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Sample records for neu differentiation factor

  1. HER2/neu Immunostaining in Invasive Breast Cancer: Analysis of False Positive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Arafah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: HER2/neu gene amplification by Fluorescent in situ hybridization and protein expression by immunohistochemistry have been used for prognosis and guidance for the treatment of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with Trastuzumab. False positive results are a significant problem where immunohistochemistry is exclusively used to test HER2/neu protein over expression. A minority of cases of breast cancer scoring HER2 (3+ by immunohistochemistry using Hercep test may not be associated with amplification of the HER2/neu gene by FISH, a test which is a more specific and sensitive than immunohistochemistry. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to false positive results by immunohistochemistry and subsequently not showing HER2/neu gene amplification by FISH analysis.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 cases (3+ by immunohistochemistry in the pathology laboratory not associated with HER2/neu gene amplification was performed. The histological review of these cases was done, the technical error (i.e staining of blood vessels or benign ducts and the interpretation errors were evaluated.Results: Polysomy 17 was absent in all the cases studied by FISH analysis. By immunohistochemistry, five of the 18 cases were purely interpretation errors and the remaining were a combination of technical and interpretational errors.Conclusion: False positive results related to technical and interpretational errors can be prevented by properly educating the technologist and pathologist to perform high quality immunostains and to render an accurate diagnosis respectively. This issue is of utmost importance as it may have deleterious effects on the selection of therapeutic arsenal in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

  2. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER 2)/neu expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... 3Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430060, China. 4Department of ... To investigate the relationship between the expression/amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor ... epidermal growth factor receptor family; HER 2, human epidermal ...

  3. FACTORES PRONOSTICOS DEL CANCER DE MAMA Y ONCOGEN HER2/NEU

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    F.J. Martín Gil

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: PRONOSTIC FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER AND HER2/NEUThe breast cancer constitutes the main cause of death by cancer in women of our country. In spite of the efforts directed in campaigns of precocious detection, the incidence continues increasing in a 1% approximately per year and the rate of mortality stay constant. Therefore it is of great importance to consolidate efforts directed towards the development and use of therapeutic and diagnostic methods. The development of neoplasia is directly related to successive genetic mutations in which cellular oncogenes are involved.It is known that in case of breast cancer the Her2/neu oncogene (Human epidermal growth receptor-2 factor is amplified and/or overexpressed in approximately a 30% of the cases. The knowledge of a positive result for Her2/neu overexpression has an important value in prognosis as it is associated to a greater aggressiveness of the disease. Also, this gene can be an answer marker to certain treatments like trastuzumab. RESUMEN:El cáncer de mama (CM constituye la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres de nuestro país. A pesar de los esfuerzos dirigidos hacia las campañas de detección precoz, la incidencia sigue aumentando aproximadamente en un 1% por año y la tasa de mortalidad sigue manteniéndose constante.Es por ello de gran importancia aunar esfuerzos dirigidos al desarrollo y utilización de métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El desarrollo de una neoplasia está directamente relacionado con mutaciones genéticas sucesivas en las que están involucrados oncogenes celulares.En el caso del cáncer de mama se sabe que el encogen Her2/neu (Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 está amplificado y/o sobreexpresado en aproximadamente un 30% de los casos. El conocimiento de la positividad del mismo tiene un importante valor pronóstico asociándose a una mayor agresividad de la enfermedad. Así mismo dicho gen puede ser un marcador predictivo de respuesta

  4. [Frequency factor Her-2/neu overexpression in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Cancino, Alex Daniel; Veloz-Martínez, Maria Guadalupe; Casasola-Busteros, Ivonne; Moctezuma-Meza, Christian; García-Cebada, Juan Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Her-2/neu is an oncogen related with a poor prognosis and high agresivity when overexpressed in breast cancer. Main objective was analyze the frecuency of positivity or negativity ofller/neu in patients with breast cancer after surgery and their relationship with hormone receptors. We perfomed a longitudinal, retrospective, descriptive and observational trial in all patients included in the Patology Service with a determination of Her-2/neu and hormone receptors analysis, between January 1st 2007 and December 31 st 2009.We used descriptive stadistic and association tests with correlation coefficients. We analyze 893 patients. The age range was between 24 and 94 years. The 16.% of all cases overexpressed Her-2/neu (150 patients). The 4.8% (43 patients) were included in the FISII test resulting in 29 positives to Her-2/neu. There were a total of 179 cases overexpressed. Negative estrogen receptores cases were 23%, negative progesterone receptores cases were 28% and triple negative receptors cases were 19%. We analyzed independient variables with Student I resulting age with P = 0.294. We analyzed distribution variables with Pearson test resulting in negative estrogen receptors with a P = 0.0001 negative progesterone receptres with a P = 0.0001 and triple negative receptors P= 0.0001. Relationship between hormone receptors and Her-2/neu in proporlionaly inverse in other vvords when a high hormone receptors negativitvis present there is algo a Her-2/neu highly overexpressed.

  5. Circulating Her-2/neu extracellular domain in breast cancer patients-correlation with prognosis and clinicopathological parameters including steroid receptor, Her-2/neu receptor coexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barić, Marina; Kulić, Ana; Sirotković-Skerlev, Maja; Dedić Plavetić, Natalija; Vidović, Marina; Horvatić-Herceg, Gordana; Vrbanec, Damir

    2015-07-01

    HER-2/neu extracellular domain (ECD) can be detected in blood as a soluble circulating protein. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between HER-2/neu extracellular domain in the serum and the prognosis in breast cancer patients. We also correlated HER-2/neu ECD with various clinicopathological factors including steroid receptor, HER-2/neu receptor coexpression. The serum from seventy nine patients with invasive breast cancer and twenty individuals without malignancy was analyzed using the enzyme-linked immune adsorbent assay method. The cut-off value was estimated by the ROC curve analysis (15.86 μg/L). HER-2/neu ECD values in the serum of patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than in control subjects. Circulating HER-2/neu ECD was significantly associated with the histological grade of tumors and the status of axillary lymph nodes. Negative correlation was observed between HER-2/neu ECD in the serum and estrogen receptor positivity. When we analyzed HER-2/neu ECD in relation with coexpression of steroid receptor and HER-2/neu receptor in tissue, statistically higher values were found in the subgroup of patients with steroid receptor negative, HER-2/neu negative tumors than in the other subgroups. HER-2/neu ECD was not an independent factor in the univariate and multivariate analysis. However, elevated HER-2/neu ECD levels were found in patients with breast cancer possessing more aggressive phenotype.

  6. Towards Sustained Silencing of HER2/neu in Cancer By Epigenetic Editing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falahi, Fahimeh; Huisman, Christian; Kazemier, Hinke G.; van der Vlies, Pieter; Kok, Klaas; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Rots, Marianne G.

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu/ERBB2) is overexpressed in several cancer types. Although therapies targeting the HER2/neu protein result in inhibition of cell proliferation, the anticancer effect might be further optimized by limiting HER2/neu expression at the DNA level.

  7. Induction of Neuronal Differentiation of Rat Muscle-Derived Stem Cells in Vitro Using Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Ethosuximide

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    Jin Seon Kwon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF can induce neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we investigated the neural differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs following treatment with bFGF and ethosuximide, a small molecule used as an anticonvulsant in humans. Stem cells isolated from rat skeletal muscle (rMDSCs were pre-induced by culturing with 25 ng/mL bFGF for 24 h and then were transferred to a medium supplemented with or without 4 mM ethosuximide. Neuronal differentiation was assessed by immunocytochemical and western blotting analyses of marker expression. Immunocytochemistry of rMDSCs treated with bFGF and ethosuximide identified abundant cells expressing neuronal markers (TuJ1, neuron-specific class III β-tubulin; NeuN, neuronal nuclear antigen; and NF-MH; neurofilament M and H. Olig2 (oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2-positive cells were also observed, indicating the presence of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. These findings were substantiated by western blotting analysis of marker proteins. In particular, the expression of NeuN and TuJ1 was significantly higher in rMDSCs treated with ethosuximide and bFGF than in cells stimulated with bFGF alone (NeuN, p < 0.05 and TuJ1, p < 0.001. Expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was not detected in this study. Collectively, the results showed that treatment with bFGF and ethosuximide induced effective transdifferentiation of rMDSCs into cells with a neural-like phenotype. Notably, rMDSCs treated with a combination of bFGF plus ethosuximide showed enhanced differentiation compared with cells treated with bFGF alone, implying that ethosuximide may stimulate neuronal differentiation.

  8. Treatment with aromatase inhibitors stimulates the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor-1 and neuregulin 1 in ER positive/HER-2/neu non-amplified primary breast cancers.

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    Flågeng, Marianne Hauglid; Larionov, Alexey; Geisler, Jürgen; Knappskog, Stian; Prestvik, Wenche S; Bjørkøy, Geir; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Dixon, J Michael; Miller, William R; Lønning, Per Eystein; Mellgren, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    While estrogens have been shown to modulate EGFR/HER-1 and HER-2/neu expression in experimental systems, the effects of estrogen deprivation on expression levels of the HER-receptors and the neuregulin (NRG)1 ligand in breast cancers remain unknown. Here, we measured EGFR/HER-1-4 and NRG1 mRNA in ER positive tumors from 85 postmenopausal breast cancer patients before and after two weeks (n=64) and three months (n=85) of primary treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (AI). In tumors lacking HER-2/neu amplification, quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed EGFR/HER-1 and NRG1 to vary significantly between the three time points (before therapy, after 2 weeks and after 3 months on treatment; P≤0.001 for both). Pair-wise comparison revealed a significant increase in EGFR/HER-1 already during the first two weeks of treatment (P=0.049) with a further increase for both EGFR/HER-1 and NRG1 after 3 months on treatment (P≤0.001 and P=0.001 for both comparing values at 3 months to values at baseline and 2 weeks respectively). No difference between tumors responding versus non-responders was recorded. Further, no significant change in any parameter was observed among HER-2/neu amplified tumors. Analyzing components of the HER-2/neu PI3K/Akt downstream pathway, the PIK3CA H1047R mutation was associated with treatment response (P=0.035); however no association between either AKT phosphorylation status or PIK3CA gene mutations and EGFR/HER-1 or NRG1 expression levels were observed. Our results indicate primary AI treatment to modulate expression of HER-family members and the growth factor NRG1 in HER-2/neu non-amplified breast cancers in vivo. Potential implications to long term sensitivity warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of Her-2/neu in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

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    Shamekh R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rania Shamekh,1,* Marilin Rosa,2,* Zena Sayegh,2 Masoumeh Ghayouri,2 Richard Kim,3 Mokenge P Malafa,3 Domenico Coppola2 1Department of Pathology, University of South Florida, 2Department of Anatomic Pathology, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, which is also frequently called human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2 or Her-2/neu, has been found to be overexpressed in various human cancers.Hypothesis: The aim of this pilot study was to explore the frequency of Her-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHBC. We used the World Health Organization classification criteria for EHBC.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study using 88 tissue samples, including 45 samples from non-neoplastic biliary tissue (NNB and 43 samples of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHBC. A tissue microarray including NNB and EHBC was constructed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC and dual in situ hybridization for Her-2/neu protein expression and amplification, respectively. The Her-2/neu expression was scored following the guidelines used for the ToGA study.Results: All NNB samples and all but one EHBC samples showed no expression of Her-2/neu by IHC. The one EHBC case immunohistochemically positive for Her-2/neu had an IHC score of 3+. Her-2/neu gene amplification was present in two EHBC samples only and included the case found to be positive by IHC.Conclusion: Our findings are similar to those reported in the literature. Although Her-2/neu overexpression has been documented in many types of cancer, Her-2/neu protein overexpression tends to have no role in the development and/or progression of EHBC. Keywords: extrahepatic, cholangiocarcinoma, Her-2/neu, ToGA, immunohistochemistry

  10. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT......-qPCR. Total expression of HER2/neu was confirmed by Western blot (WB). HER2/neu protein on the surface of living LNCaP cells was visualized by confocal microscopy using a HER2/neu-specific fluorescent probe. Exposure of LNCaP cells to 50 µM sarcosine for 24 h resulted in a 58% increase of the HER2/neu m...

  11. Association between hormone receptors and HER-2/neu is age-related.

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    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Zou, Yinying

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between hormone receptors and HER-2/neu in different age groups of women with breast cancers. A total of 1036 women with breast cancers were recruited. All the patients were divided into nine groups. The expression of hormone receptors and HER-2/neu was studied by IHC, while FISH test was used to determine HER-2/neu status in cases scored IHC 2+. The association between hormone receptors and HER-2/neu in different age groups was evaluated using the χ(2) test. Multivariate analysis was used to find out the independent factors predicting HER-2/neu amplification. Significant findings: The expression of ER and PR was inversely correlated with HER-2/neu status in women aged >40 years. By multivariate analysis, as far as the overall groups were concerned, PR, lymph node status and tumor grade were independently associated with HER-2/neu; Considering the younger age group (≤ 40), the only predictor for HER-2/neu was the tumor grade; Considering the older age group (>40), tumor grade, PR status, tumor size and lymph node status were associated with HER-2/neu overexpression. Our data suggest that the association between ER, PR and HER-2/neu is age-related. The negative relationship is only applied for women aged >40 years.

  12. Detection of Her-2/neu expression in gastric cancer: Quantitative PCR versus immunohistochemistry.

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    Zhu, Guang-Jun; Xu, Chun-Wei; Fang, Mei-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of Her-2 in gastric cancer, and to investigate the correlation between the expression levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2) and clinical features. Clinical data from 426 cases of gastric cancer were collected. Her-2 expression levels in cancerous tissue were detected using IHC, and the Her-2/neu gene expression levels were determined by qPCR. The correlation between the expression level of Her-2 and clinical features was investigated. The positive expression rate of Her-2 in cancerous tissue detected using qPCR and IHC was 11.17% (46/412) and 13.38% (57/426), respectively. The positive expression of the Her-2 protein/gene was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and lymphatic metastasis, as well as the TNM stage (PHer-2 protein/gene and tumor location, age, gender, differentiation degree and Lauren classification (P>0.05). The diagnostic consistency was good between the two methods (κ=0.828). The results indicate that the expression of Her-2/neu is closely associated with the development of gastric cancer. qPCR is a convenient, objective and efficient method, which may be used as an alternative to IHC or fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of Her-2/neu gene.

  13. Neu/Now tuleb varsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Neu/Now festivalil saab 17.-20. novembril Tallinna vanalinnas näha 35 kunstiprojekti 17 riigist. Cian McKenna (Iirimaa) disainiprojektist "Digitaalne teraapia", Richard Schwarzi (Austria) visuaalse kunsti projektist "Pikslitest" ja Maartje Meijeri (Holland) muusikaprojektist "Kuidas kirjutada fuugat?", mida tõstsid esile festivali kunstilised juhid Anthony Dean ja Paula Crabtree

  14. HER-2÷neu expression in different histological subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu Apostol, Delia; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Andriescu, Elena Corina; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza

    2017-01-01

    The identification and validation of new, complementary prognostic factors represents a challenging issue in thyroid pathology, opening the perspective of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) stratification based on differences of aggressiveness at molecular level. Our study aims to analyze the HER-2÷neu expression in different subtypes of PTC and its relationship with the classical clinicopathological factors. We investigated 120 cases of sporadic PTC. The cases were selected based on the histological criteria reported to clinical course and prognosis and distributed in two different subgroups, namely low- and high-risk. HER-2÷neu expression was assessed using an adapted semiquantitative score proposed for thyroid carcinomas. The correlations between HER-2÷neu expression and clinicopathological prognostic factors were statistically analyzed. HER-2÷neu positivity was found in 25 (20.8%) cases, from which 20 cases were classified as subtypes with low-risk and five with high-risk; 95 (79.2%) cases were HER-2÷neu negative, 53 cases being included in low- and 42 cases, respectively, in high-risk group. HER-2÷neu expression was significantly associated with histological subtypes, extrathyroidal extension, and tumor focality. Our results highlight the potential of HER-2÷neu as supplementary marker useful for the stratification of PTC in low-risk and high-risk histological groups, along with the well-known clinicopathological prognostic factors. Our data could be considered as new evidences that indicate different involvement of HER-2÷neu in tumor development and behavior, possible due to its connection with other factors present in the molecular environment.

  15. Correlation and comparison of immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu, using the antibody SP3 and chromogenic in situ hybridization in breast carcinomas samples

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    Franciele F. Wolf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Advances in the field of molecular biology have provided the differentiation of molecular subtypes of breast tumors, providing better prognosis and important tools for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Among these subtypes, the changes in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu, increase its copy number and generating HER2 protein amplification. Studies show that patients with breast cancer HER2/neu amplified tend to relapse earlier and have shorter survival time, the monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is the therapy indicated. The eligibility of patients for therapy is initially made by the immunohistochemistry (IHC technique, which evaluates the expression level of the HER2 protein. After this evaluation, the cases with equivocal diagnosis (score 2+, are referred to a more accurate technique, the chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Objective: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the antibody SP3, and determine their level of agreement with the CISH technique. Material and methods: Retrospective study in the database of the anatomy-pathology laboratory, in CISH tests reports for HER2/neu. Conclusion: The results revealed that clone SP3 showed 100% specificity and 92% sensitivity. IHC reveals variability in its results; however, it is known that the technique is an important tool in the daily routine of laboratories, contributing to the initial screening of patients with breast cancer, which later showed satisfactory results when compared with the CISH technique.

