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Sample records for networks program cnp

  1. A Tale of Two Community Networks Program Centers: Operationalizing and Assessing CBPR Principles and Evaluating Partnership Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Allen, Michele L.; Colditz, Graham A.; Hurtado, G. Ali; Davey, Cynthia S.; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Drake, Bettina F.; Svetaz, Maria Veronica; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Goodman, Melody S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Community Networks Program (CNP) centers are required to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach within their specific priority communities. Not all communities are the same and unique contextual factors and collaborators’ priorities shape each CBPR partnership. There are also established CBPR and community engagement (CE) principles shown to lead to quality CBPR in any community. However, operationalizing and assessing CBPR principles and partnership outcomes to understand the conditions and processes in CBPR that lead to achieving program and project level goals is relatively new in the science of CBPR. Objectives We sought to describe the development of surveys on adherence to and implementation of CBPR/CE principles at two CNP centers and examine commonalities and differences in program- versus project-level CBPR evaluation. Methods A case study about the development and application of CBPR/CE principles for the Missouri CNP, Program for the Elimination of Cancer Disparities, and Minnesota CNP, Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados, surveys was conducted to compare project versus program operationalization of principles. Survey participant demographics were provided by CNP. Specific domains found in CBPR/CE principles were identified and organized under an existing framework to establish a common ground. Operational definitions and the number of survey items were provided for each domain by CNP. Conclusion There are distinct differences in operational definitions of CBPR/CE principles at the program and project levels of evaluation. However, commonalities support further research to develop standards for CBPR evaluation across partnerships and at the program and project levels. PMID:26213405

  2. ProCNP and CNP are expressed primarily in male genital organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.J.; Gotze, J.P.; Jensen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    -form. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the pattern of peptide expression measured by RIA. In conclusion most proCNP-derived peptides are synthesized in epithelial cells in the epididymis, the prostate gland and in the seminal vesicles. The expression in male genital organs suggests a role of CNP in reproduction Udgivelsesdato...

  3. Structural and Functional Insight into Canarypox Virus CNP058 Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death or apoptosis is an important component of host defense systems against viral infection. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins family is the main arbiter of mitochondrially mediated apoptosis, and viruses have evolved sequence and structural mimics of Bcl-2 to subvert premature host cell apoptosis in response to viral infection. The sequencing of the canarypox virus genome identified a putative pro-survival Bcl-2 protein, CNP058. However, a role in apoptosis inhibition for CNP058 has not been identified to date. Here, we report that CNP058 is able to bind several host cell pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, including Bak and Bax, as well as several BH3 only-proteins including Bim, Bid, Bmf, Noxa, Puma, and Hrk with high to moderate affinities. We then defined the structural basis for CNP058 binding to pro-death Bcl-2 proteins by determining the crystal structure of CNP058 bound to Bim BH3. CNP058 adopts the conserved Bcl-2 like fold observed in cellular pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, and utilizes the canonical ligand binding groove to bind Bim BH3. We then demonstrate that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of ultraviolet (UV induced apoptosis in a cell culture model. Our findings suggest that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that is able to bind to BH3 domain peptides from a broad range of pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, and may play a key role in countering premature host apoptosis.

  4. Learning Python network programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sarker, M O Faruque

    2015-01-01

    If you're a Python developer or a system administrator with Python experience and you're looking to take your first steps in network programming, then this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Python is assumed.

  5. Circulatory CNP Rescues Craniofacial Hypoplasia in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, S; Nakao, Kazumasa; Koyama, N; Isobe, Y; Ueda, Y; Kanai, Y; Kondo, E; Fujii, T; Miura, M; Yasoda, A; Nakao, Kazuwa; Bessho, K

