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Sample records for networks transaction costs

  1. Networks and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    -multiple output stochastic Ray production function to generate relative shadow prices of three inputs and two outputs traded by farms. At a second stage a structural equation system is derived from the first order conditions of farm’s profit maximization to estimate simultaneously the of commodity specific...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...... prices....

  2. Networks and Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs obs...

  3. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model......We argue that in the presence of transaction costs, observed productivity measures may in many cases understate the true productivity, as production data seldom distinguish between resources entering the production process and resources of a similar type that are sacrificed for transaction costs....... Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...

  4. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  5. Measuring the Influence of Networks on Transaction Costs Using a Nonparametric Regression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    All business transactions as well as achieving innovations take up resources, subsumed under the concept of transaction costs. One of the major factors in transaction costs theory is information. Firm networks can catalyse the interpersonal information exchange and hence, increase the access to n...

  6. Managerial accounting for transaction costs

    OpenAIRE

    Лабынцев, Николай Тихонович

    2015-01-01

    Essence and significance of transaction accounting and its basic concepts – transaction and transaction costs – have been determined. Main types of transaction costs and elements of transaction accounting for expenses have been considered. Source documents forms for the purpose of accounting for transaction costs have been worked out.

  7. Networks and RegionalCompetitiveness: Towards a Transaction Cost Approach of Small-Scale Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preoccupation with competition often dominates the study of governance. A focus on competition often unnecessarily precludes the possibility that regional institutions can suspend competition in certain areas and facilitate cooperation among potential rivals, thereby potentially contributing to their mutual success. In many ways companies cooperating through these types of networks have a greater degree of flexibility than firms which are forced to rely solely on hierarchies or markets for solutions to their problems. In order to fully understand how such networks work, this article first parses out differences in definitions of networks in order to understand how the type of network mentioned above actually differs from other uses of this term. Then it develops a theory of governance that goes beyond hierarchies and markets by demonstrating how this type of network can lead to reductions in transaction costs. This claim is illustrated on hand from examples of alternative forms of organization in Germany and Italy.

  8. Managerial responses to transaction cost disequilibrium in food supply chains and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in transaction costs (i.e. costs of information processing, monitoring and control) between firms in local supply chains as well as in an international setting may have a negative impact on competitiveness and on creation of value added. Transaction cost disequilibrium is defined as a

  9. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    and capturing propertyrights. We clarify the key role of transaction costs with respect to understandingvalue creation and the limitations and opportunities of strategizing relative tocompetitive forces. The economics of property rights identifies new sources ofvalue creation (i.e., reducing the dissipation......AbstractWe forge linkages between the economics of property rights (Coase, Demsetz,Cheung, Barzel) and strategic management. Property rights to resources consistof the rights to consume, obtain income from, and alienate these resources.Transaction costs are the costs of exchanging, protecting...

  10. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV......AbstractThe economics of property rights furthers the resource-based view in a number ofways. Resource analysis is refined by conceptualizing resources as composed ofmultiple attributes to which property rights may be held. A resource owner's abilityto create, appropriate and sustain value from...

  11. Resources and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2005-01-01

    from resources depends on the property rights that he or she holds and on the transaction costs of exchanging, defining, and protecting them. While transaction costs are a major source of value dissipation, reducing such dissipation may create value. Implications for the RBV analysis of sustained......Property rights economics furthers the resource-based view of strategic management in a number of ways. First, resources are conceptualized as being composed of multiple attributes for which property rights may be held. Second, a resource owner's ability to create, appropriate, and sustain value...

  12. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  13. Inventory Dynamics under Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Chavas; Paula M. Despins; T. Randy Fortenbery

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual model of storage behavior is developed. Optimal intertemporal pricing is derived to analyze the effects of transaction costs on storage andarbitrage pricing. It is shown how transaction costs can rationalize the existence of an inverse carrying charge for inventory. The model is applied to U.S. soybeans stocks for the period 1960–95. The empirical results suggest that transaction costs have a significant influence on storage behavior andintertemporal arbitrage pricing. Copyright ...

  14. Transaction Cost and Activity of Economic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Kotliarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to clarify the role of transaction cost for existence of an economic agent. It is demonstrated that the opposition of transaction cost and transformation cost is not rigid and there are costs that contain both transaction and transformation component. In addition the amount of transaction cost depends on parameters of company’s activity. This is why it is hardly possible to find the precise minimum of transaction cost and the model of organization of transactions within firm will be flexible. The firm’s structure contains special transaction divisions (centers of transaction cost that are necessary for existence of the firm as a mechanism of organization of transactions (opposed to market. The status of these divisions depends on firm’s size. Transaction divisions can also exist outside the firm. They will minimize transaction costs of other economic agents on the basis of external effect of scale. External transaction divisions can exist both as collective structures (coordinating centers of strategic alliances as well as independent ones (franchisors. A comparative analysis of transaction divisions and centers of cost was done. It was demonstrated that these elements of the firm have different economic and organizational structure. The notion of cost of external profitability was introduced. This notion can be used to analyze reasons for merger of companies or for their existence as independent structures. It is demonstrated that one of the functions of the firm is to use resources that cannot be used within independent production units.

  15. Measuring the influence of networks on transaction costs using a non-parametric regression technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    . We empirically analyse the effect of networks on productivity using a cross-validated local linear non-parametric regression technique and a data set of 384 farms in Poland. Our empirical study generally supports our hypothesis that networks affect productivity. Large and dense trading networks...

  16. Entrepreneurship, Transaction Costs, and Resource Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognize how exactly...... transaction costs and property rights shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  17. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly t...... transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  18. Accounting costs of transactions in real estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in relating theoretical conceptualizations of transaction costs to national accounting and further to the identification and quantification of actions on units of real estate. The notion of satellite accounting of the System of National Accounts is applied to the segment of society concerned with changes......The costs of transactions in real estate is of importance for households, for investors, for statistical services, for governmental and international bodies concerned with the efficient delivery of basic state functions, as well as for research. The paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach...... in real estate. The paper ends up with an estimate of the cost of a major real property transaction in Denmark....

  19. Equity Markets, Transactions Costs, and Capital Accumulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Starr, Ross M; Bencivenga, Valerie R; Smith, Bruce D

    1996-01-01

    Poorly developed equity markets inhibit the transfer of capital ownership. Moreover, the costs of transacting in equity markets affect not just the level of investment, but the kinds of investments that are undertaken...

  20. The Secret Life of Mundane Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2005-01-01

    Transaction costs, one often hears, are the economic equivalent of friction in physical systems. Like physicists, economists can sometimes neglect friction in formulating theories; but like engineers, they can never neglect friction in studying how the system actually does let alone should work. Interestingly, however, the present-day economics of organization also ignores friction. That is, almost single-mindedly, the literature analyzes transactions from the point of view of misaligned ince...

  1. Plural Governance: A Modified Transaction Cost Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  2. Transaction costs and asset prices : a dynamic equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri Vayanos

    1998-01-01

    In this article we study the effects of transaction costs on asset prices. We assume an overlapping generations economy with a riskless, liquid bond, and many risky stocks carrying proportional transaction costs. We obtain stock prices and turnover in closed form. Surprisingly, a stock's price may increase in transaction costs, and a more frequently traded stock may be less adversely affected by an increase in transaction costs. Calculations based on the 'marginal' investor overestimate the e...

  3. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    56 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 56–76 TAPPING Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition COST BREACHES Laura E. Armey and Diana I...indicating that a change in the EAC SE/PM ratio is not an indicator of a potential breach. Thus forecasts of cost breaches should focus on initial SE...of looking at cost breaches, using sur- vival analysis to forecast cost breaches in MDAPs over a program’s life cycle. We offer somewhat robust

  4. Risk sensitive asset management with transaction costs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley R. Pliska; Tomasz R. Bielecki

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous time risk-sensitive portfolio optimization model with a general transaction cost structure and where the individual securities or asset categories are explicitly affected by underlying economic factors. The security prices and factors follow diffusion processes with the drift and diffusion coefficients for the securities being functions of the factor levels. We develop methods of risk sensitive impulsive control theory in order to maximize an infinite horizon ...

  5. Transaction and programme costs; Transaktions- und Programmkosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Energietechnik und Energiepolitik

    1998-10-01

    There are many studies, among them many case studies and those based on energy system modelling (bottom-up studies) - revealing technologies or engineering measures that can be applied today in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and which either are even profitable at that, or do not require additional investment. This 'no-regret' potential is denied in particular by analysts who favour the top-down approach in their energy systems analyses. Their argument is that essential costs are left unconsidered in cost analysis, namely the transaction and programme costs. The article examines from the angle of transaction cost economics the nature of the transaction costs and the approach taken in valuating and modelling the cost of energy efficiency measures. Further, the necessity and adequacy of integrating programme costs into such analyses is discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Viele Studien - darunter viele Fallstudien und Studien auf Basis von Energiesystemmodellen (Bottom-up-Studien) - weisen technische Massnahmen aus, mit denen schon heute CO{sub 2}-Emissionen vermieden und gleichzeitig noch Gewinne erzielt werden koennen oder fuer die zumindest keine zusaetzlichen Kosten entstehen. Dieses 'no-regret'-Potential wird vor allem von Analytikern der 'Top-down'-Ebene bestritten mit dem Argument, bei der Berechnung der wirtschaftlichen Potentiale wuerden wesentliche Kosten - naemlich Transaktions- und Programmkosten - nicht beruecksichtigt (Grubb et al. 1993). Dieser Aufsatz hinterfragt den in der Fachdiskussion inzwischen sehr oft und oft leichtfertig gebrauchten Begriff der Transaktionskosten und wirft einen kritischen Blick auf die Bewertung und Modellierung der Kosten von Energiesparmassnahmen aus Sicht der Transaktionskostenoekonomie. Ausserdem wird die Notwendigkeit und Moeglichkeit, Programmkosten in die Betrachtung zu integrieren, diskutiert. (orig.)

  6. The Firm as Transaction Cost Economics Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Tchipev, Plamen D

    2003-01-01

    This is a draft English translation of the paper The Firm as Transaction Cost Economics Concept/ Фирмата в Теорията на транзакционните разходи which has been published in the “National Scientific Conference on Political Economy. Proceedings Volume”, Ruse: Publishing Centre of the Ruse University, 2016 Abstract: Within the framework of the mainstream neoclassical model, the existence of the firm creates serious theoretical difficulties. Major attempt to overcome them, leads to applicatio...

  7. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  8. Automated Measurement and Signaling Systems for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Brown, Richard; Price, Phillip; Page, Janie; Granderson, Jessica; Riess, David; Czarnecki, Stephen; Ghatikar, Girish; Lanzisera, Steven

    2013-12-31

    The Transactional Network Project is a multi-lab activity funded by the US Department of Energy?s Building Technologies Office. The project team included staff from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The team designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network (TN) platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). PNNL was responsible for the development of the TN platform, with agents for this platform developed by each of the three labs. LBNL contributed applications to measure the whole-building electric load response to various changes in building operations, particularly energy efficiency improvements and demand response events. We also provide a demand response signaling agent and an agent for cost savings analysis. LBNL and PNNL demonstrated actual transactions between packaged rooftop units and the electric grid using the platform and selected agents. This document describes the agents and applications developed by the LBNL team, and associated tests of the applications.

  9. Determinants of Transaction Costs to Farmers Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers are often encouraged to form producer groups to facilitate their access to markets in an effort to overcome transaction costs and enjoy economies of scale, which is often advocated in the collective action literature. The role of transaction costs in participation of smallholder farmers groups is attempts that underpin ...

  10. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  11. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farmers not aware of loan facilities, inability to provide securities, non-existence of banking services and high transaction cost. Transaction costs such as interest charges, transport, feeding, money paid for processing forms and gratification may influence the willingness of the small scale farmers to borrow or not to borrow.

  12. Father Knows Best: Using Adam Smith to Teach Transactions Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Adam Smith's moral philosophy can be used to introduce economics students to the important idea of transactions costs. The author provides a brief background in this article to Smith's moral philosophy and connects it to the costs of transacting in a way that fits easily into the standard principles of microeconomics classroom. By doing…

  13. Transaction Costs from a Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-28

    for the governments of Mexico and the Czech Republic on achieving excellence in the public sector. As an adjunct professor for the University of...we attempted to directly measure transactions costs for defense acquisition programs using the expenditures of the Program Management Office ( PMO ...as an approximate measure of the amount of transaction costs present in an acquisition program. We found that DoD does not track PMO costs

  14. Vertical Integration into Electronics: Transaction Costs and Organization Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Transaction cost theory (TCT) had been posited, by Oliver Williamson, as a theoretically rigorous way of explaining the institutions that are found in capitalist economies, for regulating transactions in the face of bounded rationality and opportunism (Williamson 1995, 1996). The approach was

  15. Equity Markets, Transactions Costs, and Capital Accumulation: An Illustration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith; Ross M. Starr

    1996-01-01

    Poorly developed equity markets inhibit the transfer of capital ownership. Moreover, the costs of transacting in equity markets affect not just the level of investment, but the kinds of investments that are undertaken...

  16. Third sector organizations in rural development: a transaction cost perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VALENTINOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, rural development is supported by third sector organizations, such as nongovernmental organizations, farmer associations, and cooperatives. This essay develops a transaction cost explanation of these organizations’ role in rural areas. Since the traditional transaction cost theory is concerned with the choice of governance mechanisms within the for-profit sector, this essay adopts an alternative conceptualization of the notion of transaction cost by building on the theory of the division of labor. This theory regards transaction cost as a constraint on the division of labor causing the replacement of exchange with self-sufficiency. The proposed transaction cost explanation of rural third sector organizations consists of two arguments: 1 third sector organizations embody partial reliance on self-sufficiency; and 2 rural areas exhibit rurality-specific transaction cost acting as a constraint on the division of labor and thus creating a niche for third sector organizations. The essay concludes with suggesting a research program on developing an economic theory of the rural third sector.;

  17. A TRANSACTION COST ANALYSIS OF MICROPAYMENTS IN MOBILE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gille

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Personalised, location-related and differentiated services in the mobile digitaleconomy create a demand for suitable pricing models. In the case of disaggregated“microservices” (e.g., small digitalized information or service units, as well as for theacquisition of low-value physical goods, the deployment of micropayments seemsappropriate.This paper analyzes the economic efficiency of marginal transaction amounts in the mcommercearea by applying the theoretical approach of transaction cost economics. Forthis purpose, a separation of technical and cognitive transaction costs is applied. Theinfluence of selected determinants such as specifity, uncertainty and bounded rationality ontransaction costs in mobile commerce micropayments is analyzed. The result is a morelikely application of micropayments for physical goods such as beverages or parking ticketsthan for digital goods and services, given the theoretical assumptions of the model. Inaddition, indicators for a significant above-zero lower limit of transaction amounts inmobile commerce are presented.

  18. Reconsidering Money: Monetary Exchange with Additive Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2001-01-01

    Under the assumption of purely additive transaction costs in exchange, the literature on money has a standard example of direct exchange dominating indirect (monetary) exchange. From here it is frequently concluded that subadditive costs (e.g. search costs) must be examined in order to explain...... money. In contrast, this paper presents an additive transaction costs model in which the mere absence of double coincidences of wants suffices to motivate monetary exchange. Furthermore it is found that not all commodity moneys, that are collectively desirable, qualify for the core, but that all fiat...... moneys, that are collectively desirable, will be elements of the core. (JEL: D70, E40)...

  19. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network. The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  20. COULD SOCIOECONOMIC METABOLISM BE MOLDED BY TRANSACTION COSTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA I. IORGULESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two key issues that shape the economic development and growth of a country are the independence and effectiveness of the judicial system and the level of bureaucracy. The theory of transaction costs, developed, among others, by Douglass C. North, explores both. Increasing the independence and effectiveness of the judicial system reduces corruption and protects private property and economic freedom while reducing bureaucracy is absolutely necessary to increase a country's competitiveness by lowering the cost and increasing the speed of transactions. This paper introduces the transaction costs approach, the concept of ‘socioeconomic/societal metabolism’ and takes advantage of the Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM to examine how the ‘socioeconomic/societal metabolism’ could be impacted.

  1. Transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures (CGS) of commercial banks in Tanzania. Descriptive statistics, linear regression model, binary and multinomial logistic regression models were employed for analysis. Findings revealed four modes of credit governance structures that are ...

  2. Transactions costs and spatial integration of vegetable and fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes transaction costs and spatial market integration of vegetable and fruit markets between major surplus producing zones and the Addis Ababa retail market taking onions, potatoes, and tomatoes from vegetables and root crops and bananas from fruits. Monthly retail price data from the Central Statistical ...

  3. Towards a Transaction Cost Theory of Management Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Speklé (Roland)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I present and discuss a theory of management control based on Transaction Cost Economics. This theory specifies the composition of various archetypal control structures, and links these to their respective habitat. These are: (1) arm's length control; (2) machine control;

  4. Quantifying Transaction Costs in Online/Off-line Grocery Channel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Junhong Chu; Javier Cebollada

    2012-01-01

    Households incur transaction costs when choosing among off-line stores for grocery purchases. They may incur additional transaction costs when buying groceries online versus off-line. We integrate the various transaction costs into a channel choice framework and empirically quantify the relative transaction costs when households choose between the online and off-line channels of the same grocery chain. The key challenges in quantifying these costs are (i) the complexity of channel choice deci...

  5. New Evidence of the Effect of Transaction Costs on Residential Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Leuvensteijn, van Michiel

    2002-01-01

    Transaction costs have attracted considerably attention in the theoretical literature on residential mobility. In many European countries, these costs mainly consist of ad-valorem transaction costs. In the current paper, we demonstrate empirically for the Netherlands that the transaction costs have

  6. VOLTTRON Lite: Integration Platform for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform. The platform is intended to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or “agents” that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on local building controller or in the Cloud. This document describes the core of the transactional network platform, the Volttron Lite™ software and associated services hosted on the platform. Future enhancements are also discussed. The appendix of the document provides examples of how to use the various services hosted on the platform.

  7. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation.

  8. The Effects of Collaboration on Logistical Performance and Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, J.G.V.; Yoshizaki, H.T.Y.; Ho, L.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of supplier-retailer collaboration on logistical performance and transaction costs from the viewpoint of retail sector suppliers. The methodology consists of an empirical study conducted over nine months in the logistics department of a large Brazilian supermarket retailer and a survey of 125 representatives of 90 manufacturers. The results show collaboration contributes to an improvement in logistical performance related to urgent deliveries and deliveries that...

  9. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  10. Supply Chain-Wide Consequences of Transaction Risks and Their Contractual Solutions: Towards an Extended Transaction Cost Economics Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    How supply chain actors manage their exposure to both supply- and demand-side risks is a topic that has been insufficiently examined within the transaction cost economics (TCE) literature. TCE studies often only examine transaction risks in the context of bilateral exchanges. This study aims to

  11. Linear versus quadratic portfolio optimization model with transaction cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norhidayah Bt Ab; Kamil, Karmila Hanim; Elias, Siti Masitah

    2014-06-01

    Optimization model is introduced to become one of the decision making tools in investment. Hence, it is always a big challenge for investors to select the best model that could fulfill their goal in investment with respect to risk and return. In this paper we aims to discuss and compare the portfolio allocation and performance generated by quadratic and linear portfolio optimization models namely of Markowitz and Maximin model respectively. The application of these models has been proven to be significant and popular among others. However transaction cost has been debated as one of the important aspects that should be considered for portfolio reallocation as portfolio return could be significantly reduced when transaction cost is taken into consideration. Therefore, recognizing the importance to consider transaction cost value when calculating portfolio' return, we formulate this paper by using data from Shariah compliant securities listed in Bursa Malaysia. It is expected that, results from this paper will effectively justify the advantage of one model to another and shed some lights in quest to find the best decision making tools in investment for individual investors.

  12. [Pay for performance explained by transaction costs theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaneff, Yuri; Cortes, Ariel; Torres, Sergio; Yepes, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of transaction costs theory to explain incentives in the health care chain. We performed a case study of CPS, a health insurance company in Bogota (Colombia), which preferred not to publish its name. CPS moves in the environment of high transaction costs and uses the hybrid form of governance at the outpatient level. Incentive intensity, administrative control and the contract all agree with the theory. At the hospital level, the market is used, despite greater uncertainty. Because of the discrete form (1.0) of the incentives and the absence of administrative control, it is difficult for CPS to relate payment to hospital performance. Transaction costs theory explains the configuration of incentives. Another contribution made by this theory to the literature is the criterion to differentiate between the market and the hybrid. We propose that the market uses discrete-type (1.0) incentives, while the hybrid uses continuous, commission-like incentives. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Fresh Snack Food Channel Evaluation Model for Integrating Customers’ Perception of Transaction Costs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to explore how food dealers develop methods that facilitate transaction efficiency and how they select the optimal food channels. This study establishes a model according to the impact of transaction cost factors on consumers’ decision-making regarding purchase of fresh snack foods. Using fresh snack foods in Taiwan as an example, this study employed a fuzzy analytic network process to solve decision-making problems with multiple criteria by comparing the interaction between each transaction cost factor to obtain the factor weightings as well as the weightings of the transaction costs at each decision stage. This study found that food safety assurance and providing sufficient nutrition information were the most essential topics; thus, the optimal choice for snack food producers is to develop retail outlets. This study construction process proposed is innovative and operational, and the results may provide a reference for snack food dealers or microfood enterprises to assist them in developing their food channels.

  14. TRANSACTION COSTS AND MARKET IMPACT IN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kociński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the major sources of transaction costs in financial markets, in particular to find the amounts of such costs on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. Sources of transaction costs are considered: commissions, bid-ask spread and market impact. The commissions are only briefly described since they are explicitly stated and easily measured. More attention is paid to the bid-ask spread which is one of the main causes of trading costs. It is shown that the investor who wants to outperform the Polish market should usually expect a much higher bid-ask spread than it follows from the officially used calculations. Then it is demonstrated how historical spreads can be used in predicting their future values. This seems to be important from the practical point of view, since forecasting trading costs is a compelling task for financial managers. Next, market impact and market impact costs are considered. The practical method of measuring these is applied and discussed.

  15. Carbon pricing : transaction costs of emissions trading vs. carbon taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Coria, Jessica; Jaraite, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we empirically compare the transaction costs from monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of two environmental regulations directed to cost-efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and a tradable emissions system. We do this in the case of Sweden, where a set of firms are covered by both types of regulations, i.e., the Swedish CO2 tax and the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). This provides us with an excellent case study as i...

  16. Governance Structure, Perception, and Innovation in Credence Food Transactions: The Role of Food Community Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pascucci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  Promoting transactions of more sustainable-oriented foods can be (socially and privately complex and costly. New institutional economics (NIE explains these dynamics by analyzing the choice of the "most cost-economizing" governance structure to carry out a transaction where credence attributes are involved. The way different governance structures can influence the change of consumers and producers perceptions and preferences for credence foods is completely neglected. On the other hand behavioral economics underlines the role of status quo bias and framing in this type of decision making process. We use new institutional and behavioural economics arguments to conceptualize the emerging of a new governance structure in the domain of credence food transactions which we defined as food community network (FCN.

  17. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  18. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  19. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands....... We use three axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well as all...... connection costs; and, (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on estimated connection costs and allocates true connection costs of the selected network....

  20. Analysis of Transaction Costs in Logistics and the Methodologies for Their Information Reflection for Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Evgen’evna Kovrizhnykh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transaction costs of enterprises that do not take into consideration implicit costs. Despite the growing interest in transaction costs in logistics in the latest fifteen years, this topic is covered rather poorly in Russian literature; the definition of “transaction costs” is unclear, there is no technique of their information reflection and assessment. We have developed the methods for information reflection of transaction costs that can be used by automotive enterprises. Each enterprise will have an opportunity to choose the most suitable technique for information reflection of transaction costs or to compare the level of transaction costs when using different techniques. Application of techniques for information reflection of transaction costs allows the enterprises to increase profits by optimizing and reducing costs and using their assets more effectively, to identify possible ways to improve cost parameters of their performance, to improve their efficiency and productivity; to cut out unnecessary or duplicate activities, to optimize the number of staff involved in a particular activity

  1. The logic of transaction cost economics in health care organization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S; Wise, C G

    2001-01-01

    Health care is, at its core, comprised of complex sequences of transactions among patients, providers, and other stakeholders; these transactions occur in markets as well as within systems and organizations. Health care transactions serve one of two functions: the production of care (i.e., the laying on of hands) or the coordination of that care (i.e., scheduling, logistics). Because coordinating transactions is integral to care delivery, it is imperative that they are executed smoothly and efficiently. Transaction cost economics (TCE) is a conceptual framework for analyzing health care transactions and quantifying their impact on health care structures (organizational forms), processes, and outcomes.

  2. SPECIFICITY OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN THE SPHERE OF EDUCATION IN THE EMERGING KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Furin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the specifics of transaction costs in the sphere of education. Comparative analysis of the theoretical framework of the research devoted to the theory of transaction costs, allowed us to determine the causes and types of transaction costs in the educational environment. On the basis of the existing conceptual framework and specifics of the education system the paper formulates the definition of transaction costs and their classification is given on the basis of the principle of legality. The conclusion is that the minimization of the «illegal» costs is possible through the creation of information management system within the education cluster.

  3. Intimate Transactions: The Evolution of an Ecosophical Networked Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intimate Transactions is a networked interactive installation for two participants located in different geographical locations. During a 30-minute, one-on-one session they individually and collaboratively explore a range of virtual, interactive environments mediated by digital image, sound and haptic feedback. This major work evolved from a single site, non-networked version to a multi-site, server-driven artwork that operates in mixed online/offline modes. In 2005, the work was awarded an Honorary Mention in the Prix Ars Electronica and began an international tour of several high profile festivals and arts’ venues. Intimate Transactions is a product of the Transmute Collective (http://www.intimatetransactions.com.Intimate Transactions networked inter-relational design was inspired by a range of conditions, discourses and practices drawn from scientific and critical ecologies, new media and innovative performance that I collectively name ‘ecosophical praxis’. An inherent part of this approach involves the continual development of contextualizing questions, which in turn mould the work’s practice and presentation. This paper considers the issues and implications of applying this approach during the Intimate Transactions project. The concluding questions are relevant as a guiding method for othercreative practitioners similarly interested in eco-social and eco-political engagement.

  4. Managing transaction risks in interdependent supply chains: an extended transaction cost economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the management of transaction risks in supply chains. Risk management studies often ignore the wider supply chain context in which individual transactions take place. However, risk management strategies which are suitable to use when only a single transaction is considered

  5. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  6. Two-Stage Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a two-period portfolio selection problem. The problem is formulated as a two-stage fuzzy portfolio selection model with transaction costs, in which the future returns of risky security are characterized by possibility distributions. The objective of the proposed model is to achieve the maximum utility in terms of the expected value and variance of the final wealth. Given the first-stage decision vector and a realization of fuzzy return, the optimal value expression of the second-stage programming problem is derived. As a result, the proposed two-stage model is equivalent to a single-stage model, and the analytical optimal solution of the two-stage model is obtained, which helps us to discuss the properties of the optimal solution. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the new modeling idea and the effectiveness. The computational results provided by the proposed model show that the more risk-averse investor will invest more wealth in the risk-free security. They also show that the optimal invested amount in risky security increases as the risk-free return decreases and the optimal utility increases as the risk-free return increases, whereas the optimal utility increases as the transaction costs decrease. In most instances the utilities provided by the proposed two-stage model are larger than those provided by the single-stage model.

  7. The Effects of Collaboration on Logistical Performance and Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, J.G.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effect of supplier-retailer collaboration on logistical performance and transaction costs from the viewpoint of retail sector suppliers. The methodology consists of an empirical study conducted over nine months in the logistics department of a large Brazilian supermarket retailer and a survey of 125 representatives of 90 manufacturers. The results show collaboration contributes to an improvement in logistical performance related to urgent deliveries and deliveries that occur during periods of high demand. Interpersonal collaboration and joint actions contribute to the reduction of uncertainties among the participants. These joint actions, together with strategic collaboration, contribute to an increase in investment in specific assets, such as dedicated production lines or specialised vehicle fleets to serve partners. The study provides an analysis of logistical performance and transaction cost elements not previously investigated, including urgent deliveries and deliveries during periods of high demand, contract negotiation and renegotiation, waiting time for agreements to be reached, contingency logistics planning, and various cultural, psychosocial and geographical aspects of the supplier-retailer relationship. Managerial implications, research limitation and future research are also discussed.

  8. Why are social network transactions important? Evidence based on the concentration of key suppliers and customers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a new institutional economy framework, this study examines the formation and economic consequences of social networks (guanxi from the perspective of key suppliers and customers in China. Results show that commercial activities which depend on networks are determined by the institutional environment. For example, companies that have lower accumulated social capital (less trust among people and are subject to more government invention depend more on social network transactions than on the market. In addition, this study shows that network transactions can provide benefits to firms, especially in weak institutional environments. Networks can reduce transaction costs by reducing information asymmetry, i.e., increased network dependence is associated with lower credit costs and lower advertising and sales costs. Networks can also reduce the effect of industry shocks, especially negative shocks, by creating a bonding mechanism. This study contributes to our understanding of social networks in emerging markets by providing evidence on network transactions with key suppliers and customers and their influence on firms’ accounting behavior.

  9. TRANSACTION COSTS – ANALYSIS AT THE FIRM’S LEVEL FROM A FISCAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta MIHAILA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth implies, at microeconomic level, a process of analysis and adaptation of the business climate, which requires continuous tracking of transaction costs. In this regard, our paper aims at identifying these transaction costs at the firm’s level, respectively the theoretical aspects of transaction costs and their analysis from a fiscal perspective, a comparative analysis of them in Romania and Moldova and some countries in the South East Europe. The methodology used will be a descriptive one, consisting of gathering data and information from the specialized literature and practice. Results of the analysis show that transaction costs, determined in our case, by the costs of compliance with tax legislation, influence the activity of the firm: the higher tax compliance costs are the more transaction costs grow, so the company results will be diminished.

  10. Implications of financial transaction costs on the real economy: A note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pelster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This note studies the influence of a financial transaction tax and transaction costs on the optimal production and hedging strategies of a duopoly. Firms are exposed to demand uncertainty that leads to price risk and can hedge their risk exposure on a forward market. However, the forward position is subject to transaction costs. We investigate two settings: first, we explore the Cournot duopoly with a simultaneous hedging opportunity; second, we analyze the case with a sequential forward market. We show that in both settings transaction costs lead to a less competitive market and that prices increase as the producers limit their output.

  11. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate......Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  12. Disciplining Mechanisms of Interorganizational Costs and Transaction Cost Economics: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Pimentel Gonzaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to verify whether the disciplining mechanisms present in the conceptual structure of the Interorganizational Cost Management (ICM are related to the governance mechanisms established through the Transaction Cost Economics (TCE, as tools to safeguard contractual relationships. The research was developed through a theoretical essay, based on bibliographic research. Its main contribution to the literature is the identification of relationships between consolidated TCE mechanisms, which aims to verify the way the transactions occur and the recent ICM mechanisms, aimed at optimizing the return of the value chain beyond the limits of the company through cost management. In conclusion, it was verified that, despite the recent literature on ICM, the disciplining mechanisms used by this Strategic Cost Management artifact are in line with the governance mechanisms used by the TCE, in relation and synergy with the different mechanisms analyzed.

  13. Influence of Transaction costs and real options on firms' own-or-rent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on secondary data on 79 companies in Mekelle, Ethiopia, this paper investigates the influence of transaction cost and real option factors on firms' own or rent decision for building resources. Empirical results suggest that both transaction cost and option factors have significant influence on firms' own or rent decision.

  14. Do Transaction Costs and Risk Preferences Influence Marketing Arrangements in the Illinois Hog Industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, J.R.V.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2009-01-01

    Risk reduction and transaction costs are often used to explain contracting in the U.S. hog industry with little empirical support. Using a unified conceptual framework that draws from risk behavior and transaction cost theories, in combination with unique survey and accounting data, we demonstrate

  15. The economic perspective: demand and supply in the reduction of transaction costs in the ancient world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Kehoe, D.P.; Ratzan, D.M.; Yiftach, U.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I distill some elements of the demand and supply of institutions designed to reduce transaction costs in the ancient world. I some cases, contractual parties could reduce transaction cost by accurately designing contracts. In other cases, the failure of private coordination placed

  16. Finite difference schemes for a nonlinear black-scholes model with transaction cost and volatility risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Sima; Hugger, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Several nonlinear Black-Scholes models have been proposed to take transaction cost, large investor performance and illiquid markets into account. One of the most comprehensive models introduced by Barles and Soner in [4] considers transaction cost in the hedging strategy and risk from an illiquid...