  16. Identification of prognostic different subgroups in triple negative breast cancer by Her2-neu protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gilda; Meyberg-Solomayer, Gabriele; Gerlinger, Christoph; Juhasz-Böss, Ingolf; Herr, Daniel; Rody, Achim; Liedtke, Cornelia; Solomayer, Erich-Franz

    2014-12-01

    Many patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a poor outcome, but not all of them. This study has the aim to analyse the prognostic impact of tumour size, nodal status, grading, Her2-neu (human epithelial growth factor receptor 2) score and Ki-67 index. The main goal of this analysis is to find out if there are any differences in survival between patients with TNBC and a Her2-neu score 0 versus 1+2. Retrospectively, we studied a cohort of 121 patients with TNBC, diagnosed at the Saarland University Medical Center between December 2004 and June 2013. We compared the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in those women on the basis of the different Her2-neu scores (0 versus 1 or 2 with negative FISH). One hundred and twenty one patients were included in this study. 58.68 % of them had a T2-4 tumour. 39.67 % were nodal positive and 67.77 % had high-grade tumours. The Her2-neu score was determined in 119 patients. 54.62 % of them had a score 0. In the 103 patients with a Ki-67 determination, the mean index was 44.5 %. We found that tumour size, nodal status and Her2-neu score are important prognostic factors. Patients with a Her2-neu score 0 had a significantly poorer outcome regarding DFS and OS. In contrast, the expression level of Ki-67 and the grading do not seem to have any prognostic value in TNBC. Besides tumour stage, grading and nodal status, the Her2-neu score 0 is able to function as a prognostic factor in patients with TNBC.

  17. Growth differentiation factor 9 gene variants in Sudanese desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain variants in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene have major effects on the ovulation rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to analyse GDF9 variability in the Sudanese desert sheep ecotypes Ashgar, Dubasi and Watish, and to test identified variants for association with litter size. For this purpose, ewes of ...

  18. Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of Profession Among Academic Staff Of Colleges Of Education In Rivers State, Nigeria. ... This is because if the wrong choice is made productivity in the world of work may be affected drastically. Male academicians on the one hand and females on the other have ...

  19. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. Ruoxue Liu Beibei Lü Xiaomeng Wang Chunling Zhang Shuping Zhang Jun Qian Lei Chen Haojie Shi Hansong Dong. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 435-450 ...

  20. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

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    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF® came recently into the physicians’ focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10 and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo.

  1. SYD985, a novel duocarmycin-based HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate, shows promising antitumor activity in epithelial ovarian carcinoma with HER2/Neu expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menderes, Gulden; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bellone, Stefania; Black, Jonathan; Altwerger, Gary; Masserdotti, Alice; Pettinella, Francesca; Zammataro, Luca; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei; Wong, Serena; Litkouhi, Babak; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Huang, Gloria S; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2017-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous disease. HER2/neu 3+ receptor over-expression. However, moderate to low (i.e., 2+ and 1+) HER2/neu expression is reported in up to 50% of EOC. The objective of this study was to compare the anti-tumor activity of SYD985, a novel HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), to trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in EOC models with differential HER2/neu expression. The cytotoxicity of SYD985 and T-DM1 was evaluated using ten primary EOC cell lines with 0/1+, 2+, and 3+ HER2/neu expression in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), proliferation, viability and bystander killing experiments. Finally, the in vivo activity of SYD985 and T-DM1 was also studied in ovarian cancer xenografts. SYD985 and T-DM1 induced similar ADCC in the presence of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) against EOC cell lines with differential HER2/neu expression. In contrast, SYD985 was 3 to 42 fold more cytotoxic in the absence of PBL when compared to T-DM1 (pHER2/neu 0/1+ tumor cells when admixed with HER2/neu 3+ EOC cells. In vivo studies confirmed that SYD985 is significantly more active than T-DM1 against HER2/neu 3+ EOC xenografts. SYD985 is a novel ADC with remarkable activity against EOC with strong (3+) as well as moderate to low (i.e., 2+ and 1+) HER2/neu expression. SYD985 is more potent than T-DM1 in comparative experiments and unlike T-DM1, it is active against EOC demonstrating moderate/low or heterogeneous HER2/neu expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Targeting of Her-2/neu Protein Is Not Recommended as an Adjuvant Therapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Aghbali, Amirala; Shokoohi, Behrooz; Ahmadzadeh, Ronak

    2015-12-01

    Target therapy against molecular markers of EGFR family has been recently used in the treatment protocol of several diseases. However, the role of Her-2/neu in OSCC is a matter of controversy and more studies are required to clarify the role of Her-2/neu in OSCC. We aimed to investigate the role of Her-2/neu in the process of carcinogenesis in oral epithelium as ELP is a premalignant and OSCC is a malignant lesion, but RLP shows no evidence of premalignancy and malignancy.To our Knowledge, this is the first study comparing Her-2/neu expression in erosive lichen planus (ELP), reticular lichen planus (RLP), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 60 samples, including 20 cases of RLP, 20 cases of ELP, and 20 cases of OSCC were evaluated immunohistochemically in this study. Our findings showed that there was not a significant increase in Her-2/neu expression from RLP to ELP and from ELP to OSCC. Therefore, Her-2/neu had no role in differentiating between RLP, ELP and OSCC and this protein does not contribute to the process of carcinogenesis in the oral epithelium. The lack of Her-2/neu overexpression indicates that molecular targeting of Her-2/neu protein is not recommended as an adjuvant therapy in OSCC and OLP.

  3. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

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    Dai-Ying eWu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal.These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  4. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  5. DNA amplification of HER-2/neu and INT-2 oncogenes in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medl, M; Sevelda, P; Czerwenka, K; Dobianer, K; Hanak, H; Hruza, C; Klein, M; Leodolter, S; Müllauer-Ertl, S; Rosen, A

    1995-12-01

    Oncogene alterations are thought to be prognostic indices in patients with breast cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate the amplification of the HER-2/neu and INT-2 oncogenes in ovarian cancer. In a retrospective study of 196 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, the amplification of the oncogenes HER-2/neu and INT-2 in the DNA of paraffin-embedded tumor cells was determined by quantitative PCR. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the two oncogenes correlated with such predictive factors as FIGO stage, histological grade, ascites, postoperative residual tumor mass, hormone receptor content, and preoperative CA 125 serum levels. The effect of HER-2/neu and INT-2 amplification on patient survival was also studied. The only correlation found in this study was between INT-2 and preoperative CA 125 levels (P = 0.03). No correlations were demonstrable between HER-2/neu (log-rank test; P = 0.67) and INT-2 (log-rank test; P = 0.75) amplifications and overall survival. Unlike the established prognostic factors, neither HER-2/neu nor INT-2 appears to be predictive for survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

  6. Reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive, triple-negative, and HER2-neu overexpressing breast cancer among women 20-44 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christopher I; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Tang, Mei-Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L; Daling, Janet R; Malone, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive history are among the most well-established breast cancer risk factors. However, relatively little is known about how they influence risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, particularly among younger women. Using data from a population-based case-control study of women 20-44 years of age, we assessed the relationships between various reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+), triple-negative, and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Detailed reproductive histories were obtained through structured interviewer administered in-person questionnaires. Reproductive histories among control women (n = 941) were compared to those of ER+ cases (n = 781), triple-negative cases (n = 180), and HER2-overexpressing cases (n = 60) using polytomous logistic regression. Age at menarche, parity, and number of full-term pregnancies were similarly associated with risk of all three breast cancer subtypes. In contrast, age at first live birth, the interval between age at menarche and age at first birth, and breastfeeding were inversely associated with risk of triple-negative breast cancer (P values for trend 0.002, 0.006 and 0.018, respectively), but were not associated with risk of ER+ or HER2-overexpressing cancers. A strong inverse association between breastfeeding and risk of triple-negative breast cancer has now been consistently observed across numerous studies, and at present it is the most well-established protective factor for this aggressive and lethal form of breast cancer. Further studies clarifying the biological mechanisms underlying this relationship and confirming our results with respect to age at first birth and the interval between age at menarche and age at first birth are needed.

  7. Centrally active differentiation factors in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L

    1994-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is a remarkably heterogeneous structure comprised of more than 50 biochemically distinct types of neurons. This phenotypic diversity is established during development, not only as the result of genetic but also epigenetic influences. It is believed that extracellular proteins, called differentiation factors, both instruct neurons in their original choice of neurotransmitter substance and, in certain situations, revise those biochemical decisions. The first candidate differentiation factor in the brain has only recently been proposed. This muscle-derived substance has the unique ability, in culture, to initiate expression of genes associated with catecholamine transmitter synthesis in non-catecholamine neurons of the brain. Because it also amplifies expression in cultured catecholamine-producing neurons in vitro and in vivo, it may prove to be an important therapeutic agent in diseases involving catecholamine shortages.

  8. Growth differentiation factor 9 gene variants in Sudanese desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-11-12

    Nov 12, 2016 ... development and oogenesis. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46, 354–361. Silva, B.D., Castro, E.A., Souza, C.J., Paiva, S.R., Sartori, R., Franco, M.M., Azevedo, H.C., Silva, T.A.,. Vieira, A.M., Neves, J.P. & Melo, E.O., 2011. A new polymorphism in the growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene is associated ...

  9. Sialidase NEU4 hydrolyzes polysialic acids of neural cell adhesion molecules and negatively regulates neurite formation by hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohta; Mitoma, Junya; Hosono, Masahiro; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kitajima, Ken; Higashi, Hideyoshi; Nitta, Kazuo; Shima, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Taeko

    2012-04-27

    Modulation of levels of polysialic acid (polySia), a sialic acid polymer, predominantly associated with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), influences neural functions, including synaptic plasticity, neurite growth, and cell migration. Biosynthesis of polySia depends on two polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV in vertebrate. However, the enzyme involved in degradation of polySia in its physiological turnover remains uncertain. In the present study, we identified and characterized a murine sialidase NEU4 that catalytically degrades polySia. Murine NEU4, dominantly expressed in the brain, was found to efficiently hydrolyze oligoSia and polySia chains as substrates in sialidase in vitro assays, and also NCAM-Fc chimera as well as endogenous NCAM in tissue homogenates of postnatal mouse brain as assessed by immunoblotting with anti-polySia antibodies. Degradation of polySia by NEU4 was also evident in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells that were co-transfected with Neu4 and ST8SiaIV genes. Furthermore, in mouse embryonic hippocampal primary neurons, the endogenously expressed NEU4 was found to decrease during the neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, GFP- or FLAG-tagged NEU4 was partially co-localized with polySia in neurites and significantly suppressed their outgrowth, whereas silencing of NEU4 showed the acceleration together with an increase in polySia expression. These results suggest that NEU4 is involved in regulation of neuronal function by polySia degradation in mammals.

  10. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  11. Dissecting teleost B cell differentiation using transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwollo, Patty

    2011-09-01

    B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. Research on alternative splicing of both the Ikaros and Pax5 genes in rainbow trout is presented, including their functional significance. An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. Lastly, broader impacts and practical applications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  13. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  14. Prognostic Value of KIF2A and HER2-Neu Overexpression in Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Zhu, Huijun; Ye, Qing; Wang, Chenyi; Xu, Yunzhao

    2016-02-01

    Kinesin family member 2A (KIF2A) is a member of Kinesin-13 family and involved in cell migration and cell signaling. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-neu) is implicated in the development of many cancers. Both of these 2 proteins are upstream inducer of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway that plays an important role in the regulation of many cellular events including proliferation, survival, and invasion. We hypothesized that aberrant KIF2A and HER2-neu expression might be associated with aggressive behavior of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).To address the prognostic implications of KIF2A and HER2-neu in EOC, we assessed protein levels of KIF2A and HER2-neu in 159 ovarian and fallopian tube tissues (111 carcinomas and 48 normal ovary or fallopian tube tissues) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis on tissue microarray and KIF2A mRNA levels in 35 ovarian and fallopian tube tissues (15 carcinomas and 20 normal ovary or fallopian tube tissues) by real-time PCR.We found that significantly higher KIF2A mRNA expression in EOC tumors than that in normal ovary or fallopian tube tissues. The IHC results showed that protein of KIF2A and HER2-neu was overexpressed in EOC tissues compared with normal ovary or fallopian tube tissues, and KIF2A expression level was significantly associated with lymph nodes, metastasis, ascites cells, and FIGO stage. No correlation between KIF2A and HER2-neu expression was observed. Survival analysis showed that patients with KIF2A and HER2-neu overexpression had a worse overall survival (OS) as compared to patients with low or none expression of the 2 proteins. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that overexpression of KIF2A was an independent prognostic factor for OS.These findings indicate the important role of KIF2A in predicting EOC prognosis.

  15. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts Chronic Liver Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eaum Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Byung Seok; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2017-03-15

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. GDF-15 is emerging as a biomarker for several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of GDF-15 for the prediction of liver fibrosis and severity in chronic liver disease. The serum GDF-15 levels were examined via enzyme immunoassay in 145 patients with chronic liver disease and 101 healthy individuals. The patients with chronic liver disease consisted of 54 patients with chronic hepatitis, 44 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis, and 47 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Of the patients with chronic liver diseases, the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients had an increased serum GDF-15 (3,483 ng/L) level compared with the patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (1,861 ng/L) and chronic hepatitis (1,232 ng/L). The overall diagnostic accuracies of GDF-15, as determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: chronic hepatitis=0.656 (>574 ng/L, sensitivity, 53.7%; specificity, 79.2%), compensated liver cirrhosis=0.886 (>760 ng/L, sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 92.1%), and decompensated liver cirrhosis=0.984 (>869 ng/L, sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 94.1%). This investigation represents the first study to demonstrate the availability of GDF-15 in chronic liver disease. GDF-15 comprised a useful biomarker for the prediction of liver fibrosis and severity in chronic liver disease.

  16. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size, extra time and resources that allow for a highly individualized approach to instruction, teacher commitment, and subject-matter competency in mathema...

  17. "Europäische Bildung neu denken"

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Bildung und Wissen ist das Fundament, auf dem wir die Zukunft Europas bauen. Es muss daher unser gemeinsamer Anspruch sein, das Bildungswesen in Europa stetig zu verbessern. Wenn wir Europäische Bildung also neu denken möchten, dann spielen in meinen Augen die folgenden Punkte eine wichtige Rolle: Europa an Schulen, Digitalisierung im Bildungswesen und der europäische Erfahrungsaustausch über Best Practices. (DIPF/Orig.)

  18. Neu/Now testib talenti kontekstis / Mart Niineste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineste, Mart, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    17.-20. novembrini toimuvast rahvusvahelisest kunstifestivalist Neu/Now. Kahetasandilise festivali raames toimuvast online-festivalist ja live-festivalist. Festivali Eesti poolne kuraator Marje Lohuaru

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor is a mouse fetal Leydig cell terminal differentiation factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giulia; Guglielmo, Maria Cristina; Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Canipari, Rita; Galdieri, Michela; Catizone, Angela

    2012-06-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a well-known regulator of mouse embryonic organogenesis. In previous papers, we have shown the expression pattern of HGF and its receptor, C-MET, during the different stages of testis prenatal development. We demonstrated that C-MET is expressed in fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and that HGF stimulates testosterone secretion in organ culture of late fetal testes. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation rate, apoptotic index, and differentiation of FLCs in testicular organ culture of 17.5 days postcoitum (17.5 dpc) embryos to clarify the physiological role of HGF in late testis organogenesis. Based on our data, we conclude the following: 1) HGF acts as an antiapoptotic factor that is able to reduce the number of apoptotic FLCs and testicular caspase-3 active fragment; 2) HGF does not affect FLC proliferation; 3) HGF significantly increases expression of insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a marker of Leydig cell terminal differentiation, without affecting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) expression; 4) HGF significantly decreases the expression of nestin, a marker of Leydig cell progenitors; and 5) HGF significantly increases the number of fully developed FLCs. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that HGF is able to act in vitro as a survival and differentiation factor in FLC population.

  20. Factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eIshimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles—like REM and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to a number of qualities, such as sleep bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Trastuzumab (Herceptin (R)): Monoclonal antibody in the treatment of HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer in the metastatic and (neo)adjuvant situation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditsch, Nina; Rückert, Sandra; Kümper, Carolin; Lenhard, Miriam; Kahlert, Steffen; Bauerfeind, Ingo; Friese, Klaus; Untch, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin (R)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets HER2/neu (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) breast cancer cells, which are overexpressed in about 25-30% of breast carcinomas. After phase I and II trials, several phase III studies of trastuzumab alone or in combination with various chemotherapies were conducted. Patients with HER2/neu overexpression levels of 3+ determined by immunohistochemical assay or gene amplification (fluorescence in situ ...

  2. Prognostic value of HER-2/neu expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Guan, Chenan; Yu, Junhui; Jin, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Ling; Zheng, Lingzhi; Xia, Liang; Zhang, Yuquan

    2017-09-26

    This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the association between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) expression and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). HER-2/neu is one of the most frequently studied molecular biological parameters in EOC, but its prognostic impact has not been fully assessed. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that reported HER-2/neu expression and survival in patients with EOC. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. Publication bias was investigated using funnel plots and Egger's test. A total of 56 studies (N=7212) were included in the analysis. The results showed that patients possessing HER-2/neu expression had significant disadvantages in OS (HR = 1.41; 95%CI, 1.31 to 1.51; P HER-2/neu expression in patients with EOC has an adverse impact on OS and PFS.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum: causes, incidence of, and differentiating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Justin; Zirwas, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Review of allergic contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum, including causes, incidence of, and differentiating factors. The causes include common allergens found in everyday products. The true incidence of contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum is unknown, however, it is a common problem facing clinicians. The differentiating factors include itching, erythema, and persistence.

  4. Transfer of Her-2/neu specificity into cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with RNA encoding chimeric immune receptor (CIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hee; Lee, Jin Myung; Woo, Sun-Je; Park, Min-Ji; Park, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hye-Sung; Park, Mi-Young; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2009-11-01

    Efficient RNA transfer to dendritic cell and T cells by electroporation have been successfully applied for immunotherapy. Herein, RNA electroporation was used to transfer antigen-specific receptor (scFv) gene to cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK). CIK was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 antibody, interleukin-2, and interferon (IFN)-gamma for 14 days and showed typical characteristics of CIK expressing both CD3+ and CD56+ markers and NKG2D+. CIK could lyse K562 cells, but not SKOV3 and MCF7/Her-2/neu. After RNA encoding anti-Her-2/neu chimeric immune receptor (CIR) with signaling portion of CD28 and CD3zeta was electroporated to CIK, more than 95% of CIK expressed anti-Her-2/neu CIR (CIR-CIK). CIR-CIK was able to produce cytokines including IFN-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and show cytotoxicity specific to tumor cell lines expressing Her-2/neu, SKOV3, and MCF7/Her-2/neu. Adoptive transfer of CIR-CIK in SKOV3 xenograft nude mice model led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with transfer of mock-transduced CIK and showed higher inhibition than that of Herceptin, humanized monoclonal antibody specific for Her-2/neu. These results suggest that RNA transfer is the convenient and efficient strategy to introduce antigen-specificity into CIK and provide potential therapeutic value of CIR-CIK in the treatment of tumors.