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis. In this study, we analyzed craniofacial morphology in a mouse model of achondroplasia, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is specifically activated in cartilage ( Fgfr3ach mice), and investigated the mechanisms of jaw deformities caused by this mutation. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of CNP on the maxillofacial area in these animals. Fgfr3ach mice exhibited midfacial hypoplasia, especially in the sagittal direction, caused by impaired endochondral ossification in craniofacial cartilage and by premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth center in craniomaxillofacial skeletogenesis. We crossed Fgfr3ach mice with transgenic mice in which CNP is expressed in the liver under the control of the human serum amyloid-P component promoter, resulting in elevated levels of circulatory CNP ( Fgfr3ach/SAP-Nppc-Tg mice). In the progeny, midfacial hypoplasia in the sagittal direction observed in Fgfr3ach mice was improved significantly by restoring the thickness of synchondrosis and promoting proliferation of chondrocytes in the craniofacial cartilage. In addition, the foramen magnum stenosis observed in Fgfr3ach mice was significantly ameliorated in Fgfr3ach/SAP-Nppc-Tg mice due to enhanced endochondral bone growth of the anterior intraoccipital synchondrosis. These results clearly demonstrate the therapeutic potential of

  6. Diversified cardiovascular actions of six homologous natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, VNP, CNP1, CNP3, and CNP4) in conscious eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobata, Shigenori; Ventura, Albert; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Takei, Yoshio

    2010-06-01

    The natriuretic peptide (NP) family consists of seven paralogs [atrial NP (ANP), brain NP (BNP), ventricular NP (VNP), and C-type NP 1-4 (CNP1-4)] in teleosts, but relative biological activity of the seven NPs has not been comprehensively examined using homologous peptides. In this study, we newly identified CNP3 and CNP4 in eels to use homologous peptides, but the CNP2 gene may have been silenced in this species. The CNP4 gene was expressed exclusively in the brain as CNP1, but the CNP3 gene, from which cardiac ANP, BNP, and VNP were generated by tandem duplication, was most abundantly expressed in the pituitary, suggesting its local action. All NPs induced hypotension dose dependently after intra-arterial injection with a potency order of ANP > VNP > BNP > CNP4 > CNP1 = CNP3. The degree of hypotension was similar at the ventral and dorsal aorta, indicating similar actions on the branchial and systemic circulation. The hypotension induced by cardiac NPs was longer lasting than CNPs, probably because of the difference in preferential receptors. Among cardiac NPs, the hypotensive effect of VNP lasted much longer than those of ANP and BNP, even though VNP disappeared from the blood more quickly than ANP. To analyze the unique effect of VNP, we examined possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system using ANP, VNP, and CNP3. Beta-adrenergic blockade diminished hypotensive effects of all three NPs, but alpha-adrenergic and cholinergic blockade enhanced only the effect of VNP, suggesting a specific mechanism for the VNP action. The NP-induced tachycardia was diminished by all blockers examined. Furthermore, the cardiovascular action of VNP was not impaired by a blocker of NP receptor, HS-142-1. Taken together, the homologous NPs exhibit diverse cardiovascular actions in eels partially through the autonomic nervous system, and the unique VNP action may be mediated by a novel receptor that has not been identified in teleosts.

  7. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  8. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  9. Management and Fragmentation of a Network Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    This paper contains an analysis of the role of identity in interorganizational collaboration. The case is a network program that involved three parties: eight companies, one consulting institution and a research institution. The purpose of the network program was to develop and test concepts...

  10. Program Aids Simulation Of Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program NETS - Tool for Development and Evaluation of Neural Networks - provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus software environment for development of such algorithms. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network, and provides features for saving weight values of network, providing for more precise control over learning process. Consists of translating problem into format using input/output pairs, designing network configuration for problem, and finally training network with input/output pairs until acceptable error reached. Written in C.