  17. The Transaction Costs Perspective on Standards as a Source of Trade and Productivity Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, den Frank A.G.; Groot, Stefan P.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, implementation and use of standards from the perspective of transaction costs economics. A proper design and implementation of standards may lead to a considerable reduction of transaction costs, which enhances trade and, consequently, economic welfare. A major

  18. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while...... transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system...

  19. Listening to Whispers of Ripple: Linking Wallets and Deanonymizing Transactions in the Ripple Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Sanchez Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The decentralized I owe you (IOU transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudonymous in Ripple, IOU credit links and transaction flows between wallets are publicly available in an online ledger. In this paper, we present the first thorough study that analyzes this globally visible log and characterizes the privacy issues with the current Ripple network. In particular, we define two novel heuristics and perform heuristic clustering to group wallets based on observations on the Ripple network graph. We then propose reidentification mechanisms to deanonymize the operators of those clusters and show how to reconstruct the financial activities of deanonymized Ripple wallets. Our analysis motivates the need for better privacy-preserving payment mechanisms for Ripple and characterizes the privacy challenges faced by the emerging credit networks.

  20. Transaction Costs, the Phenomenon of the Trading House and Economic Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiryanov Igor, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains a study of the phenomenon of company’s specific internal divisions called “trading house”. The analysis of different approaches (based on results obtained by R. Coase and O. Williamson towards the problem of impact of transaction cost on company size leads to the following conclusion: the company size mostly depends on its institutional architecture which includes specific divisions that ensure outsourcing of intergroup transaction cost. I propose to call these divisions centers of transaction cost. I suppose that the wide popularity of trading houses among companies belonging to different branches can be explained by the fact that a trading house is mostly used not as selling and purchasing division, but as a center of transaction cost that concentrates the biggest transaction cost (by its share within company’s general expenses. This reasoning leads to possibility of existence of a set of methodological principles that allow to build up an a priori model of expanding company. The process of expansion represents a series of inclusion of centers of transactions cost by the company after institutional advantages of an earlier institutional architecture disappear. This methodology allows to set up a classification between a classical company as a structure with low level of integration and frozen institutional architecture and an economic organization that represents an explicitly constructed composition including centers of transaction cost that help to extend the transformational space of an expanding company.

  1. The consequences of hospital autonomization in Colombia: a transaction cost economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ramon; Mills, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Granting autonomy to public hospitals in developing countries has been common over recent decades, and implies a shift from hierarchical to contract-based relationships with health authorities. Theory on transactions costs in contractual relationships suggests they stem from relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness. Transaction cost economics argues that the parties involved in exchanges seek to reduce transaction costs. The objective of this research was to analyse the relationships observed between purchasers and the 22 public hospitals of the city of Bogota, Colombia, in order to understand the role of relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness as sources of transaction costs, through a largely qualitative study. We found that contract-based relationships showed relevant transaction costs associated mainly with contract incompleteness, not with relationship-specific investments. Regarding relationships between insurers and local hospitals for primary care services, compulsory contracting regulations locked-in the parties to the contracts. For high-complexity services (e.g. inpatient care), no restrictions applied and relationships suggested transaction-cost minimizing behaviour. Contract incompleteness was found to be a source of transaction costs on its own. We conclude that transaction costs seemed to play a key role in contract-based relationships, and contract incompleteness by itself appeared to be a source of transaction costs. The same findings are likely in other contexts because of difficulties in defining, observing and verifying the contracted products and the underlying information asymmetries. The role of compulsory contracting might be context-specific, although it is likely to emerge in other settings due to the safety-net role of public hospitals.

  2. Analysis of Transaction Costs in Logistics and the Methodologies for Their Information Reflection for Automotive Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ol’ga Evgen’evna Kovrizhnykh; Polina Aleksandrovna Nechaeva

    2016-01-01

    Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transa...

  3. Sustainability Standards and the Reorganization of Private Label Supply Chains: A Transaction Cost Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Banterle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Private standards are among the main measures that can be implemented to differentiate food production. Retailers have been particularly active in setting food safety and quality systems for the development of their private labels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of introducing measures that guarantee the environmental sustainability of food production on vertical dyadic relations. We focus our attention on the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM systems that are designed by retailers to support private label products, with the aim of studying how these systems affect the governance structure of transactions between retailer and farmer/processor. Transaction cost analysis is used as theoretical framework to assess changes in vertical coordination after the adoption of an IPM system. Four case studies related to food retailers in Italy were analyzed to identify changes in transaction characteristics, costs, and governance that are related to the adoption of this system. The results show that the introduction of an IPM system leads to an increase of transaction asset specificity (i.e., especially of human and material asset specificity among the agents of the supply chain, and a decrease of the degree of transaction uncertainty. The variations in transaction characteristics determine changes in transaction costs. These changes lead to new hybrid forms of transaction governance, namely dyadic contracts, and a centralized organization of vertical relationships.

  4. Multi-period fuzzy mean-semi variance portfolio selection problem with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Barati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-period models of portfolio selection have been developed in the literature with respect to certain assumptions. In this study, for the first time, the portfolio selection problem has been modeled based on mean-semi variance with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots considering functional constraints and fuzzy parameters. Functional constraints such as transaction cost and minimum transaction lots were included. In addition, the returns on assets parameters were considered as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. An efficient genetic algorithm (GA was designed, results were analyzed using numerical instances and sensitivity analysis were executed. In the numerical study, the problem was solved based on the presence or absence of each mode of constraints including transaction costs and minimum transaction lots. In addition, with the use of sensitivity analysis, the results of the model were presented with the variations of minimum expected rate of programming periods.

  5. A Collaborative Network Model for Agrifood Transactions on Regional Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore

    The paper deals with a collaborative agrifood network in a regional scenario where producers of high typical and quality goods and consumer groups are involved in agrifood transactions as well as information and knowledge exchanges through an e-business platform. While producers are engaged in providing consumers with useful and timely information about healthiness, environmentally friendliness and most importantly, food quality of their products, consumers are engaged in giving prompt and understandable feedbacks to the producers. In this sense, the network is a form of proactive learning community. Starting from some basic socio-economic assumptions on a reference territory, we present an organizational model that can be adopted to foster the development of the regional area where it is applied. An instantiation of the model for a selected territory (the District of High Quality Productions in Sibari, Calabria, Italy) and first results, coming from two pilot tests, have been summarized as well.

  6. Do the rich get richer? An empirical analysis of the BitCoin transaction network

    CERN Document Server

    Kondor, Dániel; Csabai, István; Vattay, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to analyze everyday monetary transactions is limited by the scarcity of available data, as this kind of information is usually considered highly sensitive. Present econophysics models are usually employed on presumed random networks of interacting agents, and only macroscopic properties (e.g. the resulting wealth distribution) are compared to real-world data. In this paper, we analyze BitCoin, which is a novel digital currency system, where the complete list of transactions is publicly available. Using this dataset, we reconstruct the network of transactions, and extract the time and amount of each payment. We analyze the structure of the transaction network by measuring network characteristics over time, such as the degree distribution, degree correlations and clustering. We find that linear preferential attachment drives the growth of the network. We also study the dynamics taking place on the transaction network, i.e. the flow of money. We measure temporal patterns and the wealth accumulati...

  7. Transaction costs and technological development: The case of the Danish fruit and vegetable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that technological change can be understood in terms of attempts to reduce transaction costs as well as production costs. Two types of paths of technological development are identified: a production cost minimizing path, and a transac cost minimizing path. The creation of new...

  8. Enhancing supply risk management performance: a transaction cost and social exchange theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Petra; Schiele, Holger; Song, Michael; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    Supply risk management gained prominence over the last decade, both in the academic discourse and in practical application. This research examines the influence of Transaction Cost characteristics -behavioral uncertainty, environmental uncertainty and asset specificity- on supply risk management

  9. Enhancing supply risk management performance : a transaction cost and social exchange theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Petra; Schiele, Holger; Song, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Supply risk management gained prominence over the last decade, both in the academic discourse and in practical application. This research examines the influence of Transaction Cost characteristics -behavioral uncertainty, environmental uncertainty and asset specificity- on supply risk management

  10. Supply risk management from a transaction cost and social exchange theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Petra; Schiele, Holger; Song, Michael; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    Supply risk management gained prominence over the last decade, both in the academic discourse and in practical application. This research examines the influence of Transaction Cost characteristics -behavioral uncertainty, environmental uncertainty and asset specificity on supply risk management

  11. Dynamic Portfolio Optimization with Transaction Costs and State-Dependent Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palczewski, Jan; Poulsen, Rolf; Schenk-Hoppe, Klaus Reiner

    2015-01-01

    -dependent drift and proportional transaction costs. This scenario arises when investors have behavioral biases or the actual drift is unknown and needs to be estimated. Our numerical method solves dynamic optimal portfolio problems with an exponential utility function for time-horizons of up to 40 years....... It is applied to measure the value of information and the loss from transaction costs using the indifference principle....

  12. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...... cost economics to occur. A broader category of motivation, inappropriate motivation, which is such a necessary condition, is presented and discussed, and a number of implications are presented....

  13. The Windmill Approach: Combining transaction cost economics and farming systems theory to analyse farmer participation in value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonardo, W.J.; Bijman, J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    A common theoretical approach for understanding smallholder farmers' choice of sales arrangements is transaction cost economics (TCE), which usually focuses on a single transaction. However, farmers produce different crops and participate in several value chains simultaneously. Based on two case

  14. Governance structure, perception and innovation in credence food transactions: the role of community networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    Promoting transactions of more sustainable-oriented foods can be (socially and privately) complex and costly. New institutional economics (NIE) explains these dynamics by analyzing the choice of the "most cost-economizing" governance structure to carry out a transaction where credence attributes are

  15. Transaction Costs: Prosecuting child trafficking for illegal adoption in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A McCarthy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As primary implementers of laws on human trafficking, law enforcement helps construct how these laws are understood and applied. This article examines how this process has unfolded in Russia by looking at the phenomenon of and debates surrounding child trafficking for illegal adoption. It argues that pre-existing experience with trafficking laws and cultural narratives surrounding adoption have led law enforcement to focus on uncovering evidence of monetary transactions rather than exploitation when prosecuting trafficking cases. This construction of the meaning of trafficking comes with important trade-offs. While the emphasis on transactions helps law enforcement to be successful at prosecuting cases involving selling children for illegal adoption, a focus on transactions rather than exploitation results in a de facto prosecution policy that ignores the many forms of exploitation that occur in other trafficking cases.

  16. Research on e-commerce transaction networks using multi-agent modelling and open application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunhui; Han, Xufang; Wu, Harris

    2010-08-01

    We provide a formal definition of an e-commerce transaction network. Agent-based modelling is used to simulate e-commerce transaction networks. For real-world analysis, we studied the open application programming interfaces (APIs) from eBay and Taobao e-commerce websites and captured real transaction data. Pajek is used to visualise the agent relationships in the transaction network. We derived one-mode networks from the transaction network and analysed them using degree and betweenness centrality. Integrating multi-agent modelling, open APIs and social network analysis, we propose a new way to study large-scale e-commerce systems.

  17. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  18. TRANSACTION COSTS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH INVESTMENT AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eid Junior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As stated by the New Institutional Economics theory, transaction costs play a relevant role in economics and, according to the extent of such costs, agents make investment decisions. Actually,transaction costs may represent a disincentive to entrepreneurship.This work aims to verify whether transaction costs are related to investment rate and foreign direct investment rate (FDI in different business environments. The results suggest that foreign investors do not have precise information about other countries as domestic investors do; as it is observed, only the relation between ransaction costs and investment rate is significant. Furthermore, there is evidence that the business environments of BRIC countries are less developed when compared to business environments of other countries in the study

  19. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants and Effects of Logistics Costs in Container Ports: The Transaction Cost Economics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-soo Cho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries seek to become a global logistics center linking major trading ports. They are competitively constructing container ports. The aggressive competition creates overcapacity situation in the container port sector. Massive investments are required to construct container ports with terminals, docks, storage areas and hinterlands. Nevertheless, it is not easy for container ports to have sufficient container cargo volumes to justify the massive investments. Therefore, container ports of individual countries are required to develop effective strategies to have enough traffic volumes. Based on country-level analysis, this study is designed to investigate empirically internal capabilities and external environments of logistics costs and traffic volumes in individual container ports. A theoretical foundation, the transaction cost economics (TCE is applied to support and explain empirical findings.

  1. A Global Survey and Review of the Determinants of Transaction Costs of Forestry Carbon Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, T.-H.D.; Brouwer, R.; Davidson, M.D.

    Reducing carbon emissions in the forestry sector by means of market-based schemes is considered a cost-effective measure for tackling climate change impacts. However, the transaction costs (TCs) involved are typically unknown or unquantified and therefore often neglected. In this study three types

  2. Social capital and transaction cost on co-creating IT value towards inter-organizational EMR exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin Hsin; Hung, Chung-Jye; Huang, Ching Ying; Wong, Kit Hong; Tsai, Yi Ju

    2017-01-01

    This study adopts social capital theory and transaction cost theory to explore the feasibility of an inter-organizational cross-hospital electronic medical records (EMR) exchange system, and the factors that affect its adoption. The concept of value co-creation is also used to assess such a system, and its influence on the performance of participating medical institutes. This research collected 330 valid paper-based questionnaires from the medical staff of various institutes. The results showed that social interaction ties and shared vision positively affected medical institutes' willingness to adopt the EMR exchange system, while asset specificity and uncertainty increased the related transaction costs. With a greater willingness to invest in relation-specific assets and to meet the related transaction costs, this behavior lead to an increase in medical IT value, as well as better results for the related medical institutes, medical staff, and patients. Therefore, this study suggests that such institutes encourage their medical staff to participate in seminars or reunions in order to develop their professional and social networks, and set up clear schedules and desire for expected effects when introducing the cross-hospital EMR exchange system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  4. Lookback Option Pricing with Fixed Proportional Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Shengwu; Zhang, Yan; Han, Miao; Wang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The pricing problem of lookback option with a fixed proportion of transaction costs is investigated when the underlying asset price follows a fractional Brownian motion process. Firstly, using Leland's hedging method a partial differential equation satisfied by the value of the lookback option is derived. Then we obtain its numerical solution by constructing a Crank-Nicolson format. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed form is verified through a numerical example. Meanwhile, the impact of transaction cost rate and volatility on lookback option value is discussed. PMID:27433525

  5. The transaction cost perspective on international supply chain management; evidence from case studies in the manufacturing industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Berghuis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transaction costs are barriers for internationalisation processes.This paper investigates the practical relevance of transaction costs economics (TCE) for international supply chain management (SCM) in this era of globalization, which is characterized by splitting up the supply chain in more and

  6. A case study of the Mexican avocado industry based on transaction costs and supply chain management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is based on transaction cost economics and supply chain management to analyze how the adoption of supply chain management practices in the Mexican avocado industry reduces the transaction costs between producers and packers. Two sources of information are used: interviews from

  7. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  8. SME international entry mode choice and performance : A transaction cost perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, K.D.; Nakos, G.

    2004-01-01

    Although small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a significant portion of international trade, little is know about how they make international entry mode decisions. Transaction cost theory has been widely used to study entry mode selection for large firms. Here we apply the theory to

  9. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer’s aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1 a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2 an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE-based distribution system are described. Finally, we show the benefits and costs of different actors within the NCTE-based distribution system.

  10. Farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels under transaction cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also showed that the probability of selling at auction vs selling to speculators increased with proximity to the auction marketplace and decreased with knowledge of the buyer, suggesting higher opportunity costs of time and efforts associated with selling at auction, and considerable negotiation and monitoring costs ...

  11. Do the rich get richer? An empirical analysis of the Bitcoin transaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Kondor

    Full Text Available The possibility to analyze everyday monetary transactions is limited by the scarcity of available data, as this kind of information is usually considered highly sensitive. Present econophysics models are usually employed on presumed random networks of interacting agents, and only some macroscopic properties (e.g. the resulting wealth distribution are compared to real-world data. In this paper, we analyze Bitcoin, which is a novel digital currency system, where the complete list of transactions is publicly available. Using this dataset, we reconstruct the network of transactions and extract the time and amount of each payment. We analyze the structure of the transaction network by measuring network characteristics over time, such as the degree distribution, degree correlations and clustering. We find that linear preferential attachment drives the growth of the network. We also study the dynamics taking place on the transaction network, i.e. the flow of money. We measure temporal patterns and the wealth accumulation. Investigating the microscopic statistics of money movement, we find that sublinear preferential attachment governs the evolution of the wealth distribution. We report a scaling law between the degree and wealth associated to individual nodes.

  12. Do the Rich Get Richer? An Empirical Analysis of the Bitcoin Transaction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondor, Dániel; Pósfai, Márton; Csabai, István; Vattay, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to analyze everyday monetary transactions is limited by the scarcity of available data, as this kind of information is usually considered highly sensitive. Present econophysics models are usually employed on presumed random networks of interacting agents, and only some macroscopic properties (e.g. the resulting wealth distribution) are compared to real-world data. In this paper, we analyze Bitcoin, which is a novel digital currency system, where the complete list of transactions is publicly available. Using this dataset, we reconstruct the network of transactions and extract the time and amount of each payment. We analyze the structure of the transaction network by measuring network characteristics over time, such as the degree distribution, degree correlations and clustering. We find that linear preferential attachment drives the growth of the network. We also study the dynamics taking place on the transaction network, i.e. the flow of money. We measure temporal patterns and the wealth accumulation. Investigating the microscopic statistics of money movement, we find that sublinear preferential attachment governs the evolution of the wealth distribution. We report a scaling law between the degree and wealth associated to individual nodes. PMID:24505257

  13. Do the rich get richer? An empirical analysis of the Bitcoin transaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondor, Dániel; Pósfai, Márton; Csabai, István; Vattay, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to analyze everyday monetary transactions is limited by the scarcity of available data, as this kind of information is usually considered highly sensitive. Present econophysics models are usually employed on presumed random networks of interacting agents, and only some macroscopic properties (e.g. the resulting wealth distribution) are compared to real-world data. In this paper, we analyze Bitcoin, which is a novel digital currency system, where the complete list of transactions is publicly available. Using this dataset, we reconstruct the network of transactions and extract the time and amount of each payment. We analyze the structure of the transaction network by measuring network characteristics over time, such as the degree distribution, degree correlations and clustering. We find that linear preferential attachment drives the growth of the network. We also study the dynamics taking place on the transaction network, i.e. the flow of money. We measure temporal patterns and the wealth accumulation. Investigating the microscopic statistics of money movement, we find that sublinear preferential attachment governs the evolution of the wealth distribution. We report a scaling law between the degree and wealth associated to individual nodes.

  14. Abatement and Transaction Costs of Carbon-Sink Projects Involving Smallholders

    OpenAIRE

    Cacho, Oscar; Lipper, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Agroforestry projects have the potential to help mitigate global warming by acting as sinks for greenhouse gasses. However, participation in carbon-sink projects may be constrained by high costs. This problem may be particularly severe for projects involving smallholders in developing countries. Of particular concern are the transaction costs incurred in developing projects, measuring, certifying and selling the carbon-sequestration services generated by such projects. This paper addresses th...

  15. Dynamic Trading with Predictable Returns and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gârleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We derive a closed-form optimal dynamic portfolio policy when trading is costly and security returns are predictable by signals with different mean-reversion speeds. The optimal strategy is characterized by two principles: (1) aim in front of the target, and (2) trade partially toward the current...

  16. Reducing carbon transaction costs in community-based forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The article considers the potential for community-based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester and mitigate carbon and to claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost-effective, and should bring many more

  17. Reducing carbon transaction costs in community based forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    The paper considers the potential for community based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester carbon and claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost effective, and should bring many more benefits to local

  18. Are Public-Private Partnerships an Appropriate Governance Structure for Power Plants? A Transaction Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S. Ping; Hsu, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the rapid economic growth, many countries demand an increasing number of power plants to meet the increasing electricity usage. Since high capital requirements of power plants present a big issue for these countries, PPPs have been considered an alternative to provide power plant infrastructure. In particular, in emerging or developing countries, PPPs may be the fastest way to provide the infrastructure needed. However, while PPPs are a promising alternative to providing various types of infrastructure, many failed power plant PPP projects have made it evident that PPPs, under certain situations, can be very costly or even a wrong choice of governance structure. While the higher efficiency due to better pooling of resources is greatly emphasized in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), the embedded transaction inefficiencies are often understated or even ignored. Through the lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), this paper aims to answer why and when PPPs may become a costly governance structure for power plants. Specifically, we develop a TCE-based theory of PPPs as a governance structure. This theory suggests that three major opportunism problems embedded in infrastructure PPPs are possible to cause substantial transaction costs and render PPPs a costly governance structure. The three main opportunism problems are principal-principal problem, firm's hold-up problem, and government-led hold-up problem. Moreover, project and institutional characteristics that may lead to opportunism problems are identified. Based on these characteristics, an opportunism-focused transaction cost analysis (OTCA) for PPPs as a governance structure is proposed to supplement the current practice of PPP feasibility analysis. As a part of theory development, a case study of PPP power plants is performed to evaluate the proposed theory and to illustrate how the proposed OTCA can be applied in practice. Policies and administration strategies for power

  19. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions (a...

  20. Transaction cost economics and the role of national culture : a test of hypotheses based on Inglehart and Hofstede

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Geyskens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Transaction cost economics (TCE) is probably the most widely accepted theory on how firms can gain competitive advantage through efficient organization of their economic transactions. However, by focusing on the competitive environment in which companies operate, it abstracts from the cultural

  1. Dynamic Trading with Predictable Returns and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We derive a closed-form optimal dynamic portfolio policy when trading is costly and security returns are predictable by signals with dierent mean-reversion speeds.The optimal strategy is characterized by two principles: 1) aim in front of the target and 2) trade partially towards the current aim....... Specically, the optimal updated portfolio is a linear combination of the existing portfolio and an \\aim portfolio," which is a weighted average of the current Markowitz portfolio (the moving target) and the expected Markowitz portfolios on all future dates (where the target is moving). Intuitively...

  2. Would Ronald Coase love Bitcoin? How Blockchain Lowers Transaction Costs and Changes the Coasian Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Kaid, Amira

    2017-01-01

    The rising popularity of blockchain technology otherwise known as the technology that underlies the Bitcoin protocol has been the subject of a lot of investigation and enthusiasm among financial organizations for its potentially revolutionary properties that will likely change how the economy works in the future. The blockchain is a decentralized open source ledger that records bitcoin transactions and is maintained by a distributed network of miners. Blockchain technology however has many ap...

  3. Intellectual Property Clearinghouses: The Effects of Reduced Transaction Costs in Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Reiko; Schiff, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We focus on downstream uses that combine multiple intellectual property rights and examine the effects of introducing an intellectual property clearinghouse that reduces transaction costs associated with licensing. We show that this causes equilibrium royalties to rise in some cases and may harm licensors because clearinghouse by itself does not eliminate the 'tragedy of the anticommons'. Downstream welfare effects may also be positive or negative and we characterise the effects on downstream...

  4. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  5. Delivering Left-Skewed Portfolio Payoff Distributions in the Presence of Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek B Krawczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For pension-savers, a low payoff is a financial disaster. Such investors will most likely prefer left-skewed payoff distributions over right-skewed payoff distributions. We explore how such distributions can be delivered. Cautious-relaxed utility measures are cautious in ensuring that payoffs don’t fall much below a reference value, but relaxed about exceeding it. We find that the payoff distribution delivered by a cautious-relaxed utility measure has appealing features which payoff distributions delivered by traditional utility functions don’t. In particular, cautious-relaxed distributions can have the mass concentrated on the left, hence be left-skewed. However, cautious-relaxed strategies prescribe frequent portfolio adjustments which may be expensive if transaction costs are charged. In contrast, more traditional strategies can be time-invariant. Thus we investigate the impact of transaction costs on the appeal of cautious-relaxed strategies. We find that relatively high transaction fees are required for the cautious-relaxed strategy to lose its appeal. This paper contributes to the literature which compares utility measures by the payoff distributions they produce and finds that a cautious-relaxed utility measure will deliver payoffs that many investors will prefer.

  6. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality management as a resource of transaction costs reduction: empirical inputs from the international fruit trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio Carvalho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruit is a highly perishable product, susceptible to biological, physical and chemical hazards. All these risks are higher when fruit are transacted in international trade. In this case fruit suppliers and fruit buyers are exposed to elevated transaction costs, since both sides need to deal with questions like product specifications, post-harvest processing and logistics. Quality management can be employed in order to organize all production, processing and logistics operations. Our aim in this paper was to verify if producers, exporters and importers of fruit are making use of quality management concepts in order to reduce risks and transaction costs. As investigation method, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Brazil and the UK. The content of the semi-structured interview questions was chosen based on the literature review of TCE, the international fruit trade and quality management. The questions were carefully chosen to reveal the factors which are determinant for the configuration of transaction arrangements in the fruit trade. The topics investigated were: the technical activities performed by the organisations operating in the fruit commerce; the main types of commercial clients (partners of the firm; the nature of the market type relations maintained by the firm; the level of quality problems perceived by the firm; and the quality management strategies adopted by the firm. These topics served as the foundation for the elaboration of the main questions and the probe questions. They also gave the direction for possible follow-up questions. The results of the interviews support the idea that quality consciousness is fundamental in the fruit trade. The majority of companies approached in the research were shown not to perceive as a problem the several parameters that affect the quality of the final product. In other words, the results suggest that firms that are incapable of handling quality issues satisfactorily find little place

  8. Modelling the Intention to Adopt Cloud Computing Services: A Transaction Cost Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogan Yigitbasioglu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses transaction cost theory to study cloud computing adoption. A model is developed and tested with data from an Australian survey. According to the results, perceived vendor opportunism and perceived legislative uncertainty around cloud computing were significantly associated with perceived cloud computing security risk. There was also a significant negative relationship between perceived cloud computing security risk and the intention to adopt cloud services. This study also reports on adoption rates of cloud computing in terms of applications, as well as the types of services used.

  9. Finite-horizon optimal investment with transaction costs: A parabolic double obstacle problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Yi, Fahuai

    This paper concerns optimal investment problem of a CRRA investor who faces proportional transaction costs and finite time horizon. From the angle of stochastic control, it is a singular control problem, whose value function is governed by a time-dependent HJB equation with gradient constraints. We reveal that the problem is equivalent to a parabolic double obstacle problem involving two free boundaries that correspond to the optimal buying and selling policies. This enables us to make use of the well-developed theory of obstacle problem to attack the problem. The C regularity of the value function is proven and the behaviors of the free boundaries are completely characterized.

  10. Financial risk monitoring and transaction costs in coffee & soybean trading companies and processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bignotto Edson Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the use of risk monitoring mechanisms by coffee and soybean trading and processing companies. It also investigates the role these mechanisms play in the mitigation of certain transaction costs associated to bounded rationality, information asymmetry, and business opportunism in negotiations involving derivatives. The results presented are based on literature and original research, which consisted of interviews with 19 coffee and soybean trading and processing company agents that deal with the management and execution of derivatives trades. The interviews suggest that the interest in formal risk monitoring mechanisms depends strongly on the organizational structure of the business. In family businesses, in which the owner participates actively in negotiations, the interest is limited. In non-family businesses, where there is a clear separation between supervisory upper-management and agents involved with trading, the interest in risk monitoring systems is more evident. This result seems to indicate that the mitigation of transaction costs associated with information asymmetry and opportunism might be stronger motivations for interest in risk monitoring mechanisms than the costs resulting from bounded rationality.

  11. Effect of transaction costs on market participation among smallholder cassava farmers in Central Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Okoye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High transaction costs deter entry of small farmers into the market. With the data from 240 smallholder cassava farmers in Central Madagascar, this study identified strategies to promote successful smallholder commercialization. The coefficients for membership of cooperatives, native of community and farming experience, have a direct relationship with decision to participate in the market and which is significant at 1% level and road condition to the nearest town is good at 10% level. The coefficients for age, distance to the nearest town and distance from the farm to the market have an indirect relationship with decision to participate in the market and significant at 5, 10 and 1% levels, respectively. The results also show that the coefficients for personal means of transportation and marketing experience have a direct relationship with decision to sell cassava off-farm and at 10 and 1% level of significance, respectively, while distance to the nearest town and distance from the farm to the market had an indirect relationship with decision to sell off-farm at 5% level of significance each and cost of transportation at 1% level. The study raises policy issues which might reduce these transaction costs by providing more market outlets, better rural infrastructure and also bulking centres.

  12. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations...... are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE) method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer...

  13. Market failures, consumer preferences, and transaction costs inenergy efficiency purchase decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott

    2004-11-23

    Several factors limit the energy savings potential and increase the costs of energy-efficient technologies to consumers. These factors may usefully be placed into two categories; one category is what economists would define as market failures and the other is related to consumer preferences. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the roles of these factors, and develops a methodology to quantify their effects on costs and potentials of two energy efficient end uses - residential lighting and clothes washers. It notes the significant roles played by the high implicit cost of obtaining information about the benefits of the two technologies and the apparent inability to process and utilize information. For compact fluorescent lamps, this report finds a conservative estimate of the cost of conserved energy of 3.1 cents per kWh. For clothes washers, including water savings reduces the cost of conserved energy from 13.6 cents to 4.3 cents per equivalent kWh. Despite these benefits, market share remains low. About 18 million tons of CO2 could be saved cost effectively from 2005 sales of these two technologies alone. The paper also notes that trading of carbon emissions will incur transaction costs that will range from less than 10 cents per metric ton of CO2 for larger size projects and programs to a few dollars per metric ton of carbon for the smaller ones.

  14. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+: Transaction Costs of Six Peruvian Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Rendón Thompson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ has received strong support as a major component of future global climate change policy. The financial mechanism of REDD+ is payment for the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration in tropical forests that is expected to create incentives for conservation of forest cover and condition. However, the costs of achieving emissions reduction by these means remain largely unknown. We assess the set-up, implementation, and monitoring costs, i.e., collectively the transaction costs, of six of the first seven REDD+ project designs from the Peruvian Amazon and compare them with established projects in Brazil and Bolivia. The estimated costs vary greatly among the assessed projects from US$0.16 to 1.44 ha-1 yr-1, with an average of US$0.73 ha-1 yr-1, though they are comparable to earlier published estimates. The results indicate that the costs of implementing REDD+ are highly uncertain for participating developing countries because of issues such as inadequate project design and how additionality is determined. Furthermore, some insight is obtained into how different activities to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, the type of implementer, and project location affect implementation costs of REDD+ projects. Even with these first estimates, the cost of preserving existing intact forests in the Peruvian Amazon may have been underestimated.

  15. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Models with Transaction Cost and Liquidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major issues for mean-variance-skewness models are the errors in estimations that cause corner solutions and low diversity in the portfolio. In this paper, a multiobjective fuzzy portfolio selection model with transaction cost and liquidity is proposed to maintain the diversity of portfolio. In addition, we have designed a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition of the objective space to maintain the diversity of obtained solutions. The algorithm is used to obtain a set of Pareto-optimal portfolios with good diversity and convergence. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm, the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the classic MOEA/D and NSGA-II through some numerical examples based on the data of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Market. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm is able to obtain better diversity and more evenly distributed Pareto front than the other two algorithms and the proposed model can maintain quite well the diversity of portfolio. The purpose of this paper is to deal with portfolio problems in the weighted possibilistic mean-variance-skewness (MVS and possibilistic mean-variance-skewness-entropy (MVS-E frameworks with transaction cost and liquidity and to provide different Pareto-optimal investment strategies as diversified as possible for investors at a time, rather than one strategy for investors at a time.