  5. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill-Eubanks, D.C.; Parker, C.G.; Lollar, P. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated {sup 125}I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function.

  6. Multiple effects of differentiation-inducing factor on prespore differentiation and cyclic-AMP signal transduction in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Mei; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Schaap, Pauline

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the differentiation inducing factor (DIF) on several cAMP-induced responses in Dictyostelium were investigated. It was found that DIF reduces the apparent affinity of cell-surface cAMP receptors. DIF does not affect the cAMP-induced cGMP response, but it is a potent inhibitor of the

  7. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    . Here, we report the development of a novel technological approach for the local delivery of exogenous trophic factor mimetics to transplanted cells using specifically designed silica nanoporous particles. We demonstrated that delivering Cintrofin and Gliafin, established peptide mimetics of the ciliary...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation....

  8. Factors Affecting Intervention Fidelity of Differentiated Instruction in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Elma M.; Walraven, Amber; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children's development, in particular high-ability children. This study investigates relevant…

  9. Factors affecting intervention fidelity of differentiated instruction in kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Mooij, Ton

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children’s development, in particular high-ability

  10. Factors affecting intervention fidelity of differentiated instruction in kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.M.; Walraven, A.; Mooij, T.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children's development, in particular high-ability

  11. Prospective Risk Factors for Adolescent PTSD: Sources of Differential Exposure and Differential Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age =…

  12. Combined detection of Her2/neu gene amplification and protein overexpression in effusions from patients with breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Birgitta; Gerhards, Roswitha; Strumberg, Dirk; Voigtmann, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Her2/neu protein overexpression and gene amplification is found in 20-30% of breast cancer patients and correlates with poor clinical outcome. Patients who profit from anti-Her2/neu- therapy are routinely selected by examination of tumour specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) separately. Many studies found a good correlation between both methods for score 1+ samples and for score 3+ samples, but not for score 2+ samples. In this study, we examined pleural and ascitic effusions with a combined approach using IHC and FISH on the same cells, under the following aspects: (1) frequency of Her2/neu protein expression and gene amplification in effusions; (2) correlation between score of protein expression and gene amplification; (3) impact of chromosome 17 polyploidy on Her2/neu protein expression. We examined 31 effusions from patients with breast cancer and 4 effusions from patients with ovarian cancer. Cytospins were analysed by IHC using two anti-Her2/neu antibodies and subsequently analysed by FISH with Her2/neu/CEP17 probes. Amplification was defined as: (1) Her2/neu gene copy number of more than 4 and (2) Her2/neu/CEP17 ratio of 2.0 or greater. A system combining IHC and FISH was developed and 35 effusion specimens were examined. As much as 25 of them were scored as positive. All of them contained cells with heterogeneous scores. A total of 18 of the samples contained cells with scores that ranged from 0 to 3+. In the other samples scores ranged from 0 to 1+ or 0 to 2+. Cells were analysed for Her2/neu gene amplification and chromosome 17 ploidy with regard to their scores. As much as 15 of all samples had mean Her2/neu copy numbers of >4, but only 12% (n = 3) of the positive samples were amplified according to Her2/neu/CEP17 ratio. Only 22, 9% (n = 8) were polyploid (mean CEP17 > 4); but 65, 7% (n = 23) of all specimens contained single polyploid cells. In some cases up to 100% of the score 3+ cells showed

  13. Biased G protein-coupled receptor agonism mediates Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 crosstalk to induce transactivation of insulin receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxho, Fiona; Haq, Sabah; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-12-24

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) can participate in a number of signaling pathways, and this property led to the concept of biased GPCR agonism. Agonists, antagonists and allosteric modulators can bind to GPCRs in different ways, creating unique conformations that differentially modulate signaling through one or more G proteins. A unique neuromedin B (NMBR) GPCR-signaling platform controlling mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) crosstalk has been reported in the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) through the modification of the IR glycosylation. Here, we propose that there exists a biased GPCR agonism as small diffusible molecules in the activation of Neu1-mediated insulin receptor signaling. GPCR agonists bombesin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II significantly and dose-dependently induce Neu1 sialidase activity and IR activation in human IR-expressing rat hepatoma cell lines (HTC-IR), in the absence of insulin. Furthermore, the GPCR agonist-induced Neu1 sialidase activity could be specifically blocked by the NMBR inhibitor, BIM-23127. Protein expression analyses showed that these GPCR agonists significantly induced phosphorylation of IRβ and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1). Among these, angiotensin II was the most potent GPCR agonist capable of promoting IRβ phosphorylation in HTC-IR cells. Interestingly, treatment with BIM-23127 and Neu1 inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate were able to block GPCR agonist-induced IR activation in HTC cells in vitro. Additionally, we found that angiotensin II receptor (type I) exists in a multimeric receptor complex with Neu1, IRβ and NMBR in naïve (unstimulated) and stimulated HTC-IR cells with insulin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II. This complex suggests a molecular link regulating the interaction and signaling mechanism between these molecules on the cell surface. These findings uncover a biased GPCR agonist-induced IR transactivation signaling axis

  14. Targeting Breast Cancer With Anti HER2/neu Diabodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Louis

    2001-01-01

    .... It is our hypothesis that improved diabody-based molecules with affinity for HER2/neu can be engineered and will prove to be effective vehicles for the radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) of breast cancer...

  15. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  16. SUSY QM Factorization of General and Confluent Heun's Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we provide a supersymmetry method of factorization of general Heun's (GH) and confluent Heun's (CH) operators. Supercharges and superpartners defining the underliying superalgebra are explicictly obtained. Keywords: Heun's equation, superpotentials, partnerpotentials and riccati equation.

  17. Antibody against Microbial Neuraminidases Recognizes Human Sialidase 3 (NEU3: the Neuraminidase/Sialidase Superfamily Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiguang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuraminidases (NAs are critical virulence factors for several microbial pathogens. With a highly conserved catalytic domain, a microbial NA “superfamily” has been proposed. We previously reported that murine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN sialidase activity was important in leukocyte trafficking to inflamed sites and that antibodies to Clostridium perfringens NA recognized a cell surface molecule(s, presumed to be a sialidase of eukaryotic origin on interleukin-8-stimulated human and murine PMNs. These antibodies also inhibited cell sialidase activity both in vitro and, in the latter instance, in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that mammalian sialidases share structural homology and epitopes with microbial NAs. We now report that antibodies to one of the isoforms of C. perfringens NA, as well as anti-influenza virus NA serum, recognize human NEU3 but not NEU1 and that antibodies to C. perfringens NA inhibit NEU3 enzymatic activity. We conclude that the previously described microbial NA superfamily extends to human sialidases. Strategies designed to therapeutically inhibit microbial NA may need to consider potential compromising effects on human sialidases, particularly those expressed in cells of the immune system.

  18. The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yonggang; Li, Xiaosu; Zhang, Xian; Mei, Shaolin; Li, Hongyu; Urso, Andreacarola; Zhu, Sijun

    2014-01-01

    ..., but mechanisms preventing differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs are not well understood. In this study, we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd...

  19. Differential localization of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor during megakaryocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zingariello, M; Fabucci, M E; Bosco, D

    2010-01-01

    Willebrand factor are two proteins present in the alpha-granules that recognize P-selectin glycoprotein ligand on neutrophils and collagen in the subendothelial matrix. These proteins may play an important role in determining the differential release of the alpha-granule contents in response to external....... These observations support the hypothesis that P-selectin and von Willebrand factor may ensure differential release of the alpha-granule content in response to external stimuli....

  20. Chemical and physical factors influencing the dynamics of differentiation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Saras; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells into a specific lineage or cell type is one of the most investigated areas of stem cell research; however it is wrought with hurdles. The differentiation process during embryogenesis is greatly influenced by physiochemical factors. They direct key genes for lineage commitment, which in turn are responsible for patterning into highly organized tissues resulting in organ formation. In this review, we have focused on the influence of physiochemical factors on the differentiation process in embryonic stem cells, which mimics, embryogenesis in vivo.

  1. Inhibition of in vitro myogenic differentiation by cellular transcription factor E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J; Helin, K; Jin, P

    1995-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of cultured myocytes requires withdrawal of the cells from the cell cycle. Constitutive overexpression of several oncogenes in myoblasts can inhibit in vitro myogenesis. Here we studied the role of the cellular transcription factor E2F1 on myogenic differentiation. E2F1...... expression is irreversibly down-regulated during differentiation of C2C12 myocytes. Furthermore, deregulated E2F1 expression in C2C12 cells prevented myogenic differentiation. This inhibition of myogenesis was associated with the repression of myogenin expression and an elevated cyclin D1 expression....... Moreover, E2F1-overexpressing myocytes failed to exit the cell cycle under differentiation conditions. These results are consistent with the notion that E2F1 can function as an oncogene and further suggest that E2F1 down-regulation is required for myogenic differentiation....

  2. Community Factors in Differential Responses of Child Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Karen; Cheng, An-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In response to criticisms of the traditional investigative model of child protective services (CPS) as adversarial, a Differential Response Model has emerged, with investigative and noninvestigative alternative response (AR) paths. The purpose of this study was to identify relationships of county-level community variables to response paths. Secondary analysis used data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System linked to county-level variables from the American Community Survey. The final dataset included 62,499 cases and 98 counties from five states. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the binary outcome variable of CPS response path (AR, non-AR). Predictor variables included indicators at child, county, and state levels. County-level variables (housing vacancy, child poverty, unemployment, and households with public assistance) were significant predictors (p community variables have significant relationships with CPS response paths and impact how CPS units respond to new referrals. Research is needed to apply advanced multilevel analytic procedures to more accurately model nested relationships. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Induced myelomonocytic differentiation in leukemia cells is accompanied by noncanonical transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Holly A; Yourish, Harmony B; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Varner, Jeffrey D; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive non-neoplastic myelomonocytic differentiation are well characterized but have not been systematically analyzed in the leukemic context. We investigated widely used, patient-derived myeloid leukemia cell lines with proclivity for differentiation into granulocytes by retinoic acid (RA) and/or monocytes by 1,25-dihyrdroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Using K562 (FAB M1), HL60 (FAB M2), RA-resistant HL60 sublines, NB4 (FAB M3), and U937 (FAB M5), we correlated nuclear transcription factor expression to immunophenotype, G1/G0 cell cycle arrest and functional inducible oxidative metabolism. We found that myelomonocytic transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in these cell lines. Monocytic-lineage factor EGR1 was not induced by D3 (the monocytic inducer) but instead by RA (the granulocytic inducer) in lineage bipotent myeloblastic HL60. In promyelocytic NB4 cells, EGR1 levels were increased by D3, while Gfi-1 expression (which promotes the granulocytic lineage) was upregulated during D3-induced monocytic differentiation in HL60, and by RA treatment in monocytic U937 cells. Furthermore, RARα and VDR expression were not strongly correlated to differentiation. In response to different differentiation inducers, U937 exhibited the most distinct transcription factor expression profile, while similarly mature NB4 and HL60 were better coupled. Overall, the differentiation induction agents RA and D3 elicited cell-specific responses across these common FAB M1-M5 cell lines.

  4. EXPRESSION OF NeuGc ON PIG CORNEAS AND ITS POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PIG CORNEAL XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whayoung; Miyagawa, Yuko; Long, Cassandra; Ekser, Burcin; Walters, Eric; Ramsoondar, Jagdeece; Ayares, David; Tector, A. Joseph; Cooper, David K. C.; Hara, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pigs expressing neither galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal) nor N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) take xenotransplantation one step closer to the clinic. Our aims were (i) to document the lack of NeuGc expression on corneas and aortas, and cultured endothelial cells (aortic [AECs]; corneal [CECs]) of GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs, and (ii) to investigate whether the absence of NeuGc reduced human antibody binding to the tissues and cells. Methods Wild-type (WT), GTKO, and GTKO/NeuGcKO pig were used for the study. Human tissues and cultured cells were negative controls. Immunofluorescence staining was performed using anti-Gal and anti-NeuGc antibodies, and to determine human IgM and IgG binding to tissues. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine Gal and NeuGc expression on cultured CECs and AECs and to measure human IgM/IgG binding to these cells. Results Both Gal and NeuGc were detected on WT pig corneas and aortas. Although GTKO pigs expressed NeuGc, neither human nor GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs expressed Gal or NeuGc. Human IgM/IgG binding to corneas and aortas from GTKO and GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs was reduced compared to binding to WT pigs. Human antibody binding to GTKO/NeuGcKO AECs was significantly less than to GTKO AECs, but there was no significant difference in binding between GTKO and GTKO/NeuGcKO CECs. Conclusions The absence of NeuGc on GTKO aortic tissue and AECs is associated with reduced human antibody binding, and possibly will provide better outcome in clinical xenotransplantation using vascularized organs. For clinical corneal xenotransplantation, the absence of NeuGc expression on GTKO/NeuGcKO pig corneas may not prove an advantage over GTKO corneas. PMID:26418433

  5. The epidemiology of Her-2/ neu and P53 in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein Jonine L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease with marked geographical variations. Joint consideration of the relationship between specific molecular alterations and known or suspected epidemiologic risk factors for this disease should help distinguish subgroups of women that are at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. In this article, we present a comprehensive literature review of the etiologic and prognostic roles of Her-2/neu and P53 among women. In addition, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using biomarkers in epidemiological studies. We conclude that more research is needed to understand the complex relationships between genetic alterations and etiologic risk factors for breast cancer.

  6. Regulation of neural stem cell differentiation by transcription factors HNF4-1 and MAZ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Cheng, Hua; Li, Xiao; Lu, Wei; Wang, Kai; Wen, Tieqiao

    2013-02-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are promising candidates for a variety of neurological diseases due to their ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodentrocytes. During this process, Rho GTPases are heavily involved in neuritogenesis, axon formation and dendritic development, due to their effects on the cytoskeleton through downstream effectors. The activities of Rho GTPases are controlled by Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitors (Rho-GDIs). As shown in our previous study, these are also involved in the differentiation of NSCs; however, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanism. Here, we describe how the transcription factors hepatic nuclear factor (HNF4-1) and myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ-1) regulate the expression of Rho-GDIγ in the stimulation of NSC differentiation. Using a transfection of cis-element double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) strategy, referred to as "decoy" ODNs, we examined the effects of HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 on NSC differentiation in the NSC line C17.2. Our results show that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 decoy ODNs significantly knock down Rho-GDIγ gene transcription, leading to NSC differentiation towards neurons. We observed that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 decoy ODNs are able enter to the cell nucleolus and specifically bind to their target transcription factors. Furthermore, the expression of Rho-GDIγ-mediated genes was identified, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism for the differentiation of NSCs is triggered by the transcription factors MAZ-1 and HNF4-1. These findings indicate that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 regulate the expression of Rho-GDIγ and contribute to the differentiation of NSCs. Our findings provide a new perspective within regulatory mechanism research during differentiation of NSCs, especially the clinical application of transcription factor decoys in vivo, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disease.

  7. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  8. Ribosome hibernation factor promotes Staphylococcal survival and differentially represses translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arnab; Yap, Mee-Ngan F

    2016-06-02

    In opportunistic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, a small protein called hibernation-promoting factor (HPFSa) is sufficient to dimerize 2.5-MDa 70S ribosomes into a translationally inactive 100S complex. Although the 100S dimer is observed in only the stationary phase in Gram-negative gammaproteobacteria, it is ubiquitous throughout all growth phases in S. aureus The biological significance of the 100S ribosome is poorly understood. Here, we reveal an important role of HPFSa in preserving ribosome integrity and poising cells for translational restart, a process that has significant clinical implications for relapsed staphylococcal infections. We found that the hpf null strain is severely impaired in long-term viability concomitant with a dramatic loss of intact ribosomes. Genome-wide ribosome profiling shows that eliminating HPFSa drastically increased ribosome occupancy at the 5' end of specific mRNAs under nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting that HPFSa may suppress translation initiation. The protective function of HPFSa on ribosomes resides at the N-terminal conserved basic residues and the extended C-terminal segment, which are critical for dimerization and ribosome binding, respectively. These data provide significant insight into the functional consequences of 100S ribosome loss for protein synthesis and stress adaptation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Galán-Vásquez

    Full Text Available The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs.

  10. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. The Role of Amplified Wild-Type Neu in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Many human breast cancers have amplified wild-type Neu (Her2) protooncogenes. It is still not known from either human or rodent models if amplified wild-type Neu is involved in the etiology of breast cancer...

  19. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Precentral_gyrus [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Precentral_gyrus hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Precentral gyrus http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Precentral_gyrus.bed ...