  11. CNP signal peptide (CNPsp in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui eLee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that signal peptide fragments of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP are present in the human circulation. Here, we provide the first preliminary assessment of the potential utility of CNP signal peptide (CNPsp measurement in acute cardiovascular disease. Utilising our specific and sensitive immunoassay, we assessed the potential of CNPsp measurement to assist in the identification of acute coronary syndromes in 494 patients presenting consecutively with chest pain. The diagnostic and prognostic potential of CNPsp was assessed in conjunction with a contemporary clinical troponin I assay, an investigational highly sensitive troponin T assay and NT-proBNP measurement. Utility was assessed via receiver operator curve characteristic analysis.CNPsp did not identify patients with myocardial infarction (MI or those with unstable angina, nor did it assist the diagnostic ability of clinical or investigational troponin measurement. CNPsp levels were significantly elevated in patients presenting with atrial fibrillation (P<0.05 and were significantly lower in those with a history of previous MI (P<0.05. CNPsp could identify those at risk of mortality within 1 year (P<0.05 and also could identify those at risk of death or re-infarction within 1 year (P<0.01. This is the first exploratory report describing the potential of CNPsp measurement in acute cardiovascular disease. Whilst CNPsp does not have utility in acute diagnosis, it may have potential in assisting risk prognosis with respect to mortality and re-infarction.

  12. Social network analysis for program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach.

  13. The alteration of NTproCNP plasma levels following anaerobic exercise in physically active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseki Temür, Hilal; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Demir, Muzaffer; Palabıyık, Orkide; Karaca, Aziz; Guksu, Zuhal; Ortanca, Arif; Süt, Necdet

    2015-02-01

    Amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP) is a synthesis product of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In this study, plasma levels of NTproCNP were compared before and after exercise in healthy young subjects who are physically active (PA) or not physically active (NPA). The study was carried on PA group (n=10) who defined the exercise duration more than 2.5 hours per week for at least one year and NPA group (n = 10) whose exercise duration was lower than 1.5 hours per week. The level of maximal oxygen consumption was determined. Wingate exercise test was applied on the following day. Plasma NTproCNP levels were measured before the exercise and at the 1st, 5th and 30th minute after the exercise. Exercise duration of physically active group was reported as 11.3 ± 5.0 hours per week. Basal NTproCNP levels of the groups were found to be comparable. NTproCNP levels in the 5th minute (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L; pexercise were higher than the levels before exercise (0.64 ± 0.29 pmol/L) in PA group. Additionally, the plasma levels of NTproCNP after 5th minute of exercise were higher in PA group (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L) than NPA group (0.74 ± 0.16 pmol/L, pexercise.

  14. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of three global change drivers on terrestrial C:N:P stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    more common than synergistic or antagonistic interactions, (4) C:N:P stoichiometry of soil and soil microbial biomass shows high homeostasis under global change manipulations, and (5) C:N:P responses to global change are strongly affected by ecosystem type, local climate and experimental conditions......, and elevated CO2 ) on primary productivity and on the biogeochemistry of carbon (C), N and phosphorus (P) across different terrestrial ecosystems. Here we capitalize on this large amount of information by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis (>2000 case studies worldwide) to address how C:N:P stoichiometry...

  16. Advanced network programming principles and techniques : network application programming with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Ciubotaru, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Answering the need for an accessible overview of the field, this text/reference presents a manageable introduction to both the theoretical and practical aspects of computer networks and network programming. Clearly structured and easy to follow, the book describes cutting-edge developments in network architectures, communication protocols, and programming techniques and models, supported by code examples for hands-on practice with creating network-based applications. Features: presents detailed coverage of network architectures; gently introduces the reader to the basic ideas underpinning comp

  17. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. (Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Beschen, D.A. Jr. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs)

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  18. Report on Networking and Programming Languages 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Bjorner, Nikolaj

    2017-10-26

    The third workshop on Networking and Programming Lan-guages, NetPL 2017, was held in conjunction with SIG-COMM 2017. The workshop series attracts invited speakers from academia and industry and a selection of contributed abstracts for short presentations. NetPL brings together re-searchers from the networking community and researchers from the programming languages and verification communities. The workshop series is a timely forum for exciting trends, technological and scientific advances in the intersection of these communities. We describe some of the high-lights from the invited talks through the lens of three trends: Advances in network machine architectures, network programming abstractions, and network verification. NetPL included five invited speakers, four from academia, and one from industry. The program contained six contributed talks out of eight submitted for presentation. The workshop organizers reviewed the abstracts for quality and scope. A total of 42 registrations were received and the attendance occupied the lecture room to the brink. Slides and abstracts from all talks are available from the workshop home page.1 Videos of the presentations are available in the NetPL YouTube channel.2.