  16. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  17. Challenges in Delivering Green Building Projects: Unearthing the Transaction Costs (TCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queena K. Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Delivering green building (GB projects involve some activities that are atypical in comparison with conventional buildings. Such new activities are characterized by uncertainty, and they incur hidden costs that have not been expected nor are they readily appreciated among the stakeholders. This paper develops a typology and chronology to examine the new activities that are associated with transaction costs (TCs in the real estate development process (REDP of green building. Through in-depth interviews with representatives from the major developers in Hong Kong who have experiences in GB practice, this study aims to unearth TCs involved at the critical stages of the REDP. Apart from reconfirming the early project planning stage as the most critical in the consideration of TCs, the study results also identified “extra legal liability risk of the GB product” as the major concern for any GB developer in Hong Kong. The key additional activities that bring significant TCs in developing GB are identified and compared to their traditional counterparts. In turn, project managers not only have to pursue overall cost management whilst winning more business, but they also have to pay particular attention to sustainability in order to minimize hidden societal costs. The study also provides a reference for governments and professionals that will aid in forming policy as well as advance the practice of the GB market by optimizing the societal costs.

  18. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  19. The more trust, the fewer transaction costs - searching for a new management perspective to help solve the challenge of ever rising health care costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henny van Lienden; Marco Oteman

    2013-01-01

    Based on reflection of elements of theories of social capital, institutional economics, presence and prosocial motivation, the authors are developing a conceptual model to reduce costs in health care leading to the hypothesis : more trust leads to fewer transaction costs. Furthermore, a case study

  20. Applying Insights from Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to Improve DoD Cost Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-12

    and year). For example, the Marine Corps Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle ( AAAV )17 reported Program Office costs in exhibit R-3 under “Support...how they are funded. The AAAV reported costs for the more general category “Support and Management” for FY97 – FY06, but the line-items included in

  1. Role conflict and ambiguity of CEOs in international joint ventures: a transaction cost perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y; Shenkar, O; Luo, Y; Nyaw, M K

    2001-08-01

    Insights from transaction cost economics were used to study the boundary conditions underlying the role conflict and ambiguity of 265 CEOs in Chinese-based international joint ventures. Role conflict and ambiguity were lower when the contract between parents was more complete. Contract completeness fully mediated the effects of parent objective gap and parent formalization on role ambiguity but only partially so in the case of role conflict. Role conflict was lower when the foreign parent was dominant in the venture but higher when the local parent was dominant. Role conflict and ambiguity were inversely related to cultural distance. Neither construct had a detrimental effect on international joint venture performance. Implications for role theory are discussed.

  2. Allocating Risks in Public-Private Partnerships Using a Transaction Cost Economic Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xioa-Hua Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP projects are often characterisedby increased complexity and uncertainty due to their idiosyncrasyin the management and delivery processes such as long-termlifecycle, incomplete contracting, and the multitude of stakeholders.An appropriate risk allocation is particularly crucial to achievingproject success. This paper focuses on the risk allocation in PPPprojects and argues that the transaction cost economics (TCEtheory can integrate the economics part, which is currently missing,into the risk management research. A TCE-based approach isproposed as a logical framework for allocating risks between publicand private sectors in PPP projects. A case study of the SouthernCross Station redevelopment project in Australia is presented toillustrate the approach. The allocation of important risks is putunder scrutiny. Lessons learnt are discussed and alternativemanagement approaches drawing on TCE theory are proposed.

  3. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  4. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher, H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any

  5. Optical Networks for Cost Monitoring and Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    R Buvanesvari; V Amala Saint Thomas; M Rajeswari; A Rajaram Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on cost reduction and monitoring in optical networks. Optical mesh networks are cost savings with switching systems that are interconnected by point-to-point networks. Transponders play a major role in it. All-optical packet switching has been intensively investigated in recent years as an alternative to static, cross connect based networks. Several switch architectures have been proposed, all of them using buffers made of fiber delay lines. We consider the problem of minim...

  6. The Drayang Girls of Thimphu: sexual network formation, transactional sex and emerging modernities in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Dorji, Gampo; Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, B M; Isaac, Shajy; Blanchard, James

    2011-12-01

    Bhutan's sustained low HIV prevalence can be attributed to its political commitment to maintain isolation from foreign cultural influence. Recently, rising HIV prevalence has coincided with the increase in human traffic along Bhutan's borders. The majority of infections, occurring primarily through sexual contact, have appeared in the urban environments that are situated along the main transport routes. This qualitative study explored the sexual networks that form at entertainment venues in the capital city of Thimphu. To more fully understand sexual network formation at theses venues, one must take into account an emerging modernity that reflects a convergence of cultural, economic and political influences emanating from Bhutan's unique 'middle-path' modernisation scheme. The growing appearance of transactional sex in Thimphu not only points to an emergent form of exploitation wrought by larger economic transformations and widening social inequalities; the power inequalities that surround its practice are also significantly exacerbated by the local cultural politics and moral ideologies that arise as Bhutan proceeds along the path towards global capitalism. Discourses of Bhutanese sexual morality articulate with broader political economic transformations to forcefully position village women engaging in transactional sex within a field of power relations that leaves them open to various forms of subjugation.

  7. A Novel Dynamic Algorithm for IT Outsourcing Risk Assessment Based on Transaction Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Cong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the great risk exposed in IT outsourcing, how to assess IT outsourcing risk becomes a critical issue. However, most of approaches to date need to further adapt to the particular complexity of IT outsourcing risk for either falling short in subjective bias, inaccuracy, or efficiency. This paper proposes a dynamic algorithm of risk assessment. It initially forwards extended three layers (risk factors, risks, and risk consequences of transferring mechanism based on transaction cost theory (TCT as the framework of risk analysis, which bridges the interconnection of components in three layers with preset transferring probability and impact. Then, it establishes an equation group between risk factors and risk consequences, which assures the “attribution” more precisely to track the specific sources that lead to certain loss. Namely, in each phase of the outsourcing lifecycle, both the likelihood and the loss of each risk factor and those of each risk are acquired through solving equation group with real data of risk consequences collected. In this “reverse” way, risk assessment becomes a responsive and interactive process with real data instead of subjective estimation, which improves the accuracy and alleviates bias in risk assessment. The numerical case proves the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with the approach forwarded by other references.

  8. An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction costs and Market Participation by Sweet Potato Farmers in South Eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohajianya, D.O.; Ugochukwu, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in sweet potato markets by a random sample of 320 small holder farmers in south eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured and validated questionnaire, and analyzed using the ordered probit analysis procedure. Participation decisions revealed that marketing experience, farm size, membership of cooperatives/social organizations, extension contact, farming experi...

  9. Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, R J; Belton, W J

    1995-01-01

    "This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis." excerpt

  10. Network strength, transaction-specific investments, inter-personal trust, and relationship satisfaction in Chinese agrifood SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of network strength, transaction-specific investments and inter-personal trust on business relationship satisfaction for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in agri-food processing and exporting in China.

  11. Transaction cost analysis of in-clinic versus telehealth consultations for chronic pain: preliminary evidence for rapid and affordable access to interdisciplinary collaborative consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Brian R; Whittington, Jan; Towle, Cara; Tauben, David J; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Cahana, Alex; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-06-01

    With ever increasing mandates to reduce costs and increase the quality of pain management, health care institutions are faced with the challenge of adopting innovative technologies and shifting workflows to provide value-based care. Transaction cost economic analysis can provide comparative evaluation of the consequences of these changes in the delivery of care. The aim of this study was to establish proof-of-concept using transaction cost analysis to examine chronic pain management in-clinic and through telehealth. Participating health care providers were asked to identify and describe two comparable completed transactions for patients with chronic pain: one consultation between patient and specialist in-clinic and the other a telehealth presentation of a patient's case by the primary care provider to a team of pain medicine specialists. Each provider completed two on-site interviews. Focus was on the time, value of time, and labor costs per transaction. Number of steps, time, and costs for providers and patients were identified. Forty-six discrete steps were taken for the in-clinic transaction, and 27 steps were taken for the telehealth transaction. Although similar in costs per patient ($332.89 in-clinic vs. $376.48 telehealth), the costs accrued over 153 business days in-clinic and 4 business days for telehealth. Time elapsed between referral and completion of initial consultation was 72 days in-clinic, 4 days for telehealth. U.S. health care is moving toward the use of more technologies and practices, and the information provided by transaction cost analyses of care delivery for pain management will be important to determine actual cost savings and benefits. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  13. Alignment between chain quality management and chain governance in EU pork supply chains: a Transaction-Cost-Economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Mark; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques; Omta, Onno

    2010-02-01

    Although inter-firm coordination of quality management is increasingly important for meeting end-customer demand in agri-food chains, few researchers focus on the relation between inter-firm quality management systems (QMS) and inter-firm governance structures (GS). However, failure to align QMSs and GSs may lead to inefficiencies in quality management because of high transaction-costs. In addition, misalignment is likely to reduce the quality of end-customer products. This paper addresses this gap in research by empirically examining the relation between QMSs and GSs in pork meat supply chains. Transaction-Cost-Economic theory is used to develop propositions about the relation between three aspects of QMSs--ownership, vertical scope and scale of adoption--and the use of different types of GSs in pork meat supply chains. To validate the propositions, seven cases are examined from four different countries. The results show that the different aspects of QMSs largely relate to specific GSs used in chains in the manner predicted by the propositions. This supports the view that alignment between QMSs and GSs is important for the efficient coordination of quality management in (pork meat) supply chains.

  14. Do the rich get richer? An empirical analysis of the Bitcoin transaction network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kondor, Dániel; Pósfai, Márton; Csabai, István; Vattay, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    .... the resulting wealth distribution) are compared to real-world data. In this paper, we analyze Bitcoin, which is a novel digital currency system, where the complete list of transactions is publicly available...

  15. Transaction costs of farmers’ participation in forest management: Policy implications of payments for environmental services schemes in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areeya Manasboonphempool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on payments for environmental services (PES has observed that high transaction costs (TCs are incurred through the implementation of PES schemes and farmer participation. TCs incurred by households are considered to be an obstacle to the participation in and efficiency of PES policies. This study aims to understand transactions related to previous forest plantation programmes and to estimate the actual TCs incurred by farmers who participated in these programmes in a mountainous area of northwestern Vietnam. In addition, this study examines determinants of households’ TCs to test the hypothesis of whether the amount of TCs varies according to household characteristics. Results show that average TCs are not likely to be a constraint for participation since they are about 200,000 VND (USD 10 per household per contract, which is equivalent to one person’s average earnings for about two days of labour. However, TCs amount to more than one-third of the programmes’ benefits, which is relatively high compared to PES programmes in developed countries. This implies that rather than aiming to reduce TCs, an appropriate agenda for policy improvement is to balance the level of TCs with PES programme benefits to enhance the overall attractiveness of afforestation programmes for smallholder farmers. Regression analysis reveals that education, gender and perception towards PES programmes have significant effects on the magnitude of TCs. The analyses also points out the importance of local conditions on the level of TCs, with some unexpected results.

  16. Economics of institutions and transaction costs: implementation of some elements of the analysis of small-scale agribusiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gazolla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how family agribusiness reproduces in rural areas of the country (with emphasis in Southern Brazil, even in some cases, under conditions of social and economic difficulties. Thus, this paper discusses the main issues related to maintaining social and economic developments of small agro-industrial by addressing them under the theoretical framework of institutionalism (The New Institutional Economics - NEI and Cost Economics Transaction (ECT. The research methodology included the use of a structured questionnaire with closed questions, search through the CAAF (CAAF, 2006 and semi-structured interviews with owners of families agribusinesses, applied both in Northern Rio Grande do Sul (Upper East Region of Uruguay. The findings show that the ECT and institutionalism are theoretical approaches that are consistent and provide good support in understanding the processes of reproduction and social maintenance of small-scale agro-industrial family, even in the face of production problems, market, organization, legislation.

  17. Deep space network software cost estimation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for Jet PRopulsion Laboratory (JPL) Deep Space Network (DSN) Data System implementation tasks is described. The resource estimation mdel modifies and combines a number of existing models. The model calibrates the task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software life-cycle statistics.

  18. Controlling technology costs as integrated networks expand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, K

    1995-01-01

    The expansion of integrated healthcare networks is changing the way radiology technology should be acquired and maintained. Some significant effects are that utilization will decline with managed care; the radiology department is now a cost center, not a source of revenue; and integrated networks find themselves with redundant technology and excess radiology equipment. While hospitals shoulder additional financial risk associated with managed care, responsibility for finding solutions to new problems falls to the radiology administrator. Administrators can take the following steps to effectively reduce expense and risk: Understand current usage. Eliminate redundancies. Prioritize modalities. Find new financing opportunities. Lease equipment. Purchase reconditioned equipment. Redeploy assets instead of buying new. Radiology administrators who view these problems as a challenging puzzle will naturally explore creative options. They will provide the greatest flexibility and best position for their department's contributions to the hospital's overall strategic goals.

  19. Sharing cost in social community networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Ranjan; Elango, Divya; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2012-01-01

    to gain attention amongst the civilian Internet users. By using special WiFi routers that are provided by a social community network provider (SCNP), users can effectively share their connection with the neighborhood in return for some monthly monetary benefits. However, deployment maps of existing WSCNs...... reflect their slow progress in capturing the WiFi router market. In this paper, we look at a router design and cost sharing problem in WSCNs to improve deployment. We devise a simple to implement, successful, budget-balanced, ex-post efficient, and individually rational auction-based mechanism...

  20. Challenges in Delivering Green Building Projects : Unearthing the Transaction Costs (TCs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Khalid, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Delivering green building (GB) projects involve some activities that are atypical in comparison with conventional buildings. Such new activities are characterized by uncertainty, and they incur hidden costs that have not been expected nor are they readily appreciated among the stakeholders. This

  1. Diversified Investments, Market Returns and Low Transaction Costs: Which is the Best Combination of these Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Ventura

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a way to build a diversified portfolio at a cost lower than what most investment service firms and advisors can provide through active fund management. The investment strategy presented consists of selecting the Index that is appropriate for the investment aims and investing the portfolio based on the mix of different indexes that reflect the investor's goal. Since index investing by definition does not select any other security than the one in the index and has to be purchased in the proportion reflected in the index, stock selection is straightforward and management fees are at a low level or even beat the minimum, if competition works.

  2. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang (Avery. W

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-commerce on trade distance and consumer welfare. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of cross-border e-commerce on international trade in the context of China, mainly from the perspective of transaction cost economics in conjunction with the traditional comparative advantage model by analyzing information cost, negotiation cost, transportation cost, tariffs and middlemen cost separately. Firstly, the new theoretical model suggests that cross-border e-commerce may have a positive role in promoting international trade only when the negative impact caused by tariff cost and transportation cost is offset. Secondly, our result shows that cross-border e-commerce has a positive effect on the growth of China’s international trade in each year. However, the positive effect does not show incremental growth over time, possibly as a result of the weak implementation of favorable policies in trade, in addition to global trade shrinking.

  3. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  4. Cost Effective Rumor Containment in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kotnis, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    The spread of rumors through social media and online social networks can not only disrupt the daily lives of citizens but also result in loss of life and property. A rumor spreads when individuals, who are unable decide the authenticity of the information, mistake the rumor as genuine information and pass it on to their acquaintances. We propose a solution where a set of individuals (based on their degree) in the social network are trained and provided resources to help them distinguish a rumor from genuine information. By formulating an optimization problem we calculate the optimum set of individuals, who must undergo training, and the quality of training that minimizes the expected training cost and ensures an upper bound on the size of the rumor outbreak. Our primary contribution is that although the optimization problem turns out to be non convex, we show that the problem is equivalent to solving a set of linear programs. This result also allows us to solve the problem of minimizing the size of rumor outb...

  5. An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction Costs and Market Participation by Small-Holder Cassava Farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Okoye, B.C; Onyenweaku, C.E; Ukoha, O.O

    2010-01-01

    The Ordered Probit model analysis procedure was applied to determine the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in cassava markets by a sample of 360 smallholder farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria. Participation decisions revealed that membership of cooperatives or social organizations, farming experience and marketing experience had a positive relationship with decision to be autarkic other than buyer and seller other than autarkic and...

  6. Factors Influencing Accounting Outsourcing Practices among SMEs in Pakistan Context: Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Resource-Based Views (RBV) Prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez, Ajmal; Andersen, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Published version of an article from the journal:International Journal of Business and Management. Also available from the publisher:http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n7p19 The present study was conducted to identify factors that affect Pakistani manufacturing SMEs decisions to outsource management accounting practices in terms of transaction cost economics (TCE) and resource-based view (RBV). A survey of 302 SMEs was carried out using convenience sampling, a personal interview ...

  7. Cost-effectiveness assessment of transactions international water basins. an application to the andalusian Mediterranean basins; Valoracion coste eficacia de las transacciones de agua inter cuencas. Una aplicacion a las cuencas mediterraneas andaluzas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedilla Perez, S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate through a cost-effectiveness approach water use transactions implemented under Water law framework. These measures complement others proposed by Water Plan of the Mediterranean-andallucian Basin. This water transfers were planned in order to improve the environmental conditions of the water body belonging to low Basin of almanzora river . The analysis was developed including uncertainty related with the availability of resources under various water scarcity scenarios. The results show that water use transactions, from a cost effectiveness approach, has a more favorable assessment than the measures which are explicitly outlined in the river Basin Plan. Furthermore, the study also incorporates a reflection about the suitability of this approach in front of others that consider not just the economic costs, but also others variables, such as social and environmental cost concerned in implementing such measures. (Author)

  8. Optimal cost for strengthening or destroying a given network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Amikam; Cohen, Reuven; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening or destroying a network is a very important issue in designing resilient networks or in planning attacks against networks, including planning strategies to immunize a network against diseases, viruses, etc. Here we develop a method for strengthening or destroying a random network with a minimum cost. We assume a correlation between the cost required to strengthen or destroy a node and the degree of the node. Accordingly, we define a cost function c (k ) , which is the cost of strengthening or destroying a node with degree k . Using the degrees k in a network and the cost function c (k ) , we develop a method for defining a list of priorities of degrees and for choosing the right group of degrees to be strengthened or destroyed that minimizes the total price of strengthening or destroying the entire network. We find that the list of priorities of degrees is universal and independent of the network's degree distribution, for all kinds of random networks. The list of priorities is the same for both strengthening a network and for destroying a network with minimum cost. However, in spite of this similarity, there is a difference between their pc, the critical fraction of nodes that has to be functional to guarantee the existence of a giant component in the network.

  9. Analysis of the transmission characteristics of China's carbon market transaction price volatility from the perspective of a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jingjing; Li, Huajiao; Zhou, Jinsheng; Jiang, Meihui; Dong, Di

    2017-12-23

    Research on the price fluctuation transmission of the carbon trading pilot market is of great significance for the establishment of China's unified carbon market and its development in the future. In this paper, the carbon market transaction prices of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Guangdong were selected from December 29, 2013 to March 26, 2016, as sample data. Based on the view of the complex network theory, we construct a price fluctuation transmission network model of five pilot carbon markets in China, with the purposes of analyzing the topological features of this network, including point intensity, weighted clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality, and community structure, and elucidating the characteristics and transmission mechanism of price fluctuation in China's five pilot cities. The results of point intensity and weighted clustering coefficient show that the carbon prices in the five markets remained unchanged and transmitted smoothly in general, and price fragmentation is serious; however, at some point, the price fluctuates with mass phenomena. The result of betweenness centrality reflects that a small number of price fluctuations can control the whole market carbon price transmission and price fluctuation evolves in an alternate manner. The study provides direction for the scientific management of the carbon price. Policy makers should take a positive role in promoting market activity, preventing the risks that may arise from mass trade and scientifically forecasting the volatility of trading prices, which will provide experience for the establishment of a unified carbon market in China.

  10. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  11. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  12. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  13. Valuation of Transactive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbert, Erik I. [Navigant Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Chandler, Shawn [Navigant Consulting, Portland, OR (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This is a final report from a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to formulate and test a methodology for valuation of systems where transaction-based mechanisms coordinate the exchange of value between the system’s actors. Today, the principal commodity being exchanged is electrical energy, and such mechanisms are called transactive energy systems. The authors strove to lay a foundation for meaningful valuations of transactive systems in general, and transactive energy systems as a special case. The word valuation is used in many different ways. This report proposes a valuation methodology that is inclusive of many types of valuations. Many will be familiar with cost-benefit valuations, in which both costs and benefits are assessed to determine whether the assets are worth their cost. Another set of valuation methods attempt to optimize an outcome using available resources, as is the case with integrated resource planning. In the end, this report’s methodology was most influenced by and most resembles the integrated-resource-planning approach. Regardless, we wish to enforce the premise that all valuations are comparative and should clearly specify a baseline scenario. A long, annotated list of prior valuation studies and valuation methodologies that influenced this report has been appended to this report. Much research is being conducted today concerning transactive systems, but only a handful of transactive system mechanisms have been formulated and field tested. They are found to be quite diverse, and the documentation of the various mechanisms is uneven in breadth and quality. It is therefore not adequate to simply assert that a valuation scenario includes a transactive system; certain characteristics and qualities of the chosen transactive system mechanism must be defined and stated. The report lists and discusses most of the known transactive system mechanisms. It offers a set of questions that may be used to help specify important

  14. Managing for Success: The Role of Transactional and Relational Mechanisms in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Firms are collaborating more in supply chain network and identified the importance of business relationships. This idea was embraced by academic and empirical research in operations management since last decade. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive integrated conceptual and empirical framework which elaborates the role of transactional and relational factors to highlight buyer-supplier relationship performance. While, limited studies explored these factors separately neither provide the dynamic interactive role of transactional and relational factors in an integrated framework. Through multiple case studies, findings reveal that impact of relational factors of trust and communication has constructive influence in reducing the transaction cost and improving relationship performance. This study contributes to debate on managing complex business network relationships by providing a combined theoretical setting (transaction cost economics and social exchange theory and empirically proven integrated model. Managers can enhance the operational performance by selecting the most suitable constructs.

  15. Reducing Transaction Costs for Energy Efficiency Investments and Analysis of Economic Risk Associated With Building Performance Uncertainties: Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Hendron, B.; Bonnema, E.

    2014-08-01

    The small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector face a number of barriers that inhibit SBSP owners from adopting energy efficiency solutions. This pilot project focused on overcoming two of the largest barriers to financing energy efficiency in small buildings: disproportionately high transaction costs and unknown or unacceptable risk. Solutions to these barriers can often be at odds, because inexpensive turnkey solutions are often not sufficiently tailored to the unique circumstances of each building, reducing confidence that the expected energy savings will be achieved. To address these barriers, NREL worked with two innovative, forward-thinking lead partners, Michigan Saves and Energi, to develop technical solutions that provide a quick and easy process to encourage energy efficiency investments while managing risk. The pilot project was broken into two stages: the first stage focused on reducing transaction costs, and the second stage focused on reducing performance risk. In the first stage, NREL worked with the non-profit organization, Michigan Saves, to analyze the effects of 8 energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on 81 different baseline small office building models in Holland, Michigan (climate zone 5A). The results of this analysis (totaling over 30,000 cases) are summarized in a simple spreadsheet tool that enables users to easily sort through the results and find appropriate small office EEM packages that meet a particular energy savings threshold and are likely to be cost-effective.

  16. Social networks, market transactions, and reputation as a central resource. The Mercado del Mar, a fish market in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Hernández, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.

  17. Social networks, market transactions, and reputation as a central resource. The Mercado del Mar, a fish market in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pedroza-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM, located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.

  18. Communicating Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Edsko; Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew

    We propose a novel language construct called communicating transactions, obtained by dropping the isolation requirement from classical transactions, which can be used to model automatic error recovery in distributed systems. We extend CCS with this construct and give a simple semantics for the extended calculus, called TransCCS. We develop a behavioural theory which is sound and complete with respect to the may-testing preorder, and use it to prove interesting laws and reason compositionally about example systems. Finally, we prove that communicating transactions do not increase the observational power of processes; thus CCS equivalences are preserved in the extended language.

  19. Health Provider Networks, Quality and Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  20. Health provider networks, quality and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  1. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  2. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Der er store forskelle i financieringsomkostningerne ved hussalg i forskellige lande. Er disse forskelle nødvendige? og kan udgifterne reduceres? Sådanne spørgsmål søger forskningsprojektet ?Modelling Real Property Transactions?, officielt sat i værk indenfor rammerne af COST (European Co...

  3. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  4. Balancing building and maintenance costs in growing transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Louf, Rémi; Gherardi, Marco

    2017-09-01

    The costs associated to the length of links impose unavoidable constraints to the growth of natural and artificial transport networks. When future network developments cannot be predicted, the costs of building and maintaining connections cannot be minimized simultaneously, requiring competing optimization mechanisms. Here, we study a one-parameter nonequilibrium model driven by an optimization functional, defined as the convex combination of building cost and maintenance cost. By varying the coefficient of the combination, the model interpolates between global and local length minimization, i.e., between minimum spanning trees and a local version known as dynamical minimum spanning trees. We show that cost balance within this ensemble of dynamical networks is a sufficient ingredient for the emergence of tradeoffs between the network's total length and transport efficiency, and of optimal strategies of construction. At the transition between two qualitatively different regimes, the dynamics builds up power-law distributed waiting times between global rearrangements, indicating a point of nonoptimality. Finally, we use our model as a framework to analyze empirical ant trail networks, showing its relevance as a null model for cost-constrained network formation.

  5. Balancing building and maintenance costs in growing transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Louf, Rémi; Gherardi, Marco

    2017-09-01

    The costs associated to the length of links impose unavoidable constraints to the growth of natural and artificial transport networks. When future network developments cannot be predicted, the costs of building and maintaining connections cannot be minimized simultaneously, requiring competing optimization mechanisms. Here, we study a one-parameter nonequilibrium model driven by an optimization functional, defined as the convex combination of building cost and maintenance cost. By varying the coefficient of the combination, the model interpolates between global and local length minimization, i.e., between minimum spanning trees and a local version known as dynamical minimum spanning trees. We show that cost balance within this ensemble of dynamical networks is a sufficient ingredient for the emergence of tradeoffs between the network's total length and transport efficiency, and of optimal strategies of construction. At the transition between two qualitatively different regimes, the dynamics builds up power-law distributed waiting times between global rearrangements, indicating a point of nonoptimality. Finally, we use our model as a framework to analyze empirical ant trail networks, showing its relevance as a null model for cost-constrained network formation.

  6. Behaviour in O of the Neural Networks Training Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1998-01-01

    We study the behaviour in zero of the derivatives of the cost function used when training non-linear neural networks. It is shown that a fair number offirst, second and higher order derivatives vanish in zero, validating the belief that 0 is a peculiar and potentially harmful location....... These calculations arerelated to practical and theoretical aspects of neural networks training....

  7. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  8. Cost Vs. Redundancy in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    separate distribution nodes to NT's. The cost of the ear topology is kept down by reusing trenches making extra digging minimal. The results show however that the ear topology with the home-run method is not suitable compared to the tree topology due to the extra fibers needed. Further work could apply...

  9. Pago por desempeño explicado desde la teoría de costos de transacción Pay for performance explained by transaction costs theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gorbaneff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad de la teoría de costos de transacción para explicar los incentivos en la cadena de salud. Métodos: Estudio de un caso de CPS, una aseguradora de salud en Bogotá (Colombia, que prefiere no publicar su nombre. Resultados: CPS se mueve en el ambiente de altos costos de transacción y utiliza la forma híbrida de gobernación en el nivel ambulatorio. La intensidad de incentivos, el control administrativo y el contrato están de acuerdo con la teoría. En el nivel hospitalario, a pesar de la alta incertidumbre, se utiliza el mercado. Los incentivos discretos tipo (1,0 y la ausencia de control administrativo dificultan a CPS relacionar el pago con el desempeño hospitalario. Conclusiones: La teoría de costos de transacción explica satisfactoriamente la configuración de los incentivos. Otro aporte a la literatura lo constituye el criterio para diferenciar entre mercado e híbrido. Se propone que para el mercado son característicos incentivos discretos tipo (1,0, mientras que para híbrido son los incentivos continuos tipo comisión.Objective: To evaluate the ability of transaction costs theory to explain incentives in the health care chain. Methods: We performed a case study of CPS, a health insurance company in Bogota (Colombia, which preferred not to publish its name. Results: CPS moves in the environment of high transaction costs and uses the hybrid form of governance at the outpatient level. Incentive intensity, administrative control and the contract all agree with the theory. At the hospital level, the market is used, despite greater uncertainty. Because of the discrete form (1.0 of the incentives and the absence of administrative control, it is difficult for CPS to relate payment to hospital performance. Conclusions: Transaction costs theory explains the configuration of incentives. Another contribution made by this theory to the literature is the criterion to differentiate between the market and the hybrid

  10. Identifying Bitcoin users by transaction behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, John V.

    2015-05-01

    Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account holders. Transaction timestamps and network properties observed over time contribute to this finding. The timestamp of each transaction is the result of many factors: the desire purchase an item, daily schedule and activities, as well as hardware and network latency. Dynamic network properties of the transaction, such as coin flow and the number of edge outputs and inputs, contribute further to reveal account identity. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for identifying and verifying Bitcoin users based on the observation of Bitcoin transactions over time. The behavior we attempt to quantify roughly occurs in the social band of Newell's time scale. A subset of the Blockchain 230686 is taken, selecting users that initiated between 100 and 1000 unique transactions per month for at least 6 different months. This dataset shows evidence of being nonrandom and nonlinear, thus a dynamical systems approach is taken. Classification and authentication accuracies are obtained under various representations of the monthly Bitcoin samples: outgoing transactions, as well as both outgoing and incoming transactions are considered, along with the timing and dynamic network properties of transaction sequences. The most appropriate representations of monthly Bitcoin samples are proposed. Results show an inherent lack of anonymity by exploiting patterns in long-term transactional behavior.

  11. Product Cost Management Structures: a review and neural network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growth of approaches in product costing and draws synergies with information management and resource planning systems, to investigate potential application of state of the art modelling techniques of neural networks. Increasing demands on costing systems to serve multiple decision-making objectives, have made it essential to use better techniques for analysis of available data. This need is highlighted in the paper. The approach of neural networks, which have several analogous facets to complement and aid the information demands of modern product costing, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP structures and the dominant-computing environment (for information management in the object oriented paradigm form the domain for investigation. Simulated data is used in neural network applications across activities that consume resources and deliver products, to generate information for monitoring and control decisions. The results in application for feature extraction and variation detection and their implications are presented in the paper.

  12. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  13. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E; Nichols, Thomas E; Bullmore, Ed T; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  14. Heterogeneous Deployment Analysis for Cost-Effective Mobile Network Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    -powered base stations is a promising cost-effective solution to considerably enhance user experience. In such a network topology, which is denoted as heterogeneous deployment, the macro layer is expected to provide wider coverage but lower average data speeds whereas small cells are targeted at extending...... network coverage and boosting network capacity in traffic hot-spot areas. The thesis deals with the deployment of both outdoor small cells and indoor femto cells. Amongst the outdoor solution, particular emphasis is put on relay base stations as backhaul costs can be reduced by utilizing LTE spectrum...... statistical models of deployment areas, the performance analysis is carried out in the form of operator case studies for large-scale deployment scenarios, including realistic macro network layouts and inhomogeneous spatial traffic distributions. Deployment of small cells is performed by means of proposed...

  15. Efficiency and cost of economical brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Achard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain anatomical networks are sparse, complex, and have economical small-world properties. We investigated the efficiency and cost of human brain functional networks measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a factorial design: two groups of healthy old (N = 11; mean age = 66.5 years and healthy young (N = 15; mean age = 24.7 years volunteers were each scanned twice in a no-task or "resting" state following placebo or a single dose of a dopamine receptor antagonist (sulpiride 400 mg. Functional connectivity between 90 cortical and subcortical regions was estimated by wavelet correlation analysis, in the frequency interval 0.06-0.11 Hz, and thresholded to construct undirected graphs. These brain functional networks were small-world and economical in the sense of providing high global and local efficiency of parallel information processing for low connection cost. Efficiency was reduced disproportionately to cost in older people, and the detrimental effects of age on efficiency were localised to frontal and temporal cortical and subcortical regions. Dopamine antagonism also impaired global and local efficiency of the network, but this effect was differentially localised and did not interact with the effect of age. Brain functional networks have economical small-world properties-supporting efficient parallel information transfer at relatively low cost-which are differently impaired by normal aging and pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission.

  16. Neural Networks for Approximating the Cost and Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsionas, Efthymios G.; Michaelides, Panayotis G.; Vouldis, Angelos

    2008-01-01

    Most business decisions depend on accurate approximations to the cost and production functions. Traditionally, the estimation of cost and production functions in economics relies on standard specifications which are less than satisfactory in numerous situations. However, instead of fitting the data with a pre-specified model, Artificial Neural Networks let the data itself serve as evidence to support the model’s estimation of the underlying process. In this context, the proposed approach c...