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Precentral_gyrus [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. Robust Nonnegative Matrix Factorization via Joint Graph Laplacian and Discriminative Information for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential expression plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and classification. In recent years, many methods have been used to identify differentially expressed genes. However, the recognition rate and reliability of gene selection still need to be improved. In this paper, a novel constrained method named robust nonnegative matrix factorization via joint graph Laplacian and discriminative information (GLD-RNMF is proposed for identifying differentially expressed genes, in which manifold learning and the discriminative label information are incorporated into the traditional nonnegative matrix factorization model to train the objective matrix. Specifically, L2,1-norm minimization is enforced on both the error function and the regularization term which is robust to outliers and noise in gene data. Furthermore, the multiplicative update rules and the details of convergence proof are shown for the new model. The experimental results on two publicly available cancer datasets demonstrate that GLD-RNMF is an effective method for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  7. Phylogenetic Distribution of CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase (CMAH), the Enzyme Synthetizing the Proinflammatory Human Xenoantigen Neu5Gc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Sateesh; Kulkarni, Asmita; Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) is responsible for the synthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a sialic acid present on the cell surface proteins of most deuterostomes. The CMAH gene is thought to be present in most deuterostomes, but it has been inactivated in a number of lineages, including humans. The inability of humans to synthesize Neu5Gc has had several evolutionary and biomedical implications. Remarkably, Neu5Gc is a xenoantigen for humans, and consumption of Neu5Gc-containing foods, such as red meats, may promote inflammation, arthritis, and cancer. Likewise, xenotransplantation of organs producing Neu5Gc can result in inflammation and organ rejection. Therefore, knowing what animal species contain a functional CMAH gene, and are thus capable of endogenous Neu5Gc synthesis, has potentially far-reaching implications. In addition to humans, other lineages are known, or suspected, to have lost CMAH; however, to date reports of absent and pseudogenic CMAH genes are restricted to a handful of species. Here, we analyze all available genomic data for nondeuterostomes, and 322 deuterostome genomes, to ascertain the phylogenetic distribution of CMAH. Among nondeuterostomes, we found CMAH homologs in two green algae and a few prokaryotes. Within deuterostomes, putatively functional CMAH homologs are present in 184 of the studied genomes, and a total of 31 independent gene losses/pseudogenization events were inferred. Our work produces a list of animals inferred to be free from endogenous Neu5Gc based on the absence of CMAH homologs and are thus potential candidates for human consumption, xenotransplantation research, and model organisms for investigation of human diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Upregulation of RNA Processing Factors in Poorly Differentiated Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. Geles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intratumoral heterogeneity in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has been appreciated at the histological and cellular levels, but the association of less differentiated pathology with poor clinical outcome is not understood at the molecular level. Gene expression profiling of intact human tumors fails to reveal the molecular nature of functionally distinct epithelial cell subpopulations, in particular the tumor cells that fuel tumor growth, metastasis, and disease relapse. We generated primary serum-free cultures of NSCLC and then exposed them to conditions known to promote differentiation: the air-liquid interface (ALI and serum. The transcriptional network of the primary cultures was associated with stem cells, indicating a poorly differentiated state, and worse overall survival of NSCLC patients. Strikingly, the overexpression of RNA splicing and processing factors was a prominent feature of the poorly differentiated cells and was also observed in clinical datasets. A genome-wide analysis of splice isoform expression revealed many alternative splicing events that were specific to the differentiation state of the cells, including an unexpectedly high frequency of events on chromosome 19. The poorly differentiated cells exhibited alternative splicing in many genes associated with tumor progression, as exemplified by the preferential expression of the short isoform of telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TERF1, also known as Pin2. Our findings demonstrate the utility of the ALI method for probing the molecular mechanisms that underlie NSCLC pathogenesis and provide novel insight into posttranscriptional mechanisms in poorly differentiated lung cancer cells.

  9. Gene expression signatures of extracellular matrix and growth factors during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rekha; Ngangan, Alyssa V; Kemp, Melissa L; McDevitt, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are uniquely capable of differentiating into somatic cell derivatives of all three germ lineages, therefore holding tremendous promise for developmental biology studies and regenerative medicine therapies. Although temporal patterns of phenotypic gene expression have been relatively well characterized during the course of differentiation, coincident patterns of endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor expression that accompany pluripotent stem cell differentiation remain much less well-defined. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the global dynamic profiles of ECM and growth factor genes associated with early stages of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. Gene expression analysis of ECM and growth factors by ESCs differentiating as embryoid bodies for up to 14 days was assessed using PCR arrays (172 unique genes total), and the results were examined using a variety of data mining methods. As expected, decreases in the expression of genes regulating pluripotent stem cell fate preceded subsequent increases in morphogen expression associated with differentiation. Pathway analysis generated solely from ECM and growth factor gene expression highlighted morphogenic cell processes within the embryoid bodies, such as cell growth, migration, and intercellular signaling, that are required for primitive tissue and organ developmental events. In addition, systems analysis of ECM and growth factor gene expression alone identified intracellular molecules and signaling pathways involved in the progression of pluripotent stem cell differentiation that were not contained within the array data set. Overall, these studies represent a novel framework to dissect the complex, dynamic nature of the extracellular biochemical milieu of stem cell microenvironments that regulate pluripotent cell fate decisions and morphogenesis.

  10. Her2/neu Status Determination in Breast Cancer: A Single Institutional Experience Using a Dual-Testing Approach With Immunohistochemistry and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, James P; Dell'Aquila, Marie; Fadare, Oluwole; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2017-04-01

    According to current guidelines, either immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH) can be used to determine human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu) status in breast carcinoma. While the guidelines explicitly delineate result interpretation, there is no consensus on the most appropriate testing algorithm. The Her2/neu statuses of 369 consecutive cases of invasive breast cancer (from 351 patients) were assessed in a dual-testing algorithm that uses both IHC and fluorescence ISH (FISH). FISH was performed using dual-color HER2/ chromosome enumeration probe 17 ( CEP17 ) probes, and if equivocal results were obtained, reflex testing using HER2/lissencephaly gene 1 ( LIS1 ) probes was used. Results from both modalities were scored and reported using American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists 2013 criteria. Sixty-one (16.5%) of the 369 tumors were found to be Her2/neu positive by at least one modality. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH results was 97.6%. Six of the 369 tumors were reclassified as Her2/neu positive after a negative IHC result. FISH was also able to identify significantly more Her2/neu-positive cases than IHC. The commonly used reflex strategy based on IHC results may deny potentially beneficial targeted therapy for a small cohort of patients, which should be considered as testing guidelines are formulated and the cost-benefit analyses of various testing algorithms are assessed.

  11. Silencing of the HER2/neu Gene by siRNA Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HER2/neu-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Faltus

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, double-stranded (ds RNA induces sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression referred to as RNA interference (RNAi. We exploited RNAi to define the role of HER2/neu in the neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells. We transfected SK-BR-3, BT-474, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells with short interfering RNA (siRNA targeted against human HER2/neu and analyzed the specific inhibition of HER2/neu expression by Northern and Western blots. Transfection with HER2/neu-specific siRNA resulted in a sequence-specific decrease in HER2/neu mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, transfection with HER2/neu siRNA caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR-3 and BT-474, consistent with a powerful RNA silencing effect. siRNA treatment resulted in an antiproliferative and apoptotic response in cells overexpressing HER2/neu, but had no influence in cells with almost no expression of HER2/neu proteins like MDA-MB-468 cells. These data indicate that HER2/neu function is essential for the proliferation of HER2/neuoverexpressing breast cancer cells. Our observations suggest that siRNA targeted against human HER2/neu may be valuable tools as anti proliferative agents that display activity against neoplastic cells at very low doses.

  12. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  13. Directly reprogramming fibroblasts into adipogenic, neurogenic and hepatogenic differentiation lineages by defined factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jin, Yu-Qing; Gao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The reprogramming of adult cells into pluripotent cells or directly into alternative adult cell types represents a great potential technology for regenerative medicine. In the present study, the potential of key developmental adipogenic, neurogenic and hepatogenic regulators to reprogram human fibroblasts into adipocytes, neurocytes and hepatocytes was investigated. The results demonstrated that direct reprogramming of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β activated C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression, inducing the conversion of fibroblasts into adipocytes. Similarly, direct reprogramming of the transcription factors sex determining region-box 2, trans-acting T-cell specific transcription factor (GATA-3) and neurogenic differentiation 1 in fibroblasts may induce neurogenic differentiation through hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) transfection. Moreover, hepatogenic differentiation was induced by combining the direct reprogramming of Oct4, GATA-3, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox α and forkhead box protein A2 in fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that specific transcription factors and reprogramming factors are able to directly reprogram fibroblasts into adipogenic, neurogenic and hepatogenic differentiation lineages by HVJ-E transfection. PMID:28587331

  14. The transcription factor KLF2 restrains CD4⁺ T follicular helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Yong; Skon, Cara N; Lee, You Jeong; Oh, Soohwan; Taylor, Justin J; Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K; Rosenfeld, M Geoffrey; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jameson, Stephen C

    2015-02-17

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for efficient B cell responses, yet the factors that regulate differentiation of this CD4(+) T cell subset are incompletely understood. Here we found that the KLF2 transcription factor serves to restrain Tfh cell generation. Induced KLF2 deficiency in activated CD4(+) T cells led to increased Tfh cell generation and B cell priming, whereas KLF2 overexpression prevented Tfh cell production. KLF2 promotes expression of the trafficking receptor S1PR1, and S1PR1 downregulation is essential for efficient Tfh cell production. However, KLF2 also induced expression of the transcription factor Blimp-1, which repressed transcription factor Bcl-6 and thereby impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Furthermore, KLF2 induced expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 and enhanced Th1 differentiation. Hence, our data indicate KLF2 is pivotal for coordinating CD4(+) T cell differentiation through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: via control of T cell localization and by regulation of lineage-defining transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ciliary neurotrophic factor reduces the proliferation and promotes the differentiation of TH- MYCN transformed sympathoadrenal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Pappas, Anthony; Nishi, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer caused by the transformation of sympathoadrenal progenitors. By following the formation of tumors in homozygous TH-MYCN mice, an established mouse model of neuroblastoma, we were able to capture transformed cells prior to the formation of large, vascularized tumors in order to determine the responsiveness of cells to neurotrophic factors. We discovered that the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor is abundantly expressed in tumor cells from these mice. Furthermore, CNTF - but not nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor - promoted neuronal differentiation and withdrawal from the cell cycle. Thus, the transformation of sympathoadrenal progenitors by MYCN overexpression differentially affects responsiveness to neurotrophic molecules. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Crystal Structure Analysis of the Polysialic Acid Specific O-Acetyltransferase NeuO

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Eike C.; Bergfeld, Anne K.; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of a2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable Oacetlyation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophageencoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed b-helix (LbH) family of acyl...

  17. Crystal Structure Analysis of the Polysialic Acid Specific O-Acetyltransferase NeuO

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Eike C.; Bergfeld, Anne K.; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetlyation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferas...

  18. Fibroblast growth factor-2 counteracts the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor on spontaneous differentiation in adult hippocampal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Jianfang; Liu, Ying; Gong, Chengxin; Sun, Shenggang; Chen, Honghui

    2012-12-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) can spontaneously differentiate into neurons and glial cells in the absence of mitogen fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in medium and the spontaneous differentiation of NSCs is mediated partially by endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). This study examined the relationship of FGF-2 and CNTF in the spontaneous differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). AHPs were cultured in the medium containing different concentration of FGF-2 (1-100 ng/mL). Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were applied to detect the expression of the astrocytic marker GFAP, the neuronal marker Tuj1, the oligodendrocytic marker CNPase and, Nestin, the marker of AHPs. The expression of endogenous CNTF in AHPs at early (passage 4) and late stage (passage 22) was also measured by Western blotting. The results showed that FGF-2 increased the expression of Nestin, dramatically inhibited the expression of GFAP and Tuj1 and slightly suppressed the expression of CNPase. FGF-2 down-regulated the expression of endogenous CNTF in AHPs at both early (passage 4) and late stage (passage 22). These results suggested that FGF-2 could inhibit the spontaneous differentiation of cultured AHPs by negatively regulating the expression of endogenous CNTF in AHPs.

  19. Insulin like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Nøhr, Jane; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2003-01-01

    Pref-1 is a highly glycosylated Delta-like transmembrane protein containing six epidermal growth factor-like repeats in the extracellular domain. Pref-1 is abundantly expressed in preadipocytes, but expression is down-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. Forced expression of Pref-1 in 3T3-L1...... cells was reported to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Here we show that efficient and regulated processing of Pref-1 occurs in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes releasing most of the extracellular domain as a 50-kDa heterogeneous protein, previously isolated and characterized as FA1. Unexpectedly, we found...... that forced expression of the soluble form, FA1, or full-length Pref-1 did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells when differentiation was induced by standard treatment with methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and high concentrations of insulin. However, forced expression of either form...

  20. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, and Fusion in Early Stage of Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small G-protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs regulate a variety of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling, plasma membrane reorganization, and vesicular transport. Here, we propose the functional roles of ARF1 in multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ARF1 was upregulated during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and transiently activated in an initial stage of their differentiation. Differentiation of ARF1-deficient osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts temporarily increased in pre-maturation stage of osteoclasts followed by reduced formation of mature osteoclasts, indicating that ARF1 regulates the osteoclastogenic process. ARF1 deficiency resulted in reduced osteoclast precursor proliferation and migration as well as increasing cell-cell fusion. In addition, ARF1 silencing downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, Akt, osteopontin, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF-receptor c-Fms as well as upregulating several fusion-related genes including CD44, CD47, E-cadherin, and meltrin-α. Collectively, we showed that ARF1 stimulated proliferation and migration of osteoclast precursors while suppressing their fusion, suggesting that ARF1 may be a plausible inter-player that mediates the transition to osteoclast fusion at multiple steps during osteoclast differentiation

  1. Designing a HER2/neu promoter to drive α1,3galactosyltransferase expression for targeted anti-αGal antibody-mediated tumor cell killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Marion; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to specifically render tumor cells susceptible to natural cytolytic anti-αGal antibodies by using a murine α1,3galactosyltransferase (mαGalT) transgene driven by a designed form of HER2/neu promoter (pNeu), the transcription of which is frequently observed to be above basal in breast tumors. Indeed, the αGalT activity that promotes Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R (αGal) epitope expression has been mutationally disrupted during the course of evolution, starting from Old World primates, and this has led to the counter-production of large amounts of cytotoxic anti-αGal antibodies in recent primates, including man. Method Expression of the endogenous c-erbB-2 gene was investigated in various cell lines by northern blotting. A mαGalT cDNA was constructed into pcDNA3 vector downstream of the original CMV promoter (pCMV/mαGalT) and various forms of pNeu were prepared by PCR amplification and inserted in the pCMV/mαGalT construct upstream of the mαGalT cDNA, in the place of the CMV promoter. These constructs were transferred into HEK-293 control and breast tumor cell lines. Stably transfected cells were analyzed by northern blotting for their expression of αGalT and c-erbB-2, and by flow cytometry for their binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia/isolectin B4. Results We show that expression of the mαGalT was up- or down-modulated according to the level of endogenous pNeu activity and the particular form of constructed pNeu. Among several constructs, two particular forms of the promoter, pNeu250 containing the CCAAT box and the PEA3 motif adjacent to the TATAA box, and pNeu664, which has three additional PEA3 motifs upstream of the CCAAT box, were found to promote differential αGalT expression. Conclusion Our results strengthen current concepts about the crucial role played by the proximal PEA3 motif of pNeu, and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the development of targeted transgene expression

  2. Ciliary neurotrophic factor reduces proliferation and promotes differentiation of TH-MYCN transformed sympathoadrenal progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Pappas, Anthony; Nishi, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer caused by transformation of sympathoadrenal progenitors. By following the formation of tumors in homozygous TH-MYCN mice, an established mouse model of neuroblastoma, we were able to capture transformed cells prior to the formation of large, vascularized tumors in order to determine the responsiveness of cells to neurotrophic factors. We discovered that the CNTF receptor is abundantly expressed in tumor cells from these mice. Furthermore, CNTF, but not nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor, NT-3, or glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor, promoted neuronal differentiation and withdrawal from the cell cycle. Thus, transformation of sympathoadrenal progenitors by MYCN overexpression differentially affects responsiveness to neurotrophic molecules. PMID:25171250

  3. The DNA binding factor Hmg20b is a repressor of erythroid differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; van Dijk, Thamar Bryn; Braun, Harald; Dekker, Sylvia; van der Linden, Reinier; Hou, Jun; Fanis, Pavlos; Demmers, Jeroen; van IJcken, Wilfred; Özgür, Zeliha; Horos, Rastislav; Pourfarzad, Farzin; von Lindern, Marieke; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2011-01-01

    Background In erythroblasts, the CoREST repressor complex is recruited to target promoters by the transcription factor Gfi1b, leading to repression of genes mainly involved in erythroid differentiation. Hmg20b is a subunit of CoREST, but its role in erythropoiesis has not yet been established. Design and Methods To study the role of Hmg20b in erythropoiesis, we performed knockdown experiments in a differentiation-competent mouse fetal liver cell line, and in primary mouse fetal liver cells. The effects on globin gene expression were determined. We used microarrays to investigate global gene expression changes induced by Hmg20b knockdown. Functional analysis was carried out on Hrasls3, an Hmg20b target gene. Results We show that Hmg20b depletion induces spontaneous differentiation. To identify the target genes of Hmg20b, microarray analysis was performed on Hmg20b knockdown cells and controls. In line with its association to the CoREST complex, we found that 85% (527 out of 620) of the deregulated genes are up-regulated when Hmg20b levels are reduced. Among the few down-regulated genes was Gfi1b, a known repressor of erythroid differentiation. Among the consistently up-regulated targets were embryonic β-like globins and the phospholipase HRAS-like suppressor 3 (Hrasls3). We show that Hrasls3 expression is induced during erythroid differentiation and that knockdown of Hrasls3 inhibits terminal differentiation of proerythroblasts. Conclusions We conclude that Hmg20b acts as an inhibitor of erythroid differentiation, through the down-regulation of genes involved in differentiation such as Hrasls3, and activation of repressors of differentiation such as Gfi1b. In addition, Hmg20b suppresses embryonic β-like globins. PMID:21606163

  4. The DNA binding factor Hmg20b is a repressor of erythroid differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; van Dijk, Thamar Bryn; Braun, Harald; Dekker, Sylvia; van der Linden, Reinier; Hou, Jun; Fanis, Pavlos; Demmers, Jeroen; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Ozgür, Zeliha; Horos, Rastislav; Pourfarzad, Farzin; von Lindern, Marieke; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2011-01-01

    In erythroblasts, the CoREST repressor complex is recruited to target promoters by the transcription factor Gfi1b, leading to repression of genes mainly involved in erythroid differentiation. Hmg20b is a subunit of CoREST, but its role in erythropoiesis has not yet been established. To study the

  5. The DNA binding factor Hmg20b is a repressor of erythroid differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Esteghamat (Fatemehsadat); T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); H. Braun (Harald); S. Dekker (Sylvia); R. van der Linden (Reinier); J. Hou (Jun); P. Fanis (Pavlos); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); Z. Özgü (Zeliha); R. Horos (Rastislav); F. Pourfarzad, F. (Farzin); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In erythroblasts, the CoREST repressor complex is recruited to target promoters by the transcription factor Gfi1b, leading to repression of genes mainly involved in erythroid differentiation. Hmg20b is a subunit of CoREST, but its role in erythropoiesis has not yet been

  6. Examining Differential Item Functioning: IRT-Based Detection in the Framework of Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an approach to examining differential item functioning (DIF) under its item response theory (IRT) treatment in the framework of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The approach is based on integrating IRT- and CFA-based testing of DIF and using bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals with a syntax code in Mplus.