  19. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beschen, D.A. Jr. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  20. 77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...-competitive replacement award under the Rural Health Network Development Program to the Siloam Springs... through the Rural Health Network Development Grant Program are to improve the capacity of network members...

  1. Boost.Asio C++ network programming

    CERN Document Server

    Torjo, John

    2013-01-01

    What you want is an easy level of abstraction, which is just what this book provides in conjunction with Boost.Asio. Switching to Boost.Asio is just a few extra #include directives away, with the help of this practical and engaging guide.This book is great for developers that need to do network programming, who don't want to delve into the complicated issues of a raw networking API. You should be familiar with core Boost concepts, such as smart pointers and shared_from_this, resource classes (noncopyable), functors and boost::bind, boost mutexes, and the boost date/time library. Readers should

  2. Software-Programmed Optical Networking with Integrated NFV Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Wang, Xi; Basu, Shrutarshi

    2017-01-01

    We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS).......We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS)....

  3. Shear stress induction of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in endothelial cells is independent of NO autocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Xiao, Z; Diamond, S L

    1999-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is secreted by endothelial cells and has vasodilatory and antiproliferative activity against smooth muscle cells. Using defined laminar shear stress exposures of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, we investigated the regulation of CNP gene by PhosphorImaging the ratio of CNP mRNA to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA. A 6 h exposure to arterial shear stress of 25 dyn/cm2 caused a marked elevation (10.5 +/- 6.2-fold: n=10, pshear stress was 2.6 times more potent than a venous level of shear stress of 4 dyn/cm2 in elevating the CNP/GAPDH mRNA ratio. After 6 h, CNP secretion by shear stressed BAEC was elevated over stationary controls by 3.1-fold (n=5, pBAEC. Shear stress elevated CNP mRNA in the presence of L-NAME (400 microM) indicating that autocrine signaling through shear-induced NO production or guanylate cyclase activation was not involved. Similarly, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (10 microM), which can also block shear-induced NO production, had no effect on CNP mRNA induction by shear stress in BAEC. The intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA/AM (5 microM) attenuated the shear stress-induced CNP mRNA expression by 71%. Interestingly, dexamethasone (1 microM) potentiated by 2-fold the shear stress enhancement of CNP mRNA. Shear stress was a more potent inducer of CNP than either phorbol myristrate acetate or lipopolysaccharide. Hemodynamic shear stress may be an important physiological regulator of CNP expression with consequent effects on vasodilation and regulation of intimal hyperplasia.

  4. Effects of three global change drivers on terrestrial C:N:P stoichiometry: a global synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Yan; Li, Zhijie; Wu, Fuzhong; Peng, Changhui

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing number of controlled-manipulative experiments to investigate how plants and soils might respond to global change. These experiments typically examined the effects of each of three global change drivers [i.e., nitrogen (N) deposition, warming, and elevated CO 2 ] on primary productivity and on the biogeochemistry of carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P) across different terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we capitalize on this large amount of information by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis (>2000 case studies worldwide) to address how C:N:P stoichiometry of plants, soils, and soil microbial biomass might respond to individual vs. combined effects of the three global change drivers. Our results show that (i) individual effects of N addition and elevated CO 2 on C:N:P stoichiometry are stronger than warming, (ii) combined effects of pairs of global change drivers (e.g., N addition + elevated CO 2 , warming + elevated CO 2 ) on C:N:P stoichiometry were generally weaker than the individual effects of each of these drivers, (iii) additive interactions (i.e., when combined effects are equal to or not significantly different from the sum of individual effects) were more common than synergistic or antagonistic interactions, (iv) C:N:P stoichiometry of soil and soil microbial biomass shows high homeostasis under global change manipulations, and (v) C:N:P responses to global change are strongly affected by ecosystem type, local climate, and experimental conditions. Our study is one of the first to compare individual vs. combined effects of the three global change drivers on terrestrial C:N:P ratios using a large set of data. To further improve our understanding of how ecosystems might respond to future global change, long-term ecosystem-scale studies testing multifactor effects on plants and soils are urgently required across different world regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neural Network Program Package for Prosody Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santarius