  17. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Park

    Full Text Available Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  18. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  19. The transactional approach in company boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaihuaque Dueñas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between market and firms through the theory of transactional cost and the relationsthat determine the structure and boundaries of the firm. Using the assumptions from the transactional cost approach,this article proposes some variables that determine optimal organizational structures and their boundaries.

  20. evaluation of total annual costs of heat exchanger networks using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents pinch analysis of some heat exchanger networks (HENs) problems using Hint integration (HINT) software. Three examples reported to have been solved using different approaches by various researchers to obtain the least possible total annual cost (TAC) were solved using the Hint software. In this work ...

  1. evaluation of total annual costs of heat exchanger networks using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study presents pinch analysis of some heat exchanger networks (HENs) problems using Hint integration. (HINT) software ... after solving the first problem using RPA based heat integration gave a minimum total annual cost (TAC) of $237,. 510 /yr. which ... reaction, run pumps, and effect the separation and compressors.

  2. Leasing transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes trade operations in lea­sin­g companies as specific businesses enabling acquisition of possession by legal and physical persons by gradual repayments of the purchase price. On a diagram it shows the complexity of business relations between the main participants of a lea­sin­g transaction, which are production companies, lea­sin­g companies and those interested in the subject of lea­sin­g. To capture the complexity of relations, there are also included all other participants. Their function in a lea­sin­g transaction starts only at the moment, when the leaseholders are not able to pay their liabilities to which they agreed in the innominate contract. Paper clarifies the term “lea­sin­g with zero mark-up”. With the help of calculation it describes the basis of a lea­sin­g transaction, where significantly participates also the production company, insurance company and commercial bank. All these subjects have certain benefits from a realized transaction. These are enabled by their close business relationships with the lea­sin­g company, which is sufficiently clear from the diagram and it is also substantiated by calculations. Paper includes a definition of lea­sin­g operations, as well as a ma­the­ma­ti­cal model of lea­sin­g payments calculation for a car. A part of the paper is also dealing with a cession of a lea­sin­g contract in the person of a leaseholder as a specific case enforced by financial issues of the leaseholder. The paper elaborates alternatives of evaluating client’s bonding capacity with the help of financial indicators.

  3. Low Cost Network Emulator with Ethernet and E1 Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Next Generation Networks (NGN are mainly built on the Internet Protocol (IP and Ethernet. Major challenge for emerging types of wired and wireless IP-based networks is to provide an adequate Quality of Service (QoS for different services. The quality of evaluation requires a detailed knowledge of the performance requirements for particular services and applications. The paper is primarily oriented to the end-to-end testing for the Ethernet-based terminal equipment. The low cost Ethernet network emulator was developed on the Department of Telecommunication Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The extension for emulation network with the E1 interfaces and TDM over IP transmission can be used with external converters.

  4. Networking K-12 Schools: Architecture Models and Evaluation of Costs and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Russell Isaac

    This thesis examines the cost and benefits of communication networks in K-12 schools using cost analysis of five technology models with increasing levels of connectivity. Data indicate that the cost of the network hardware is only a small fraction of the overall networking costs. PC purchases, initial training, and retrofitting are the largest…

  5. Underestimated Cost of Targeted Attacks on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of complex networks under targeted attacks is deeply connected to the resilience of complex systems, which is defined as the ability to make appropriate response to the attack. In this paper, we study robustness of complex networks under a realistic assumption that the cost of removing a node is not constant but rather proportional to the degree of a node or equivalently to the number of removed links a removal action produces. We have investigated the state-of-the-art targeted node removing algorithms and demonstrate that they become very inefficient when the cost of the attack is taken into consideration. For the case when it is possible to attack or remove links, we propose a simple and efficient edge removal strategy named Hierarchical Power Iterative Normalized cut (HPI-Ncut. The results on real and artificial networks show that the HPI-Ncut algorithm outperforms all the node removal and link removal attack algorithms when the same definition of cost is taken into consideration. In addition, we show that, on sparse networks, the complexity of this hierarchical power iteration edge removal algorithm is only On log2+ε⁡n.

  6. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  7. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing Green Networks and Network Operations Saving Run-the-Engine Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the confluence of socio-political trends toward environmental responsibility and the pressing need to reduce Run-the-Engine (RTE) costs has given birth to a nascent discipline of Green IT. A clear and concise introduction to green networks and green network operations, this book examines analytical measures and discusses virtualization, network computing, and web services as approaches for green data centers and networks. It identifies some strategies for green appliance and end devices and examines the methodical steps that can be taken over time to achieve a seamless migratio

  9. Nonlinear Transaction Pricing in the Securities Trading Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Most of the research on transaction costs in the market microstructure literature focuses on implicit transaction costs. Research on the design of price schedules for explicit transaction fees is rare. This paper analyzes and classifies different price schedules and discusses their application to the market transaction business. The discussion highlights design issues and the need for a structured approach for price schedule design in the context of market engineering. In order to get some...

  10. Metabolic network architecture and carbon source determine metabolite production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschina, Silvio; D'Souza, Glen; Kost, Christian; Kaleta, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Metabolism is essential to organismal life, because it provides energy and building block metabolites. Even though it is known that the biosynthesis of metabolites consumes a significant proportion of the resources available to a cell, the factors that determine their production costs remain less well understood. In this context, it is especially unclear how the nutritional environment affects the costs of metabolite production. Here, we use the amino acid metabolism of Escherichia coli as a model to show that the point at which a carbon source enters central metabolic pathways is a major determinant of individual metabolite production costs. Growth rates of auxotrophic genotypes, which in the presence of the required amino acid save biosynthetic costs, were compared to the growth rates that prototrophic cells achieved under the same conditions. The experimental results showed a strong concordance with computationally estimated biosynthetic costs, which allowed us, for the first time, to systematically quantify carbon source-dependent metabolite production costs. Thus, we demonstrate that the nutritional environment in combination with network architecture is an important but hitherto underestimated factor influencing biosynthetic costs and thus microbial growth. Our observations are highly relevant for the optimization of biotechnological processes as well as for understanding the ecology of microorganisms in their natural environments. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. A Transaction Cost Analysis of Dutch Hospital Care Contracting between hospitals and health insurance companies in a deregulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Brandenburg (Claudia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch government has started a process of reformation in the Dutch healthcare. The goal of this reformation is cost efficient healthcare in the Netherlands. Hospitals and health insurance companies in the Netherlands experience changes in regulations and funding. They are expected

  12. Low-Cost Ground Sensor Network for Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    requirement for this task and yet not compromise the security of the operating location. We found Internet of Things ( IoT ) platforms such as Raspberry Pi...field environment, and evaluated its performance. We conclude that COTS IoT platforms have much potential to support surveillance of FARPs and other...forward operating locations. 14. SUBJECT TERMS wireless, low-cost, network, IoT , PIR, image recognition, air base ground defense system, OpenCV

  13. Remedial transactions curtailment via optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .

  14. Towards Scalable Cost-Effective Service and Survivability Provisioning in Ultra High Speed Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Wang

    2006-12-01

    Optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are considered to be the most appropriate choice for future Internet backbone. On the other hand, future DOE networks are expected to have the ability to dynamically provision on-demand survivable services to suit the needs of various high performance scientific applications and remote collaboration. Since a failure in aWDMnetwork such as a cable cut may result in a tremendous amount of data loss, efficient protection of data transport in WDM networks is therefore essential. As the backbone network is moving towards GMPLS/WDM optical networks, the unique requirement to support DOE’s science mission results in challenging issues that are not directly addressed by existing networking techniques and methodologies. The objectives of this project were to develop cost effective protection and restoration mechanisms based on dedicated path, shared path, preconfigured cycle (p-cycle), and so on, to deal with single failure, dual failure, and shared risk link group (SRLG) failure, under different traffic and resource requirement models; to devise efficient service provisioning algorithms that deal with application specific network resource requirements for both unicast and multicast; to study various aspects of traffic grooming in WDM ring and mesh networks to derive cost effective solutions while meeting application resource and QoS requirements; to design various diverse routing and multi-constrained routing algorithms, considering different traffic models and failure models, for protection and restoration, as well as for service provisioning; to propose and study new optical burst switched architectures and mechanisms for effectively supporting dynamic services; and to integrate research with graduate and undergraduate education. All objectives have been successfully met. This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this project. The impact of the project manifests in many aspects: First

  15. Assessing Transaction Environment Conditions for Investment and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains characteristic description of the transaction-based approach and identifies problems of studying the transaction envi-ronment for investments and construction. It also discusses the results of transaction cost analysis in the real estate sector, and assessment of the business environment in Russia. The authors present indirect assessment of transaction environment through the economic freedom index, detailed particularly for Russia; they demonstrate the transaction environment structure and offer methodological recommendations on evaluation of transaction environment for investment and construction.

  16. The topology of card transaction money flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Papo, David; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Moral, Santiago

    2016-11-01

    Money flow models are essential tools to understand different economical phenomena, like saving propensities and wealth distributions. In spite of their importance, most of them are based on synthetic transaction networks with simple topologies, e.g. random or scale-free ones, as the characterisation of real networks is made difficult by the confidentiality and sensitivity of money transaction data. Here, we present an analysis of the topology created by real credit card transactions from one of the biggest world banks, and show how different distributions, e.g. number of transactions per card or amount, have nontrivial characteristics. We further describe a stochastic model to create transactions data sets, feeding from the obtained distributions, which will allow researchers to create more realistic money flow models.

  17. Cost analysis of youth clinic network in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari

    2015-05-01

    Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (YFSRH) services for young people have high priority in many countries. Yet, little is known about the actual cost of delivering YFSRH services. This article analyses costs of a fully scaled up national youth clinic network (YCN) in Estonia. It reports; 1) total budget of the YCN during the period 2002-2012, and 2) annual clinic level costs of three youth clinics (YCs) in 2012. The retrospective cost analysis is based on financial and medical records of Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), Estonian Sexual Health Association (ESHA), National Institute for Health Development and the YCs. The programme level costs are analysed per year, financing source and a portion spent on coordination in 2002-2012. Costs of three YCs are analysed per clinic, expense category, patient and healthcare service in 2012. The total budget of the YCN was €8.38 million and it served 304,000 young patients in 2002-2012. 95% of the total budget was financed by the EHIF. 3.6% was spent on coordination. The YCs in Tallinn, Tartu and Ida-Virumaa had annual budgets of €247,000, €267,000 and €42,000 respectively. In 2012 the three YCs provided YFSRH services to 19,700 patients, excluding sexuality education lessons and internet counselling. The YFSRH services cost €543,000. Consequently, the average cost per patient was €27.76. The largest expense categories were personnel salaries 35% and medical supplies 33%. Cost of the YFSRH services were; STI consultation €54.80, SRH counselling €13.13, contraception consultation €9.32, internet counselling €8.21 and sexuality education lesson €1.52. The Estonian YCN is a positive example for other countries considering or already implementing similar programmes. The cost analyses highlighted the following: Sustainable funding is particularly important, without it the YFSRH services would not have been scaled up and sustained on the national level in Estonia. Investment in professional

  18. 26 CFR 1.446-4 - Hedging transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sales proceeds. If a hedge is associated with a particular purchase or sales transaction, the gain or... of cost incurred in, or sales proceeds from, that transaction. As with hedges of aggregate risk... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hedging transactions. 1.446-4 Section 1.446-4...

  19. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    is transaction cost economics in the tradition of Oliver E. Williamson. The foundation for this tradition was laid by 1991 Nobel Laureate Ronald Coase in a paper, “The Nature of the Firm” in 1937. But the breakthrough as an influential research program was achieved with Williamson’s influential “Markets...... and Hierarchies” from 1975. Since then Williamson has, almost singlehandedly, erected an impressive research program which aims at explaining the institutional structures at the micro-level under which economic transactions take place. A number of different phenomena that were very hard to rationalize given...

  20. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  1. "Should I Buy or Should I Grow?" How drug policy institutions and drug market transaction costs shape the decision to self-supply with cannabis in the Netherlands and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belackova, Vendula; Maalsté, Nicole; Zabransky, Tomas; Grund, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    This paper uses the framework of institutional economics to assess the impact of formal and informal institutions that influence the transaction costs on the cannabis market, and users' decisions to self-supply in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, two countries with seemingly identical policies towards cannabis cultivation. A comparative analysis was conducted using secondary qualitative and quantitative data in four areas that were identified as relevant to the decision to cultivate cannabis: (i) the rules of the game - cannabis cultivation policy; (ii) "playing the game" - implementation of cannabis cultivation policy, (iii) informal institutions - cannabis cultivation culture, and (iv) the transaction costs of the cannabis market - availability, quality, and relative cannabis prices adjusted by purchasing power parity. Although the two policies are similar, their implementation differs substantially. In the Czech Republic, law enforcement has focused almost exclusively on large-scale cultivation. This has resulted in a competitive small-scale cultivation market, built upon a history of cannabis self-supply, which is pushing cannabis prices down. In the Netherlands, the costs of establishing one's own self-supply have historically outweighed the costs associated with buying in coffee shops. Additionally, law enforcement has recently pushed small-scale growers away from the market, and a large-scale cannabis supply, partly controlled by organised criminal groups, has been established that is driving prices up. The Czech cannabis prices have become relatively lower than the Dutch prices only recently, and the decision to buy on the market or to self-supply will be further shaped by the transactions costs on both markets, by policy implementation and by the local culture. The ability to learn from the impacts of cannabis cultivation policies conducted within the framework of UN drug treaties is particularly important at a time when increasing numbers of

  2. The COST Action on cyberbullying: developing an international network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The COST Action IS0801 on cyberbullying had the aim of a) sharing of developing expertise in knowledge base and measurement techniques across researchers, b) sharing of input from outside the research community; specifically, from legal experts as well as from mobile phone companies and internet service providers c) sharing of already nationally published guidelines, and recommended coping strategies, including positive uses of new technologies, and d) increasing awareness of the issue, as well as of the outcomes of the Action. Besides the conferences and Training schools organised, the Action has fostered or facilitated a considerable number of grant applications, publications as well as other outreach activities, and has established a fruitful international network.

  3. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  4. Design of Networked Low-Cost Wireless Noise Measurement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka KIVELÄ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise is considered as one of the big issues in environmental pollutions. Typical noise sources like traffic can have great influence on wellbeing and healthy. In this paper, we report the sensor function design and implementation of a wireless sensor network application for measuring environmental acoustic noise. The sensing system is built on Atmega128 and CC2420 platform. The protocol stack is based on CiNet stack with a global synchronization scheme and supports multi-hop communications. Strict filtering function specified by ITU-R 468 (namely A-weighting is followed. Both the indoor and outdoor test results were compared with a standard sound level meter and showed a less than ± 2.1 dB mean differences in both short-term and long-term measurement. Power consumption has been measured that a single AA-type battery can sustain the application. Comparing to the traditional noise measurement method, the designed wireless sensor network solution is much lower in cost.

  5. Out of the shadow: Long term cost development of intelligent sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, E.R; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Kranenburg-Bruinsma, K. van

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses intelligent sensor networks (ISNs) as a special version of networked wireless robotics. The success of these networks is partly explained by the technical advances, but as well by cutting down costs of these networks. Using a functional breakdown of intelligent ISNs, the trends

  6. Theatrical distribution and P2P movie piracy: a survey of P2P networks in Hungary using transactional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.; Lakatos, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines what appears to be the most important factor shaping file sharing: the failure of traditional cultural markets to efficiently supply the demand in the online environment. Its findings are based on tracking the traffic of movies on three Hungarian P2P networks. This dataset is

  7. Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy and Investment Cost Limitation using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahdavi; E. Mahdavi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, STNEP is being studied considering network adequacy and limitation of investment cost by decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The goal is obtaining the maximum of network adequacy with lowest expansion cost for a specific investment. Finally, the proposed idea is applied to the Garvers 6-bus network. The results show that considering the network adequacy for solution of STNEP problem is caused that among of expansion plans for a determined investment, configuration...

  8. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  9. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    dire consequences for the survival and performance of the network as a whole ( Emerson , 1976). Military services are independent stakeholders who join...maximize provincial outcomes at the expense of collective optimization. Thus, rational actions within the network are often undertaken irrespective of...incentives for opportunistic behavior at the expense of collective optimization. The associated transaction costs and suboptimal performance can have

  10. A trans-acting locus regulates an anti-viral expression network and type 1 diabetes risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinig, M.; Petretto, E.; Wallace, C.; Bottolo, L.; Rotival, M.; Lu, H.; Li, Y.; Sarwar, R.; Langley, S. R.; Bauerfeind, A.; Hummel, O.; Lee, Y. A.; Paskas, S.; Rintisch, C.; Saar, K.; Cooper, J.; Buchan, R.; Gray, C. C.; Cyster, J. G.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Maouche, S.; Ouwehand, W. H.; Rice, C. M.; Samani, N. J.; Schunkert, H.; Goodall, A. H.; Schulz, H.; Roider, H. G.; Vingron, M.; Blankenberg, S.; Münzel, T.; Zeller, T.; Szymczak, S.; Ziegler, A.; Tiret, L.; Smyth, D. J.; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, T. J.; Cambien, F.; Clayton, D.; Todd, J. A.; Hubner, N.; Cook, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 467, č. 7314 (2010), s. 460-464 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GAP301/10/0290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : IRF7 driven inflammatory network * Ebi2 * type 1 diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 36.101, year: 2010

  11. Software cost/resource modeling: Deep space network software cost estimation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for JPL deep space network (DSN) data systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models, such as those of the General Research Corporation, Doty Associates, IBM (Walston-Felix), Rome Air Force Development Center, University of Maryland, and Rayleigh-Norden-Putnam. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software lifecycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN work breakdown structure skeleton, which is then input to a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  12. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L Orbán

    Full Text Available Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  13. The influence of network characteristics on costs in pharmaceutical new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonansegna, Erika; Schultz, Carsten; Stargardt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model relating prior experiences, network stability, exclusive partnership, geographical distance, and intermediation in inter-firm R&D networks to new product development (NPD) costs. The developed hypotheses are tested with unique multilevel R&D partnership data from 33...... becomes relevant for non-exclusive partnerships and dispersed networks. NPD costs also increase in more stable networks, reflecting the relevance of structural holes for control and information advantages. This study contributes to the network management literature by understanding the relation between...

  14. Evaluating Transactive Controls of Integrated Transmission and Distribution Systems using the Framework for Network Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jacob; Edgar, Thomas W.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Di

    2017-07-03

    With an ever-evolving power grid, concerns regarding how to maintain system stability, efficiency, and reliability remain constant because of increasing uncertainties and decreasing rotating inertia. To alleviate some of these concerns, demand response represents a viable solution and is virtually an untapped resource in the current power grid. This work describes a hierarchical control framework that allows coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response. This control framework is composed of two control layers: a coordination layer that ensures aggregations of resources are coordinated to achieve system objectives and a device layer that controls individual resources to assure the predetermined power profile is tracked in real time. Large-scale simulations are executed to study the hierarchical control, requiring advancements in simulation capabilities. Technical advancements necessary to investigate and answer control interaction questions, including the Framework for Network Co-Simulation platform and Arion modeling capability, are detailed. Insights into the interdependencies of controls across a complex system and how they must be tuned, as well as validation of the effectiveness of the proposed control framework, are yielded using a large-scale integrated transmission system model coupled with multiple distribution systems.

  15. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  16. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  17. High Availability Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolltveit, Heine

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework of a passively replicated transaction manager. By integrating transactions and replication, two well known fault tolerance techniques, the framework provides high availability for transactional systems and better support for non-deterministic execution for replicated systems. A prototype Java implementation of the framework, based on Jgroup/ARM and Jini, has been developed and performance tests have been executed. The results indicate that the response time fo...

  18. The calculation of costs of postal network and universal postal service based on standard and average cost principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mladenka Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of universal postal service involves high costs for operator, especially in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to propose and test tool for managing the cost of providing universal postal service and maintaining the postal network in order to facilitate understanding of the problem in the sector. The proposed approach use standard prices and standard quantities (the redefined number of postal units, the number of employees, etc. as well as average costs for calculation of the costs of the universal postal service and postal network. The methodology provides the efficiency analysis, benchmarking and identification of causes of poor performance of management and resource allocation. It can be used for postal operators that do not have modern accounting systems.

  19. Artificial neural networks incorporating cost significant Items towards enhancing estimation for (life-cycle costing of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayedh Alqahtani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial application of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA is somewhat limited, with techniques deemed overly theoretical, resulting in a reluctance to realise (and pass onto the client the advantages to be gained from objective (LCCA comparison of (subcomponent material specifications. To address the need for a user-friendly structured approach to facilitate complex processing, the work described here develops a new, accessible framework for LCCA of construction projects; it acknowledges Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to compute the whole-cost(s of construction and uses the concept of cost significant items (CSI to identify the main cost factors affecting the accuracy of estimation. ANNs is a powerful means to handle non-linear problems and subsequently map between complex input/output data, address uncertainties. A case study documenting 20 building projects was used to test the framework and estimate total running costs accurately. Two methods were used to develop a neural network model; firstly a back-propagation method was adopted (using MATLAB SOFTWARE; and secondly, spread-sheet optimisation was conducted (using Microsoft Excel Solver. The best network was established as consisting of 19 hidden nodes, with the tangent sigmoid used as a transfer function of NNs model for both methods. The results find that in both neural network models, the accuracy of the developed NNs model is 1% (via Excel-solver and 2% (via back-propagation respectively.

  20. Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Bridge monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Tragas, P

    2012-01-01

    , since they need to propagate large amounts of data over regular time intervals towards a single destination in the network. Propagation of information is done through multiple hops, suffering from collisions, retransmis-sions and therefore high energy consumption. Moreover, since there is a bottleneck...... effect around the network sink, all routing layer algorithms will always deplete the power of the last tier before the fusion center. Fi-nally, theory shows that in such networks scalability could become an issue since transport capacity per node is severely affected as the number of nodes within...... the network increases. Therefore, in order for WSNs to be considered as an efficient tool to monitor the health state of large structures, their energy consumption should be reduced to a bare minimum. In this work we consider a couple of novel techniques for increasing the life-time of the sensor network...

  1. Estimating switching costs of changing social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    This study's empirical analysis shows that the consumers' switching costs when changing SNS are less than that when changing BB service. SNS switching cost is estimated at JPY 944, while that in BB service is estimated at JPY 2864 (JPY 80 = USD 1 on 21st May 2012). According to these results, the switching cost of the former is approximately one-third of that of the latter. One of the reasons why SNS switching costs are smaller could be because of the current small number of friends on SNS. I...

  2. The trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks in health and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixin; Zhao, Ling; Nan, Jiaofen; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; von Deneen, Karen M; Gong, Qiyong; Liang, Fanrong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The human brain organization of cortical networks has optimized trade-off architecture for the economical minimization of connection distance and maximizing valuable topological properties; however, whether this network configuration is disrupted in chronic migraine remains unknown. Here, employing the diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory approaches to construct white matter networks in 26 patients with migraine (PM) and 26 gender-matched healthy controls (HC), we investigated relationships between structural connectivity, cortical network architecture and anatomical distance in the two groups separately. Compared with the HC group, the patients showed longer global distance connection in PM, with proportionally less short-distance and more medium-distance; correspondingly, the patients showed abnormal global topology in their structural networks, mainly presented as a higher clustering coefficient. Moreover, the abnormal association between these two network features was also found. Intriguingly, the network measure that combined the nodal anatomical distance and network topology could distinguish PM from HC with high accuracy of 90.4%. We also demonstrated a high reproducibility of our findings across different parcellation schemes. Our results demonstrated that long-term migraine may result in a abnormal optimization of a trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks and highlights the potential for combining spatial and topological aspects as a network marker, which may provide valuable insights into the understanding of brain network reorganization that could be attributed to the underlying pathophysiology resulting from migraine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrity in Transactional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the impact of limited resources on the integrity of transactions between students and student affairs administrators. A framework and guiding principles for maintaining integrity are offered, and then some general principles for transactions with students are presented. Next, the chapter involves integrity…

  4. Effect of physician collaboration network on hospitalization cost and readmission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat; Kelaher, Margaret

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have documented the effect of collaboration among physicians on the effectiveness in delivering health services and in producing better patient outcomes. However, there is no systematic empirical study suggesting the underlying relationship between the collaboration network of physicians and its effect on hospitalization cost and readmission rate. In this study, we explore the effect of different attributes (i.e. degree centrality, betweenness centrality, network density and network distance) of physician collaboration network (PCN) on hospitalization cost and readmission rate. We analyse health insurance claim data set of total hip replacement (THR) patients to construct PCN and to test the effect of its network attributes on hospitalization cost and readmission rate. We consider patient age as moderating factor, which could affect the relation of the PCN attributes with hospitalization cost and readmission rate. We find that degree centrality (i.e. level of involvement) and network density (i.e. level of connectedness) of PCN are negatively correlated with hospitalization cost and readmission rate. In contrast, betweenness centrality (i.e. capacity to control the flow of information) is found positively correlated with hospitalization cost and readmission rate. Distance (i.e. embeddedness of actors in a network) is found positively correlated with hospitalization cost but negatively correlated with readmission rate. We do not notice any significant impact of patient age on the relation of PCN attributes with hospitalization cost and readmission rate. The results show that the structure of PCNs is related to indicators of hospital costs and quality (readmission). In their respective hospitals, health-care managers or administrators may follow our research findings to reduce cost and improve quality.

  5. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  6. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  7. Improved Cost-Base Design of Water Distribution Networks using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh Azar, Foad; Abghari, Hirad; Taghi Alami, Mohammad; Weijs, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Population growth and progressive extension of urbanization in different places of Iran cause an increasing demand for primary needs. The water, this vital liquid is the most important natural need for human life. Providing this natural need is requires the design and construction of water distribution networks, that incur enormous costs on the country's budget. Any reduction in these costs enable more people from society to access extreme profit least cost. Therefore, investment of Municipal councils need to maximize benefits or minimize expenditures. To achieve this purpose, the engineering design depends on the cost optimization techniques. This paper, presents optimization models based on genetic algorithm(GA) to find out the minimum design cost Mahabad City's (North West, Iran) water distribution network. By designing two models and comparing the resulting costs, the abilities of GA were determined. the GA based model could find optimum pipe diameters to reduce the design costs of network. Results show that the water distribution network design using Genetic Algorithm could lead to reduction of at least 7% in project costs in comparison to the classic model. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design of Water Distribution Network, Mahabad City, Iran.

  8. Low-Cost Hybrid ROADM Architectures for Scalable C/DWDM Metro Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Halima, Elbiaze

    2016-01-01

    CWDM networks have proven to be a promising first-step metro and access network architecture, offering a significant cost advantage over DWDM due to the lower cost of lasers and the filters used in CWDM modules. If demand grows beyond the capacity covered by CWDM channels, DWDM network elements can...... be introduced to merge CWDM and DWDM traffic at the optical layer. This ensures two advantages: reduced initial investment and scalability for deploying DWDM channels in the future. This article presents various ROADM architectures, and explores the novel optical node architecture of hybrid C/DWDM networks......, consisting of CWDM, hybrid C/DWDM, and junction nodes connecting two rings. Evaluation has shown that the hybrid ROADM architecture is superior to other conventional ROADM architectures in terms of scalability and the initial cost of optical nodes and networks....

  9. Largest Laplacian eigenvalue predicts the emergence of costly punishment in the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cao, Lang

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying the role of costly punishment in promoting altruistic behaviors among selfish individuals. Rejections in ultimatum bargaining as a metaphor exemplify costly punishment, where the division of a sum of resources proposed by one side may be rejected by the other side, and both sides get nothing. Under a setting of the network of contacts among players, we find that the largest Laplacian eigenvalue of the network determines the critical division of players’ proposals, below which pure punishers who never accept any offers will emerge as a phase transition in the system. The critical division of offers that predicts the emergence of costly punishment is termed as the selfishness tolerance of a network within evolutionary ultimatum game, and extensive numerical simulations on the data of the science collaboration network, and computer-generated small-world/scale-free networks support the analytical findings.

  10. Two-scale cost efficiency optimization of 5G wireless backhaul networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Lau, Vincent K. N.; Pan, Linghui

    2016-01-01

    To cater for the demands of future fifth generation (5G) ultra-dense small cell networks, the wireless backhaul network is an attractive solution for the urban deployment of 5G wireless networks. Optimization of 5G wireless backhaul networks is a key issue. In this paper we propose a two-scale optimization solution to maximize the cost efficiency of 5G wireless backhaul networks. Specifically, the number and positions of gateways are optimized in the long time scale of 5G wireless backhaul ne...

  11. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  12. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  13. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  14. Strategy on energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks based on life cycle cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Qiu, Zejing; Xu, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Chupeng

    2017-08-01

    Because the actual distribution network reconstruction project funds are often limited, the cost-benefit model and the decision-making method are crucial for distribution network energy saving reconstruction project. From the perspective of life cycle cost (LCC), firstly the research life cycle is determined for the energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks with multi-devices. Then, a new life cycle cost-benefit model for energy-saving reconstruction of distribution network is developed, in which the modification schemes include distribution transformers replacement, lines replacement and reactive power compensation. In the operation loss cost and maintenance cost area, the operation cost model considering the influence of load season characteristics and the maintenance cost segmental model of transformers are proposed. Finally, aiming at the highest energy saving profit per LCC, a decision-making method is developed while considering financial and technical constraints as well. The model and method are applied to a real distribution network reconstruction, and the results prove that the model and method are effective.

  15. Near cost-optimal inventory control policies for divergent networks under fill rate constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2000-01-01

    We deal with the optimisation of stock levels in general divergent networks under a periodic review, order-up-to (R, S) policy. The goal is to attain target fill rates, while the total holding costs in the entire network are minimised. To this end, we first present a method for the fast calculation

  16. Cost-Based Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm for WWAN/WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim LaeYoung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next generation wireless communications are expected to rely on integrated networks consisting of multiple wireless technologies. Heterogeneous networks based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs can combine their respective advantages on coverage and data rates, offering a high Quality of Service (QoS to mobile users. In such environment, multi-interface terminals should seamlessly switch from one network to another in order to obtain improved performance or at least to maintain a continuous wireless connection. Therefore, network selection algorithm is important in providing better performance to the multi-interface terminals in the integrated networks. In this paper, we propose a cost-based vertical handover decision algorithm that triggers the Vertical Handover (VHO based on a cost function for WWAN/WLAN integrated networks. For the cost function, we focus on developing an analytical model of the expected cost of WLAN for the mobile users that enter the double-coverage area while having a connection in the WWAN. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of power consumption and throughput than typical approach where WLANs are always preferred whenever the WLAN access is available.

  17. Cost-Based Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm for WWAN/WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KunHo Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation wireless communications are expected to rely on integrated networks consisting of multiple wireless technologies. Heterogeneous networks based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs can combine their respective advantages on coverage and data rates, offering a high Quality of Service (QoS to mobile users. In such environment, multi-interface terminals should seamlessly switch from one network to another in order to obtain improved performance or at least to maintain a continuous wireless connection. Therefore, network selection algorithm is important in providing better performance to the multi-interface terminals in the integrated networks. In this paper, we propose a cost-based vertical handover decision algorithm that triggers the Vertical Handover (VHO based on a cost function for WWAN/WLAN integrated networks. For the cost function, we focus on developing an analytical model of the expected cost of WLAN for the mobile users that enter the double-coverage area while having a connection in the WWAN. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of power consumption and throughput than typical approach where WLANs are always preferred whenever the WLAN access is available.

  18. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    interdependent networks using game theory . Stakeholders in such networks share a common but not identical range of objectives. Parochial interests prevent...network are often undertaken irrespective of common goals. This consequence is a social dilemma known as the tragedy of the commons . The program...transaction cost theories only partially explain the program dynamics that erode joint commonality . Conceptual designs for complex systems in

  19. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...

  20. Governance structures for real estate transactions: Markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the relative prevalence of markets, hierarchies and networks in the governance of real-estate transactions under three property rights regimes in Windhoek's low-income settlements. These governance structures are related to respective property rights regimes and to conjectures made about the ...