  7. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  8. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  9. Factorization of a class of almost linear second-order differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, P G [Departamento de FIsica Fundamental, Area de FIsica Teorica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Kuru, S [Departamento de FIsica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Negro, J [Departamento de FIsica Fundamental, Area de FIsica Teorica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Nieto, L M [Departamento de FIsica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-08-10

    A general type of almost linear second-order differential equations, which are directly related to several interesting physical problems, is characterized. The solutions of these equations are obtained using the factorization technique, and their non-autonomous invariants are also found by means of scale transformations.

  10. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  11. Reassembled Biosynthetic Pathway for a Large-scale Synthesis of CMP-Neu5Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Zhang, Hesheng; Wu, Bingyuan; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Hanfen; Xiao, Min; Wang, Peng George

    2003-01-01

    CMP-Neu5Ac is an important sugar nucleotide for biosynthesis of sialic acid and its conjugates. In this paper, a large-scale production system of CMP-Neu5Ac by a single strain is reported. The co-expression of Neu5Ac aldolase (EC4.1.3.3) and CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase (EC 2.7.7.43) was achieved by constructing individual genes into one plasmid and having a single culture that has both NeuAc aldolase and CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase activities. Overall this system only employed N-acetylmannosamine, excess of pyruvate and CTP to produce CMP-Neu5Ac. This work has demonstrated that a large-scale synthesis of sialic acid-derived oligosaccharides could be achieved economically and efficiently through a single, biosynthetic pathway engineered microorganism.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  13. MicroRNA-24 Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation via Targeting T-Cell Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigong Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been reported to have diverse biological roles in regulating many biological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we identified that miR-24 was a critical regulator during osteogenic differentiation. We found that overexpression of miR-24 significantly inhibited osteogenic differentiation, which decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers. In contrast, inhibition of miR-24 exhibited an opposite effect. Furthermore, we delineated that miR-24 regulates post-transcriptionals of T-cell factor-1 (Tcf-1 via targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR of Tcf-1 mRNA. MiR-24 was further found to regulate the protein expression of Tcf-1 in the murine osteoprogenitors cells and bone mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, the positive effect of miR-24 suppression on osteoblast differentiation was apparently abrogated by Tcf-1 silencing. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-24 participates in osteogenic differentiation by targeting and regulating Tcf-1 expression in osteoblastic cells.

  14. Upregulation of RNA Processing Factors in Poorly Differentiated Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geles, Kenneth G; Zhong, Wenyan; O'Brien, Siobhan K; Baxter, Michelle; Loreth, Christine; Pallares, Diego; Damelin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been appreciated at the histological and cellular levels, but the association of less differentiated pathology with poor clinical outcome is not understood at the molecular level. Gene expression profiling of intact human tumors fails to reveal the molecular nature of functionally distinct epithelial cell subpopulations, in particular the tumor cells that fuel tumor growth, metastasis, and disease relapse. We generated primary serum-free cultures of NSCLC and then exposed them to conditions known to promote differentiation: the air-liquid interface (ALI) and serum. The transcriptional network of the primary cultures was associated with stem cells, indicating a poorly differentiated state, and worse overall survival of NSCLC patients. Strikingly, the overexpression of RNA splicing and processing factors was a prominent feature of the poorly differentiated cells and was also observed in clinical datasets. A genome-wide analysis of splice isoform expression revealed many alternative splicing events that were specific to the differentiation state of the cells, including an unexpectedly high frequency of events on chromosome 19. The poorly differentiated cells exhibited alternative splicing in many genes associated with tumor progression, as exemplified by the preferential expression of the short isoform of telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TERF1), also known as Pin2. Our findings demonstrate the utility of the ALI method for probing the molecular mechanisms that underlie NSCLC pathogenesis and provide novel insight into posttranscriptional mechanisms in poorly differentiated lung cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-05-01

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2 + /ErbB2 + ) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2 + /ErbB2 + breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2 + /ErbB2 + breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A hybrid of B and T lymphoblastic cell line could potentially substitute dendritic cells to efficiently expand out Her-2/neu-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from advanced breast cancer patients in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs holds promises to cure cancer. However, this treatment is hindered by lacking a robust way to specifically expand out CTLs. Here, we developed a hybrid of B lymphoblastic cell line and T lymphoblastic cell line (T2 cells as a substitute of dendritic cells, together with irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC as feeder cells and rhIL-2, to activate and expand Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2/neu and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2 double positive advanced breast cancer patients in vitro. These Her-2/neu-loaded T2 cells reproducibly activated and expanded out Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells to 107 in 8 weeks. Furthermore, these Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells had good sensitivity of recognition and killing Her-2/neu-overexpressed breast cancer cell line SK.BR.3. This technique gives us another insight on how to rapidly obtain sufficient CTLs for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of Her-2/neu overexpression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunohistochemical detection of Her-2/neu overexpression in breast carcinoma in Nigerians: A 5-year retrospective study. ... cases of invasive lobular carcinoma (10.8%), three cases of medullary carcinoma (3.6%), two cases of papillary carcinoma (2.4%), and a case each of mucinous and clear cell carcinoma (1.2%).

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Neu-Laxova syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Ibrahim

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality involving multiple systems. We report a case of Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound examination. Case presentation A 29-year-old gravida 3, para 2 woman was first seen in our antenatal clinic at 38 weeks' pregnancy. Except for the consanguinity and two previous abnormal stillborn babies her medical history was unremarkable. On ultrasound examination microcephaly, flat forehead, micrognathia, intrauterine growth restriction, generalized edema of the skin, hypoplastic chest, excessive soft tissue deposition of hands and feet, joint contractures and a penis without scrotal sacs were detected. She delivered a 2000 g male fetus. He died five minutes after delivery. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of Neu-Laxova syndrome. Conclusion Because of the autosomal recessive inheritance of Neu-Laxova syndrome genetic counseling and early-serial ultrasound examination should be performed at risk families. Early diagnosis of the disease may offer termination of the pregnancy as an option.

  19. Relation between transforming growth factor-β1 expression, its receptor and clinicopathological factors and survival in HER2-negative gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiev, Julian; Gulubova, Maya; Tchernev, Georgi; Penkova, Mariana; Miteva, Radostina; Julianov, Alexander; Manolova, Irena

    2011-11-01

    Gastric cancer is still the most prevalent neoplasia in many countries. Therefore, besides the clinicopathological factors known to be prognostic markers, new independent parameters are being investigated. This study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor - β1 (TGF-β1) and transforming growth factor - β1 receptor II (TGF-β1RII) in HER2/neu negative gastric carcinomas and to explore the correlations, the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric carcinoma. Surgical specimens from 42 patients with gastric cancer were examined for the presence of HER2/neu, TGF-β1 and TGF-β1RII by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between expression of the proteins and patient clinicopathological parameters was evaluated and the prognostic significance of TGF-β1 and of receptor expression was assessed. All specimens demonstrated HER2/neu-negative status. TGF-β1 analyses exhibited predominantly cytoplasmic and membranous immunostaining. We found that 80% of intestinal gastric cancer specimens have TGF-β1 expression, while in the diffuse type they are 43%. Also the tumors with low and moderate differentiation were positive for TGF-βRII (p = 0.041). Finally we found that median survival period of the patients was 37.03 months and the patients with TGF-β1 expression had worse prognosis after surgical therapy compared to those without expression of TGF-β1 (p = 0.034). We have shown that TGF-β1 expression in gastric tumor tissue with HER2/neu-negative status is of prognostic relevance in gastric cancer. The data for TGF-β1 and TGF-βRII expression showed association with clinicopathological parameters, and more precisely with the differentiation and histology type and TGF-β1-positive patient had a shorter overall survival compared with TGF-β1-negative patients.

  20. Union is strength: matrix elasticity and microenvironmental factors codetermine stem cell differentiation fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Li, Lisha; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Zhishen; Sun, Meiyu; Xu, Tiankai; Tian, Licheng; Lu, Man; Ren, Min; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Stem cells are an attractive cellular source for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications due to their multipotency. Although the elasticity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to have crucial impacts in directing stem cell differentiation, it is not the only contributing factor. Many researchers have recently attempted to design microenvironments that mimic the stem cell niche with combinations of ECM elasticity and other cues, such as ECM physical properties, soluble biochemical factors and cell-cell interactions, thereby driving cells towards their preferred lineages. Here, we briefly discuss the effect of matrix elasticity on stem cell lineage specification and then summarize recent advances in the study of the combined effects of ECM elasticity and other cues on the differentiation of stem cells, focusing on two aspects: biophysical and biochemical factors. In the future, biomedical scientists will continue investigating the union strength of matrix elasticity and microenvironmental cues for manipulating stem cell fates.

  1. Mechanism of divergent growth factor effects in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy; Haack-Sorensen, M.

    2005-01-01

    to comprehensively compare proteins that were tyrosine phosphorylated in response to EGF and PDGF and their associated partners. More than 90% of these signaling proteins were used by both ligands, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was exclusively activated by PDGF, implicating...... it as a possible control point. Indeed, chemical inhibition of PI3K in PDGF-stimulated cells removed the differential effect of the two growth factors, bestowing full differentiation effect onto PDGF. Thus, quantitative proteomics can directly compare entire signaling networks and discover critical differences...

  2. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promote Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells to Neural Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Min; Cao, Peipei; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Sun, Yuyu; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Guijuan; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-04-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were the most widely used seed cells in the field of neural regeneration and bone tissue engineering, due to their easily isolation, lack of ethical controversy, low immunogenicity and low rates of transplantation rejection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro. DPSCs were cultured in neural differentiation medium containing NGF and bFGF alone or combination for 7 days. Then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed using western blot and RT-PCR. Our study revealed that bFGF and NGF increased neural differentiation of DPSCs synergistically, compared with bFGF and NGF alone. The levels of Nestin, MAP-2, βIII-tubulin and GFAP were the most highest in the DPSCs + bFGF + NGF group. Our results suggested that bFGF and NGF signifiantly up-regulated the levels of Sirt1. After treatment with Sirt1 inhibitor, western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining showed that neural genes and protein markers had markedly decreased. Additionally, the ERK and AKT signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs stimulated with bFGF + NGF. These results suggested that manipulation of the ERK and AKT signaling pathway may be associated with the differentiation of bFGF and NGF treated DPSCs. Our date provided theoretical basis for DPSCs to treat neurological diseases and repair neuronal damage.

  3. The Psychoeducative Success Factors Within Differentiated Special Education for Gifted Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Gifted special education experiences a broader development. Differentiated centers, such as German Federal School for Highly Gifted, the Gifted Hong Kong School, Davidson Academy, Mexican School for Gifted Students, and Talent Attention Center, are an evidence of gifted education development. Academic and psychological results of these centers are well documented. It is not known which non-quantitative factors of differentiated education are the causes of better academic and psychological results in comparison with average education. The study was performed with 27 people, consisting of 15 gifted students (aged 4-15) from 10 countries who take classes at one of the Mexican Alliance for Giftedness schools, l0 professors or teachers of the gifted, and two directors of these institutions. The research was qualitative, using interviews and field observation for obtaining data regarding educational and psychological activities within gifted instruction. Social and psychological factors that characterize differentiated programs for the gifted were found in this study. Teachers in gifted education field have active roles in the education of gifted students becoming educational leaders. Professors showed educational strategies and worked differently from average. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect differentiated education results were also found, such as professor-student empathy and psychological-social strategies. In addition, the results unveiled the true gifted student academic experience in differentiated education, characterized by intensive academic schedules with regular breaks for socialization, exercise, and arts classes. Furthermore, this study undermined the myths about gifted special education as it showed holistically the non-quantitative factors contributing to its success.

  4. Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Immune Homeostasis Depend on the Transcription Factor Myb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sheila; D'Amico, Angela; Cretney, Erika; Liao, Yang; Tellier, Julie; Bruggeman, Christine; Almeida, Francisca F; Leahy, Jamie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Smyth, Gordon K; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-01-17

    FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells. The combination of transcriptome and genomic footprint analyses revealed that Myb directly regulated a large proportion of the gene expression specific to effector Treg cells, identifying Myb as a critical component of the gene regulatory network controlling effector Treg cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and Differentiation Factor-5 Contributes to the Structural and Functional Maintenance of the Intervertebral Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chencheng Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD is a widely recognized contributor to low back pain (LBP. The Prevention or reversal of IDD is a potential treatment for LBP. Unfortunately, current treatments for IDD are aimed at relieving symptoms rather than regenerating disc structure or function. Recently, the injection of growth factors and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation have been shown to be promising biological therapies for IDD. Growth factors stimulate the proliferation of and matrix synthesis by intervertebral disc (IVD cells, leading to the regeneration of degenerative discs. Growth factors, hypoxia and co-culture with nucleus pulposus (NP cells induce MSCs to differentiate toward an NP-like phenotype, which can increase the number of functional cells in the IVD or enhance the function of endogenous disc cells to facilitate IVD regeneration. Therefore, the emerging roles of growth factors in IVD regeneration have piqued the interest of researchers. Growth factors including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5, among others, have been demonstrated to enhance anabolism in IVD cells and to induce NP-like differentiation of MSCs. However, the injection of TGF, IGF and FGF into human IVDs may induce unwanted blood vessel ingrowth, which accelerates the process of IDD, the injection of GDF-5 may not have the same effect. This finding suggests that GDF-5 is a preferable growth factor for use in IDD treatment compared with TGF, IGF and FGF. The GDF-5 gene is one of the few growth factor genes that have been found to be associated with IDD thus far; moreover, the GDF-5 gene defects lead to collagen and proteoglycan abnormalities in discs in mice, suggesting that GDF-5 contributes to the structural and functional maintenance of the IVD. This review is focused on the functions of GDF-5 in the IVD and on the association between GDF

  6. Differential interactions between Notch and ID factors control neurogenesis by modulating Hes factor autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Iber, Dagmar; Taylor, Verdon

    2017-10-01

    During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate the correct number and types of neurons in a temporospatial fashion. Control of NSC activity and fate is crucial for brain formation and homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain differ considerably, but Notch signaling and inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) factors are pivotal in both. Notch and ID factors regulate NSC maintenance; however, it has been difficult to evaluate how these pathways potentially interact. Here, we combined mathematical modeling with analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data to elucidate unforeseen interactions between the Notch and ID factor pathways. During brain development, Notch signaling dominates and directly regulates Id4 expression, preventing other ID factors from inducing NSC quiescence. Conversely, during adult neurogenesis, Notch signaling and Id2/3 regulate neurogenesis in a complementary manner and ID factors can induce NSC maintenance and quiescence in the absence of Notch. Our analyses unveil key molecular interactions underlying NSC maintenance and mechanistic differences between embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Similar Notch and ID factor interactions may be crucial in other stem cell systems. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Identification of transcription factors expressed during ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of HL60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K I; Walsh, V; Gilkes, A F; Woodgate, L J; Brown, G; Burnett, A K

    1998-10-01

    A recent clinical therapeutic initiative has been the use of chemical agents which induce the leukaemic cells to overcome their block in differentiation. In order to understand this block the cascade of molecular events needs to be characterized. Haemopoietic differentiation is ultimately controlled at the level of gene transcription which is mediated by an array of transcription factors. Many transcription factors contain similar structural protein sequences, and we have used an RT-PCR-based approach to isolate sequences, from transcription factor gene families which share similar domains. Degenerate primers corresponding to the TFIIIA zinc-finger consensus amino acid sequences and to the POU-homeodomain and POU-specific domain were used to amplify genes on the basis that they contained similarities in structural motifs shared within these families of transcription factors. A serum-independent HL60 cell line was induced towards the neutrophil lineage by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 h. CD38+ cells committed towards this lineage were enriched and a population of these cells treated with dihydroxyvitamin D3 to induce neutrophil maturation. RNA extracted from uninduced, ATRA-induced CD38+ cells, and vitamin D3 treated maturing cell cultures were amplified using the degenerate primers. PCR fragments were cloned, sequenced, clustered into homologous groups, and the group sequences searched on the GenBank database. The Oct 1 transcription factor, and a very close homologue, KIAA0144, was identified using the POU family primers. The zinc-finger primers identified three zinc-finger genes. The pattern of gene expression was suggested from the number of clones in each group at neutrophil commitment and maturation. The differential expression of the genes in the zinc finger and POU families will lead to a better understanding of the cascade of gene expression which occurs following ATRA-induced differentiation.

  8. Exposure to depleted uranium does not alter the co-expression of HER-2/neu and p53 in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Toriahi Kaswer M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the extensive literature on immunohistochemical profile of breast cancer, very little is found on populations exposed to a potential risk factor such as depleted uranium. This study looked at the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2 and p53 in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, where the population has been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. Findings The present investigation was performed over a period starting from September 2008 to April 2009. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 70 patients with breast cancer (62 ductal and 8 lobular carcinoma were included in this study. A group of 25 patients with fibroadenoma was included as a comparative group, and 20 samples of normal breast tissue sections were used as controls. Labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB+ complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of HER-2/neu and p53. The detection rate of HER-2/neu and p53 immunohistochemical expression were 47.14% and 35.71% respectively in malignant tumors; expression was negative in the comparative and control groups (p HER-2/neu immunostaining was significantly associated with histological type, tumor size, nodal involvement, and recurrence of breast carcinoma (p p Both biomarkers were positively correlated with each other. Furthermore, all the cases that co-expressed both HER-2/neu and p53 showed the most unfavorable biopathological profile. Conclusion P53 and HER-2/neu over-expression play an important role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma. The findings indicate that in regions exposed to high levels of depleted uranium, although p53 and HER-2/neu overexpression are both high, correlation of their expression with age, grade, tumor size, recurrence and lymph node involvement is similar to studies that have been conducted on populations not exposed to depleted uranium. HER-2/neu expression in breast cancer was higher

  9. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors regulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100

  10. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P; Pereira, Renata M; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T; Pipkin, Matthew E; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here we profiled the genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that the expression and binding of TFs contributed to the establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal key TFs that influence the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates and facilitate the identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation.

