation, and the capacity increased as the differentiation progressed suggesting an autocrine and/or paracrine effect. Additionally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-6 could enhance the muscle differentiation process in the absence of IGF-2.

  17. Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkens, Tom; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs

  18. Philosophisch und theologisch denken (lernen. Fachdidaktische Skizzierungen zu einer ReligionslehrerInnenbildung NEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Klutz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: It is an essential challenge for (religious teachers to initiate successful learning at school. How teachers act in their instruction is a key factor for successful learning at school. So teacher education has to focus on the process of professionalization of teachers. The faculty of Catholic Theology at the University of Vienna realigns the courses of subject didactic. According to the course ‘Philosophisch und theologisch denken’ this paper illustrates the students’ process of professionalization. The aim of this process is to form a ‘habitus’ in which religious education at schools and subject didactic (didactic of RE is visible under a theological approach. GERMAN: Wie gelingendes Lernen an der Schule initiiert werden kann, ist eine zentrale Herausforderung von (Religions LehrerInnen. Dabei kommt der Qualität des unterrichtlichen Handelns von Lehrpersonen eine entscheidende Rolle zu. In der Ausbildungsphase von ReligionslehrerInnen gilt es, sich dem Prozess der Professionalisierung zu widmen. An der Katholisch-Theologischen Fakultät der Universität Wien wird die fachdidaktische Lehre neu ausgerichtet, die sich so den Herausforderungen des Religionslehrberufs stellt. Anhand des fachdidaktischen Seminars ‚Philosophisch und theologisch denken‘ wird der Professionalisierungsprozess von Studierenden aufgezeigt. Durch diesen soll eine Haltung (Habitus ausgebildet werden, der eine theologisch begründete Sichtweise religiöser Bildung an der Schule und somit von Fachdidaktik (Religionsdidaktik sichtbar werden lässt.

  19. Developmental and lactational exposure to dieldrin alters mammary tumorigenesis in Her2/neu transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Cameron

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Western women and while its precise etiology is unknown, environmental factors are thought to play a role. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is a persistent environmental toxicant thought to increase the risk of breast cancer and reduce survival in the human population. The objective of this study was to define the effect of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dieldrin, on mammary tumor development in the offspring. Sexually mature FVB-MMTV/neu female mice were treated with vehicle (corn oil, or dieldrin (0.45, 2.25, and 4.5 microg/g body weight daily by gavage for 5 days prior to mating and then once weekly throughout gestation and lactation until weaning. Dieldrin concentrations were selected to produce serum levels representative of human background body burdens, occupational exposure, and overt toxicity. Treatment had no effect on litter size, birth weight or the number of pups surviving to weaning. The highest dose of dieldrin significantly increased the total tumor burden and the volume and number of tumors found in the thoracic mammary glands. Increased mRNA and protein expression of the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB was increased in tumors from the offspring of dieldrin treated dams. This study indicates that developmental exposure to the environmental contaminant dieldrin causes increased tumor burden in genetically predisposed mice. Dieldrin exposure also altered the expression of BNDF and TrkB, novel modulators of cancer pathogenesis.

  20. Differential Absorption as a Factor Influencing the Selective Toxicity of MCPA and MCPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, R. C.; Robertson, M. M.; Smith, J. E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1966-05-15

    Experiments were carried out with autoradiographic and counting techniques to determine if differential absorption was a factor influencing the selective toxicity of the foliar-applied herbicides, 4-chloro-2 methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB). Treatment of fat hen (Chenopodium album) which is susceptible to both herbicides and black bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus) which is resistant to both, showed that MCPA and MCPB were extensively translocated in the susceptible species; both, however, remained localized in the treated leaves of the resistant black bindweed. Further experiments using broad bean (Vicia faba) which was susceptible to MCPA and resistant to equivalent doses of MCPB showed that considerably more MCPA was translocated throughout the treated plants. Leaf flotation experiments suggested that differential penetration of bean leaf cuticle, may in part at least, explain this difference in toxicity. Greater uptake of MCPA after 6- and 8-h treatment periods was recorded and penetration of both herbicides was generally more rapid through the abaxial surface, reflecting the presence of stomata and the thinner cuticle of the under-surface. Further evidence of the action of cuticle as a selective barrier to herbicide penetration was obtained using cuticle isolated from tomato fruits and onion scale leaves. These results are to be confirmed using bean leaf cuticles. Whilst in the higher plants MCPA is more toxic than MCPB, previous work has shown that MCPB is a more effective inhibitor of lower organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. Treatment of mycelial discs of Aspergillus niger showed that absorption of MCPB was more rapid than MCPA, though the differential tended to diminish during the 20-h treatment period. Respiratory inhibition closely followed the uptake pattern. Repeated experiments using mitochondria isolated from A.niger mycelium have demonstrated that greater uptake of MCPB coincided with an

  1. Differentiation of behavioral health factors among students depending on selected socio-demographic, environmental and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ślusarska

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown.   Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.