  1. Modelling the Cost Performance of a Given Logistics Network Operating Under Regular and Irregular Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for the assessment of the cost performance of a given logistics network operating under regular and irregular (disruptive) conditions. In addition, the paper aims to carry out a sensitivity analysis of this cost with respect to changes of the most influencing

  2. Employees’ participation in electronic networks of practice within a corporate group: perceived benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.T.; Hamedi, M.; van Beers, C.

    This paper explores benefits and costs of knowledge exchange perceived by individuals in connected electronic networks of practice (ENoP) in a corporate setting. The results of 25 semi-structured interviews show 9 perceived benefits and 5 perceived costs to be of importance for knowledge exchange.

  3. Employees’ participation in electronic networks of practice within a corporate group: perceived benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.G.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.; Hamedi, Mohsen; van Beers, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores benefits and costs of knowledge exchange perceived by individuals in connected electronic networks of practice (ENoP) in a corporate setting. The results of 25 semi-structured interviews show 9 perceived benefits and 5 perceived costs to be of importance for knowledge exchange.

  4. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...

  5. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c. Following this Communication, the EC has fully integrated gender dimensions in its proposal for a regulation on the new research framework program Horizon 2020¸ which includes in article 15 a provision for gender mainstreaming (EC 2011b. One final upcoming policy instrument announced by the EC is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation that will address member states and be adopted in the next months. Against this European policy background , the international COST network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment aims at enhancing a better integration of gender dimensions in science and technology at three main levels: i promoting women’s careers in science and technology through structural change of institutions (as recommended by EC by disseminating existing research and practice; ii promoting a better integration of gender in the content of science, research and technology, by dissemination existing research on the topic, ie the UE-US Gendered Innovations Project; iii identifying gender dimensions relevant to environment-related Horizon2020 Grand Challenges and other urban EC initiatives.  

  6. How to Create a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Noel

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project which developed a shared electronic environment of virtual reality using satellite telecommunications technologies to create desktop multimedia networking. The origins of the concept of shared electronic space are explained, and the importance for human communication of sharing both audio and visual space simultaneously is…

  7. In-Network Processing on Low-Cost IOT Nodes for Maritime Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    PROCESSING ON LOW-COST IOT NODES FOR MARITIME SURVEILLANCE by Andrew R. Belding March 2017 Thesis Advisor: Gurminder Singh Co-Advisor: John H...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IN-NETWORK PROCESSING ON LOW-COST IOT NODES FOR MARITIME SURVEILLANCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...PROCESSING ON LOW-COST IOT NODES FOR MARITIME SURVEILLANCE Andrew R. Belding Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., United States Naval

  8. Evaluating C-RAN Fronthaul Functional Splits in Terms of Network Level Energy and Cost Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2016-01-01

    split in the baseband processing chain has been proposed to overcome these challenges. This paper evaluates, by mathematical and simulation methods, different splits with respect to network level energy and cost efficiency having in the mind the expected quality of service.The proposed mathematical......The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional...... model quantifies the multiplexing gains and the trade-offs between centralization and decentralization concerning the cost of the pool, fronthaul network capacity and resource utilization. The event-based simulation captures the influence of the traffic load dynamics and traffic type variation...

  9. Improving the delivery of veterinary services in Africa: insights from the empirical application of transaction costs theory in Uganda and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilukor, J

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of findings from a research project that examined institutional arrangements for providing animal health services in Uganda and Kenya. Given the need to find solutions to the pervasive governance challenges encountered in the delivery of veterinary services in Africa, the study applied transaction economics theory to generate recommendations on how to improve the delivery of these services and minimise livestock production risks, including those that pose a risk to human health, e.g. zoonoses. The most notable recommendations are as follows: i) lower- and middle-income countries should invest in creating an enabling environment that supports the relationship between professional veterinarians and para-professionals, to ensure the timely reporting, treatment and control of animal diseases; ii) the provision of veterinary extension services should not focus solely on household 'heads', but also on other household members, such as wives and children, and on herdsmen; iii) strong government engagement is required in the provision of veterinary services for pastoral or extensive livestock production systems, because normal market forces have failed to attract professional veterinarians and trained para-professionals from the private sector to work in these sectors; iv) farmers must be empowered to hold service providers accountable, by the development and trialling of tools that would enable them to measure the quality of services that they receive and to verify the qualifications of different service providers; v) investment in veterinary education is vital, to ensure that enough qualified veterinary staff are available to offer veterinary services to farmers.

  10. Marginal Congestion Cost on a Dynamic Expressway Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    a dynamic econometric model using unusually complete and accurate data from Danish motorways. We use the results to estimate the marginal external cost of adding a vehicle to a link's entry flow, finding it is highly influenced by the dynamic properties of the system of relationships between travel times...

  11. Marginal congestion cost on a dynamic expressway network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    a dynamic econometric model using unusually complete and accurate data from Danish motorways. We use the results to estimate the marginal external cost of adding a vehicle to a link's entry flow, finding it is highly influenced by the dynamic properties of the system of relationships between travel times...

  12. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenlots, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Zhenhua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  13. Perceptions of mobile network operators regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of mobile network operators (MNOs regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from a supply chain (SC perspective. It also seeks to explore the possible cost interrelationships in the South African mobile phone SC.Research design and methodology: A qualitative case study, involving six willing managers of MNOs, and by using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents, was conducted.Findings: This study suggests that network infrastructure and network maintenance, handsets, logistics, technology, marketing and sales, training and consulting are the cost drivers in the South African mobile phone SC. These cost drivers are interrelated; and they influence one another in the mobile phone SC.Implications: The findings of this study should assist MNOs in their monitoring of cost drivers and in the identification of cost reduction opportunities, in order to remain effective and efficient in the industry. This study’s findings should help regulating authorities (such as the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa [ICASA] to gain insights into the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from the perspective of a network operator, and thus to develop appropriate mobile phone policies.

  14. Social networks enabled coordination model for cost management of patient hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we introduce a social networks enabled coordination model for exploring the effect of network position of "patient," "physician," and "hospital" actors in a patient-centered care network that evolves during patient hospitalization period on the total cost of coordination. An actor is a node, which represents an entity such as individual and organization in a social network. In our analysis of actor networks and coordination in the healthcare literature, we identified that there is significant gap where a number of promising hospital coordination model have been developed (e.g., Guided Care Model, Chronic Care Model) for the current healthcare system focusing on quality of service and patient satisfaction. The health insurance dataset for total hip replacement (THR) from hospital contribution fund, a prominent Australian Health Insurance Company, are analyzed to examine our proposed coordination model. We consider network attributes of degree, connectedness, in-degree, out-degree, and tie strength to measure network position of actors. To measure the cost of coordination for a particular hospital, average of total hospitalization expenses for all THR hospital admissions is used. Results show that network positions of "patient," "physician," and "hospital" actors considering all hospital admissions that a particular hospital has have effect on the average of total hospitalization expenses of that hospital. These results can be used as guidelines to set up a cost-effective healthcare practice structure for patient hospitalization expenses. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  15. Bitcoin Transaction Graph Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleder, Michael; Kester, Michael S; Pillai, Sudeep

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoins have recently become an increasingly popular cryptocurrency through which users trade electronically and more anonymously than via traditional electronic transfers. Bitcoin's design keeps all transactions in a public ledger. The sender and receiver for each transaction are identified only by cryptographic public-key ids. This leads to a common misconception that it inherently provides anonymous use. While Bitcoin's presumed anonymity offers new avenues for commerce, several recent st...

  16. Stochastic project networks temporal analysis, scheduling and cost minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Project planning, scheduling, and control are regularly used in business and the service sector of an economy to accomplish outcomes with limited resources under critical time constraints. To aid in solving these problems, network-based planning methods have been developed that now exist in a wide variety of forms, cf. Elmaghraby (1977) and Moder et al. (1983). The so-called "classical" project networks, which are used in the network techniques CPM and PERT and which represent acyclic weighted directed graphs, are able to describe only projects whose evolution in time is uniquely specified in advance. Here every event of the project is realized exactly once during a single project execution and it is not possible to return to activities previously carried out (that is, no feedback is permitted). Many practical projects, however, do not meet those conditions. Consider, for example, a production process where some parts produced by a machine may be poorly manufactured. If an inspection shows that a part does no...

  17. A cost analysis of public cord blood banks belonging to the Italian Cord Blood Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupella, Simonetta; Bianchi, Maria; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Lombardini, Letizia; Giornetti, Andrea; Marano, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Grazzini, Giuliano; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2017-04-13

    Public cord blood banking is currently managed in Italy by a network of 19 regional cord blood banks coordinated by the National Blood Centre and the National Transplant Centre. A cost analysis was carried out within the Italian network to determine the relationship between cost of cord blood collection and banking and size of the bank inventory, which ranged from 106 to 9,341 units on December 31st, 2012. The 19 banks were invited to report costs incurred in 2012 related to cord blood unit collection, transportation, biological validation, characterisation, manipulation, cryopreservation, storage, data management, and general costs. Missing information on selected items was replaced with standardised costs represented by average data obtained from the reporting banks. Eight banks (52%) participated in the study. Average costs were determined in the three banks with inventories of >3,000 units vs the three banks with inventories of banking costs per unit were lower in the larger banks than in the smaller banks (average collection costs: € 119.25 and € 151.31, respectively; average banking costs: € 3,614.15 and € 8,158.37, respectively). The study outlined an inverse relationship between the costs of cord blood collection and banking and the size of the bank inventory, suggesting that scale economies could be obtained through centralisation of banking activities.

  18. Transactional Mechanism of Territorial Administration: Conceptualisation and Systematization of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Аleksandrovna Petrova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transaction expenses developed by R. Coase allows to consider functioning of economy and its agents from the information viewpoint. This viewpoint implies that information exchange between agents and the urge to overcome information incompleteness start playing the crucial role. Transaction expenses are information exchange costs for the purpose of elimination (reduction of its incompleteness and the related uncertainty. R. Coase showed that creation and the size of firms are closely connected with the urge to minimize transaction expenses. Traditionally transaction expenses are associated with functioning of firms, however, the state actively participates in economy, for example, through formation of tax policy. Besides, financing of the public benefits takes place on the basis of collective decisions. But collective character of the decision causes interest, though smaller in comparison with the private choice, in the maximum efficiency of the decision. It is ensured by two factors: firstly, the position of an individual is not of great importance at collective decision-making; secondly, an individual is responsible for a small part of benefits and expenses which are formed in the course of decision implementation. The article deals with the concept of transaction costs, and systematically occurring types of transaction costs in the following groups: search information costы, the cost of negotiating, measuring costs, the costs of specification and protection of property rights, the costs of opportunistic behavior, the cost of “politicizing”, the costs of collective decisionmaking, influence costs. The authors propose a model of transaction mechanism of territorial administration, which includes the following elements: economic entities; a goal determined by system of indicators; methods; instruments; channels; forms of target use; landmark feedback on the system; subject to the experience stage of modernization; criteria

  19. Six Methods of Transaction Visualization in Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALTHER, ELEANOR A.; TRAHAN, MICHAEL W.; SUMMERS, KENNETH L.; EYRING, TIM; CAUDELL, THOMAS P.

    2002-06-01

    Many governmental and corporate organizations are interested in tracking materials and/or information through a network. Often, as in the case of the U.S. Customs Service, the traffic is recorded as transactions through a large number of checkpoints with a correspondingly complex network. These networks will contain large numbers of uninteresting transactions that act as noise to conceal the chains of transactions of interest, such as drug trafficking. We are interested in finding significant paths in transaction data containing high noise levels, which tend to make traditional graph visualization methods complex and hard to understand. This paper covers the evolution of a series of graphing methods designed to assist in this search for paths-from 1-D to 2-D to 3-D and beyond.

  20. Socioeconomic analysis of patient-centric networks: effects of patients and hospitals' characteristics and network structure on hospitalization costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Alireza; Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2012-06-01

    Improving operations and delivery of cost-effective healthcare services is considered to be an important area of investigation due to the challenges in allocation of resources in meeting the increasing cost of health care for the twenty-first century. To date, appropriate mechanisms for systematic evaluation of hospital operations and its impact of the delivery of cost-effective healthcare services are lacking. This is, perhaps, the first study, which focuses on using large insurance claims data to develop a social network-based model for exploring the effect of patient-doctor tie strength and patient socio-demographic factors for exploring the social structure of operations and delivery of cost-effective healthcare services. We suggest that delivery of cost-effective healthcare services and operation is embedded within the social structure of hospitals. By exploring the mode of hospital operations in terms of their patient-centric care network, we are able to develop a better understanding of the operation and delivery of cost-effective healthcare services.

  1. Costing the lifecycle of networked learning: documenting the costs from conception to evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bacsich

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the costs of new learning technologies within the educational sector is currently a neglected area, yet the issue of how to spend money effectively in this context is a question that must be answered. This question is made especially pertinent with the current expansion of information technology into higher and further education. To know the costeffectiveness of these initiatives, it is first necessary to gain some comprehension of the costs involved. This must be done in a way that is comprehensible to everyone in academia. A recently completed research study undertaken by the authors addressed these problems.

  2. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  3. Energy- and Cost-Efficient 5G Networks in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    Energy- and cost-efficiency is becoming a criteria of ever increasing importance in the design of 5G wireless solutions, especially for suburban and rural areas where the realistic barrier of providing mobile broadband service lies in the economic drawback of low revenue potential. Thus net-work operators are highly sensitive to the energy performance and economic affordability of potential solutions in futuristic 5G wireless network.In this thesis, we investigate the energy performance of 5G...

  4. Costs and benefits of network based instruction at the Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Brian K.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Strategic Plan for 1998 addresses the significance of distant education in NPS's future. Network Based Instruction (NBI) utilizes new technology and the Internet to provide education at a distance. This thesis provides a framework which identifies the costs and benefits associated with converting, administering and maintaining a traditionally taught course using Network Based Instruction. Conversio...

  5. The minimum cost multicommodity flow problem in dynamic networks and an algorithm for its solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Fonoberova

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic version of the minimum cost multicommodity flow problem that generalizes the static minimum cost multicommodity flow problem is formulated and studied. This dynamic problem is considered on directed networks with a set of commodities, time-varying capacities, fixed transit times on arcs, and a given time horizon. We assume that cost functions, defined on edges, are nonlinear and depend on time and flow and the demand function also depends on time. The corresponding algorithm, based on reducing the dynamic problem to a static problem on a time-expanded network, to solve the minimum cost dynamic multicommodity flow problem is proposed and some details concerning its complexity are discussed. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90B10, 90C35, 90C27.

  6. Cost Minimization Model of Gas Transmission Line for Indonesian SIJ Pipeline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septoratno Siregar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of Indonesian SIJ gas pipeline network is being discussed here. Optimum pipe diameters together with the corresponding pressure distribution are obtained from minimization of total cost function consisting of investment and operating costs and subjects to some physical (Panhandle A and Panhandle B equations constraints. Iteration technique based on Generalized Steepest-Descent and fourth order Runge-Kutta method are used here. The resulting diameters from this continuous optimization are then rounded to the closest available discrete sizes. We have also calculated toll fee along each segment and safety factor of the network by determining the pipe wall thickness, using ANSI B31.8 standard. Sensitivity analysis of toll fee for variation of flow rates is shown here. The result will gives the diameter and compressor size and compressor location that feasible to use for the SIJ pipeline project. The Result also indicates that the east route cost relatively less expensive than the west cost.

  7. Transactive control: a framework for operating power systems characterized by high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Kok, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources connected to power systems raises operational challenges for the network operator, such as introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level, as well as increasing balancing needs at the whole system level......, followed by a literature review and demonstration projects that apply to transactive control. Cases are then presented to illustrate the transactive control framework. At the end, discussions and research directions are presented, for applying transactive control to operating power systems, characterized...

  8. Study of the full-service and low-cost carriers network configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Lordan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The network strategies used by airline carriers have been a recurring subject in air transport research. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different operational characteristics of the airline and its route network configuration. Design/methodology/approach: The two main airline carrier typologies - Full-Service and Low-Cost carriers – are analysed using empirical models developed on complex network research relating them to the business model of the airlines. Findings and Originality/value: Just in Europe, one can differentiate between Full-Service and Low-Cost Carriers by complex network analyses. In this process, it has been also found that new concept Low-Cost Carriers, such as Vueling, have network properties closer to Full-Service Carriers. Research limitations/implications: This paper has a limited sample, as includes 26 airline case studies from Europe, United States and Asia. Practical implications: The analysis carried out in this research can help to the assessment of the evolution of the strategies of airline carriers, and has also operational implications, since the configuration of an airline route network can determine its resilience to attacks and errors. Social implications: A better understanding of the properties of airline route networks can benefit airlines, passengers and another stakeholders of the air transport industry. Originality/value: Current research on air transport networks has only considered the global or regional level, but few studies have addressed the study of airline transport networks, and its relationship with their business model.

  9. Staffing an Academic Reference Desk with Librarians is not Cost-effective. A Review of: Ryan, Susan M. “Reference Transactions Analysis: The Cost-effectiveness of Staffing a Traditional Academic Reference Desk.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 34.5 (2008: 389-99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether it is cost effective to staff an academic reference desk with librarians through an examination of the types of reference questions being asked and the qualifications required to answer them.Design – Content analysis of reference transaction logs and activity-based costing for reference services based on quantitative data derived from the logs.Setting – Stetson University, a private institution in the United States with an FTE of approximately 2500.Subjects – 6959 phone, email, and in-person reference transactions logged at the reference desk by four full-time and two part-time librarians.Methods – This study repurposes data originally collected to determine the frequency with which librarians turned to online versus print sources when responding to questions at the reference desk. Librarians working at the Stetson University library reference desk recorded all reference queries received in person, by phone, or by email for a total of eight months between 2002 and 2006. Data collection took place in two month intervals in fall 2002, spring 2003, spring 2006, and fall 2006. Each question and the sources used to address it were logged by the librarian. Directional questions that were not related to the library’s collections and technical questions dealing with printer or copier mechanical problems were counted, but the specifics of these questions were not recorded. It was felt that these queries would not yield data relevant to the original research question on sources used as they “did not directly relate to an information need” (391. A total of 6959 questions were logged by librarians during the four collection periods. Questions were recorded for only 4431 transactions; the remaining 2528 queries related to printer/copier problems or non-library specific directions and were described as “direction and machine: non- informational” (394. The 4431 recorded questions were then divided into four

  10. Impact and Cost Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Integration on Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin; Pineau, Ulysse

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the impact of electric vehicle (EV) integration on medium voltage (MV) distribution networks and the cost evaluation of replacing the overloaded grid components. A number of EV charging scenarios have been studied. A 10 kV grid from the Bornholm Island...

  11. Cost-Effective and Fast Handoff Scheme in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks with Multicasting Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illkyun Im

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent advancements in wireless communication technologies, mobile multicasting is becoming important, in an effort to use network resources more efficiently. In the past, when various mobile IP-based multicast techniques were proposed, the focus was on the costs needed for network delivery to provide multicast services, as well as on minimizing the multicast handover delay. However, it is fundamentally difficult to resolve the problems of handover delay and tunnel convergence for techniques using MIPv6 (Mobile IPv6, a host-based mobility management protocol. To resolve these problems, the network-based mobility management protocol PMIPv6 (Proxy Mobile IPv6 was standardized. Although performance is improved in PMIPv6 over MIPv6, it still suffers from problems of handover delay and tunnel convergence. To overcome these limitations, a technique called LFH (Low-cost and Fast Handoff is proposed in this paper, for fast and low-cost mobility management with multicasting support in PMIPv6 networks. To reduce the interactions between the complex multicast routing protocol and multicast messages, a simplified proxy method called MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery is implemented and modified. Furthermore, a TCR (Tunnel Combination and Reconstruction algorithm was used in the multicast handover procedure within the LMA (Local Mobility Anchor domain, as well as in the multicast handover procedure between domains, in order to overcome the problem of tunnel convergence. It was found that, compared to other types of multicast techniques, LFH reduces multicast delay, and requires lower cost.

  12. Utterance Generation for Transaction Dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the utterance generation module of a spoken dialogue system for transactions. Transactions are interesting because they involve obligations of both parties: the system should provide all relevant information; the user should feel committed to the transaction once it has been

  13. Protecting Online Transactions with Unique Embedded Key Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use of individ......We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use...... of individualized key derivation functions, which ensure that given the same input, each copy of the application ends up with different keys. The second contribution is the individualizing of program copies by subtle code modification. This makes automated analysis and patching of a client-side application very...

  14. 5. Cash Transactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Electronic Commerce-Cash Transactions. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 8-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/04/0008-0014. Author Affiliations.

  15. A GRAPH-BASED INVESTIGATION OF BITCOIN TRANSACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chen; Guan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: INTERNET CRIME INVESTIGATIONS; International audience; The Bitcoin global cryptocurrency system has been the subject of several criminal cases. The Bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer system that has participants from all over the Internet. The Bitcoin protocol requires participating nodes to retain and update all transaction records; this ensures that all Bitcoin activities are accessible from a consistent transaction history database. This chapter describes a graph-based method for an...

  16. Dynamics the Transaction Sector of the Russian Economy: As Taught by D. North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvintseva Galina, P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methods of transactional costs measuring on the micro- and macrolevels on the basis of Russian scientists works. The conclusions on application of direct and indirect calculation methods and explicit and implicit costs on the microlevels are made. Transactional costs are estimated using the method by D. North and J. Wallis. However besides this approach the methods of transactional costs calculation using gross output share (and its components of transactional sector in gross output (and its components in the whole economy. In a whole, on the macrolevel the method of direct count and relevant statistical date are mainly applied. The paper applies two approaches to assess changes in transactional sector of modern Russian economy: the North-Wallis approach (transactional share in GDP/GNP of a country and the author's approach which estimates dynamics of gross output of transactional sector in gross output of the whole economy. The informational base of the research was the Russian national accounting system for 2002–2014. We considered structure and dynamics of gross output and GDP of Russian economy and estimated its productivity degree. Also we investigated trends in development of basic (transformational and transactional sectors of the economy, revealed leading branches in GDP production and in relative production productivity. We analyzed rates of gross added value growth in both sectors. Transactional costs of the Russian economy are estimated using two approaches, correlation links between transactional costs per unit spent for economy gross output in comparable prices and real gross output and its components growth rates are revealed. Also we showed influence of transactional costs on GDP dynamics. Conclusions on trends in transactional sector alteration and its influence on dynamics of main macroeconomic parameters significantly differ from those made on the basis of analogous calculations for the years 1990

  17. H∞ Guaranteed Cost Control for Networked Control Systems under Scheduling Policy Based on Predicted Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling policy based on model prediction error is presented to reduce energy consumption and network conflicts at the actuator node, where the characters of networked control systems are considered, such as limited network bandwidth, limited node energy, and high collision probability. The object model is introduced to predict the state of system at the sensor node. And scheduling threshold is set at the controller node. Control signal is transmitted only if the absolute value of prediction error is larger than the threshold value. Furthermore, the model of networked control systems under scheduling policy based on predicted error is established by taking uncertain parameters and long time delay into consideration. The design method of H∞ guaranteed cost controller is presented by using the theory of Lyapunov and linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  18. Data Verification Tools for Minimizing Management Costs of Dense Air-Quality Monitoring Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Alavi-Shoshtari, Maryam; Bart, Mark; Ainslie, Bruce; Grange, Stuart; McKendry, Ian G; Henshaw, Geoff S; Williams, David E

    2016-01-19

    Aiming at minimizing the costs, both of capital expenditure and maintenance, of an extensive air-quality measurement network, we present simple statistical methods that do not require extensive training data sets for automated real-time verification of the reliability of data delivered by a spatially dense hybrid network of both low-cost and reference ozone measurement instruments. Ozone is a pollutant that has a relatively smooth spatial spread over a large scale although there can be significant small-scale variations. We take advantage of these characteristics and demonstrate detection of instrument calibration drift within a few days using a rolling 72 h comparison of hourly averaged data from the test instrument with that from suitably defined proxies. We define the required characteristics of the proxy measurements by working from a definition of the network purpose and specification, in this case reliable determination of the proportion of hourly averaged ozone measurements that are above a threshold in any given day, and detection of calibration drift of greater than ±30% in slope or ±5 parts-per-billion in offset. By analyzing results of a study of an extensive deployment of low-cost instruments in the Lower Fraser Valley, we demonstrate that proxies can be established using land-use criteria and that simple statistical comparisons can identify low-cost instruments that are not stable and therefore need replacing. We propose that a minimal set of compliant reference instruments can be used to verify the reliability of data from a much more extensive network of low-cost devices.

  19. The organisation of transactions : studying supply networkd using gaming simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method.

  20. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  1. Software Development Cost and Time Forecasting Using a High Performance Artificial Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Iman; Ow, Siew Hock

    Nowadays, mature software companies are more interested to have a precise estimation of software metrics such as project time, cost, quality, and risk at the early stages of software development process. The ability to precisely estimate project time and costs by project managers is one of the essential tasks in software development activities, and it named software effort estimation. The estimated effort at the early stage of project development process is uncertain, vague, and often the least accurate. It is because that very little information is available at the beginning stage of project. Therefore, a reliable and precise effort estimation model is an ongoing challenge for project managers and software engineers. This research work proposes a novel soft computing model incorporating Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) to improve the precision of software time and cost estimation. The proposed artificial neural network model has good generalisation, adaption capability, and it can be interpreted and validated by software engineers. The experimental results show that applying the desirable features of artificial neural networks on the algorithmic estimation model improves the accuracy of time and cost estimation and estimated effort can be very close to the actual effort.

  2. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS - OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Corlaciu; Adriana Tiron Tudor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to provide a short overview of themain implications arising from carrying related parties transactions: accounting reporting(related party disclosures - IAS 24), auditing (audit procedures for related partytransactions), taxation (issues regarding the transfer prices used for intra-grouptransactions). Although this research does not identify a problem with the scope to solve ithowever the utility might be observed by its contribution to the future d...

  3. Transactional Distributed Shared Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    consisted of Joshua Bloch, Dean Daniels, Richard Draves, Dan Duchamp , Jeffrey Eppinger, Elliot Jaffe, Toshihiko Kato, George Michaels, Lily Mummert, Randy...34 Non-blocking commit. The non-blocking commit protocol [LeLann 81, Duchamp 89] is a modification of two-phase commit to guarantee that at least one...Architecture, pages "*-442. IEEE, 1986. Computer Architecture News Volume 14 Number 2. [ Duchamp 89] Dan Duchamp . Transaction Management. PhD thesis, Carnegie

  4. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hooda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  5. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Nikhil; Damani, Om

    2017-06-01

    The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  6. Track wear-and-tear cost by traffic class: Functional form, zero output levels and marginal cost pricing recovery on the French rail network

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry, Marc; Quinet, Emile

    2009-01-01

    We address the issue of the allocation of railway track maintenance (wear-and-tear) costs to traffic output classes and consider a very general function relating maintenance cost C to a set of technical production characteristics K used to produce traffic output vector T. We neglect other rail cost categories, such as traffic control and track renewal. The data base pertains to over 1500 sections of the French rail infrastructure in 1999, representing about 90% of the total network of 30000 k...

  7. The Impact of Trust on the Mode of Transaction Governance between Manufacturer and Distributor: Evidence from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George BERULAVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to explore main determinants of the mode of transaction governance between manufacturers and distributors. We examine a number of types of transaction governance, viz., markets, relational transacting, and hierarchies. The model proposed in the paper integrates the concept of trust with key dimensions of transaction cost economics, being estimated with data from a sample of Georgian manufacturing industries. The main finding of the study is that trust along with traditional dimensions of transaction cost economics has a significant impact on the choice of exchange governance mode

  8. A cost model for broadband access networks: FTTx versus WiMAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João Paulo Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Local communities and governments are taking various steps to fight the so-called "digital divide" between well served urban communities and undeserved areas. In order to make broadband access available to these under served areas, several technical solutions are available with the capacity to provide high speed Internet access, video, telephony services, etc. This paper presents a cost-model and a tool for the evaluation of broadband access technologies (xDSL, HFC, FTTx, WiMAX, PLC and satellite), and compares two technologies: FTTx and WiMAX. Our tool compares these different access technologies in different scenarios, and examining the capital expense and deployment of building access networks with the same requisite performance using each technology. The cost model is limited to the access part of the network. The results obtained by our evaluation tool give the possibility to compare several BB access technologies, and support the decision about which is the better technological solution for a given scenario

  9. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF MENEGMENT'S PROCESS COST MENEGMENT IN NETWORK RETAIL BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Rezyapova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the proprietary methodology of distributing administrative expenses in the network retail businesses within the process approach to management, which has been developed to improve the quality of trade expenses administration. To this end, the author suggests using the original base unit (cost driver in the course of distribution of the subject expenses to improve the accuracy of calculating the trade process efficiency. The author gives reasons to the necessity of applying a comprehensive approach in its selection. This implies use, as the base unit, of a coefficient representing shop turnover per 1m2 of sales area. The author has made a coefficient rating to formalize the relationship between the management results and economic factors of the trade businesses risk. This approach takes into account the commodity prime cost, and the quality and economic efficiency of the management processes in selling subdivisions of a network business.

  10. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  11. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-04-23

    Secure data aggregation (SDA) schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics) and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA), in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss.

  12. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure data aggregation (SDA schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA, in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss.

  13. A scalable key management scheme with minimizing rekey cost for secure multicast over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junwei; Yang, Zongkai; Xie, Haitao

    2007-11-01

    Satellite networks are playing a more and more important role in network infrastructure. They are useful in providing broadband connectivity to remote locations which are harder to reach through terrestrial infrastructure. Data confidentiality and integrity are two critical issues for satellite networks. The multicast traffic should be accessible only to subscribers, this requires security and efficient methods to generate, distribute and update the keys. Access control can be achieved by data encryption, such as end to end security mechanisms----IPSec. Due to the high rekeying cost, most current key management protocols do not scale well for secure multicast over satellite networks. In this article we proposed a scalable key management scheme to provide secure communication in satellite networks with minimal key management overhead. The principle of this approach is to break up IPSec encryption into multiple encryption zones on a single packet and encrypts different regions of the IP packet using different keys. All of those keys are composed into just only one multi group key tree for secure multicast over satellite networks. The proposed scheme can reduce the communication and storage overhead significantly. In addition, the proposed key graph is scalable well.

  14. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF MENEGMENT'S PROCESS COST MENEGMENT IN NETWORK RETAIL BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Rezyapova

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the proprietary methodology of distributing administrative expenses in the network retail businesses within the process approach to management, which has been developed to improve the quality of trade expenses administration. To this end, the author suggests using the original base unit (cost driver) in the course of distribution of the subject expenses to improve the accuracy of calculating the trade process efficiency. The author gives reasons to the necessity of applyin...

  15. A study of Time-varying Cost Parameter Estimation Methods in Traffic Networks for Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Pragna; Xirgo, Lluís Ribas

    2015-01-01

    Industrial robust controlling systems built using automated guided vehicles (AGVs) requires planning which depends on cost parameters like time and energy of the mobile robots functioning in the system. This work addresses the problem of on-line traversal time identification and estimation for proper mobility of mobile robots on systems' traffic networks. Several filtering and estimation methods have been investigated with respect to proper identification of traversal time of arcs of systems'...

  16. A holistic framework for design of cost-effective minimum water utilization network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Alwi, S R; Manan, Z A; Samingin, M H; Misran, N

    2008-07-01

    Water pinch analysis (WPA) is a well-established tool for the design of a maximum water recovery (MWR) network. MWR, which is primarily concerned with water recovery and regeneration, only partly addresses water minimization problem. Strictly speaking, WPA can only lead to maximum water recovery targets as opposed to the minimum water targets as widely claimed by researchers over the years. The minimum water targets can be achieved when all water minimization options including elimination, reduction, reuse/recycling, outsourcing and regeneration have been holistically applied. Even though WPA has been well established for synthesis of MWR network, research towards holistic water minimization has lagged behind. This paper describes a new holistic framework for designing a cost-effective minimum water network (CEMWN) for industry and urban systems. The framework consists of five key steps, i.e. (1) Specify the limiting water data, (2) Determine MWR targets, (3) Screen process changes using water management hierarchy (WMH), (4) Apply Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) strategy, and (5) Design water network. Three key contributions have emerged from this work. First is a hierarchical approach for systematic screening of process changes guided by the WMH. Second is a set of four new heuristics for implementing process changes that considers the interactions among process changes options as well as among equipment and the implications of applying each process change on utility targets. Third is the SHARPS cost-screening technique to customize process changes and ultimately generate a minimum water utilization network that is cost-effective and affordable. The CEMWN holistic framework has been successfully implemented on semiconductor and mosque case studies and yielded results within the designer payback period criterion.