  11. Blue light inhibits transforming growth factor-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflinski, Leonie; Demir, Erhan; Kauczok, Jens; Fuchs, Paul Christian; Born, Matthias; Suschek, Christoph V; Opländer, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is the major promoter of phenotypic shift between fibroblasts and myofibroblasts accompanied by the expression and incorporation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). This differentiation is crucial during normal wound healing and wound closure; however, myofibroblasts are considered as the main effecter cell type in fibrosis, for example in scleroderma and hypertrophic scarring. As blue light has exerted antiprolific and toxic effects in several cell types, we investigated whether blue light irradiations with a light-emitting diode array (420 nm) were able to affect proliferation and differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). We found that repeated irradiation with non-toxic doses significantly inhibits TGF-β1-induced differentiation of HDF into myofibroblasts shown by α-SMA immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Additionally, used doses reduced proliferation and myofibroblast contractibility measured by resazurin and collagen gel contraction assays. It could be demonstrated that blue light mediates cell toxicity by oxidative stress due to the generation of singlet oxygen. We postulate that irradiations at non-toxic doses induce low-level oxidative stress and energy-consuming cellular responses, which both may effect proliferation stop and interfere with myofibroblast differentiation. Thus, targeting differentiation, proliferation and activity of myofibroblasts by blue light may represent a useful strategy to prevent or reduce pathological fibrotic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  13. Curcumin inhibits transforming growth factor β induced differentiation of mouselung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishun Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key event in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on TGFβ induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and explore the underlying mechanism. Mouse lung fibroblasts were cultured and treated with TGFβ2 and curcumin or rosiglitazone. Cell vitality was examined by MTT assay. The secretion of collagen-1 was assessed by ELISA. α smooth muscle actin (αSMA was visualized by immunofluorescence technique. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ and platelet derived growth factor R β (PDGFRβ was detected by PCR and Western blot analysis. We found that curcumin and rosiglitazone inhibited the proliferation and TGFβ induced differentiation of mouse lung fibroblasts. In addition, curcumin and rosiglitazone inhibited collagen-1 secretion and αSMA expression in mouse lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, curcumin and rosiglitazone upregulated PPARγ and downregulated PDGFRβ expression in mouse lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study reveals novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits TGFβ2 driven differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Curcumin could potentially be used for effective treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. The function of platelet-derived growth factor in the differentiation of mouse tongue striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Aoyama, K; Fukui, T; Nakamura, Y; Yamane, A

    2012-02-01

    To determine the function of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the final differentiation phase of tongue striated muscle cells. We analyzed the expressions of PDGF-A, -B, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α, and PDGFR-β in mouse tongues between embryonic days (E) 11 and 15. Furthermore, we examined the effects of human recombinant PDGF-AB and the peptide antagonist for PDGFRs using an organ culture system of mouse embryonic tongue. Mouse tongues at E12 were cultured in BGJb medium containing human recombinant PDGF-AB for 4 days or the peptide antagonist for PDGF receptors for 8 days. PDGF-A, -B, PDGFR-α, and -β were expressed in the differentiating muscle cells between E11 and 15. The human recombinant PDGF-AB induced increases in the mRNA expressions of myogenin and muscle creatine kinase (MCK) and the number of fast myosin heavy chain (fMHC)-positive cells, markers for the differentiation of muscle cells. On the other hand, the peptide antagonist for PDGFRs induced suppressions in the mRNA expressions of myogenin and MCK, and the number of fMHC-positive cells. Both the PDGF-AB and the antagonist failed to affect the expressions of cell proliferation markers. These results suggest that PDGF functions as a positive regulator in the final differentiation phase of tongue muscle cells in mouse embryos. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Grammatikakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2 mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7 of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation.

  16. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supply and Demand Factors in Understanding the Educational Earnings Differentials: West Germany and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulgun Bayaz Ozturk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from the March Current Population Survey and German Socio-Economic Panel to investigate the role of market forces and the institutional constraints in explaining the educational earnings differentials in the United States and West Germany. We make use of simple supply and demand framework to differentiate the effects of market forces from wage-setting institutions. Results indicate that differential growth in the relative employment of skilled workers is responsible for the differences in returns to skill in both countries over the period of analysis. In particular, rising educational attainment is the major factor underlying the changes in the employment of skilled workers in each country and it is followed by institutional factors. However, in addition to the differential growth in relative demand for skilled labor, differences in wage-setting institutions explain most of the cross-country differences in skill premia. We also provide evidence for polarization of jobs which is a recent phenomenon in both labor markets.

  18. A feedback loop between the liver-enriched transcription factor network and mir-122 controls hepatocyte differentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Laudadio, Ilaria; Manfroid, Isabelle; Achouri, Younes; Schmidt, Dominic; Wilson, Michael D; Cordi, Sabine; Thorrez, Lieven; Knoops, Laurent; Jacquemin, Patrick; Schuit, Frans; Pierreux, Christophe E; Odom, Duncan T; Peers, Bernard; Lemaigre, Frederic P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocyte differentiation is controlled by liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). We investigated whether LETFs control microRNA expression during development and whether this control is required for hepatocyte differentiation. METHODS: Using in vivo DNA binding assays, we identified miR-122 as a direct target of the LETF hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 6. The role and mechanisms of the HNF6-miR-122 gene cascade in hepatocyte differentiation were studied in vivo and...

  19. Mimicking the neurotrophic factor profile of embryonic spinal cord controls the differentiation potential of spinal progenitors into neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the choice of lineage of neural progenitor cells is determined, at least in part, by environmental factors, such as neurotrophic factors. Despite extensive studies using exogenous neurotrophic factors, the effect of endogenous neurotrophic factors on the differentiation of progenitor cells remains obscure. Here we show that embryonic spinal cord derived-progenitor cells express both ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA before differentiation. BDNF gene expression significantly decreases with their differentiation into the specific lineage, whereas CNTF gene expression significantly increases. The temporal pattern of neurotrophic factor gene expression in progenitor cells is similar to that of the spinal cord during postnatal development. Approximately 50% of spinal progenitor cells differentiated into astrocytes. To determine the effect of endogenous CNTF on their differentiation, we neutralized endogenous CNTF by administration of its polyclonal antibody. Neutralization of endogenous CNTF inhibited the differentiation of progenitor cells into astrocytes, but did not affect the numbers of neurons or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, to mimic the profile of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord during embryonic development, we applied BDNF or neurotrophin (NT-3 exogenously in combination with the anti-CNTF antibody. The exogenous application of BDNF or NT-3 promoted the differentiation of these cells into neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. These findings suggest that endogenous CNTF and exogenous BDNF and NT-3 play roles in the differentiation of embryonic spinal cord derived progenitor cells into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively.

  20. Transcription factor ZNF25 is associated with osteoblast differentiation of human skeletal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twine, Natalie A.; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Background The differentiation of human bone marrow derived skeletal stem cells (known as human bone marrow stromal or mesenchymal stem cells, hMSCs) into osteoblasts involves the activation of a small number of well-described transcription factors. To identify additional osteoblastic transcription...... containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and RAN-binding protein 3-like. We also observed enrichment in extracellular matrix organization, skeletal system development and regulation of ossification in the entire upregulated set of genes. Consistent with its function as a transcription factor during osteoblast...... differentiation of hMSC, we showed that the ZNF25 protein exhibits nuclear localization and is expressed in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells in vivo. ZNF25 is conserved in tetrapod vertebrates and contains a KRAB (Krueppel-associated box) transcriptional repressor domain. Conclusions This study shows...

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor differentially modulate early postnatal coronary angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanek, R J; Sandra, A; Zheng, W; Brock, T; Bjercke, R J; Holifield, J S

    2001-06-08

    The roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF [FGF-2]) in early postnatal regulation of coronary angiogenesis were investigated by administering neutralizing antibodies to these growth factors between postnatal days 5 and 12. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting both revealed decreases in VEGF protein in the hearts of rats treated with either antibody. In contrast, bFGF mRNA increased in both treated groups, whereas VEGF mRNA was unchanged. Using stereological assessment of perfusion-fixed hearts, we found that both anti-VEGF and anti-bFGF inhibited the rapid and marked capillary growth that occurs during this time period and that the effects of the two neutralizing antibodies are not additive. Arteriolar growth, as indicated by a lower length density, was inhibited by anti-bFGF, but not anti-VEGF. When both anti-VEGF and anti-bFGF were administered, arteriolar length density was not significantly lower, but the population of small arterioles (<15 microm) was markedly reduced, whereas the percentage of large arterioles (26 to 50 microm) more than doubled. Thus, inhibition of both growth factors negated or limited the formation of small arterioles and facilitated an expansion of the largest arterioles. These in vivo data are the first to document that during the early neonatal period, (1) both VEGF and bFGF modulate capillary growth, (2) bFGF facilitates arteriolar growth, and (3) the two growth factors interact to establish the normal hierarchy of the arteriolar tree.

  2. Role of ciliary neurotrophic factor in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; He, Zhili; Ruan, Juan; Ma, Zilong; Liu, Ying; Gong, Chengxin; Iqbal, Khalid; Sun, Shenggang; Chen, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been fully studied for its structure, receptor, and signaling pathways and its multiplex effects on neural system, skeletal muscle, and weight control. Recent research demonstrates that CNTF also plays an important role in neurogenesis and the differentiation of neural stem cells. In this article, we summarize the general characteristics of CNTF and its function on neural stem cells, which could be a valuable therapeutic strategy in treating neurological disorders.

  3. Crystal structure analysis of the polysialic acid specific O-acetyltransferase NeuO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike C Schulz

    Full Text Available The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia. K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetylation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enzyme.

  4. Crystal structure analysis of the polysialic acid specific O-acetyltransferase NeuO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Eike C; Bergfeld, Anne K; Ficner, Ralf; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2011-03-01

    The major virulence factor of the neuroinvasive pathogen Escherichia coli K1 is the K1 capsule composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). K1 strains harboring the CUS-3 prophage modify their capsular polysaccharide by phase-variable O-acetylation, a step that is associated with increased virulence. Here we present the crystal structure of the prophage-encoded polysialate O-acetyltransferase NeuO. The homotrimeric enzyme belongs to the left-handed β-helix (LβH) family of acyltransferases and is characterized by an unusual funnel-shaped outline. Comparison with other members of the LβH family allowed the identification of active site residues and proposal of a catalytic mechanism and highlighted structural characteristics of polySia specific O-acetyltransferases. As a unique feature of NeuO, the enzymatic activity linearly increases with the length of the N-terminal poly-ψ-domain which is composed of a variable number of tandem copies of an RLKTQDS heptad. Since the poly-ψ-domain was not resolved in the crystal structure it is assumed to be unfolded in the apo-enzyme.

  5. SoxC Transcription Factors Are Required for Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lifang; Berti, Lucia; Masserdotti, Giacomo; Covic, Marcela; Michaelidis, Theologos M.; Doberauer, Kathrin; Merz, Katharina; Rehfeld, Frederick; Haslinger, Anja; Wegner, Michael; Sock, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Veronique; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Berninger, Benedikt; Lie, D. Chichung

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new hippocampal dentate granule neurons throughout adulthood. The genetic programs controlling neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs are only poorly understood. Here we show that, in the adult mouse hippocampus, expression of the SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 is initiated around the time of neuronal commitment of adult NSCs and is maintained in immature neurons. Overexpression of Sox4 and Sox11 strongly promotes in vitro neurogenesis from adult NSCs, whereas ablation of Sox4/Sox11 prevents in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis from adult NSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that SoxC transcription factors target the promoters of genes that are induced on neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs. Finally, we show that reprogramming of astroglia into neurons is dependent on the presence of SoxC factors. These data identify SoxC proteins as essential contributors to the genetic network controlling neuronal differentiation in adult neurogenesis and neuronal reprogramming of somatic cells. PMID:22378879

  6. Autophagic or necrotic cell death triggered by distinct motifs of the differentiation factor DIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, M F; Kubohara, Y; Kikuchi, H; Oshima, Y; Golstein, P

    2009-04-01

    Autophagic or necrotic cell death (ACD and NCD, respectively), studied in the model organism Dictyostelium which offers unique advantages, require triggering by the same differentiation-inducing factor DIF-1. To initiate these two types of cell death, does DIF-1 act through only one or through two distinct recognition structures? Such distinct structures may recognize distinct motifs of DIF-1. To test this albeit indirectly, DIF-1 was modified at one or two of several positions, and the corresponding derivatives were tested for their abilities to induce ACD or NCD. The results strongly indicated that distinct biochemical motifs of DIF-1 were required to trigger ACD or NCD, and that these motifs were separately recognized at the onset of ACD or NCD. In addition, both ACD and NCD were induced more efficiently by DIF-1 than by either its precursors or its immediate catabolite. These results showed an unexpected relation between a differentiation factor, the cellular structures that recognize it, the cell death types it can trigger and the metabolic state of the cell. The latter seems to guide the choice of the signaling pathway to cell death, which in turn imposes the cell death type and the recognition pattern of the differentiation factor.

  7. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Robert T. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); O' Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Hoey, David A., E-mail: david.hoey@ul.ie [Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); The Centre for Applied Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Limerick (Ireland); Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Niebler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4 strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1, the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2′-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  9. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of erythema nodosum: Primary myelofibrosis as an etiological factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common form of panniculitis that is a reactive process caused by a wide variety of etiological factors. The problems with the differential diagnosis of this abnormality have not lost its relevance. The paper deals with a clinical case of recurrent EN concurrent with an immunological phenomenon (positivity for rheumatoid factor and antimitochondrial antibodies, long-lasting asymptomatic splenomegaly, and subsequently developed primary myelofibrosis. To ascertain the cause of secondary EN often causes difficulties in real clinical practice. 

  10. Factors from the transtheoretical model differentiating between solar water disinfection (SODIS) user groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Silvie M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable household water treatment technique that could prevent millions of deaths caused by diarrhoea. The behaviour change process necessary to move from drinking raw water to drinking SODIS is analysed with the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). User groups and psychological factors that differentiate between types of users are identified. Results of a 1.5 year longitudinal study in Zimbabwe reveal distinguishing factors between groups, from which it can be deduced that they drive the development of user groups. Implications are drawn for campaigns with the aim of bringing all user types to a regular use.

  11. Promotion of breast cancer by β-Hexachlorocyclohexane in MCF10AT1 cells and MMTV-neu mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumura Fumio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH, a contaminant of the hexachlorohexane pesticide lindane, has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of breast cancers in epidemiological studies. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of β-HCH to elicit its actions via a ligand-independent activation of the estrogen receptor through increased c-Neu (= erbB2 or HER-2 expression and kinase activation in both the BG-1 and MCF-7 cell lines. In addition, long term exposure (33 passages to β-HCH was shown to promote the selection of MCF-7 cells which exhibit a more metastatic phenotype. Methods In this current study, we decided to investigate the long-term effects of β-HCH in both the MCF10AT1 cell line which was derived from a normal epithelial cell line by stably transfecting a mutated c-Ha-ras and a MMTV-Neu mouse model for mammary cancer in vivo. MCF10AT1 cells were exposed for 20 passages with β-HCH, 4-OH-Tamoxifen (Tam, or 17-β-estradiol (E2 after which cells were analyzed for proliferation rates and mRNA expression by RT-PCR. In our in vivo studies, MMTV-Neu mice were injected with β-HCH and observed for tumor formation over a 70 week period. Results β-HCH and Tam selected MCF10AT1 cells demonstrated increased mRNA expression of MMP-13 (collagenase-3 a marker of increased invasiveness. β-HCH treatment was also seen to increase the expression in a number of proto-oncogenes (c-Neu, Cyclin D1, p27, cell status markers (Met-1, CK19, and the inflammatory marker NFκB. Previous studies, have demonstrated the role of these markers as evidence of malignant transformations, and further illustrate the ability of β-HCH to be carcinogenic. To demonstrate β-HCH's tumorigenic properties in an in vivo system, we used an MMTV-Neu mouse model. MMTV-Neu is a c-Neu overexpressing strain which has been shown to spontaneously develop mammary tumors at later stages of aging. In this experiment,

  12. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill-Eubanks, D C; Parker, C G; Lollar, P

    1989-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. We isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as ...

  13. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    -qPCR. Total expression of HER2/neu was confirmed by Western blot (WB). HER2/neu protein on the surface of living LNCaP cells was visualized by confocal microscopy using a HER2/neu-specific fluorescent probe. Exposure of LNCaP cells to 50 μM sarcosine for 24 h resulted in a 58% increase of the HER2/neu m...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...

  14. Differential activation of dendritic cells by nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, O; Peiser, M; Altenähr, M; Knieling, H; Wanner, R; Hanf, G; Grosse, R; Suttorp, N

    2007-11-01

    Neurotrophins are involved in inflammatory reactions influencing several cells in health and disease including allergy and asthma. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in the induction of inflammatory processes with an increasing role in allergic diseases as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neurotrophins on DC function. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were generated from allergic and non-allergic donors. Neurotrophin receptors were demonstrated by western blotting, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Activation of small GTPases was evaluated by pull-down assays. DCs were incubated with nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and supernatants were collected for measurement of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta. Receptor proteins were detectable by western blot, fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Signalling after neurotrophin stimulation occurred in a ligand-specific pattern. NGF led to decreased RhoA and increased Rac activation, while BDNF affected RhoA and Rac activity in a reciprocal fashion. Cells of allergics released a significantly increased amount of IL-6, while for healthy subjects a significantly higher amount of IL-10 was found. These data indicate that DCs are activated by the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF by different pathways in a receptor-dependant manner. These cells then may initiate inflammatory responses based on allergic sensitization releasing preferred cytokines inducing tolerance or a T-helper type 2 response.