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the programme for one part of theautomatic Text-to-Speech (TTS synthesis. Some experiments (for example[14] documented the considerable improvement of the naturalness ofsynthetic speech, but this approach requires completing the inputfeature values by hand. This completing takes a lot of time for bigfiles. We need to improve the prosody by other approaches which useonly automatically classified features (input parameters. Theartificial neural network (ANN approach is used for the modeling ofprosody parameters. The program package contains all modules necessaryfor the text and speech signal pre-processing, neural network training,sensitivity analysis, result processing and a module for the creationof the input data protocol for Czech speech synthesizer ARTIC [1].

  6. Network interdiction and stochastic integer programming

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On March 15, 2002 we held a workshop on network interdiction and the more general problem of stochastic mixed integer programming at the University of California, Davis. Jesús De Loera and I co-chaired the event, which included presentations of on-going research and discussion. At the workshop, we decided to produce a volume of timely work on the topics. This volume is the result. Each chapter represents state-of-the-art research and all of them were refereed by leading investigators in the respective fields. Problems - sociated with protecting and attacking computer, transportation, and social networks gain importance as the world becomes more dep- dent on interconnected systems. Optimization models that address the stochastic nature of these problems are an important part of the research agenda. This work relies on recent efforts to provide methods for - dressing stochastic mixed integer programs. The book is organized with interdiction papers first and the stochastic programming papers in the second part....

  7. Increased renal production of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in patients with cirrhosis and functional renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülberg, V; Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2000-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of CNP in renal function disturbances in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. METHODS: Peripheral venous and urinary concentrations of CNP were determined in samples from 11 healthy controls, 20 cirrhotic patients...... with normal renal function (creatinine clearance 117 (8) ml/min), and 20 cirrhotic patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance 35 (4) ml/min). In a second protocol, arterial and renal venous plasma concentrations of CNP were determined in 37 patients with cirrhosis of the liver to estimate...... renal extraction ratios of CNP. A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied after solid phase extraction of samples. RESULTS: Plasma CNP was lower in cirrhotic patients with normal and impaired renal function than in controls (3.0 (0.4) and 2.7 (0.2) v. 4.2 (0.4) pg/ml, respectively; p

  8. Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Program Network, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CALM network includes 168 active sites in both hemispheres with 15 participating countries. This network represents the only coordinated and standardized program...

  9. Serum NT-proCNP levels increased after initiation of GH treatment in patients with achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Wang, Wei; Miura, Kohji; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Fujiwara, Makoto; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachibana, Makiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Takakuwa, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoko; Namba, Noriyuki; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-06-01

    Serum amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) levels have been proposed as a biomarker of linear growth in healthy children. The usefulness of NT-proCNP in patients with achondroplasia (ACH)/hypochondroplasia (HCH) remains to be elucidated. The objective was to study whether serum NT-proCNP level is a good biomarker for growth in ACH/HCH and other patients of short stature. This was a longitudinal cohort study. Sixteen children with ACH (aged 0·4-4·3 years), six children with HCH (2·7-6·3 years), 23 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) (2·2-9·0 years), eight short children with GH deficiency (GHD) (2·9-6·8 years) and five short children born small for gestational age (SGA) (2·0-6·6 years). Patients with ACH/HCH received GH treatment for 1 year. Serum NT-proCNP levels and height were measured. NT-proCNP levels positively correlated with height velocity in these short children (P < 0·05, r = 0·27). NT-proCNP levels inversely correlated with age in children with ISS alone (P < 0·01, r = -0·55). Serum NT-proCNP levels in patients with ACH/HCH were increased 3 months following the initiation of GH treatment (P < 0·05). Height SDS gain during GH treatment for 1 year was positively correlated with the changes in NT-proCNP levels after the initiation of GH (P < 0·01, r = 0·72). Serum NT-proCNP levels may be a good biomarker to indicate the effect of GH treatment on growth in patients with ACH/HCH at least in the first year and height velocity in short stature patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PAN network analysis program: its development and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, M.H.; Rogers, K.; Turnbull, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    British Gas Corp.'s London Research Station describes a comprehensive, efficient, and flexible computer simulation of pressure and flows in gas networks known as PAN - Program to Analyze Networks. The program is used extensively throughout the BGC system for both design and control of gas transmission grids. Its powerful method of analysis solves network problems quickly and handles complex configurations of compressors and regulators easily.