  17. Assessing the Reliability of a Multistate Logistics Network under the Transportation Cost Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and transportation cost are two important indicators to measure the performance of logistics network. As a combination of reliability and transportation cost, the performance index R(d,c of logistics network is defined as the probability that at least d units of flow demand can be successfully transmitted from the source to the destination with the total transportation cost less than or equal to c. In this paper, an algorithm is developed to calculate R(d,c in terms of (d,c-minimal paths ((d,c-MPs for short. The proposed algorithm employs a decomposition technique to divide the search space of (d,c-MPs such that the search space of (d,c-MPs can be dramatically reduced, and thereby (d,c-MPs can be efficiently obtained. An example is provided to illustrate the proposed algorithm. Finally, computational experiments conducted on one benchmark network indicate that the proposed method has an advantage over the existing methods.

  18. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  19. A Low Cost Platform for Sensor Network Applications and Educational Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Dikovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design, key features and results obtained from the development of a generic platform usable for sensor network applications operational in the ISM band. The goal was to create an open source low cost platform suitable for use in educational environment. The platform should allow students to easily grasp the fundamentals of wireless sensor networks so special attention was paid to basic concepts related to their functioning. Two versions of this platform were designed, the first one being a proof of concept and the second one more adequate to field test and measurements. Practical aspects of implementation such as network protocol, power consumption, processing speed, media access are discussed.

  20. Cost prediction of antipsychotic medication of psychiatric disorder using artificial neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mirabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic monotherapy or polypharmacy (concurrent use of two or more antipsychotics are used for treating patients with psychiatric disorders (PDs. Usually, antipsychotic monotherapy has a lower cost than polypharmacy. This study aimed to predict the cost of antipsychotic medications (AM of psychiatric patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 790 patients with PDs who were discharged between June and September 2010 were selected from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran. For cost prediction of AM of PD, neural network (NN and multiple linear regression (MLR models were used. Analysis of data was performed with R 2.15.1 software. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD of the duration of hospitalization (days in patients who were on monotherapy and polypharmacy was 31.19 ± 15.55 and 36.69 ± 15.93, respectively (P < 0.001. Mean and median costs of medication for monotherapy (n = 507 were $8.25 and $6.23 and for polypharmacy (n =192 were $13.30 and $9.48, respectively (P = 0.001. The important variables for cost prediction of AM were duration of hospitalization, type of treatment, and type of psychiatric ward in the MLR model, and duration of hospitalization, type of diagnosed disorder, type of treatment, age, Chlorpromazine dosage, and duration of disorder in the NN model. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the artificial NN (ANN model can be used as a flexible model for cost prediction of AM.

  1. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  2. Key node selection in minimum-cost control of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Wen, Changyun; Li, Guoqi

    2017-11-01

    Finding the key node set that is connected with a given number of external control sources for driving complex networks from initial state to any predefined state with minimum cost, known as minimum-cost control problem, is critically important but remains largely open. By defining an importance index for each node, we propose revisited projected gradient method extension (R-PGME) in Monte-Carlo scenario to determine key node set. It is found that the importance index of a node is strongly correlated to occurrence rate of that node to be selected as a key node in Monte-Carlo realizations for three elementary topologies, Erdős-Rényi and scale-free networks. We also discover the distribution patterns of key nodes when the control cost reaches its minimum. Specifically, the importance indices of all nodes in an elementary stem show a quasi-periodic distribution with high peak values in the beginning and end of a quasi-period while they approach to a uniform distribution in an elementary cycle. We further point out that an elementary dilation can be regarded as two elementary stems whose lengths are the closest, and the importance indices in each stem present similar distribution as in an elementary stem. Our results provide a better understanding and deep insight of locating the key nodes in different topologies with minimum control cost.

  3. Memory Abstractions for Data Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents STO, a software transactional memory (STM) based not on low-level reads and writes on memory, but on datatypes—arrays, lists, queues, hash tables, and so forth—that explicitly support transactional operations. Conventional STMs allow programmers to write concurrent code in much the same way as sequential code—thereby more easily taking advantage of multiple CPU cores. However, these conventional STMs track every memory word accessed during a transaction, so even simple op...

  4. Utterance Generation for Transaction Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Hulstijn, J.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the utterance generation module of a spoken dialogue system for transactions. Transactions are interesting because they involve obligations of both parties: the system should provide all relevant information; the user should feel committed to the transaction once it has been concluded. Utterance generation plays a major role in this. The utterance generation module works with prosodically annotated utterance templates. An appropriate template for a given dialogue act is s...

  5. Forecasting Construction Cost Index based on visibility graph: A network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Ashuri, Baabak; Shyr, Yu; Deng, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Engineering News-Record (ENR), a professional magazine in the field of global construction engineering, publishes Construction Cost Index (CCI) every month. Cost estimators and contractors assess projects, arrange budgets and prepare bids by forecasting CCI. However, fluctuations and uncertainties of CCI cause irrational estimations now and then. This paper aims at achieving more accurate predictions of CCI based on a network approach in which time series is firstly converted into a visibility graph and future values are forecasted relied on link prediction. According to the experimental results, the proposed method shows satisfactory performance since the error measures are acceptable. Compared with other methods, the proposed method is easier to implement and is able to forecast CCI with less errors. It is convinced that the proposed method is efficient to provide considerably accurate CCI predictions, which will make contributions to the construction engineering by assisting individuals and organizations in reducing costs and making project schedules.

  6. Biological Carbon Sinks: Transaction Costs and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in forest and agricultural ecosystems can generate CO2-offset credits that can thus substitute for CO2 emissions reduction. Are biological CO2-uptake activities competitive with CO2 offsets from reduced fossil fuel use? In this paper, it is

  7. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  8. A Low-Cost, Real-Time Network for Radiological Monitoring Around Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldo, N A

    2004-08-13

    A low-cost, real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response has been developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the site perimeter to continuously monitor radiological conditions as part of LLNL's comprehensive environment/safety/health protection program. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors transmit measurement data back to a central command center (CCC) computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio- and computer- based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. This system provides a low-cost real-time radiation monitoring solution that is easily converted to incorporate both a hard-wired interior perimeter with strategically positioned wireless secondary and tertiary concentric remote locations. These wireless stations would be configured with solar voltaic panels that provide current to recharge batteries and power the sensors and radio transceivers. These platforms would supply data transmission at a range of up to 95 km from a single transceiver location. As necessary, using radio transceivers in repeater mode can extend the transmission range. The RTRAM network as it is presently configured at LLNL has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions. With the

  9. Construction cost estimation of spherical storage tanks: artificial neural networks and hybrid regression—GA algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Vida; Niaki, S. T. A.; Arabzadeh, Vahid

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important processes in the early stages of construction projects is to estimate the cost involved. This process involves a wide range of uncertainties, which make it a challenging task. Because of unknown issues, using the experience of the experts or looking for similar cases are the conventional methods to deal with cost estimation. The current study presents data-driven methods for cost estimation based on the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. The learning algorithms of the ANN are the Levenberg-Marquardt and the Bayesian regulated. Moreover, regression models are hybridized with a genetic algorithm to obtain better estimates of the coefficients. The methods are applied in a real case, where the input parameters of the models are assigned based on the key issues involved in a spherical tank construction. The results reveal that while a high correlation between the estimated cost and the real cost exists; both ANNs could perform better than the hybridized regression models. In addition, the ANN with the Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm (LMNN) obtains a better estimation than the ANN with the Bayesian-regulated learning algorithm (BRNN). The correlation between real data and estimated values is over 90%, while the mean square error is achieved around 0.4. The proposed LMNN model can be effective to reduce uncertainty and complexity in the early stages of the construction project.

  10. Online Learning Algorithm for Time Series Forecasting Suitable for Low Cost Wireless Sensor Networks Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  11. Online learning algorithm for time series forecasting suitable for low cost wireless sensor networks nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martínez, Francisco; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2015-04-21

    Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  12. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; Bright, V. B.; North, R.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P. H.; Jones, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for air travel in the UK has led to calls for ways to address the effects of increasing activities in airports in London. London Heathrow airport (LHR) is the largest airport in the UK and in recent years has been operating close to full capacity resulting in consideration of building a third runway to ease the burden at the airport. Such an expansion would be subject to meeting several criteria including local air quality challenges. Air quality issues associated with the airport include particulates (e.g. PM2.5, PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and these are associated with different sources including aircraft activities and road traffic within and outside of the airport. Although it is well known that airports contribute to poor air quality, part of the challenge is to quantify contributions from these different sources. The work presented here shows the utility of low-cost high density sensor networks in addressing this challenge. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring air quality pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment. In this paper we extend this to include modified versions of these instruments which incorporate additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs, CO2 as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 μm). Meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also recorded. For this paper, we focus on LHR, although the technique has much wider applicability. A network of 30 sensor nodes is being deployed for over 16 months in and around LHR as part of NERC funded Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. We present here some of the early results from the deployment showing source attribution associated with different operational modes at LHR. Regional pollution episodes influenced by macro meteorology are

  13. ELEMENTS ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS FOR FIRMS IN NEW NETWORK BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I., GÂF-DEAC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Network - as a comprehensive structure - can be considered "unconventional formula" and intercessory actions to reduce transaction costs between operators of composition. Elements of analytical indicators for the business at the new economy concerns: network company related new economy; potential network; internal resources of knowledge; networked learning facilities; external sources of knowledge; network relationships; new intellectual capital; complementarities of knowledge; network global indicators and indicators for corporate networking. In this context, the aim is conceptual preoccupations for commitment guarantee for the establishment in the scientific, economic and managerial Romania's competitive advantage in absolute terms compared to relativity concerns only obtain comparative advantages.

  14. Exploring the alpha desynchronization hypothesis in resting state networks with intracranial electroencephalography and wiring cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, Jaime; Freedman, Shelagh; Mateos, Diego; Pérez Velázquez, José Luis; Valiante, Taufik

    2017-11-15

    This paper addresses a fundamental question, are eyes closed and eyes open resting states equivalent baseline conditions, or do they have consistently different electrophysiological signatures? We compare the functional connectivity patterns in an eyes closed resting state with an eyes open resting state to investigate the alpha desynchronization hypothesis. The change in functional connectivity from eyes closed to eyes open, is here, for the first time, studied with intracranial recordings. We perform network connectivity analysis in iEEG and we find that phase-based connectivity is sensitive to the transition from eyes closed to eyes open only in interhemispheral and frontal electrodes. Power based connectivity, on the other hand, consistently discriminates between the two conditions in temporal and interhemispheral electrodes. Additionally, we provide a calculation for the wiring cost, defined in terms of the connectivity between electrodes weighted by distance. We find that the wiring cost variation from eyes closed to eyes open is sensitive to the eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We extend the standard network-based approach using the filtration method from algebraic topology which does not rely on the threshold selection problem. Both the wiring cost measure defined here and this novel methodology provide a new avenue for understanding the electrophysiology of resting state.

  15. Low-Cost Allocator Implementations for Networks-on-Chip Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effective Networks-on-Chip (NoCs routers are important for future SoCs and embedded devices. Implementation results show that the generic virtual channel allocator (VA and the generic switch allocator (SA of a router consume large amount of area and power. In this paper, after a careful study of the working principle of a VA and the utilization statistics of its arbiters, opportunities to simplify the generic VA are identified. Then, the deadlock problem for a combined switch and virtual channel allocator (SVA is studied. Next, the impact of the VA simplification on the router critical paths is analyzed. Finally, the generic architecture and two low-cost architectures proposed (the look-ahead, and the SVA are evaluated with a cycle-accurate network simulator and detailed VLSI implementations. Results show that both the look-ahead and the SVA significantly reduce area and power compared to the generic architecture. Furthermore, cost savings are achieved without performance penalty.

  16. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within urban areas has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) can have a significant effect on human health. As such it is important to determine the potential exposure of individuals to these atmospheric constituents and investigate the processes that lead to the degradation of air quality within the urban environment. Whilst modelled pollutant levels on the local scale often suggest high degrees of spatial and temporal variability, the relatively sparse fixed site automated urban networks only provide low spatial resolution data that do not appear adequate in detecting such small scale variability. In this paper we demonstrate that measurements can now be made using networks of low-cost sensors that utilise a variety of techniques, including electrochemical and optical, to measure concentrations of atmospheric species. Once equipped with GPS and GPRS to determine position and transmit data respectively, these networks have the potential to provide valuable insights into pollutant variability inherent on the local or micro-scale. The methodology has been demonstrated successfully in field campaigns carried out in cities including London and Valencia, and is now being deployed as part of the Sensor Networks for Air Quality currently deployed at London Heathrow airport (SNAQ-Heathrow) which is outlined in the partner paper presented by Mead et al. (this conference). The SNAQ-Heathrow network of 50 sensor nodes will provide an unprecedented data set that includes measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, total VOCs, size-speciated PM as well as meteorological variables that include temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. This network will provide high temporal (20 second intervals) and spatial (50 sites within the airport area

  17. GNU Oflox: an academic software for the minimal cost network flow problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Sajo-Castelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an open-source software package written for GNU Octave. The software is an implementation of the Simplex algorithm for the minimal cost network flow problem oriented towards the academic environment. The implementation supports the use of Big-M and Phase I/Phase II methods and it can also start from a given feasible solution. Flexibility of the package's output configuration provides many attractive possibilities. The outputs are plain editable \\LaTeX\\ files that can be modified and orchestrated to fit most academic needs. It can be used in examination materials, homework assignments or even form part of a project. The format used to describe the network is the DIMACS min file format to which a simple extension was added in order to support the description of feasible trees in the file.

  18. A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Stonham, J.; Makris, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures.

  19. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p<0.001. Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  20. Low-cost autonomous perceptron neural network inspired by quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Mohammed; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem; El-Sadek, Alaa; Zanaty, E. A.; Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2017-11-01

    Achieving low cost learning with reliable accuracy is one of the important goals to achieve intelligent machines to save time, energy and perform learning process over limited computational resources machines. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for a perceptron neural network inspired by quantum computing composite from a single neuron to classify inspirable linear applications after a single training iteration O(1). The algorithm is applied over a real world data set and the results are outer performs the other state-of-the art algorithms.

  1. A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.

  2. A fuzzy neural network to estimate at completion costs of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bagherpour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In construction cost management system, normally earned value management (EVM is applied as an efficient control approach in both status detection and estimation at completion (EAC cost forecasting. The traditional approaches in EAC predictions normally extend the current situation of a project to the future by employing pervious performance factor. The proposed approach of this paper considers both qualitative and quantitative factors affecting the EAC prediction. The proposed approach of this research not only estimates the completion of the project, but also it can generate accurate forecast for the entire future periods using a fuzzy neural network model. The model is also implemented for a real-world case study and yields encouraging preliminary results.

  3. The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonçalves, Luís; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is a European COST Action that has been running from 2007 to 2011. COST Actions are funded by the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) Agency, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), of the European Union. EURO-TELEPATH's main objectives were evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical professionals in a networked environment. The project was organized in four working groups. orking Group 1 "Business modeling in pathology" has designed main pathology processes - Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy -using Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). orking Group 2 "Informatics standards in pathology" has been dedicated to promoting the development and application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Working Group 3 "Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management" worked on the use of virtual or digital slides that are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Working Group 4 "Technology and Automation in Pathology" was focused on studying the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including, e.g., the quality of images obtained by slide scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. Major outcome of this action are the collaboration with international health informatics standardization bodies to foster the development of standards for digital pathology, offering a new approach for workflow analysis, based in business process

  4. A cost-effective traffic data collection system based on the iDEN mobile telecommunication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes a cost-effective data collection system for Caltrans 170 traffic signal : controller. The data collection system is based on TCP/IP communication over existing : low-cost mobile communication networks and Motorola iDEN1 mobile...

  5. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  6. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  7. Design of a Multiobjective Reverse Logistics Network Considering the Cost and Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics, which is induced by various forms of used products and materials, has received growing attention throughout this decade. In a highly competitive environment, the service level is an important criterion for reverse logistics network design. However, most previous studies about product returns only focused on the total cost of the reverse logistics and neglected the service level. To help a manufacturer of electronic products provide quality postsale repair service for their consumer, this paper proposes a multiobjective reverse logistics network optimisation model that considers the objectives of the cost, the total tardiness of the cycle time, and the coverage of customer zones. The Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II is employed for solving this multiobjective optimisation model. To evaluate the performance of NSGA-II, a genetic algorithm based on weighted sum approach and Multiobjective Simulated Annealing (MOSA are also applied. The performance of these three heuristic algorithms is compared using numerical examples. The computational results show that NSGA-II outperforms MOSA and the genetic algorithm based on weighted sum approach. Furthermore, the key parameters of the model are tested, and some conclusions are drawn.

  8. Advanced Algorithm for Optimizing the Deployment Cost of Passive Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lafata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of passive optical networks (PONs is slow today, especially in Europe, because completely new optical infrastructures are necessary to be installed in the last-mile segments of access networks, which is always very expensive process. One of the possibilities is to design economically effective topologies and to optimize the deployment cost. This article describes the method leading to evaluate an algorithm for designing suboptimal economic solutions and topologies for PONs by focusing on optimization of constructional length of distribution networks. While the typical PON topologies are star topologies or tree-star topologies, the first part of this article introduces new sub algorithm for estimating the minimum star topology. The next section brings the evaluation of two sub algorithms for solving minimum constructional length problems. Finally, all these parts will be merged into a complex algorithm by using clusterization technique to solve optimum topologies. However, the current version of presented algorithm is purely based on mathematical theories and was implemented in Matlab environment. Therefore, it is able to design only theoretical optimum topologies without taking external conditions and real limitations into account. These real conditions will be further implemented in the future, so the algorithm could be also used for practical applications.

  9. Routing of radioactive shipments in networks with time-varying costs and curfews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, L.A.; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-09-01

    This research examines routing of radioactive shipments in highway networks with time-dependent travel times and population densities. A time-dependent least-cost path (TDLCP) algorithm that uses a label-correcting approach is adapted to include curfews and waiting at nodes. A method is developed to estimate time-dependent population densities, which are required to estimate risk associated with the use of a particular highway link at a particular time. The TDLCP algorithm is implemented for example networks and used to examine policy questions related to radioactive shipments. It is observed that when only Interstate highway facilities are used to transport these materials, a shipment must go through many cities and has difficulty avoiding all of them during their rush hour periods. Decreases in risk, increased departure time flexibility, and modest increases in travel times are observed when primary and/or secondary roads are included in the network. Based on the results of the example implementation, the suitability of the TDLCP algorithm for strategic nuclear material and general radioactive material shipments is demonstrated.

  10. A Computer System for Effective Management of a Medical Library Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Nance

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available TRIPS (TALON Reporting and Information Processing System is an interactive software system for generating reports to NLM on regional medical library network activity and constitutes a vital part of a network management information system (NEMIS for the South Central Regional Medical Library Program. Implemented on a PDP-lOfSRU 1108 interfaced system, TRIPS accepts paper tape input describing network transactions and generates output statistics on disposition of requests, elapsed time for completing filled requests, time to clear unfilled requests, arrival time distribution of requests by day of month, and various other measures of activity andjor performance. Emphasized in the TRIPS design are flexibility, extensibility, and system integrity. Processing costs, neglecting preparation of input which may be accomplished in several ways, are estimated at $.05 per transaction, a transaction being the transmittal of a message from one library to another.

  11. 28 CFR 80.3 - Transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... made prior to the requestor's commitment to proceed with a transaction. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transaction. 80.3 Section 80.3 Judicial... Transaction. The entire transaction which is the subject of the request must be an actual—not a hypothetical...

  12. Principles of Transactional Memory The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing paradigm for concurrent programming on shared memory architectures. With a TM, threads of an application communicate, and synchronize their actions, via in-memory transactions. Each transaction can perform any number of operations on shared data, and then either commit or abort. When the transaction commits, the effects of all its operations become immediately visible to other transactions; when it aborts, however, those effects are entirely discarded. Transactions are atomic: programmers get the illusion that every transaction executes all its operati

  13. Two Kinds of Consumer Switching Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Tore Nilssen

    1992-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a distinction between two kinds of consumer switching costs: "transaction costs" and "learning costs." While transaction costs are incurred by a consumer at every switch between suppliers, learning costs are incurred only at a switch to a supplier that is new to him. In a multiperiod duopoly model, I examine the effects of changing the proportion of each kind of consumer switching costs, while holding total switching costs constant. I show that an increase in tran...

  14. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  15. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic

  16. The cost of sensitive response and accurate adaptation in networks with an incoherent type-1 feed-forward loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-10-06

    The incoherent type-1 feed-forward loop (I1-FFL) is ubiquitous in biological regulatory circuits. Although much is known about the functions of the I1-FFL motif, the energy cost incurred in the network and how it affects the performance of the network have not been investigated. Here, we study a generic I1-FFL enzymatic reaction network modelled after the GEF-GAP-Ras pathway responsible for chemosensory adaptation in eukaryotic cells. Our analysis shows that the I1-FFL network always operates out of equilibrium. Continuous energy dissipation is necessary to drive an internal phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle that is crucial in achieving strong short-time response and accurate long-time adaptation. In particular, we show quantitatively that the energy dissipated in the I1-FFL network is used (i) to increase the system's initial response to the input signals; (ii) to enhance the adaptation accuracy at steady state; and (iii) to expand the range of such accurate adaptation. Moreover, we find that the energy dissipation rate, the catalytic speed and the maximum adaptation accuracy in the I1-FFL network satisfy the same energy-speed-accuracy relationship as in the negative-feedback-loop (NFL) networks. Because the I1-FFL and NFL are the only two basic network motifs that enable accurate adaptation, our results suggest that a universal cost-performance trade-off principle may underlie all cellular adaptation processes independent of the detailed biochemical circuit architecture.

  17. Effects of Integration on the Cost Reduction in Distribution Network Design for Perishable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Firoozi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perishable products, which include medical and pharmaceutical items as well as food products, are quite common in commerce and industries. Developing efficient network designs for storage and distribution of perishable products plays a prominent role in the cost and quality of these products. This paper aims to investigate and analyze the impact of applying an integrated approach for network design of perishable products. For this purpose, the problem has been formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear mathematical model that integrates inventory control and facility location decisions. To solve the integrated model, a memetic algorithm (MA is developed in this study. For verification of the proposed algorithm, its results are compared with the results of an adapted Lagrangian relaxation heuristic algorithm from the literature. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the main parameters of the model is conducted to compare the results of the integrated approach with a decoupled method. The results show that as the products become more perishable, application of an integrated method becomes more reasonable in comparison with the decoupled one.

  18. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  19. Improved rapid magnitude estimation for a community-based, low-cost MEMS accelerometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Angela I.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Anna E.; Christensen, Carl M.; Yildirim, Battalgazi; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following the Mw 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, over 180 Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) low‐cost micro‐electro‐mechanical systems accelerometers were deployed in the Canterbury region. Using data recorded by this dense network from 2010 to 2013, we significantly improved the QCN rapid magnitude estimation relationship. The previous scaling relationship (Lawrence et al., 2014) did not accurately estimate the magnitudes of nearby (estimates earthquake magnitudes within 1 magnitude unit of the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog magnitudes for 99% of the events tested, within 0.5 magnitude units for 90% of the events, and within 0.25 magnitude units for 57% of the events. These magnitudes are reliably estimated within 3 s of the initial trigger recorded on at least seven stations. In this report, we present the methods used to calculate a new scaling relationship and demonstrate the accuracy of the revised magnitude estimates using a program that is able to retrospectively estimate event magnitudes using archived data.

  20. An OCP Compliant Network Adapter for GALS-based SoC Design Using the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Mahadevan, Shankar; Olsen, Rasmus Grøndahl

    2005-01-01

    The demand for IP reuse and system level scalability in System-on-Chip (SoC) designs is growing. Network-onchip (NoC) constitutes a viable solution space to emerging SoC design challenges. In this paper we describe an OCP compliant network adapter (NA) architecture for the MANGO NoC. The NA...... decouples communication and computation, providing memory-mapped OCP transactions based on primitive message-passing services of the network. Also, it facilitates GALS-type systems, by adapting to the clockless network. This helps leverage a modular SoC design flow. We evaluate performance and cost of 0...

  1. Coauthorship and institutional collaborations on cost-effectiveness analyses: a systematic network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA has been promoted as an important research methodology for determining the efficiency of healthcare technology and guiding medical decision-making. Our aim was to characterize the collaborative patterns of CEA conducted over the past two decades in Spain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic analysis was carried out with the information obtained through an updated comprehensive literature review and from reports of health technology assessment agencies. We identified CEAs with outcomes expressed as a time-based summary measure of population health (e.g. quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years, conducted in Spain and published between 1989 and 2011. Networks of coauthorship and institutional collaboration were produced using PAJEK software. One-hundred and thirty-one papers were analyzed, in which 526 authors and 230 institutions participated. The overall signatures per paper index was 5.4. Six major groups (one with 14 members, three with 7 members and two with 6 members were identified. The most prolific authors were generally affiliated with the private-for-profit sector (e.g. consulting firms and the pharmaceutical industry. The private-for-profit sector maintains profuse collaborative networks including public hospitals and academia. Collaboration within the public sector (e.g. healthcare administration and primary care was weak and fragmented. CONCLUSIONS: This empirical analysis reflects critical practices among collaborative networks that contributed substantially to the production of CEA, raises challenges for redesigning future policies and provides a framework for similar analyses in other regions.

  2. ICE: A Scalable, Low-Cost FPGA-Based Telescope Signal Processing and Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Bender, A. N.; Cliche, J. F.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Griffin, S.; Hsyu, G.; Ittah, D.; Parra, J. Mena; Montgomery, J.; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T.; Siegel, S.; Smecher, G.; Tang, Q. Y.; Vanderlinde, K.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present an overview of the ‘ICE’ hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators — data rates exceeding a terabyte per second — are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific applications through software, firmware and custom mezzanine daughter boards that interface to the FPGA through the industry-standard FPGA mezzanine card (FMC) specifications. For high density applications, the motherboards are packaged in 16-slot crates with ICE backplanes that implement a low-cost passive full-mesh network between the motherboards in a crate, allow high bandwidth interconnection between crates and enable data offload to a computer cluster. A Python-based control software library automatically detects and operates the hardware in the array. Examples of specific telescope applications of the ICE framework are presented, namely the frequency-multiplexed bolometer readout systems used for the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Simons Array and the digitizer, F-engine, and networking engine for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX) radio

  3. Self-disclosure in social networking sites : the role of perceived cost, perceived benefits and social influence.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C. M. K.; Lee, Z. W. Y.; Chan, T. K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative impacts of perceived cost, perceived benefits, and social influence on self-disclosure behaviors in social networking sites under an integrated theoretical framework. Design/methodology/approach – Building upon social exchange theory and privacy calculus theory, an integrated model was developed. The model was tested empirically using a sample of 405 social networking site’s users. Users were required to complete a ...

  4. Field evaluation of a low-cost, high-density air quality monitoring network: BEACO2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Shusterman, A.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors are becoming widely available encouraging the development dense sensor networks. However, the accuracy and reliability of these new sensors are not well characterized and the added benefits of networks have yet to be clearly described or realized in an application. We describe the deployment and evaluation of a low-cost, high-density air quality monitoring network consisting of approximately 25 nodes distributed at 2km spacing in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area as part of the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N). Measurements of CO2, CO, NO, NO2, O­3 and aerosol at the nodes are evaluated based on laboratory and field experiments. We describe approaches to in-field calibration and evaluation that take advantage of cross-sensitivities of the sensors and response to varying temperature. Observations from the low cost sensors are compared to standard regulatory measurements. We show that the sensors provide signals that correlate with nearby traffic and other environmental variables and demonstrate the feasibility of deploying low-cost, high-density air quality monitoring network.

  5. Implications of Transaction Costs for Acquisition Program Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    explanatory variable changes (Barreto and Howland 2006, 508–509). Autocorrelation is the correlation of a variable value with itself across a time series...CA: RAND. Barreto, Humberto and Frank M. Howland . 2006. Introductory Econometrics: Using Monte Carlo Simulation with Microsoft Excel. New York

  6. Transaction Costs and Cost Breaches in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    is appropriate because it is designed for use with binary - outcome dependent variables. Additionally, a fixed effects logit model adjusts for bias...we use a logistic regression model , or a maximum likelihood estimator such as logit , which uses the natural logarithm of the odds ratio. This model ...introduced by omitted explanatory variables within the clustered panel data, and a population averaged logit model is appropriate for examining across

  7. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Fu; Zhenzhen Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing ent...

  8. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  9. Experience with low-cost telemedicine in three different settings. Recommendations based on a proposed framework for network performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zolfo, Maria; Bonnardot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background Telemedicine has been used for many years to support doctors in the developing world. Several networks provide services in different settings and in different ways. However, to draw conclusions about which telemedicine networks are successful requires a method of evaluating them. No general consensus or validated framework exists for this purpose. Objective To define a basic method of performance measurement that can be used to improve and compare teleconsultation networks; to employ the proposed framework in an evaluation of three existing networks; to make recommendations about the future implementation and follow-up of such networks. Methods Analysis based on the experience of three telemedicine networks (in operation for 7–10 years) that provide services to doctors in low-resource settings and which employ the same basic design. Findings Although there are many possible indicators and metrics that might be relevant, five measures for each of the three user groups appear to be sufficient for the proposed framework. In addition, from the societal perspective, information about clinical- and cost-effectiveness is also required. The proposed performance measurement framework was applied to three mature telemedicine networks. Despite their differences in terms of activity, size and objectives, their performance in certain respects is very similar. For example, the time to first reply from an expert is about 24 hours for each network. Although all three networks had systems in place to collect data from the user perspective, none of them collected information about the coordinator's time required or about ease of system usage. They had only limited information about quality and cost. Conclusion Measuring the performance of a telemedicine network is essential in understanding whether the network is working as intended and what effect it is having. Based on long-term field experience, the suggested framework is a practical tool that will permit

  10. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Mazzenga; Romeo Giuliano; Francesco Vatalaro

    2017-01-01

    One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes) at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core net...

  11. Extending the coverage of the internet of things with low-cost nanosatellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Vicente; Franck, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Recent technology advances have made CubeSats not only an affordable means of access to space, but also promising platforms to develop a new variety of space applications. In this paper, we explore the idea of using nanosatellites as access points to provide extended coverage to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. This study is mainly motivated by two facts: on the one hand, it is already obvious that the number of machine-type devices deployed globally will experiment an exponential growth over the forthcoming years. This trend is pushed by the available terrestrial cellular infrastructure, which allows adding support for M2M connectivity at marginal costs. On the other hand, the same growth is not observed in remote areas that must rely on space-based connectivity. In such environments, the demand for M2M communications is potentially large, yet it is challenged by the lack of cost-effective service providers. The traffic characteristics of typical M2M applications translate into the requirement for an extremely low cost per transmitted message. Under these strong economical constraints, we expect that nanosatellites in the low Earth orbit will play a fundamental role in overcoming what we may call the IoT digital divide. The objective of this paper is therefore to provide a general analysis of a nanosatellite-based, global IoT/M2M network. We put emphasis in the engineering challenges faced in designing the Earth-to-Space communication link, where the adoption of an efficient multiple-access scheme is paramount for ensuring connectivity to a large number of terminal nodes. In particular, the trade-offs energy efficiency-access delay and energy efficiency-throughput are discussed, and a novel access approach suitable for delay-tolerant applications is proposed. Thus, by keeping a system-level standpoint, we identify key issues and discuss perspectives towards energy efficient and cost-effective solutions.

  12. HTML thin client and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Touchette, J F

    1999-01-01

    When writing applications for thin clients such as Web browsers, you face several challenges that do not exist with fat-client applications written in Visual Basic, Delphi, or Java. For one thing, your development tools do not include facilities for automatically building reliable, nonrepeatable transactions into applications. Consequently, you must devise your own techniques to prevent users from transmitting duplicate transactions. The author explains how to implement reliable, nonrepeatable transactions using a technique that is applicable to any Java Server Development Kit based architecture. Although the examples presented are based on the IBM WebSphere 2.1 Application Server, they do not make use of any IBM WebSphere extensions. In short, the concepts presented here can be implemented in Perl CGI and ASP scripts, and the sample code has been tested with JDK 1.1.6 and 1.2. (0 refs).