  15. Regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4AII by MyoD during murine myogenic cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Galicia-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Gene expression during muscle cell differentiation is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including translation initiation. The PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway exerts control over protein synthesis by regulating assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4F, a heterotrimeric complex that stimulates recruitment of ribosomes to mRNA templates. One of the subunits of eIF4F, eIF4A, supplies essential helicase function during this phase of translation. The presence of two cellular eIF4A isoforms, eIF4AI and eIF4AII, has long thought to impart equivalent functions to eIF4F. However, recent experiments have alluded to distinct activities between them. Herein, we characterize distinct regulatory mechanisms between the eIF4A isoforms during muscle cell differentiation. We find that eIF4AI levels decrease during differentiation whereas eIF4AII levels increase during myofiber formation in a MyoD-dependent manner. This study characterizes a previously undefined mechanism for eIF4AII regulation in differentiation and highlights functional differences between eIF4AI and eIF4AII. Finally, RNAi-mediated alterations in eIF4AI and eIF4AII levels indicate that the myogenic process can tolerate short term reductions in eIF4AI or eIF4AII levels, but not both.

  16. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  17. Alanud on Neu/Now online-festival

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    4. okt.-l avatud Neu/Now festivali online-keskonnas esitletakse 23 riigi 135 noore kunstiprojekte. Nimetatud Eestist festivalile pääsenud 9 tööd. 17.-20. nov.-ni toimuval live-festivail esitletakse Tallinnas 17 riigi 35 kunstiprojekti (Eestist 5). Kandideerida said lõpetavad või äsja lõpetanud kunsti- ja muusikaerialade tudengid ELIA võrgustikku kuuluvatest ülikoolidest

  18. The Clinical Importance of the Heterogeneity of HER2 neu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Davila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with breast cancer in whom there were areas of the tumor that were 3+ positive and negative for HER2 neu by immunohistochemistry, adjacent to each other. Depending on the area tested the results were completely different. The clinical implications are important. We recommend retesting a large portion of the tumor in all cases of initially negative test results.

  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor: a survival and differentiation inducer in human retinal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kamla; Cao, Yang; Ezeonu, Ifeoma

    2010-07-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, and Parkinson's disease remain major problems in the field of medicine. Some of the strategies being explored for treatment include replacement of damaged tissue by transplantation of healthy tissues or progenitor cells and delivery of neurotrophins to rescue degenerating tissue. One of the neurotrophins with promise is the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). In this study, we report the role played by CNTF in retinal cell differentiation and survival in retinal progenitors. We found that CNTF is a survival factor for multipotential human retinal cells and increased cell survival by 50%, over a 7-d period, under serum-free conditions, as determined by apoptotic assays (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry). This effect is dose dependent with a maximum survival at a CNTF concentration of 20 ng/ml. We also report that CNTF might be a cell commitment factor, directing the differentiation mainly toward large multipolar cells with ganglionic and amacrine phenotype. These cells express tyrosine hydroxylase (amacrine cells) as well as, thy 1.1 and neuron-specific enolase (ganglionic cells). Additionally, there was also an increase in protein kinase C alpha, a protein expressed in rod and cone bipolars as well as cone photoreceptors and calbindin, a protein expressed in cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells. In our studies, CNTF doubled the number of cells with ganglionic phenotypes, and basic fibroblast growth factor doubled the number of cells with photoreceptor phenotype. Additionally, CNTF induced a subset of progenitors to undergo multiple rounds of cell division before acquiring the large multipolar ganglionic phenotype. Our conclusion is that CNTF could be an agent that has therapeutic potential and possibly induces differentiation of large multipolar ganglionic phenotype in a subset of progenitors.

  20. Identification of a CTL4/Neu1 fusion transcript in a sialidosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Johannes; Penzel, Roland; Sergi, Consolato; Kopitz, Jürgen; Otto, Herwart F; Cantz, Michael

    2002-06-19

    The deficiency of the lysosomal neuraminidase (NEU1; sialidase) causes the storage disorder sialidosis with symptoms ranging from eye abnormalities and neurological disturbances to skeletal malformations, mental retardation and early death. Sialidosis patients encompassing a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms were screened for mutations in neu1. We identified the same homozygous interstitial deletion (11 kb) in two patients causing the fusion of exon 10 of CTL4 (New Gene 22; NG22) with the 3'-UTR of neu1. In one patient we found the resulting CTL4/Neu1 fusion transcript, in the other we detected an alternatively spliced CTL4 transcript (retention of intron 9).

  1. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of HER-2/neu and VEGF expression in colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and VEGF expression is correlated with disease behaviors in various cancers. However, evidence for their expression in colon cancer is rather contradictory both for the protein expression status and prognostic value. HER-2/neu is found to participate in VEGF regulation, and has known correlation with VEGF expression in some tumors. In this study, we investigated HER-2/neu and VEGF expression in Chinese colon patients and explored whether there was any correlation between their expression patterns. Methods HER-2/neu and VEGF were investigated immunohistochemically using tumor samples obtained from 317 colon cancer patients with all tumor stages. Correlation of the degree of staining with clinicopathological parameters and survival was investigated. Results Positive expression rates of HER-2/neu and VEGF in colon cancer were 15.5% and 55.5% respectively. HER-2/neu expression was significantly correlated with tumor size and distant metastases (P (P > 0.05. Expression of VEGF was significantly correlated with tumor size, tumor stage, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases (P (P = 0.146. No correlation between HER-2/neu and VEGF expression was detected (P = 0.151. Conclusions HER-2/neu and VEGF are not important prognostic markers of colon cancer. The present results do not support any association between HER2/neu and VEGF expression in this setting.

  2. Differentiation of reprogrammed human adipose mesenchymal stem cells toward neural cells with defined transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinjian; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Li, Xiangqin; Ge, Dan

    2013-10-04

    Somatic cell reprogramming may become a powerful approach to generate specific human cell types for cell-fate determination studies and potential transplantation therapies of neurological diseases. Here we report a reprogramming methodology with which human adipose stem cells (hADSCs) can be differentiated into neural cells. After being reprogrammed with polycistronic plasmid carrying defined factor OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, and further treated with neural induce medium, the hADSCs switched to differentiate toward neural cell lineages. The generated cells had normal karyotypes and exogenous vector sequences were not inserted in the genomes. Therefore, this cell lineage conversion methodology bypasses the risk of mutation and gene instability, and provides a novel strategy to obtain patient-specific neural cells for basic research and therapeutic application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun; Han, Qixin; Chen, Wei; Song, Jialin; Zhao, Xiaotian; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs) for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration. PMID:29164105

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell treatment and platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy are two significant issues in regenerative medicine. Stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells can be successfully applied in the field of tissue regeneration. PRP, a natural product isolated from whole blood, can secrete multiple growth factors (GFs for regulating physiological activities. These GFs can stimulate proliferation and differentiation of different stem cells in injury models. Therefore, combination of both agents receives wide expectations in regenerative medicine, especially in bone, cartilage and tendon repair. In this review, we thoroughly discussed the interaction and underlying mechanisms of PRP derived GFs with stem cells, and assessed their functions in cell differentiation for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  5. Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachelle W; White, Jason D; Walker, Emma C; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

    2014-07-01

    Muscle and bone are intimately linked by bi-directional signals regulating both muscle and bone cell gene expression and proliferation. It is generally accepted that muscle cells secrete factors (myokines) that influence adjacent bone cells, but these myokines are yet to be identified. We have previously shown that osteocyte-specific deletion of the co-receptor subunit utilized by IL-6 family cytokines, glycoprotein 130 (gp130), resulted in impaired bone formation in the trabecular bone, but enhanced periosteal expansion, suggesting a gp130-dependent periosteum-specific inhibition of osteoblast function, potentially induced by the local muscle fibres. We report here that differentiated primary calvarial osteoblasts cultured in myotube-conditioned media (CM) from myogenic C2C12 cells show reduced mRNA levels of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase protein activity and all mRNA markers of osteoblast differentiation in the tested panel (runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, sclerostin) were reduced following culture with myotube CM. The exception was RANKL, which was significantly elevated in differentiated primary osteoblast cultures expressing osteocytic genes. A cytokine array of the C2C12 myotube-conditioned media identified TIMP-1 and MCP-1 as the most abundant myokines, but treatment with recombinant TIMP-1 or MCP-1 did not inhibit osteoblast gene expression. Rather, the IL-6 family cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which we found abundantly expressed by mouse muscle at the transcript and protein level, reduced osteoblast gene expression, although not to the same extent as the myotube-conditioned media. These data indicate that muscle cells secrete abundant TIMP-1, MCP-1, and CNTF, and that of these, only CNTF has the ability to suppress osteoblast function and gene expression in a similar manner to myotube-conditioned medium. This suggests that CNTF is

  6. Critical role of serum response factor in pulmonary myofibroblast differentiation induced by TGF-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbo, Nathan; Kregel, Steven; Taurin, Sebastien; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Dulin, Nickolai O

    2009-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine implicated in wound healing and in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-beta stimulates myofibroblast differentiation characterized by expression of contractile smooth muscle (SM)-specific proteins such as SM-alpha-actin. In the present study, we examined the role of serum response factor (SRF) in the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced pulmonary myofibroblast differentiation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF). TGF-beta stimulated SM-alpha-actin expression in HLF, which paralleled with a profound induction of SRF expression and activity. Inhibition of SRF by the pharmacologic SRF inhibitor (CCG-1423), or via adenovirus-mediated transduction of SRF short hairpin RNA (shSRF), blocked the expression of both SRF and SM-alpha-actin in response to TGF-beta without affecting Smad-mediated signaling of TGF-beta. However, forced expression of SRF on its own did not promote SM-alpha-actin expression, whereas expression of the constitutively transactivated SRF fusion protein (SRF-VP16) was sufficient to induce SM-alpha-actin expression, suggesting that both expression and transactivation of SRF are important. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin or iloprost resulted in a significant inhibition of SM-alpha-actin expression induced by TGF-beta, and this was associated with inhibition of both SRF expression and activity, but not of Smad-mediated gene transcription. In summary, this is the first direct demonstration that TGF-beta-induced pulmonary myofibroblast differentiation is mediated by SRF, and that inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation by PKA occurs through down-regulation of SRF expression levels and SRF activity, independent of Smad signaling.

  7. Critical Role of Serum Response Factor in Pulmonary Myofibroblast Differentiation Induced by TGF-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbo, Nathan; Kregel, Steven; Taurin, Sebastien; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Dulin, Nickolai O.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine implicated in wound healing and in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-β stimulates myofibroblast differentiation characterized by expression of contractile smooth muscle (SM)-specific proteins such as SM–α-actin. In the present study, we examined the role of serum response factor (SRF) in the mechanism of TGF-β–induced pulmonary myofibroblast differentiation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF). TGF-β stimulated SM–α-actin expression in HLF, which paralleled with a profound induction of SRF expression and activity. Inhibition of SRF by the pharmacologic SRF inhibitor (CCG-1423), or via adenovirus-mediated transduction of SRF short hairpin RNA (shSRF), blocked the expression of both SRF and SM–α-actin in response to TGF-β without affecting Smad-mediated signaling of TGF-β. However, forced expression of SRF on its own did not promote SM–α-actin expression, whereas expression of the constitutively transactivated SRF fusion protein (SRF-VP16) was sufficient to induce SM–α-actin expression, suggesting that both expression and transactivation of SRF are important. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin or iloprost resulted in a significant inhibition of SM–α-actin expression induced by TGF-β, and this was associated with inhibition of both SRF expression and activity, but not of Smad-mediated gene transcription. In summary, this is the first direct demonstration that TGF-β–induced pulmonary myofibroblast differentiation is mediated by SRF, and that inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation by PKA occurs through down-regulation of SRF expression levels and SRF activity, independent of Smad signaling. PMID:19151320

  8. Differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine and transcription factor genomic loci associate with childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Provençal

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence.We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression.We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression.

  9. The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tiffany; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Yu, Shuyang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Kee, Barbara L; Verykokakis, Mihalis

    2015-05-04

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce cytokines that impact antimicrobial immune responses, asthma, and autoimmunity. These cells acquire multiple effector fates during their thymic development that parallel those of CD4(+) T helper cells. The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c-myc. LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-γ. Our data reveal LEF1 as a central regulator of iNKT cell number and Th2-type effector differentiation. © 2015 Carr et al.

  10. Differential and synergistic effects of mechanical stimulation and growth factor presentation on vascular wall function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mao-Shih; Koobatian, Maxwell T.; Lei, Pedro; Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that immobilizing TGF-β1 within fibrin hydrogels may act in synergy with cyclic mechanical stimulation to enhance the properties of vascular grafts. To this end, we engineered a fusion TGF-β1 protein that can covalently anchor to fibrin during polymerization upon the action of factor XIII. We also developed a 24-well based bioreactor in which vascular constructs can be mechanically stimulated by distending the silastic mandrel in the middle of each well. TGF-β1 was either conjugated to fibrin or supplied in the culture medium and the fibrin based constructs were cultured statically for a week followed by cyclic distention for another week. The tissues were examined for myogenic differentiation, vascular reactivity, mechanical properties and ECM content. Our results showed that some aspects of vascular function were differentially affected by growth factor presentation vs. pulsatile force application, while others were synergistically enhanced by both. Overall, this two-prong biomimetic approach improved ECM secretion, vascular reactivity and mechanical properties of vascular constructs. These findings may be applied in other tissue engineering applications such as cartilage, tendon or cardiac regeneration where growth factors TGF-β1 and mechano-stimulation play critical roles. PMID:23810080

  11. Endocytosis of exogenous factor V by ex-vivo differentiated megakaryocytes from patients with severe parahaemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Claudia M; Spiezia, Luca; Bulato, Cristiana; Gavasso, Sabrina; Campello, Elena; Sartorello, Francesca; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Although human megakaryocytes can synthesize factor V (FV), platelet FV derives largely from endocytosis of plasma FV. Recently, it has been shown that plasma transfusions can replenish the platelet FV pool in parahaemophilic patients. Here we corroborate this finding by showing FV endocytosis by ex vivo differentiated megakaryocytes derived from patients with inherited parahaemophilia. Mononuclear stem cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy subjects and of three patients with severe parahaemophilia were cultured in the presence of thrombopoietin and interleukin-3 and differentiated into CD41-positive polynucleated megakaryocytes. Exogenous purified FV was added to the culture medium to evaluate FV endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining revealed abundant FV expression in megakaryocytes derived from healthy donors, but no FV expression in those derived from patients with severe parahaemophilia. However, after the addition of purified FV to the culture medium, megakaryocytes from parahaemophilia patients became positive upon FV immunostaining, suggesting endocytosis of exogenous FV. Endocytosed FV retained factor Xa-co-factor activity as assessed by a prothrombin time-based functional test in megakaryocyte lysates. Addition of exogenous FV to culture medium can restore the FV content of megakaryocytes derived from patients with severe FV defects. This rescue mechanism can have important clinical implications in the management of parahaemophilia patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano, E-mail: caiazzo@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Istituto di diagnosi e cura ' Hermitage Capodimonte,' 80131 Naples (Italy); Colucci-D' Amato, Luca, E-mail: luca.colucci@unina2.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, Maria T., E-mail: maria_teresa.esposito@kcl.ac.uk [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Parisi, Silvia, E-mail: parisi@ceinge.unina.it [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Stifani, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.stifani@mcgill.ca [Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 (Canada); Ramirez, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ramirez@mssm.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Porzio, Umberto di, E-mail: diporzio@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  13. Dopamine differentiation factors produce partial motor recovery in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, B K; Iacovitti, L

    1995-02-01

    Two-week infusion of muscle-derived differentiation factor (MDF), or human recombinant acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and/or its muscle-derived activating substance into the striatum of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats caused a significant and long lasting (40 days) reduction (48-100%) in amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry. In parallel with behavioural recovery, striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, dopamine (DA) and dihydroxy-phenyl-acetic acid (DOPAC) levels recovered in a dose-dependent manner in all treated rats when compared to controls. The greatest increments were observed in rats infused with aFGF and its activator. Increases in biochemical indices were not reflected in trophic changes of the dopamine system; thus, the number of TH-immunoreactive neurones and their striatal innervation were unmodified by treatment with MDF. In contrast with the lesioned brain, infusion of these agents into the intact brain produced no change in nigrostriatal dopamine biochemistry. Our results suggest that dopamine differentiation factors may be important in regulating the production of dopamine in the injured brain and, therefore, may be useful in the treatment of DA imbalances associated with certain neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

  14. Synergy between growth factors and transmitters required for catecholamine differentiation in brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1995-07-01

    The phenotypically plastic neurons of the embryonic mouse striatum were used to explore mechanisms of catecholamine differentiation in culture. De novo transcription and translation of the CA biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was induced in striatal neurons exposed, simultaneously or sequentially, to the growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a catecholamine. Although dopamine was the most potent aFGF partner (ED50 = 4 microM), a number of substances, including dopamine (D1) receptor agonists, beta-adrenoceptor agonists, and dopamine uptake inhibitors also trigger TH induction when accompanied by aFGF. However, since none of the receptor antagonists nor transport blockers tested could inhibit dopamine's action, the mechanism remains obscure. Structure-activity analysis suggests that effective aFGF partners all contain an amine group separated from a catechol nucleus by two carbons. Thus, TH expression can be novelly induced by the synergistic interaction of aFGF, and to a lesser extent basic FGF, and a variety of CA-containing partner molecules. We speculate that a similar association between growth factor and transmitter may be required in development for the differentiation of a CA phenotype in brain neurons.