  2. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  3. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2010-04-28

    Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (beta = 0.03; p Muslim women (beta = 0.07; p media (beta = -0.05; p women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure

  4. Unique nuclear localization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Neu4 sialidase is regulated by nuclear transport receptor importin α/β.

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    Honda, Akinobu; Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Kamada-Futagami, Yuko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Different from Neu1 and Neu3 sialidases, Neu4 enzymatic properties such as substrate specificity and subcellular localization are not well-conserved among vertebrates. In fish only zebrafish and medaka neu4 genes have been cloned and their polypeptides have been characterized so far. Thus, characterization of Neu4 from other fish species is necessary to evaluate Neu4 physiological functions. Here, Nile tilapia was chosen for the characterization of Neu4 polypeptide considering that it is one of the major cultured fish all over the world and that its genomic sequences are now available. Coding DNA sequence of tilapia Neu4 was identified as 1,497 bp and its recombinant protein showed broad substrate specificity and optimal sialidase enzyme activity pH at 4.0. Neu4 activity was sustained even in neutral and alkali pH. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis revealed that major subcellular localization of tilapia Neu4 was nuclear, quite distinct from zebrafish (ER) and medaka Neu4 (lysosome). Bioinformatic analysis showed the existence of putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) in tilapia Neu4. In general, it is known that importin families bind to several proteins via NLS and transfer them into nucleus. Therefore, to determine the involvement of putative NLS in Neu4 nuclear localization, Neu4 mutant deleting NLS was constructed and expressed in cultured cells. As a result, NLS deletion significantly diminished the nuclear localization. Furthermore, treatment of importazole, interrupter of binding importin β and RanGTP, significantly suppressed Neu4 nuclear localization. In summary, tilapia Neu4 is a unique sialidase localized at nucleus and its transport system into nucleus is regulated by importin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Pbx and Prdm1a transcription factors differentially regulate subsets of the fast skeletal muscle program in zebrafish

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    Zizhen Yao

    2013-04-01

    The basic helix–loop–helix factor Myod initiates skeletal muscle differentiation by directly and sequentially activating sets of muscle differentiation genes, including those encoding muscle contractile proteins. We hypothesize that Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod to a subset of its transcriptional targets, in particular fast-twitch muscle differentiation genes, thereby regulating the competence of muscle precursor cells to differentiate. We have previously shown that Pbx proteins bind with Myod on the promoter of the zebrafish fast muscle gene mylpfa and that Pbx proteins are required for Myod to activate mylpfa expression and the fast-twitch muscle-specific differentiation program in zebrafish embryos. Here we have investigated the interactions of Pbx with another muscle fiber-type regulator, Prdm1a, a SET-domain DNA-binding factor that directly represses mylpfa expression and fast muscle differentiation. The prdm1a mutant phenotype, early and increased fast muscle differentiation, is the opposite of the Pbx-null phenotype, delayed and reduced fast muscle differentiation. To determine whether Pbx and Prdm1a have opposing activities on a common set of genes, we used RNA-seq analysis to globally assess gene expression in zebrafish embryos with single- and double-losses-of-function for Pbx and Prdm1a. We find that the levels of expression of certain fast muscle genes are increased or approximately wild type in pbx2/4-MO;prdm1a−/− embryos, suggesting that Pbx activity normally counters the repressive action of Prdm1a for a subset of the fast muscle program. However, other fast muscle genes require Pbx but are not regulated by Prdm1a. Thus, our findings reveal that subsets of the fast muscle program are differentially regulated by Pbx and Prdm1a. Our findings provide an example of how Pbx homeodomain proteins act in a balance with other transcription factors to regulate subsets of a cellular differentiation program.

  6. Characterization of the Methylation Status of Pax7 and Myogenic Regulator Factors in Cell Myogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhe; Zheng, Xin-Li; Sun, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Long; Huang, Li-Li; Cao, Zong-Xi; Deng, Chang-Yan; Wang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic processes in the development of skeletal muscle have been appreciated for over a decade. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification important for regulating gene expression and suppressing spurious transcription. Up to now, the importance of epigenetic marks in the regulation of Pax7 and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression is far less explored. In the present study, semi-quantitative the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed MyoD and Myf5 were expressed in activated and quiescent C2C12 cells. MyoG was expressed in a later stage of myogenesis. Pax7 was weakly expressed in differentiated C2C12 cells. To further understand the regulation of expression of these genes, the DNA methylation status of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR. During the C2C12 myoblasts fusion process, the changes of promoter and exon 1 methylation of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 genes were observed. In addition, an inverse relationship of low methylation and high expression was found. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be an important mechanism regulating Pax7 and MRFs transcription in cell myogenic differentiation.