  13. Practice Innovation, Health Care Utilization and Costs in a Network of Federally Qualified Health Centers and Hospitals for Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia J; Jones, Art; Lulias, Cheryl; Perry, Anthony

    2017-07-27

    State Medicaid programs need cost-effective strategies to provide high-quality care that is accessible to individuals with low incomes and limited resources. Integrated delivery systems have been formed to provide care across the continuum, but creating a shared vision for improving community health can be challenging. Medical Home Network was created as a network of primary care providers and hospital systems providing care to Medicaid enrollees, guided by the principles of egalitarian governance, practice-level care coordination, real-time electronic alerts, and pay-for-performance incentives. This analysis of health care utilization and costs included 1,189,195 Medicaid enrollees. After implementation of Medical Home Network, a risk-adjusted increase of $9.07 or 4.3% per member per month was found over the 2 years of implementation compared with an increase of $17.25 or 9.3% per member per month, before accounting for the cost of care management fees and other financial incentives, for Medicaid enrollees within the same geographic area with a primary care provider outside of Medical Home Network. After accounting for care coordination fees paid to providers, the net risk-adjusted cost reduction was $11.0 million.

  14. The multi-layer network nature of systemic risk and its implications for the costs of financial crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poledna, S.; Molina-Borboa, J.L.; Martínez-Jaramillo, S.; van der Leij, M.; Thurner, S.

    2015-01-01

    The inability to see and quantify systemic financial risk comes at an immense social cost. Systemic risk in the financial system arises to a large extent as a consequence of the interconnectedness of its institutions, which are linked through networks of different types of financial contracts, such

  15. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  16. A Low-Cost Body Inertial-Sensing Network for Practical Gait Discrimination of Hemiplegia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanwei; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guanzheng; Zhao, Guoru; Huang, Bangyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gait analysis is widely used in detecting human walking disorders. Current gait analysis methods like video- or optical-based systems are expensive and cause invasion of human privacy. This article presents a self-developed low-cost body inertial-sensing network, which contains a base station, three wearable inertial measurement nodes, and the affiliated wireless communication protocol, for practical gait discrimination between hemiplegia patients and asymptomatic subjects. Every sensing node contains one three-axis accelerometer, one three-axis magnetometer, and one three-axis gyroscope. Seven hemiplegia patients (all were abnormal on the right side) and 7 asymptomatic subjects were examined. The three measurement nodes were attached on the thigh, the shank, and the dorsum of the foot, respectively (all on the right side of the body). A new method, which does not need to obtain accurate positions of the sensors, was used to calculate angles of knee flexion/extension and foot in the gait cycle. The angle amplitudes of initial contact, toe off, and knee flexion/extension were extracted. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the three angle amplitudes examined (−0.52±0.98° versus 6.94±2.63°, 28.33±11.66° versus 47.34±7.90°, and 26.85±8.6° versus 50.91±6.60°, respectively). It was concluded that the body inertial-sensing network platform provided a practical approach for wearable biomotion acquisition and was effective for discriminating gait symptoms between hemiplegia and asymptomatic subjects. PMID:22449064

  17. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  18. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  19. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  20. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  1. Optimization of transport network in the Basin of Yangtze River with minimization of environmental emission and transport/investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Shi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the ship-lock at the Three Gorges Dam has become bottleneck of waterway transport and caused serious congestion. In this article, a continual network design model is established to solve the problem with minimizing the transport cost and environmental emission as well as infrastructure construction cost. In this bi-level model, the upper model gives the schemes of ship-lock expansion or construction of pass-dam highway. The lower model assigns the containers in the multi-mode network and calculates the transport cost, environmental emission, and construction investment. The solution algorithm to the model is proposed. In the numerical study, scenario analyses are done to evaluate the schemes and determine the optimal one in the context of different traffic demands. The result shows that expanding the ship-lock is better than constructing pass-dam highway.

  2. FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mazzenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage.

  3. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a structured collaborative disease management in the Interdisciplinary Network for Heart Failure (INH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anja; Mostardt, Sarah; Biermann, Janine; Gelbrich, Götz; Goehler, Alexander; Geisler, Benjamin P; Siebert, Uwe; Störk, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Angerrmann, Christiane E; Wasem, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Non-pharmacological treatment programmes are being developed, in which specialised nurses take care of heart failure (HF) patients. Such disease management programmes might increase survival and quality of life in HF patients, but evidence on their cost-effectiveness remains limited. A prospective economic evaluation piggy-backed onto the randomised controlled Interdisciplinary Network for Heart Failure (INH) Study weighted costs of the intervention HeartNetCare -HF™ (HNC) regarding effectiveness, mortality and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To consider uncertainty sensitivity analyses were performed. Compared to usual care (UC), HNC revealed 8,284 per death avoided within the 6 month study follow-up period. The cost-utility analysis showed additional costs of 49,335 per QALY. Although HNC did not reduce short-term re-admission rates of HF patients hospitalised for cardiac decompensation within the first 180 days after discharge, HNC might reduce mortality and increase quality of life in these patients at reasonable costs. Therefore, long-term HNC-effects deserve further evaluation.

  4. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  5. Sensing Home: A Cost-Effective Design for Smart Home via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Huang, Hao; Qi, Shipeng; Luo, Xincheng; Zeng, Jing; Xie, Qubo; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    The aging population has inspired the marketing of advanced real time devices for home health care, more and more wearable devices and mobile applications, which have emerged in this field. However, to properly collect behavior information, accurately recognize human activities, and deploy the whole system in a real living environment is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a feasible wireless-based solution to deploy a data collection scheme, activity recognition model, feedback control and mobile integration via heterogeneous networks. We compared and found a suitable algorithm that can be run on cost-efficient embedded devices. Specifically, we use the Super Set Transformation method to map the raw data into a sparse binary matrix. Furthermore, designed front-end devices of low power consumption gather the living data of the habitant via ZigBee to reduce the burden of wiring work. Finally, we evaluated our approach and show it can achieve a theoretical time-slice accuracy of 98%. The mapping solution we propose is compatible with more wearable devices and mobile apps. PMID:26633424

  6. Sensing Home: A Cost-Effective Design for Smart Home via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Huang, Hao; Qi, Shipeng; Luo, Xincheng; Zeng, Jing; Xie, Qubo; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-03

    The aging population has inspired the marketing of advanced real time devices for home health care, more and more wearable devices and mobile applications, which have emerged in this field. However, to properly collect behavior information, accurately recognize human activities, and deploy the whole system in a real living environment is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a feasible wireless-based solution to deploy a data collection scheme, activity recognition model, feedback control and mobile integration via heterogeneous networks. We compared and found a suitable algorithm that can be run on cost-efficient embedded devices. Specifically, we use the Super Set Transformation method to map the raw data into a sparse binary matrix. Furthermore, designed front-end devices of low power consumption gather the living data of the habitant via ZigBee to reduce the burden of wiring work. Finally, we evaluated our approach and show it can achieve a theoretical time-slice accuracy of 98%. The mapping solution we propose is compatible with more wearable devices and mobile apps.

  7. Low-cost ultrasonic distance sensor arrays with networked error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjun; Zhao, Shulin; Jia, Zhiping; Chen, Tianzhou

    2013-09-05

    Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC) trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  8. Rethinking Ethiopian Secured Transactions Law through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various countries have reformed their secured transaction laws recognizing the significance of modern secured transactions law in enhancing access to credit and economic development. Ethiopia has not undertaken comprehensive secured transactions law reform, despite the demonstrable mismatch between the legal ...

  9. 5 CFR 1640.4 - Account transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account transactions. 1640.4 Section 1640... STATEMENTS § 1640.4 Account transactions. (a) Where relevant, the following transactions will be reported in each individual account statement: (1) Contributions; (2) Withdrawals; (3) Forfeitures; (4) Loan...

  10. Analysis of Other Transaction Agreements to Acquire Innovative Renewable Energy Solutions for the Department of the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Logistics BAA Broad Agency Announcement BBP Better Buying Power CAS Cost Accounting Standards CEED Consortium for Energy, Environment, and...total cost of the prototype project is to be paid out of funds provided by parties to the transaction other than the Federal Government. The senior...procurement or transaction , any contract or subcontract for the Department of Defense that is subject to full coverage under the cost accounting

  11. Cost-effectiveness of hub-and-spoke telestroke networks for the management of acute ischemic stroke from the hospitals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jeffrey A; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Xie, Jipan; Fan, Liangyi; Villa, Kathleen F; Wu, Eric Q

    2013-01-01

    A hub-and-spoke telestroke network is an effective way to extend quality acute stroke care to remote hospitals and to improve patient outcomes. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a telestroke network in the management of acute ischemic stroke from the perspectives of a network, a hub hospital, and a spoke hospital. A model was developed to compare costs and effectiveness with and without a telestroke network over a 5-year time horizon. The model considered differences in rates of teleconsultations, intravenous thrombolysis, endovascular stroke therapies, and spoke-to-hub transfers. These inputs were estimated through the use of data from Georgia Health Sciences University and Mayo Clinic telestroke networks. A network model with 1 hub and 7 spokes predicted that 45 more patients would be treated with intravenous thrombolysis and 20 more with endovascular stroke therapies per year compared with no network, leading to an estimate of 6.11 more home discharges. Each year, a telestroke network was associated with $358 435 in cost savings; each spoke had $109 080 in cost savings, whereas the hub had positive costs of $405 121. However, cost sharing can be arranged so that each hospital could achieve an equal amount of cost savings ($44 804/y). Results were sensitive to the number of spokes, marginal treatment costs in spokes and rates of transfer, and endovascular stroke therapies. The results of this study suggest that a telestroke network may increase the number of patients discharged home and reduce the costs borne by the network hospitals. Hospitals should consider their available resources and the network features when deciding whether to join or set up a network.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Three Types of Power Lines in 10 kV Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are three types of power lines in the 10 kV distribution network in China, i.e., copper power cables, overhead power conductors and aluminum alloy power cables. It is necessary to give a comprehensive evaluation to choose the type of power line in some delicate practical engineering. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC-based analysis method for the three types of power lines. An LCC model of the power line in the 10 kV distribution network is established, which considers four parts: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, failure cost and discard cost. A detailed calculation model for the four parts is presented, and to calculate the failure cost, the Monte Carlo algorithm is employed to simulate the values of expected energy not supplied (EENS. Two practical 10 kV power line projects in Fujian Province in China were analyzed based on the proposed LLC model and corresponding developed software, which has helped the power company select the appropriate power line successfully.

  13. Personality-relationship transactions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Franz J; Mund, Marcus; Zimmermann, Julia; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2014-12-01

    The transactional paradigm states that people create, maintain, and change their environments according to their personalities. At the same time, the environment reacts back on personality. As social relationships are part of an individual's environment, this likewise implies that there are reciprocal transactions between personality and relationships. However, earlier studies have concluded that adult personality traits are so stable that they have a stronger effect on later relationships, but that relationship effects on personality are negligible. In this article, we contend that personality-relationship transactions should be revisited. We submit that the relative powers of personality versus relationship effects depend on the type of life transition during which the effects take place: Relationship effects on personality development are more likely to emerge in the context of rather normative and highly scripted life transitions, whereas personality effects on relationship development are more likely to occur in the context of rather non-normative life transitions that are less regulated by social expectations. We illustrate these assumptions with examples from our own work and other findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, we theorize that effects of personality-relationship transactions on health also vary with the normativeness of the eliciting life transition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Transformational and transactional leadership conceptualization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study to revalidated and re-examined the factor structure and the conceptualization of the transformational and transactional leadership for a possible application to the study of leadership in Nigerian applied settings. Data were collected from 212 employees (160 males and 52 females) who rated eight CEOs (4 males ...

  15. PayPal Transactions Security

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan Toader

    2014-01-01

    Recent threads to prominent organizations and companies have greatly increased the need for information security. Many measures have been designed and developed to guard against threats from outsider attacks. Technologies are actively implemented to prohibit such attacks that could actively prohibit rogue connections. In this paper, common vulnerabilities for PayPal transactions identified as well as solutions for defending against them.

  16. Transactions on Computational Science IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 9th issue of the Transactions on Computational Science journal, edited by François Anton, is devoted to the subject of Voronoi diagrams in science and engineering. The 9 papers included in the issue constitute extended versions of selected papers from the International Symposium on Voronoi...

  17. The Transaction Footprints of Scottish Food And Drink SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copus Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey approach to measuring the “transaction footprints” of rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Combined with a graphical presentation of results, this contributes to the evidence base on the roles of local and global linkages. Findings suggest that the food and drink industry of Scotland is relatively localised in its input and sales interaction pattern, although substantial variations, associated with product specialisms, remoteness/accessibility, input purchasing and marketing strategies, exist. Localised SMEs have weathered the recession slightly better, but more outward-looking in firms tend to have greater optimism about the future. Transaction footprint analysis should be viewed as component of an ongoing process of re-mapping the network infrastructure of the rural economy, alongside analysis of untraded interdependencies, and institutional networks in the realm of governance.

  18. Artificial neural networks incorporating cost significant Items towards enhancing estimation for (life-cycle) costing of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alqahtani, Ayedh; Whyte, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Industrial application of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is somewhat limited, with techniques deemed overly theoretical, resulting in a reluctance to realise (and pass onto the client) the advantages to be gained from objective (LCCA) comparison of (sub)component material specifications. To address the need for a user-friendly structured approach to facilitate complex processing, the work described here develops a new, accessible framework for LCCA of construction projects; it acknowledges A...

  19. Custos de Transação e Estrutura de Governança no Setor PúblicoTransaction Costs and Governance Structures in the Public SectorCustos de Transacción y Estructuras de Gobernanza en el Sector Público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERES, Ursula Dias

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo se dedica na apresentação de uma abordagem da economia dos custos de transação aplicada ao setor público. Em um primeiro momento, são trabalhados alguns conceitos básicos utilizados pela Nova Economia Institucional; a saber: custos de transação e estruturas de governança. A segunda parte deste artigo está focada na adaptação dessa teoria para o setor público, com especial ênfase na análise de seus atores, custos de transação e de outras particularidades relevantes que afetam a definição de sua estrutura de governança. Como forma de equacionar parte dos custos de transação presente no setor público, especialmente a presença de oportunismo político, a terceira seção descreve duas possibilidades de aperfeiçoamento da gestão pública. Por fim, em suas conclusões, este artigo enfatiza a necessidade de se estabelecer mecanismos externos de incentivo e supervisão para a boa gestão pública e da ampliação dos estudos a respeito da eficiência e eficácia dos instrumentos descritos na terceira seção.ABSTRACTThe present paper presents an approach of the transaction costs theory applied in the public sector. In a first moment, some basic concepts used by the New Institutional Economy are presented, namely, transaction cost and governance structure. The second part of the paper focuses on the adaptation of this theory to the public sector, with special emphasis in the analysis of its actors, their transaction costs and other relevant peculiarities that affect the definition of the governance structure. As a way to equate part of the transaction costs present in the public sector, particularly the presence of political opportunism, the third part describes two possibilities of improving public management. Finally, in the conclusions, the paper emphasizes the need of establishing external incentive mechanisms and supervision towards a good public management, besides enhancing the studies on the efficiency

  20. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Juan, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Liu, Chenlian, E-mail: chenglian.liu@gmail.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com [Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  1. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenlian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  2. Securing Electronic Transactions to Support E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Many reports regarding online fraud in varieties media create skepticism for conducting transactions online, especially through an open network such as the Internet, which offers no security whatsoever. Therefore, encryption technology is vitally important to support secure e-commerce on the Internet. Two well-known encryption representing symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems as well as their applications are discussed in this paper. Encryption is a key technology to secure electronic trans...

  3. Low-cost design of next generation SONET/SDH networks with multiple constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karem, TR

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available on constraints programming satisfaction technology is proposed. The algorithm is tested in OPNET simulation environment using different network models derived from a hypothetical case study of an optical network design for Bellville area in Cape Town, South...

  4. Implementation of a Low-Cost Energy and Environment Monitoring System Based on a Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost hybrid wireless sensor network (WSN that utilizes the 917 MHz band Wireless Smart Utility Network (Wi-SUN and a 447 MHz band narrow bandwidth communication network is implemented for electric metering and room temperature, humidity, and CO2 gas measurements. A mesh network connection that is commonly utilized for the Internet of Things (IoT is used for the Wi-SUN under the Contiki OS, and a star connection is used for the narrow bandwidth network. Both a duty-cycling receiver algorithm and a digitally controlled temperature-compensated crystal oscillator algorithm for frequency reference are implemented at the physical layer of the receiver to accomplish low-power and low-cost wireless sensor node design. A two-level temperature-compensation approach, in which first a fixed third-order curve and then a sample-based first-order curve are applied, is proposed using a conventional AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. The developed WSN is installed in a home and provides reliable data collection with low construction complexity and power consumption.

  5. Model oriented network management helps reduce costs. Transparency of on-line network information systems; Modellorientiertes Netzmanagement hilft Kosten sparen. Transparente Netzinformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaetsch, H.U.

    2001-09-10

    Since the deregulation of the energy markets the energy supply enterprises have had to watch their costs even more intensively. In this connection the unlimited information on the state of the network gains more and more significance as an additional competitive factor. What is needed are network information systems allowing the operator an optimal look into the network at any time. In this context model orientation is not a magic word but a concrete reference towards a stylish solution. (orig.) [German] Die Energieversorgungsunternehmen muessen seit der Deregulierung der Energiemaerkte noch intensiver auf die Kosten schauen. In diesem Zusammenhang kommt auch der uneingeschraenkten Information ueber den Zustand der Netze als zusaetzlicher Wettbewerbsfaktor eine immer groessere Bedeutung zu. Benoetigt werden Netzinformationssysteme, die dem Betreiber zu jeder Zeit einen optimalen Blick ins Netz ermoeglichen. Modellorientierung ist in diesem Zusammenhang kein Zauberwort, aber ein konkreter Hinweis auf eine Loesung mit Pfiff. (orig.)

  6. Monitoring meteorological spatial variability in viticulture using a low-cost Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Alessandro; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Primicerio, Jacopo; Tomasi, Diego; Guidoni, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    In a long-term perspective, the current global agricultural scenario will be characterize by critical issues in terms of water resource management and environmental protection. The concept of sustainable agriculture would become crucial at reducing waste, optimizing the use of pesticides and fertilizers to crops real needs. This can be achieved through a minimum-scale monitoring of the crop physiologic status and the environmental parameters that characterize the microclimate. Viticulture is often subject to high variability within the same vineyard, thus becomes important to monitor this heterogeneity to allow a site-specific management and maximize the sustainability and quality of production. Meteorological variability expressed both at vineyard scale (mesoclimate) and at single plant level (microclimate) plays an important role during the grape ripening process. The aim of this work was to compare temperature, humidity and solar radiation measurements at different spatial scales. The measurements were assessed for two seasons (2011, 2012) in two vineyards of the Veneto region (North-East Italy), planted with Pinot gris and Cabernet Sauvignon using a specially designed and developed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering. Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity. Different sources of spatial variation were studied, from meso-scale to micro-scale. A widespread investigation was conducted, building a factorial design able to evidence the role played by any factor influencing the physical environment in the vineyard, such as the surrounding climate

  7. Shared networks of interpreter services, at relatively low cost, can help providers serve patients with limited english skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services.

  8. A low cost strategy to monitor the expansion and contraction of the flowing stream network in mountainous headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assendelft, Rick; van Meerveld, Ilja; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Streams are dynamic features in the landscape. The flowing stream network expands and contracts, connects and disconnects in response to rainfall events and seasonal changes in catchment wetness. Sections of the river system that experience these wet and dry cycles are often referred to as temporary streams. Temporary streams are abundant and widely distributed freshwater ecosystems. They account for more than half of the total length of the global stream network, are unique habitats and form important hydrological and ecological links between the uplands and perennial streams. However, temporary streams have been largely unstudied, especially in mountainous headwater catchments. The dynamic character of these systems makes it difficult to monitor them. We describe a low-cost, do-it-yourself strategy to monitor the occurrence of water and flow in temporary streams. We evaluate this strategy in two headwater catchments in Switzerland. The low cost sensor network consists of electrical resistivity sensors, water level switches, temperature sensors and flow sensors. These sensors are connected to Arduino microcontrollers and data loggers, which log the data every 5 minutes. The data from the measurement network are compared with observations (mapping of the temporary stream network) as well as time lapse camera data to evaluate the performance of the sensors. We look at how frequently the output of the sensors (presence and absence of water from the ER and water level data, and flow or no-flow from the flow sensors) corresponds to the observed channel state. This is done for each sensor, per sub-catchment, per precipitation event and per sensor location to determine the best sensor combination to monitor temporary streams in mountainous catchments and in which situation which sensor combination works best. The preliminary results show that the sensors and monitoring network work well. The data from the sensors corresponds with the observations and provides information

  9. On the powerful use of simulations in the quake-catcher network to efficiently position low-cost earthquake sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, K.; Estrada, T.; Taufer, M.; Lawrence, J.; Cochran, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) uses low-cost sensors connected to volunteer computers across the world to monitor seismic events. The location and density of these sensors' placement can impact the accuracy of the event detection. Because testing different special arrangements of new sensors could disrupt the currently active project, this would best be accomplished in a simulated environment. This paper presents an accurate and efficient framework for simulating the low cost QCN sensors and identifying their most effective locations and densities. Results presented show how our simulations are reliable tools to study diverse scenarios under different geographical and infrastructural constraints. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  10. Analisando a reconfiguração da cadeia de produção de pneus no Brasil pela economia dos custos de transação An analysis of the reconfiguration of Brazi's tire production chain applying the transaction cost economics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Cabral

    2004-12-01

    Transaction Cost Economics approach was chosen as the theoretical framework, mainly due to its analytical capacity regarding the limits of action of firms or organizational networks. The empirical findings indicate the importance of specialized local suppliers as a critical factor in the restructuring of the supply chain through outsourcing strategies. The institutional environment, both formal and informal, is as relevant to the contractual process as it is to the decision-making involved in the definition of new organizational boundaries.

  11. Low-cost and low-power unidirectional torus network-on-chip with corner buffer power-gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tang, Xiantuo; Xing, Zuocheng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2016-08-01

    Network-on-chip (NoC) is one of critical communication architectures for the scaling of future many-core processors. The challenge for on-chip network is reducing design complexity to save both area and power while providing high performance such as low latency and high throughput. Especially, with increase of network size, both design complexity and power consumption have become the bottlenecks preventing proper network scaling. Moreover, as technology continuously scales down, leakage power takes up a larger fraction of total NoC power. It is increasingly important for a power-efficient NoC design to reduce the increasing leakage power. Power-gating, as a representative low-power technique, can be applied to an on-chip network for mitigating leakage power. In this paper, we propose a low-cost and low-power router architecture for the unidirectional torus network, and adopt an improved corner buffer structure for the inoffensive power-gating, which has minimal impact on network performance. Besides, an explicit starvation avoidance mechanism is introduced to guarantee injection fairness while decreasing its negative impact on network throughput. Simulation results with synthetic traffic show that our design can improve network throughput by 11.3% on average and achieve significant power-saving in low- and medium-load regions. In the SPLASH-2 workload simulation, our design can save on average 27.2% of total power compared to the baseline, and decrease 42.8% average latency compared to the baseline with power-gating.

  12. Network Governance at the Firm and Network Level: Goals, Routines, and Social Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W. Ziggers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the general understanding of governance in networks and the achievement of private and common goals.  Integrating transaction costs and social network theory, a simple integrated framework is provided for understanding why firms collaborate and under which conditions they establish durable networks that succeed in achieving goals. Network theory is extended by explicitly distinguishing between firm and network level governance, and by identifying governance mechanisms that adapt, coordinate, and safeguard customized exchanges. This way issues as how networks evolve, how they are governed, and ultimately, how collective outcomes might be generated can be better comprehended. This is especially relevant to policy planners and those having a perspective that goes beyond the performance of individual organizations.

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Converting a Classroom Course to a Network Based Instruction Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    green, Samantha

    1997-01-01

    ...) classes into NBL modules. This thesis performs a cost effectiveness analysis on converting the two modules and discusses the intangible costs and benefits associated with converting traditional classroom courses...

  14. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors & Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Philip [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-09

    The research objective of this project is to design and demonstrate a low-cost, compact, easy-to-deploy, maintenance-free sensor node technology, and a network of such sensors, which enable the monitoring of multiphysical parameters and can transform today’s ordinary buildings into smart buildings with environmental awareness. We develop the sensor node and network via engineering and integration of existing technologies, including high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting, and ultralow-power integrated circuits (ICs) for sensing and wireless communication. Through integration and innovative power management via specifically designed low-power control circuits for wireless sensing applications, and tailoring energy-harvesting components to indoor applications, the target products will have smaller volume, higher efficiency, and much lower cost (in both manufacturing and maintenance) than the baseline technology. Our development and commercialization objective is to create prototypes for our target products under the CWRU-Intwine collaboration.

  16. Comprehensive Cost Minimization in Distribution Networks Using Segmented-time Feeder Reconfiguration and Reactive Power Control of Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to deal with segmented-time reconfiguration problem of distribution networks coupled with segmented-time reactive power control of distributed generators. The target is to find the optimal dispatching schedule of all controllable switches...... and distributed generators’ reactive powers in order to minimize comprehensive cost. Corresponding constraints, including voltage profile, maximum allowable daily switching operation numbers (MADSON), reactive power limits, and so on, are considered. The strategy of grouping branches is used to simplify...... (FAHPSO) is implemented in VC++ 6.0 program language. A modified version of the typical 70-node distribution network and several real distribution networks are used to test the performance of the proposed method. Numerical results show that the proposed methodology is an efficient method for comprehensive...

  17. Cost and Availability Analysis of 2- and 3-Connected WDM Networks Physical Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Our future in personal and professional lives is becoming more attached to the evolution of communication technologies and their applications. Consequently, the way Next Generation Network are currently being planned and deployed, might have a great impact on common people depending on how networks...... for the best trade-off among the relevant parameters for the network. In this paper we analyze this trade-off by studying 2-and 3-connected graphs to be used as WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) networks physical infrastructure. The experiments show how the way links are distributed to interconnect...

  18. Domotics – A Cost Effective Smart Home Automation System Using Wifi as Network Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhinav Talgeri; Abheesh Kumar B A

    2014-01-01

    ... (also called as Domotics) systems. It considers problems with their implementation, discusses possible solutions through various network technologies and indicates how to optimize the use of such systems...

  19. Temporal Dynamics of Sensorimotor Networks in Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation: Early Emergence and Late Net Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-07-06

    Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC). In contrast, ethology-inspired approaches suggest a more active role for the dorsal sensorimotor stream, with effort cost signals emerging rapidly after stimulus onset. Here we investigated the time course of effort cost integration using event-related potentials in hungry human subjects while they made decisions about expending physical effort for appetitive foods. Consistent with the ethological perspective, we found that effort cost was represented from as early as 100-250 ms after stimulus onset, localized to dorsal sensorimotor regions including middle cingulate, somatosensory, and motor/premotor cortices. However, examining the same data time-locked to motor output revealed net value signals combining stimulus value and effort cost approximately -400 ms before response, originating from sensorimotor areas including dmFC, precuneus, and posterior parietal cortex. Granger causal connectivity analysis of the motor effector signal in the time leading to response showed interactions between these sensorimotor regions and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a structure associated with adjusting behavior-response mappings. These results suggest that rapid activation of sensorimotor regions interacts with cognitive valuation systems, producing a net value signal reflecting both physical effort and reward contingencies. Although physical effort imposes a cost on choice, when and how effort cost influences neural correlates of decision

  20. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  1. A Novel Electricity Transaction Mode of Microgrids Based on Blockchain and Continuous Double Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The installed capacity of distributed generation (DG based on renewable energy sources has increased continuously in power systems, and its market-oriented transaction is imperative. However, traditional transaction management based on centralized organizations has many disadvantages, such as high operation cost, low transparency, and potential risk of transaction data modification. Therefore, a decentralized electricity transaction mode for microgrids is proposed in this study based on blockchain and continuous double auction (CDA mechanism. A buyer and seller initially complete the transaction matching in the CDA market. In view of the frequent price fluctuation in the CDA market, an adaptive aggressiveness strategy is used to adjust the quotation timely according to market changes. DG and consumer exchange digital certificate of power and expenditure on the blockchain system and the interests of consumers are then guaranteed by multi-signature when DG cannot generate power due to failure or other reasons. The digital certification of electricity assets is replaced by the sequence number with specific tags in the transaction script, and the size of digital certification can be adjusted according to transaction energy quantity. Finally, the feasibility of market mechanism through specific microgrid case and settlement process is also provided.

  2. Increasing the cost-constrained availability of WDM Networks with Degree-3 Structured Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Georgakilas, Kostas; Katrinis, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of node degree distribution to availability and capital and deployment expenditure of optical WDM transport networks. Three structured degree-3 graphs with fair node degree distribution are proposed in this context. Using a realistic network optimization framework...

  3. GRAdient Cost Establishment (GRACE for an Energy-Aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor M. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, the nodes have limitations in terms of energy-constraint, unreliable links, and frequent topology change. In this paper we propose an energy-aware routing protocol, that outperforms the existing ones with an enhanced network lifetime and more reliable data delivery. Major issues in the design of a routing strategy in wireless sensor networks are to make efficient use of energy and to increase reliability in data delivery. The proposed approach reduces both energy consumption and communication-bandwidth requirements and prolongs the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. Using both analysis and extensive simulations, we show that the proposed dynamic routing helps achieve the desired system performance under dynamically changing network conditions. The proposed algorithm is compared with one of the best existing routing algorithms, GRAB. Moreover, a modification in GRAB is proposed which not only improves its performance but also prolongs its lifetime.

  4. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a novel nonblocking scheduling mechanism that is used prior to the actual service invocations. Its aim is to reach an agreement between the client and all participating providers on what transaction processing times have to be expected, accepted, and guaranteed. This enables service......For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...... schedulers of service providers typically do take into account neither time constraints for committing the whole transaction, nor the individual services' constraints when scheduling decisions are made. This often leads to an unnecessary blocking of transactions by (possibly long-running) others...

  5. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender......This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  6. Is Cooperative Memory Special? The Role of Costly Errors, Context, and Social Network Size When Remembering Cooperative Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Winke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of cooperative behavior have focused on decision strategies, such as tit-for-tat, that depend on remembering a partner’s last choices. Yet, an empirical study by Stevens et al. (2011 demonstrated that human memory may not meet the requirements that needed to use these strategies. When asked to recall the previous behavior of simulated partners in a cooperative memory task, participants performed poorly, making errors in 10–24% of the trials. However, we do not know the extent to which this task taps specialized cognition for cooperation. It may be possible to engage participants in more cooperative, strategic thinking, which may improve memory. On the other hand, compared with other situations, a cooperative context may already engage improved memory via cheater detection mechanisms. This study investigated the specificity of memory in cooperative contexts by varying (1 the costs of errors in memory by making forgetting defection more costly and (2 whether the recall situation is framed as a cooperative or neutral context. Also, we investigated whether variation in participants’ social network size could account for individual differences observed in memory accuracy. We found that neither including differential costs for misremembering defection nor removing the cooperative context influenced memory accuracy for cooperation. Combined, these results suggest that memory accuracy is robust to differences in the cooperative context: Adding more strategic components does not help accuracy, and removing cooperative components does not hurt accuracy. Social network size, however, did correlate with memory accuracy: People with larger networks remembered the events better. These findings suggest that cooperative memory does not seem to be special compared with other forms of memory, which aligns with previous work demonstrating the domain generality of memory. However, the demands of interacting in a large social network may

  7. Development of low-cost meteorological observation system based on wireless network for poor-visibility occurred by snowstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Hyper-densely monitoring for poor-visibility occurred by snowstorm is needed to make an alert system, because the snowstorm is difficult to predict from the observation only at a representative point. There are some problems in the previous approaches for the poor-visibility monitoring using video analyses or visibility meters; these require a wired network monitoring (a large amount of data: 10MB/sec at least) and the system cost is high (10,000 at each point). Thus, the risk of poor-visibility has been mainly measured at specific point such as airport and mountain pass, and estimated by simulation two dimensionally. To predict it two dimensionally and accurately, we have developed a low-cost meteorological system to observe the snowstorm hyper-densely. We have developed a low-cost visibility meter which works as the reduced intensity of semiconducting laser light when snow particles block off. Our developed system also has a capability of extending a hyper-densely observation in real-time on wireless network using Zigbee; A/D conversion and wireless data sent from temperature and illuminance sensors. We use a semiconducting laser chip (5) for the light source and a reflection mechanism by the use of three mirrors so as to send the light to a non-sensitive illuminance sensor directly. Thus, our visibility detecting system ($500) becomes much cheaper than previous one. We have checked the correlation between the reduced intensity taken by our system and the visibility recorded by conventional video camera. The value for the correlation coefficient was -0.67, which indicates a strong correlation. It means that our developed system is practical. In conclusion, we have developed low-cost meteorological detecting system to observe poor-visibility occurred by snowstorm, having a potential of hyper-densely monitoring on wireless network, and have made sure the practicability.