  15. Generation of novel induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 16-year-old sialidosis patient with NEU-1 gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Yu-Hung; Huang, Ching-Ying; Ho, Ming-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Che; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Lu, Huai-En; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2018-01-31

    Sialidosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the intralysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates and is involved in cellular immune response. Mutations in NEU1, which encodes the sialidase enzyme, result in sialidosis. Sialidosis is characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialylated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. In this study, we used Sendai virus reprogramming to generate an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line carrying the A544G mutation combined with the 667-679 deletion of the NEU1 gene from a sialidosis patient. The patient-specific iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers, possessed a normal karyotype, and displayed the capability to differentiate into three germ layers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrable dissipative nonlinear second order differential equations via factorizations and Abel equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C. [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2013-09-02

    We emphasize two connections, one well known and another less known, between the dissipative nonlinear second order differential equations and the Abel equations which in their first-kind form have only cubic and quadratic terms. Then, employing an old integrability criterion due to Chiellini, we introduce the corresponding integrable dissipative equations. For illustration, we present the cases of some integrable dissipative Fisher, nonlinear pendulum, and Burgers–Huxley type equations which are obtained in this way and can be of interest in applications. We also show how to obtain Abel solutions directly from the factorization of second order nonlinear equations.

  17. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    followed prospectively. Information on wheezing episodes, AD, and prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors was collected by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation, at 6 and 18 months of age, and by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Register. Data were analyzed by binary and polytomous logistic...... regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast...

  18. Alternative splicing of neuronal differentiation factor TRF2 regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

    OpenAIRE

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C.; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of T...

  19. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  20. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors by Embryoid Bodies in Hydrodynamic and Static Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  1. Transcription factors SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 coordinate oocyte differentiation without affecting meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Ren, Yu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Golnoski, Kayla J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Mico, Vasil; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary. We found that SOHLH2 protein was expressed in the mouse germline as early as E12.5 and preceded SOHLH1 protein expression, which occurred circa E15.5. SOHLH1 protein appearance at E15.5 correlated with SOHLH2 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and was dependent on SOHLH1 expression. NOBOX oogenesis homeobox (NOBOX) and LIM homeobox protein 8 (LHX8), two important regulators of postnatal oogenesis, were coexpressed with SOHLH1. Single deficiency of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 disrupted the expression of LHX8 and NOBOX in the embryonic gonad without affecting meiosis. Sohlh1-KO infertility was rescued by conditional expression of the Sohlh1 transgene after the onset of meiosis. However, Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 transgene expression could not rescue Sohlh2-KO infertility due to a lack of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 expression in rescued mice. Our results indicate that Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are essential regulators of oocyte differentiation but do not affect meiosis I.

  2. Differential expression of extracellular matrix and growth factors by embryoid bodies in hydrodynamic and static cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M; Nair, Rekha; McDevitt, Todd C

    2014-12-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions.

  3. The Antitumor Efficacy of IL2/IL21-Cultured Polyfunctional Neu-Specific T Cells Is TNFα/IL17 Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Lai, Vy; Dang, Yushe; Gad, Ekram; Childs, Jennifer; Disis, Mary L

    2016-05-01

    Infusion of HER2-specific T cells, derived from vaccine-primed patients and expanded with IL2/IL12, has induced tumor regression in a minority of patients with metastatic treatment-refractory HER2(+) breast cancer. We questioned whether alteration of cytokine growth factors used to culture vaccine-primed T cells could improve antitumor activity. Using the TgMMTV-neu murine mammary tumor model, we cultured T cells derived from mice immunized with a previously defined neu class II peptide, p98-114 (neu p98), and evaluated different cytokine combinations for expansion. Infusion of neu p98-specific T-cell lines derived from all cytokine conditions evaluated resulted in significant antitumor activity compared with infused naïve splenocytes (P IL2/IL21 could uniquely mediate complete regression of spontaneous mammary tumors. IL2/IL21 cultured neu-specific T cells demonstrated a different cytokine secretion pattern as compared with other cultured T cells; secreting high levels of TNFα and IL17 (P IL2/IL21 cultured T cells as compared with tumors treated with T cells expanded under other cytokine conditions (P IL2/IL21 cultured cells was mediated by CD8 T cells. Depletion of TNFα or IL17, but not IFNγ, abrogated the tumor growth inhibition induced by the IL2/IL21 T cells and markedly decreased the influx of CD8 into tumors. Finally, IL2/IL21-cultured human antigen specific T cells also displayed a similar polyfunctional Th1/Th17 phenotype. Expansion of HER2 vaccine-primed T cells with IL2/IL21 may have the potential to effectively mediate tumor regression when used in adoptive transfer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2207-16. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Complex Conjugated certificateless-based signcryption with differential integrated factor for secured message communication in mobile network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sumithra Alagarsamy; S P Rajagopalan

    2017-01-01

    ... authenticity much more efficiently than the traditional approach. In this paper, we first define a security model for certificateless-based signcryption called, Complex Conjugate Differential Integrated Factor (CC-DIF...

  5. A Differentiation Transcription Factor Establishes Muscle-Specific Proteostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Lavan, Yael; Shemesh, Netta; Dror, Shiran; Ofir, Rivka; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ben-Zvi, Anat

    2016-12-01

    Safeguarding the proteome is central to the health of the cell. In multi-cellular organisms, the composition of the proteome, and by extension, protein-folding requirements, varies between cells. In agreement, chaperone network composition differs between tissues. Here, we ask how chaperone expression is regulated in a cell type-specific manner and whether cellular differentiation affects chaperone expression. Our bioinformatics analyses show that the myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (MyoD) can bind to the promoters of chaperone genes expressed or required for the folding of muscle proteins. To test this experimentally, we employed HLH-1 myogenic potential to genetically modulate cellular differentiation of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic cells by ectopically expressing HLH-1 in all cells of the embryo and monitoring chaperone expression. We found that HLH-1-dependent myogenic conversion specifically induced the expression of putative HLH-1-regulated chaperones in differentiating muscle cells. Moreover, disrupting the putative HLH-1-binding sites on ubiquitously expressed daf-21(Hsp90) and muscle-enriched hsp-12.2(sHsp) promoters abolished their myogenic-dependent expression. Disrupting HLH-1 function in muscle cells reduced the expression of putative HLH-1-regulated chaperones and compromised muscle proteostasis during and after embryogenesis. In turn, we found that modulating the expression of muscle chaperones disrupted the folding and assembly of muscle proteins and thus, myogenesis. Moreover, muscle-specific over-expression of the DNAJB6 homolog DNJ-24, a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-associated chaperone, disrupted the muscle chaperone network and exposed synthetic motility defects. We propose that cellular differentiation could establish a proteostasis network dedicated to the folding and maintenance of the muscle proteome. Such cell-specific proteostasis networks can explain the selective vulnerability that many diseases of protein misfolding exhibit

  6. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crosstalk between nuclear factor I-C and transforming growth factor-β1 signaling regulates odontoblast differentiation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seol Lee

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 signaling plays a key role in vertebrate development, homeostasis, and disease. Nuclear factor I-C (NFI-C has been implicated in TGF-β1 signaling, extracellular matrix gene transcription, and tooth root development. However, the functional relationship between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling remains uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular interactions between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling in mouse odontoblasts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western analysis demonstrated that NFI-C expression levels were inversely proportional to levels of TGF-β1 signaling molecules during in vitro odontoblast differentiation. Western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that NFI-C was significantly degraded after TGF-β1 addition in odontoblasts, and the formation of the Smad3 complex was essential for NFI-C degradation. Additionally, ubiquitination assay results showed that Smurf1 and Smurf2 induced NFI-C degradation and polyubiquitination in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Both kinase and in vitro binding assays revealed that the interaction between NFI-C and Smurf1/Smurf2 requires the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by TGF-β1. Moreover, degradation of NFI-C induced by TGF-β1 occurred generally in cell types other than odontoblasts in normal human breast epithelial cells. In contrast, NFI-C induced dephosphorylation of p-Smad2/3. These results show that crosstalk between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling regulates cell differentiation and homeostatic processes in odontoblasts, which might constitute a common cellular mechanism.

  8. High mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling promotes progression of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanqiu; Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yanjing; Zhang, Zongli; Li, Li; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wenna; Su, Lihui; Cheng, Baoquan

    2017-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 and toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway have been indicated to have oncogenic effects in many cancers. However, the role of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were overexpressed in gastric cancer tumors compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. The overexpression of high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.0068, p = 0.0063, p = 0.0173) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0272, p = 0.0382, and p = 0.0495). Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of high mobility group box 1 by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA suppressed the expression of toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88. Blockage of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA resulted in elevation of apoptotic ratio and inhibition of cell growth, migration, and invasion by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2, nuclear factor kappa B/p65 expression, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B/p65 in gastric cancer cells. Our findings suggest that high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway may contribute to the development and progression of gastric cancer via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and it also represents a novel potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  9. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  10. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Promotes Keratinocyte Differentiation in Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Jennifer; Scholz, Glen M; Aw, Jiamin; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that the expression of the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) transcription factor in oral keratinocytes was stimulated by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Here, we have established that IRF6 promotes the differentiation of oral keratinocytes in response to P. gingivalis This was evidenced by the IRF6-dependent upregulation of specific markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation (e.g., involucrin [IVL] and keratin 13 [KRT13]), together with additional transcriptional regulators of keratinocyte differentiation, including Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) and Ovo-like zinc finger 1 (OVOL1). We have previously established that the transactivator function of IRF6 is activated by receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4). Consistently, the silencing of RIPK4 inhibited the stimulation of IVL, KRT13, GRHL3, and OVOL1 gene expression. IRF6 was shown to also regulate the stimulation of transglutaminase-1 (TGM1) gene expression by P. gingivalis, as well as that of small proline-rich proteins (e.g., SPRR1), which are covalently cross-linked by TGM1 to other proteins, including IVL, during cornification. The expression of the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN) was found to also be upregulated in an IRF6-dependent manner. IRF6 was demonstrated to be important for the barrier function of oral keratinocytes; specifically, silencing of IRF6 increased P. gingivalis-induced intercellular permeability and cell invasion. Taken together, our findings potentially position IRF6 as an important mediator of barrier defense against P. gingivalis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Dominant expression of angiogenin in NeuN positive cells in the focal ischemic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Yining; Guo, Huailian

    2009-10-15

    Angiogenin (ANG) is a potent angiogenic factor. The purposes of this study were to observe the change of the expression level of ANG and to identify the cell types that express ANG in the focal ischemic rat brain. The rat brain ischemia-reperfusion model was produced by a 2 h occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery with a nylon thread followed by reperfusion for 1 day, 3 days, 7 days or 14 days. The expression levels of ANG in the rat brain at each time points were determined by western blotting. The co-staining of ANG with NeuN was observed using double immunofluorescent labeling combined with confocal laser scanning microscope. We found that the expression level of ANG increased significantly in the rat brain 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after ischemia (Pbrain after ischemia. The upregulated ANG was mostly expressed by neurons.

  12. Platelet-derived growth factor BB stimulates differentiation of rat immature Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoheng; Ge, Fei; Yuan, Kaiming; Su, Zhijian; Wang, Guimin; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2018-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one family of growth factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Rat Leydig cells express PDGF-β receptor (PDGFRB) during pubertal development. However, the mechanism of PDGF in the regulation of Leydig cell development is unclear. In the present study, rat immature Leydig cells were isolated from the testes of 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 1 and 10 ng/mL of PDGF-BB. After 24 h of treatment, these cells were harvested for genomics profiling and the medium steroids were measured. 1 and 10 ng/mL PDGF-BB significantly increased androgen production by rat immature Leydig cells. Genomics profiling analysis showed that the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein ( Star ) were increased by 2-fold. Further analysis showed that Fos expression level was increased 2- and 5-fold by 1 and 10 ng/mL PDGF-BB, respectively. In conclusion, PDGF-BB stimulated the differentiation of rat immature Leydig cells via regulating Star . © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. The transcription factor TCF-1 initiates the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lifan; Cao, Yi; Xie, Zhunyi; Huang, Qizhao; Bai, Qiang; Yang, Xia; He, Ran; Hao, Yaxing; Wang, Haoqiang; Zhao, Tingting; Fan, Zhonglei; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang; Zhou, Xinyuan; Ye, Lilin; Wu, Yuzhang

    2015-09-01

    Induction of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 in CD4(+) T cells is critical for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells), which are essential for B cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the transcription factor Blimp1 (encoded by Prdm1) inhibits T(FH) differentiation by antagonizing Bcl-6. Here we found that the transcription factor TCF-1 was essential for both the initiation of T(FH) differentiation and the effector function of differentiated T(FH) cells during acute viral infection. Mechanistically, TCF-1 bound directly to the Bcl6 promoter and Prdm1 5' regulatory regions, which promoted Bcl-6 expression but repressed Blimp1 expression. TCF-1-null T(FH) cells upregulated genes associated with non-T(FH) cell lineages. Thus, TCF-1 functions as an important hub upstream of the Bcl-6-Blimp1 axis to initiate and secure the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

  14. NeuA O-acetylesterase activity is specific for CMP-activated O-acetyl sialic acid in Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Xuehui; Li, Chunyang; Liang, Jingnan; Jin, Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Several bacteria causing meningitis, such as Escherichia coli K1, Streptococcus suis, Neisseria meningitidis, and group B Streptococci (GBS), produce sialic acid (Neu5Ac)-containing capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Biosynthesis of the Neu5Ac-containing CPS requires CMP-Neu5Ac as substrate, which is synthesized by CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase from CTP and Neu5Ac. In E. coli or GBS, the NeuA protein encoded by the neuA gene has been known encoding a bifunctional enzyme that possesses both CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase and O-acetylesterase activity. In this report, we found that the S. suis NeuA (SsNeuA) was also a bifunctional CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase/O-acetylesterase. Biochemical analyses revealed that the SsNeuA strictly de-O-acetylated CMP-O-acetyl-Neu5Ac, whereas the E. coli NeuA (EcNeuA) preferentially de-O-acetylated CMP-O-acetyl-Neu5Ac. E. coli devoid of NeuA O-acetylesterase activity was unable to produce capsule and only CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase activity of the EcNeuA or SsNeuA could not restore its ability to produce capsule. These results suggest that the O-acetylesterase is essential for the synthesis of capsular Neu5Ac in E. coli, probably in S. suis and GBS as well. Our findings are key to understanding the biosynthesis of capsular Neu5Ac in E. coli, S. suis and GBS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  12. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Forebrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuro-2a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuro-2a [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Neurons SRX085427,SRX085426,SRX798...X032486,SRX047691,SRX032485 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Neu.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Neural... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Neu.05.Biotin.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Midbrain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.50.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.Neu.10.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Neu.20.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Neu.20.Mapk8.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.Mapk8.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Mapk8 Neural SRX085427,SRX032489,SRX085...426,SRX032490 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.Mapk8.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.Mapk8.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Oth.Neu.10.Mapk8.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.Mapk8.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Mapk8 Neural SRX085427,SRX032490,SRX085...426,SRX032489 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.Mapk8.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.50.Mapk8.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.T98G [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.T98G [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ,SRX018278,SRX018282,SRX769983,SRX018280,SRX018277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.T98G.bed ... ...Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.T98G hg19 TFs and others Neural T98G SRX769982,SRX018279,SRX018281

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX323573,SRX323564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural pro...genitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Neural S...6,SRX743838,SRX743832,SRX743834,SRX743840 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Neural ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Neu.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Neural SR...,SRX685285,SRX217736 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurospheres mm9 All antigens Neural Neurospheres SRX275807,SRX275...808,SRX275810,SRX275812,SRX275809,SRX275811 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurospheres.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres mm9 All antigens Neural Neurospheres SRX275807,SRX275...808,SRX275810,SRX275812,SRX275809,SRX275811 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurospheres mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurospheres SRX275807,SRX2...75808,SRX275810,SRX275812,SRX275809,SRX275811 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neurospheres.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 DNase-seq Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414 ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres mm9 TFs and others Neural Neurospheres SRX275807,SRX2...75808,SRX275810,SRX275812,SRX275809,SRX275811 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neurospheres.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere hg19 All antigens Neural Olf neurosphere SRX189414... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neurospheres [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Olf_neurosphere [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: NoD.Neu.10.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Neural... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Neural... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Neural S...1,SRX099887,SRX099886,SRX743834,SRX743832 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SR...X081810,SRX081813,SRX081812,SRX081823,SRX081822,SRX968951,SRX968949,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SRX0818...10,SRX081812,SRX081813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,SR...X081822,SRX081811,SRX081810,SRX081812,SRX081813,SRX968952,SRX968950,SRX968951,SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SRX0818...10,SRX081813,SRX081812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081822,S...RX081823,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081812,SRX0818...11,SRX081810,SRX081813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315278,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238868,SRX238870 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX323564,SRX323573 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX802060,SRX109471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cortical neuron SRX21773...5,SRX759296,SRX217736,SRX759295,SRX759293,SRX759294 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cortical_neuron [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Microglia mm9 Histone Neural Microglia SRX760546,SRX760548,SRX7605...45,SRX760547,SRX760549 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Microglia.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Microglia mm9 Histone Neural Microglia SRX760546,SRX760548,SRX7605...45,SRX760547,SRX760549 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Microglia.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Neu.20.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation Ne...ural http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 Histone Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,SRX109...6824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 Histone Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,SRX109...6824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Hypothalamus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Hippocampus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Astrocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Antioxidant properties of Neu2000 on mitochondrial free radicals and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; McEwen, Melanie L; Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Springer, Joe E

    2013-03-01

    Neu2000 [2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4 trifluoromethylbenzylamino) benzoic acid] is a dual-acting neuroprotective agent that functions both as a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and a free radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigated the scavenging activity of Neu2000 on various classes of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as well as its efficacy for reducing free radicals and oxidative stress/damage induced in spinal cord mitochondrial preparations. Neu2000 exerted scavenging activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and efficiently scavenged peroxynitrite. In the mitochondrial studies, Neu2000 markedly inhibited ROS/RNS and hydrogen peroxide levels following antimycin treatment. In addition, Neu2000 effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals generated by iron(III)-ascorbate, reduced protein carbonyl formation mediated by hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and prevented glutathione oxidation caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, incubation of isolated mitochondria with Neu2000 followed by centrifugation and removal of the supernatant also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. This observation suggests that Neu2000 enters mitochondria to target free radicals or indirectly affects mitochondrial function in a manner that promotes antioxidant activity. The results of the present study demonstrate that Neu2000 possesses potent in vitro antioxidant activity due, most likely, to its active phenoxy group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains hg19 DNase-seq Neural Adult brains SRX189408,SRX18941...3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Adult_brains.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cerv...ical Ganglion http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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