  7. Parallel factor ChIP provides essential internal control for quantitative differential ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Michael J; Cullen, Amy E; Markowetz, Florian; Holding, Andrew N

    2018-04-17

    A key challenge in quantitative ChIP combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the normalization of data in the presence of genome-wide changes in occupancy. Analysis-based normalization methods were developed for transcriptomic data and these are dependent on the underlying assumption that total transcription does not change between conditions. For genome-wide changes in transcription factor (TF) binding, these assumptions do not hold true. The challenges in normalization are confounded by experimental variability during sample preparation, processing and recovery. We present a novel normalization strategy utilizing an internal standard of unchanged peaks for reference. Our method can be readily applied to monitor genome-wide changes by ChIP-seq that are otherwise lost or misrepresented through analytical normalization. We compare our approach to normalization by total read depth and two alternative methods that utilize external experimental controls to study TF binding. We successfully resolve the key challenges in quantitative ChIP-seq analysis and demonstrate its application by monitoring the loss of Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) binding upon fulvestrant treatment, ER binding in response to estrodiol, ER mediated change in H4K12 acetylation and profiling ER binding in patient-derived xenographs. This is supported by an adaptable pipeline to normalize and quantify differential TF binding genome-wide and generate metrics for differential binding at individual sites.

  8. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on pluripotency and differentiation factors in mouse embryoid bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Yao, Mengmeng; Han, Xiumei; Chen, Minjian; Tang, Wei; Xia, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) poses potential risks to early development, but the molecular mechanisms how PFOS affects embryonic development are still unclear. Mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) provide ideal models for testing safety or toxicity of chemicals in vitro. In this study, mEBs were exposed to PFOS up to 6 days and then their pluripotency and differentiation markers were evaluated. Our data showed that the mRNA and protein levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) in mEBs were significantly increased following exposure to PFOS. Meanwhile, the expressions of miR-134, miR-145, miR-490-3p were decreased accordingly. PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of endodermal markers (Sox17, FOXA2), mesodermal markers (SMA, Brachyury) and ectodermal markers (Nestin, Fgf5) in mEBs. Meanwhile, PFOS increased the mRNA and protein levels of polycomb group (PcG) family members (Cbx4, Cbx7, Ezh2). Overall, our results showed that PFOS could increase the expression levels of pluripotency factors and decrease the differentiation markers

  9. The Transcription Factor c-Maf Promotes the Differentiation of Follicular Helper T Cells

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    Fabienne Andris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh have been identified as the primary cell subpopulation regulating B cell responses in germinal centers, thus supporting high-affinity antibody production. Among the transcription factors orchestrating Tfh cell differentiation and function, the role played by the proto-oncogene c-Maf remains poorly characterized. We report herein that selective loss of c-Maf expression in the T cell compartment results in defective development of Tfh cells in response to both antigen/adjuvant vaccinations and commensal intestinal bacteria. Accordingly, c-Maf expression in T cells was essential for the development and high-affinity antibody secretion in vaccinated animals. c-Maf was expressed early, concomitantly to BCL6, in Tfh cell precursors and found to regulate Tfh fate in a cell-autonomous fashion. Altogether, our findings reveal a novel, non-redundant, function for c-Maf in the differentiation of Tfh cells and the regulation of humoral immune responses to T-cell-dependent antigens.

  10. Regulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated granulocytic differentiation by C-mannosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Kei; Niwa, Yuki; Suzuki, Takehiro; Sato, Natsumi; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Simizu, Siro

    2018-04-06

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor (G-CSFR) is a type I cytokine receptor which is involved in hematopoietic cell maturation. G-CSFR has three putative C-mannosylation sites at W253, W318, and W446; however, it is not elucidated whether G-CSFR is C-mannosylated or not. In this study, we first demonstrated that G-CSFR was C-mannosylated at only W318. We also revealed that C-mannosylation of G-CSFR affects G-CSF-dependent downstream signaling through changing ligand binding capability but not cell surface localization. Moreover, C-mannosylation of G-CSFR was functional and regulated granulocytic differentiation in myeloid 32D cells. In conclusion, we found that G-CSFR is C-mannosylated at W318 and that this C-mannosylation has role(s) for myeloid cell differentiation through regulating downstream signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of several dephosphonated analogues of CMP-Neu5Ac as inhibitors of GM3-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paola; Cirillo, Federica; Piccoli, Marco; Gregorio, Antonio; Tettamanti, Guido; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that reducing the GM3 content in myoblasts increased the cell resistance to hypoxic stress, suggesting that a pharmacological inhibition of the GM3 synthesis could be instrumental for the development of new treatments for ischemic diseases. Herein, the synthesis of several dephosphonated CMP-Neu5Ac congeners and their anti-GM3-synthase activity is reported. Biological activity testes revealed that some inhibitors almost completely blocked the GM3-synthase activity in vitro and reduced the GM3 content in living embryonic kidney 293A cells, eventually activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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