  8. Correctness of Concurrent Executions of Closed Nested Transactions in Transactional Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Sathya; Vidyasankar, Krishnamurthy

    A generally agreed upon requirement for correctness of concurrent executions in Transactional Memory systems is that all transactions including the aborted ones read consistent values. Opacity is a recently proposed correctness criterion that satisfies the above requirement. Our first contribution in this paper is extending the opacity definition for closed nested transactions. Secondly, we define conflicts appropriate for optimistic executions which are commonly used in Software Transactional Memory systems. Using these conflicts, we define a restricted, conflict-preserving, class of opacity for closed nested transactions the membership of which can be tested in polynomial time. As our third contribution, we propose a correctness criterion that defines a class of schedules where aborted transactions do not affect consistency of the other transactions. We define a conflict-preserving subclass of this class as well. Both the class definitions and the conflict definition are new for nested transactions.

  9. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  10. Disintermediation of Inter-Blockchain Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    English, S. Matthew; Orlandi, Fabrizio; Auer, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Different versions of peer-to-peer electronic cash exist as data represented by separate blockchains. Payments between such systems cannot be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Bitcoin provided part of the solution but its utility is limited to intra-blockchain transactions. The benefits are lost if a trusted third party is required to execute inter-blockchain transactions. We propose a solution to the inter-blockchain transaction problem us...

  11. Critical Evaluation of the EJB Transaction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi, Raul; Strohmeier, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Enterprise JavaBeans is a widely-used technology that aims at supporting distributed component-based applications written in Java. One of the key features of the Enterprise JavaBeans architecture is the support of declarative distributed transactions, without requiring explicit coding. In this paper, after a brief introduction of the concepts and mechanisms related to the EJB Transaction Model, we provide guidelines for their consistent use. We then evaluate the EJB Transaction Model on an Au...

  12. 75 FR 9142 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public hearing... card and third party network transactions, was to be held on Wednesday, February 10, 2010 at 10 a.m...

  13. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  14. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND... a typical loan may constitute a covered transaction. (c) An acquisition of voting interest or assets...

  15. 31 CFR 544.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction. 544.404 Section 544.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... parties required to complete the sale, including transactions by the buyer, broker, transfer agents, banks...

  16. 31 CFR 575.418 - Transactions incidental to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions incidental to a licensed transaction. 575.418 Section 575.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... activities by other parties required to complete the sale, including transactions by the buyer, brokers...

  17. 31 CFR 546.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction. 546.404 Section 546.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... transactions by the buyer, broker, transfer agents, banks, etc., provided that such other parties are not...

  18. 31 CFR 585.417 - Transactions incidental to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions incidental to a licensed transaction. 585.417 Section 585.417 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... authorizes all activities by other parties required to complete the sale, including transactions by the buyer...

  19. 31 CFR 543.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction. 543.404 Section 543.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... transactions by the buyer, broker, transfer agents, banks, etc., provided that such other parties are not...

  20. 31 CFR 548.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction. 548.404 Section 548.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... transactions by the buyer, broker, transfer agents, banks, etc., provided that such other parties are not...

  1. Adaptive Network Coded Clouds: High Speed Downloads and Cost-Effective Version Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2018-01-01

    download speeds and reliability. Second, the ability to update coded fragments from a linear erasure code when the original file is modified. We exploit code structure to provide efficient representations of the evolution of the file. Evaluations using file changes on software library repositories show...... developed a novel scheme using recoding with limited packets to trade-off storage space, reliability, and data retrieval speed. Implementation and measurements with commercial cloud providers show that up to 9x less network use is needed compared to other network coding schemes, while maintaining similar...... providers simultaneously using network coding as the key enabling technology. Our goal is to study two challenges of network coded storage systems. First, the efficient update of the number of coded fragments per cloud in a system aggregating multiple clouds in order to boost the download speed of files. We...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 1404.205 Section 1404.205 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL... important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? The importance of a covered transaction...

  3. Development and evaluation of an open-source, low-cost distributed sensor network for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, N.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Stoll, R.; Khadka, A.

    2018-02-01

    Over the last decade there has been a proliferation of low-cost sensor networks that enable highly distributed sensor deployments in environmental applications. The technology is easily accessible and rapidly advancing due to the use of open-source microcontrollers. While this trend is extremely exciting, and the technology provides unprecedented spatial coverage, these sensors and associated microcontroller systems have not been well evaluated in the literature. Given the large number of new deployments and proposed research efforts using these technologies, it is necessary to quantify the overall instrument and microcontroller performance for specific applications. In this paper, an Arduino-based weather station system is presented in detail. These low-cost energy-budget measurement stations, or LEMS, have now been deployed for continuous measurements as part of several different field campaigns, which are described herein. The LEMS are low-cost, flexible, and simple to maintain. In addition to presenting the technical details of the LEMS, its errors are quantified in laboratory and field settings. A simple artificial neural network-based radiation-error correction scheme is also presented. Finally, challenges and possible improvements to microcontroller-based atmospheric sensing systems are discussed.

  4. Low-cost fused taper polymer optical fiber (LFT-POF) splitters for environmental and home-networking solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, L. S.; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Harun, Mohd Hazwan; Gunab, Hadi; Sulaiman, Malik; Naim, Nani Fadzlina

    2017-08-01

    In visible optical communication over the multimode PMMA fibers, the overall cost of optical network can be reduced by deploying economical splitters for distributing the optical data signals from a point to multipoint in transmission network. The low-cost splitters shall have two main characteristics; good uniformity and high power efficiency. The most cost-effective and environmental friendly optical splitter having those characteristics have been developed. The device material is 100% purely based on the multimode step-index PMMA Polymer Optical Fiber (POF). The region which all fibers merged as single fiber is called as fused-taper POF. This ensures that all fibers are melted and fused properly. The results for uniformity and power efficiency of all splitters have been revealed by injecting red LED transmitter with 650 nm wavelength into input port while each end of output fibers measured by optical power meter. Final analysis shows our fused-taper splitter has low excess loss 0.53 dB and each of the output port has low insertion loss, which the average value is below 7 dB. In addition, the splitter has good uniformity that is 32:37:31% in which it is suitably used for demultiplexer fabrication.

  5. Programming Idioms for Transactional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kehrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transactional events (TE are an extension of Concurrent ML (CML, a programming model for synchronous message-passing. Prior work has focused on TE's formal semantics and its implementation. This paper considers programming idioms, particularly those that vary unexpectedly from the corresponding CML idioms. First, we solve a subtle problem with client-server protocols in TE. Second, we argue that CML's wrap and guard primitives do not translate well to TE, and we suggest useful workarounds. Finally, we discuss how to rewrite CML protocols that use abort actions.

  6. 76 FR 3165 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Applicants note that the Transaction proceeded on a more expedited basis than is typical of most... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction... proposed exemptions from certain of the prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement...

  7. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  8. A wireless distributed sensor network with low-cost vibration sensors for structural health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, J.J.M. van de; Basten, T.G.H.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of infrastructure assets such as bridges, process installations and off-shore wind turbines is increasing, accompanied by a rising need for advanced maintenance strategies to reduce inspection and maintenance costs. These maintenance strategies require reliable maintenance status

  9. Analysis Cost 231 MultiWall Model on 4G LTE FDD 1800 and 900 Mhz Femtocell Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor cellular network system is one solution to overcome weak signals transmited by eNodeB. Building with high cellular communication traffic levels , requiring indoor network system to maintain continuity of communication by all users. Therefore, it is necessary to plan an indoor network using Femtocell Access Point (FAP. This research is based on network design indoor propagation COST 231-Multiwall Model using the software Radiowave Propagation Simulator (RPS and conducted at Telkom Office. The collection of data obtained is used to perform calculations on research variables include the calculation of capacity and coverage. The research showed the number of FAP for capacity and coverage is 3 FAP. The Coverage Results for scenario 2 is the best result compared with the other scenarios, with the following results, the frequency of 1800 MHz at Building 1 of -19.86 dBm, Building 2 at -21.34 dBm, and Building 3 at -28, 07 dBm. While the scenario 2 for the 900 MHz frequency in Building 1 at -13.38 dBm, Building 2 at -14.52 dBm, and building 3 of -20.39 dBm.

  10. Cost Characteristics of Telecom Networks and their Implications for Market Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed.......The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed....

  11. Proactive Approach for Safe Use of Antimicrobial Coatings in Healthcare Settings: Opinion of the COST Action Network AMiCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Ahonen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections and infectious diseases are considered a major challenge to human health in healthcare units worldwide. This opinion paper was initiated by EU COST Action network AMiCI (AntiMicrobial Coating Innovations and focuses on scientific information essential for weighing the risks and benefits of antimicrobial surfaces in healthcare settings. Particular attention is drawn on nanomaterial-based antimicrobial surfaces in frequently-touched areas in healthcare settings and the potential of these nano-enabled coatings to induce (ecotoxicological hazard and antimicrobial resistance. Possibilities to minimize those risks e.g., at the level of safe-by-design are demonstrated.

  12. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  13. Guaranteed Cost Control for Exponential Synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays via Hybrid Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Botmart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost control for exponential synchronization of cellular neural networks with interval nondifferentiable and distributed time-varying delays via hybrid feedback control is considered. The interval time-varying delay function is not necessary to be differentiable. Based on the construction of improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals is combined with Leibniz-Newton's formula and the technique of dealing with some integral terms. New delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential synchronization of the error systems with memoryless hybrid feedback control are first established in terms of LMIs without introducing any free-weighting matrices. The optimal guaranteed cost control with linear error hybrid feedback is turned into the solvable problem of a set of LMIs. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits CO and NO and NO2. Mead et al (submitted Aug., 2012)). Based on this work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM, temperature, relative

  15. Introduction to the Theory of Nested Transactions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    since the common terminology for access and non-access transactions is of great benefit in unifying the statements and proofs of our results. ’lhus...34Guardians and Actions: Linguistic Support for Robust, 60 Distributed Programs", ACAI Transactions on Programming Ianguages and Systems 5. 3, (July

  16. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... regulations do not apply to traditional foreign currency forwards, spots, or swap transactions that an insured... requirements for foreign currency futures, options on futures, and options that an insured depository... on other foreign currency transactions that are functionally or economically similar, including so...

  17. Integrated Telecommunications Systems and Instructional Transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Farhad

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of how learner and teacher communicate in distance education focuses on Morre's concept of transactional distance in light of recent developments in telecommunications. Integrated telecommunications systems are described, adult learning and instructional transactions are discussed, and system dynamics are presented as a tool for…

  18. The Transactive Nature of Therapeutic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Therapeutic communication, or interaction which provokes personal insight or reorientation, can be best understood as a transactive, rather than linear, interrelationship between people or groups. Two practical responses to "pathological" communication patterns illustrate the validity of the transactional communication theory: the…

  19. Adaptive Network Coded Clouds: High Speed Downloads and Cost-Effective Version Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton; Heide, Janus; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2014-01-01

    developed a novel scheme using recoding with limited packets to trade-off storage space, reliability, and data retrieval speed. Implementation and measurements with commercial cloud providers show that up to 9x less network use is needed compared to other network coding schemes, while maintaining similar...... download speeds and reliability. Second, the ability to update coded fragments from a linear erasure code when the original file is modified. We exploit code structure to provide efficient representations of the evolution of the file. Evaluations using file changes on software library repositories show...

  20. An optimization model for the costs allocation in spare parts collaborative networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzoni, Chiara; Ferrara, Andrea; Grassi, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The paper focuses on the aftermarket spare parts in the automotive industry. In particular, only products with infrequent and low quantity demand are considered. This work is an extention of a previuos work by the same authors in which a stochastic model for the optimal inventory policy of spare parts has been presented. In this paper the authors improved what has been called "the second layer" in the previous model, that is the products allocation among a collaborative network of distributors. The improvement is related to the basic model and to the introducion of new products in the network.

  1. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency......Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  2. Quality of Context Enhancements and Cost Effective Radio over Fiber Network Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed Sherif Mahmoud

    In Communication networks today there is an endless quest for increased capacity and improved quality. With wireless systems being now popular worldwide for allowing users and devices to communicate and share information with each other irrespective of their location, the development of sustainable...

  3. Cost Benefit Analysis of Utilising Mobile Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2015-01-01

    . As they are expensive compared to static nodes in terms of manufactur- ing and mobility cost. This paper evaluates the utility of mobile nodes for use in WSNs in comparison with static nodes. Novel geometric models to rep- resent the various functionalities for which mobile could be used have been proposed, they have...... been utilised for the techno-economic evaluation based on cost benet analysis. The models have been designed such that they give a generic representation of the functionalities, and enable a fair comparison between them. On the basis of the analysis it is concluded that apart from the functional...... utility, mobile nodes are economically benecial for use in WSNs....

  4. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  5. Sound source localization using a low-cost wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H. (Henk); Salomons, E.L. (Etto); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2013-01-01

    In the GoGreen project an intelligent home that is able to identify inhabitants and events that take place is created. The location of sounds that are being produced is an important feature for the context awareness of this system. A a wireless solution that uses low-cost sensor nodes and

  6. Reducing Customers’ Total Cost of Ownership Within a Software Supply Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slinger, S.R.L.; Rijsemus, W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how the company Cordys avoids the ERP problems from the last 15 years by improving the software release, delivery, deployment, and maintenance processes. These ERP problems, such as costly ERP migrations and highly complex maintenance procedures, are circumvented by the

  7. Community Air Sensor Network Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an extended abstract that will be part of the peer-reviewed proceedings of the AWMA annual meeting in 2015. The extended abstract covers preliminary results from the CAIRSENSE project, which involves testing low cost sensors at an NCore site in Atlanta, GA.

  8. Constructing Cost-Effective and Targetable ICS Honeypots Suited for Production Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    attacker connects to a target computer using a secure shell (i.e., ssh ) to the IP ad- dress 10.1.10.12. If the attacker were to then query the target...Privacy , vol. 2, no. 2, pp.77-79, March-April 2004. 9. The CIP Networks Library Volume 2: EtherNet/IP Adaptation of CIP. Open DeviceNet Vendor

  9. Hereditary Portfolio Optimization with Taxes and Fixed Plus Proportional Transaction Costs—Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Hsiung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the paper entitled “Hereditary portfolio optimization with taxes and fixed plus proportional transaction costs I” that treats an infinite-time horizon hereditary portfolio optimization problem in a market that consists of one savings account and one stock account. Within the solvency region, the investor is allowed to consume from the savings account and can make transactions between the two assets subject to paying capital-gain taxes as well as a fixed plus proportional transaction cost. The investor is to seek an optimal consumption-trading strategy in order to maximize the expected utility from the total discounted consumption. The portfolio optimization problem is formulated as an infinite dimensional stochastic classical impulse control problem due to the hereditary nature of the stock price dynamics and inventories. This paper contains the verification theorem for the optimal strategy. It also proves that the value function is a viscosity solution of the QVHJBI.

  10. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Energy Cost Algorithm Based on Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tareq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure. MANET selects a path with minimal number of intermediate nodes to reach the destination node. As the distance between each node increases, the quantity of transmission power increases. The power level of nodes affects the simplicity with which a route is constituted between a couple of nodes. This study utilizes the swarm intelligence technique through the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm to optimize the energy consumption in a dynamic source routing (DSR protocol in MANET. The proposed algorithm is called bee DSR (BEEDSR. The ABC algorithm is used to identify the optimal path from the source to the destination to overcome energy problems. The performance of the BEEDSR algorithm is compared with DSR and bee-inspired protocols (BeeIP. The comparison was conducted based on average energy consumption, average throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and packet delivery ratio performance metrics, varying the node speed and packet size. The BEEDSR algorithm is superior in performance than other protocols in terms of energy conservation and delay degradation relating to node speed and packet size.

  11. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  12. Cost-effective handoff scheme based on mobility-aware dual pointer forwarding in proxy mobile IPv6 networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seungsik; Jeong, Jongpil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mobility-aware Dual Pointer Forwarding scheme (mDPF) is applied in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) networks. The movement of a Mobile Node (MN) is classified as intra-domain and inter-domain handoff. When the MN moves, this scheme can reduce the high signaling overhead for intra-handoff/inter-handoff, because the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) and Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) are connected by pointer chains. In other words, a handoff is aware of low mobility between the previously attached MAG (pMAG) and newly attached MAG (nMAG), and another handoff between the previously attached LMA (pLMA) and newly attached LMA (nLMA) is aware of high mobility. Based on these mobility-aware binding updates, the overhead of the packet delivery can be reduced. Also, we analyse the binding update cost and packet delivery cost for route optimization, based on the mathematical analytic model. Analytical results show that our mDPF outperforms the PMIPv6 and the other pointer forwarding schemes, in terms of reducing the total cost of signaling.

  13. Throughput, latency and cost comparisons of microcontroller-based implementations of wireless sensor network (WSN) in high jump sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Afandi; Roslan, Muhammad Faris; Amira, Abbes

    2017-09-01

    In high jump sports, approach take-off speed and force during the take-off are two (2) main important parts to gain maximum jump. To measure both parameters, wireless sensor network (WSN) that contains microcontroller and sensor are needed to describe the results of speed and force for jumpers. Most of the microcontroller exhibit transmission issues in terms of throughput, latency and cost. Thus, this study presents the comparison of wireless microcontrollers in terms of throughput, latency and cost, and the microcontroller that have best performances and cost will be implemented in high jump wearable device. In the experiments, three (3) parts have been integrated - input, process and output. Force (for ankle) and global positioning system (GPS) sensor (for body waist) acts as an input for data transmission. These data were then being processed by both microcontrollers, ESP8266 and Arduino Yun Mini to transmit the data from sensors to the server (host-PC) via message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol. The server acts as receiver and the results was calculated from the MQTT log files. At the end, results obtained have shown ESP8266 microcontroller had been chosen since it achieved high throughput, low latency and 11 times cheaper in term of prices compared to Arduino Yun Mini microcontroller.

  14. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Kevin J; Mbanjwa, Mesuli B; Govindasamy, Klariska; Korvink, Jan G

    2011-09-01

    A method to easily manufacture and assemble a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device is described. The method uses low cost materials and re-usable laser cut polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts. In addition, the thickness of PDMS layers can be controlled and both PDMS layer surfaces are flat, which allows for multi-layer PDMS structures to be assembled. The use of mechanical clamping to seal the structure allows for easy cleaning and re-use of the manufactured part as it can be taken apart at any time. In this way, selected layers can be re-used or replaced. The process described can be easily adopted and utilised without the need for any costly clean room facilities or equipment such as oxygen bonders, making it ideal for laboratories, universities, and classrooms exploring microfluidics applications.

  15. Automatic drawing of biological networks using cross cost and subcomponent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mitsuru; Nagasaki, Masao; Doi, Atsushi; Miyano, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    Automatic graph drawing function for biopathways is indispensable for biopathway databases and softwares. This paper proposes a new grid-based algorithm for biopathway layout that considers (a) edge-edge crossing, (b) node-edge crossing, (c) distance measures between nodes, as its costs, and (d) subcellular localization information from Gene Ontology, as its constraints. For this algorithm, we newly define cost functions, devise an efficient method for computing the costs (a)-(c) by employing a matrix representing the difference between two layouts, and take a steepest descent method for searching locally optimal solutions and multi-step layout method for finding better solutions. We implemented this algorithm on Cell Illustrator which is a biopathway modeling and simulation software. The algorithm is applied to a signal transduction pathway of apoptosis induced by fas ligand. We compare our layout with that of the grid-based algorithm by Li and Kurata (Bioinformatics 21 (9):2036-2042, 2005). The result shows that our algorithm reduces edge-edge crossings and node-edge crossings, and solves the ''isolated island problem'', that is, despite the intension, some groups of nodes are apart from other nodes in the layout. As a result, the biological understandability of the layout is fairly improved.

  16. Design of a Secure RFID Authentication Scheme Preceding Market Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as RFID reader equipment is ever more widely deployed in handled devices, the importance of security problems among RFID reader, tags and server have obviously gained increased attention. However, there are still many security issues preceding transactions; these issues are well worth discussing. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication scheme, conforming EPC C1G2 standards, at a low implementation cost for market application. In order to achieve mutual authentication, the proposed scheme integrates fingerprint biometrics, related cryptology and a hash function mechanism to ensure the security of the transmitted messages. The proposed scheme also can resist known attacks.

  17. TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Nikezić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The success and rewarding are mostly expressed in business performance at the end of the year. Transactional and transformational leadership as a new paradigm of quality effects on creation of roles and processes in the organizat ion. From the leaders are expected to use leadership as a process of ensuring the long - term goals of the organization, especially in turbulent competitive environment. Therefore, this paper points out the impact of leadership competencies through transactional and trans formational leadership, characteristics and processes that show different levels of participation of transformation and transactional leadership of organizations.

  18. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  19. A Low Cost Bluetooth Low Energy Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network Applications with a Front-end Receiver-Matching Network-Reusing Power Amplifier Load Inductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-04-19

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of -93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm². The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications.

  20. Determination of Network Configuration Considering Inventory Cost in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Hernández González

    2014-08-01

    The addressed problem is an extension of the classic capacitated facility location problem. The distinguishing features are: the inventory management, the presence of multiple plants, and the single source constraints in both echelons. A key issue is that demand at each distribution center is a function of the demands at the retailers assigned, which is a random variable whose value is not known at the time of designing the network. We focus on the mathematical modeling of the problem and the evaluation of the performance of the developed models, so, it can be observed the troubles that arise when modeling supply chains that consider different types of decisions.

  1. Hospital cost effect of a heart failure disease management program: the Specialized Primary and Networked Care in Heart Failure (SPAN-CHF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Douglas; Kimmelstiel, Carey; Perry, Kathleen; Parikh, Amay; Konstam, Varda; Konstam, Marvin A

    2006-05-01

    Determine the effect on hospitalization cost of a heart failure disease management (HFDM) program delivered within a diverse provider network as demonstrated in the SPAN-CHF randomized controlled trial. The SPAN-CHF trial was a prospective randomized assessment of the effectiveness of HFDM delivered for 90 days across a diverse provider network in a heterogeneous population of 200 patients. Baseline clinical and demographic data were obtained on each patient, mortality was monitored, and hospitalizations were tracked for 90 days. Cost estimates for each hospitalization were based on a subsample of patients seen at Tufts-New England Medical Center for whom hospitalization costs were calculated. Heart failure disease management program costs were estimated using a programmatic budget model. Hospital utilization and cost data were combined to estimate medical costs for intervention and control groups. Heart failure disease management had a favorable effect on heart failure hospitalization, which was partially offset by noncardiac hospitalizations. The relative odds of at least one all-cause hospitalization during the intervention period trended less for the intervention group compared with the control group (0.76 [95% CI 0.38-1.51]). The point estimate of the differential hospitalization cost between control and intervention groups was a reduction in cost of $375 per patient. The net effect including the costs of the program was an increase of $488 per patient for the intervention group compared with the control group. The program would have been cost saving if HFDM costs had been 24% lower. The HFDM intervention, administered over 90 days to patients hospitalized for heart failure, succeeded in reducing the rate of heart failure hospitalizations, although this effect was partially offset by an increase in non-heart failure hospitalizations. The resulting modest reduction in all-cause hospitalization costs was exceeded by the cost of the intervention. Thus, although

  2. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  3. Low cost and high performance GPON, GEPON and RFoG optical network pentaplexer module design using diffractive grating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Chi, Chang-Chia; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    A new architecture of a pentaplexer transceiver module which can be used in GPON/GEPON and RFoG triple play optical networks with supporting of the multiple optical wavelengths of 1310 nm, 1490 nm, 1550 nm, 1610 nm, and 1650 nm, is proposed. By using diffractive grating elements combing with market readily available GRIN (Gradient-Index) lens, grating, mirrors, beamsplitter, LDs (Laser Diodes), and PDs (Photodetectors), the proposed design have the advantages of low cost, high efficiency/performance, easy design and manufacturing, over the contemporary triplex transceivers which are made of multilayer filters or waveguides that increase the complexity of manufacturing and reduce the performance efficiency. With the proposed design, a pentaplexer system can accommodate GPON/GEPON, RFoG, and monitoring integration services, total five optical wavelength channels into a hybrid-integrated TO-CAN package platform with sufficient efficiency.

  4. Privacy-preserving telecardiology sensor networks: toward a low-cost portable wireless hardware/software codesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei; Jiang, Meng; Wagner, Mark; Dong, De-Cun

    2007-11-01

    Recently, a remote-sensing platform based on wireless interconnection of tiny ECG sensors called Telecardiology Sensor Networks (TSN) provided a promising approach to perform low-cost real-time cardiac patient monitoring at any time in community areas (such as elder nursing homes or hospitals). The contribution of this research is the design of a practical TSN hardware/software platform for a typical U.S. healthcare community scenario (such as large nursing homes with many elder patients) to perform real-time healthcare data collections. On the other hand, due to the radio broadcasting nature of MANET, a TSN has the risk of losing the privacy of patients' data. Medical privacy has been highly emphasized by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This research also designs a medical security scheme with low communication overhead to achieve confidential electrocardiogram data transmission in wireless medium.

  5. A LOCATION-INVENTORY MODEL INCLUDING DELIVERY DELAY COST AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS IN A STOCHASTIC DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadi Javid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a distribution network design problem in a supply chain system that minimises the total cost of location, inventory, and delivery delay. Customers’ demands are random, and multiple capacity levels are available for the distribution centers. The problem is first formulated as a mixed integer convex programming model to optimally solve medium-sized instances, and then a heuristic is developed for solving large-sized instances.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie artikel word ‘n distribusienetwerkprobleem in ‘n voorsieningsketting voorgehou waar die totale koste van die ligging, voorraad en afleweringsvertragings geminimiseer word. Die vraag is lukraak en verskeie kapasiteitsvlakke is beskikbaar in die verspreidingsentra. Die problem word eers geformuleer as ‘n gemengde-heeltal-konvekse model sodat mediumgrootte gevalle geoptimiseer kan word, waarna ‘n heuristieke benadering ontwikkel word vir die oplos van grootskaalse aktiwiteite.

  6. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advantage of the cash discount. The transaction value is $98, the price actually paid or payable. (2..., in the United States, of copyrights and trademarks related to the imported merchandise generally will...

  7. 77 FR 64663 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... transaction or dealing includes but is not limited to purchasing, selling, transporting, swapping, brokering... U.S. person holding funds, such as currency, bank deposits, or liquidated financial obligations...

  8. Nurse managers as transformational and transactional leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elaine; Kennerly, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Nurse managers demonstrating transformational leadership are more likely than transactional leaders to have committed staff nurse followers. Committed followers exert extra effort, thus improving unit performance and enhancing the organization's competitive advantage.

  9. Guarding against Collateral Damage during Chromatin Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Signal amplifications are vital for chromatin function, yet they also bear the risk of transforming into unrestrained, self-escalating, and potentially harmful responses. Examples of inbuilt limitations are emerging, revealing how chromatin transactions are confined within physiological boundaries....

  10. How large customer direct power transaction mode give consideration to power generation cleaning and power saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei; Li, Ran

    2017-05-01

    The so-called Large Customers' Direct Power Transaction, refers to the mode that the users on high voltage level, or being seized of hold the large power or independent power distribution, have the qualification of purchasing electricity directly from the generation companies and pay reasonable electricity transmission and distribution fee to the power network enterprises because the transaction is through its transmission channel. The Direct Purchase promotes the marketization level of electricity trading, but there are some problems in its developing process, especially whether promotes the green optimal allocation of power resources, this paper aims to explore the solution.

  11. Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Stefanie; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Path-based transaction (PBT) networks, which settle payments from one user to another via a path of intermediaries, are a growing area of research. They overcome the scalability and privacy issues in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum by replacing expensive and slow on-chain blockchain operations with inexpensive and fast off-chain transfers. In the form of credit networks such as Ripple and Stellar, they also enable low-price real-time gross settlements across different currencies. F...

  12. Sale Leaseback Transactions: Price Premiums and Market Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmans, C.F.; Slade, Barrett A.

    2010-01-01

    Sale-leaseback transactions are ubiquitous in real estate markets in the United States with annual volume estimated to be greater than $7 billion. However, there is no evidence concerning the price impact of such transactional arrangements. Using a data set of sale-leaseback transactions, this study examines the price impact on commercial property transactions across seven markets. The findings reveal that transactions structured as saleleasebacks occur at significantly higher prices than mar...

  13. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Ladegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  14. Related Party Transactions and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Linvani; Tower, Greg; Rusmin, Rusmin; Zahn, J-L.W. Mitchell Van der

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between related party transactions and earnings man-agement, based on a sample of 50 Indonesian publicly listed companies for the periods ending 2004 and 2005. The hypothesis developed in this study draw on past literature and the tenets of agency theory which suggest that the existence of related party transactions represent potential conflict of interest which may results in earnings management and appropriation by controlling shareholder to minority shar...

  15. Mobile transactions over NFC and GSM

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, MQ; Walter, C.; Pourghomi, P; G. Ghinea

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic relationships between Near Field Communication (NFC) ecosystem players in a monetary transaction make them partners in a way that they sometimes require to share access permission to applications that are running in the service environment. One of the technologies that can be used to ensure secure NFC transactions is cloud computing. This offers a wider range of advantages than the use of only a Secure Element (SE) in an NFC enabled mobile phone. In this paper, we propose a protocol f...

  16. Transactional theory in leadership and work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavšič, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents transactional theory in leadership and motivational theory, self-determination theory. Theoretical part presents components of self-determination continuum, work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, components of transformational and transactional leadership and researches which are exploring this components. The empirical part of the thesis includes research, which presents the correlation between leadership styles and work self-determination index. Moreover, it presen...

  17. Reactions to Corporate Insider’s Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Søpstad, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    We test the impact on security prices of top manager’s requirement’s to disclose their own share transactions in the firm. Specifically we study whether buy or sales transactions convey relevant information for market participants thereby studying the effects of legal stock market disclosure rules......, which to our knowledge have not been noticed already by others. Thus, our event study shows that the Danish stock market seems to be efficient in the semi-strong from....

  18. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  19. Evaluating Small Spatial Scale Ozone Levels in Riverside, CA using a Low-Cost Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E.; Sadighi, K.; Lv, Q.; Gao, D.; Polidori, A.; Feenstra, B. J.; Henze, D. K.; Shang, L.; Dick, R.; Qu, Z.; Hannigan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-level ozone is an EPA criteria pollutant that causes negative human health effects, and damages plant life. Currently, it is the responsibility of individual states to designate attainment areas within their borders often by means of regional air quality boards. The goal of this project is to show that ozone has spatial and temporal variability on smaller scales than preexisting attainment areas and demonstrate the reliability of finer resolution air quality data using a low-cost sensor system (called a UPod) in the field. During the summer of 2015, thirteen UPods were collocated in Riverside, CA at the SCAQMD (South Coast Air Quality Management District) Rubidoux reference station for two weeks at the end of July. Following, the UPods were deployed throughout a small (10x10 km) region for two months then returned to Rubidoux for a post calibration. Ozone data was collected using e2v MiCS-2611 metal oxide sensors (SGX Tech.) at a frequency of about 4-6 times per minute - which were later minute averaged. Field normalization calibrations were generated converting sensor signal outputs (mV) to concentrations (ppbv) and cross-validation against reference-grade monitors in the field were 3-6.8 ppbv (RMSE) at minute resolution. Further analysis will include examining the data for statistical information through space and time exploring variability. Having cost effective, reliable and fine-resolution air quality data in a region displaying variability may help regulatory agencies make policy decisions that can impact people living on community scales.

  20. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.