  11. Social network analysis of public health programs to measure partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2014-12-01

    In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Responses of cardiac natriuretic peptides after paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: ANP surges faster than BNP and CNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Wang, An-Mei; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-03-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion increases after 30 min of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). Whether this phenomenon also applies to brain or C-type natriuretic peptides (BNP or CNP) remains unknown. Blood samples of 18 patients (41 ± 11 yr old; 4 men) with symptomatic PSVT and normal left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction 65 ± 6%) were collected from the coronary sinus (CS) and the femoral artery (FA) before and 30 min after the induction, and 30 min after the termination of PSVT. The results showed that the ANP levels rose steeply after the PSVT and then reduced at 30 min after the termination (baseline vs. post-PSVT vs. posttermination: CS: 34.0 ± 29.6 vs. 74.1 ± 42.3 vs. 46.1 ± 32.9; FA: 5.9 ± 3.24 vs. 28.2 ± 20.7 vs. 10.0 ± 4.6 pg/ml; all P ANP, the increases of BNP and CNP in CS after the PSVT were less sharp, but continued to rise after the termination of tachycardia (BNP, 10.2 ± 6.4 vs. 11.3 ± 7.1 vs. 11.8 ± 7.9; CNP, 4.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.9 ± 1.4 vs. 5.0 ± 1.4 pg/ml; all P ANP increased greater after a 30-min induced PSVT, but dropped faster after termination of PSVT, compared with BNP and CNP. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Copy number variation in CNP267 region may be associated with hip bone size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Lin Liu

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic hip fracture (HF is a serious global public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hip bone size (BS has been identified as one of key measurable risk factors for HF, independent of bone mineral density (BMD. Hip BS is highly genetically determined, but genetic factors underlying BS variation are still poorly defined. Here, we performed an initial genome-wide copy number variation (CNV association analysis for hip BS in 1,627 Chinese Han subjects using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping SNP 6.0 Array and a follow-up replicate study in 2,286 unrelated US Caucasians sample. We found that a copy number polymorphism (CNP267 located at chromosome 2q12.2 was significantly associated with hip BS in both initial Chinese and replicate Caucasian samples with p values of 4.73E-03 and 5.66E-03, respectively. An important candidate gene, four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2, was detected at the downstream of CNP267, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to several bone formation regulator, such as insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5 and androgen receptor (AR. Our findings suggest that CNP267 region may be associated with hip BS which might influence the FHL2 gene downstream.

  14. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  15. Center for Network Planning Status Report 2004-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Jensen, Michael

    CNP, Center for Network Planning, was founded January 29th in 2004 based on an agree-ment between the Institutes of Business Studies, Electronic Systems, Mathematics and Planning at Aalborg University and hosted by the department of Control Engineering at the Institute of Electronic Systems. CNP ...... an almost complete state of the art technical framework for its activities as well as an international contact network. The CNP status report 2004 – 2005 summarises the main activities conducted, results achieved and outlines the visions and plans for the period to follow....... was established in order to strengthen the base for research, special studies, educa-tion, training and dissemination of results within the field of Network Planning and with special focus on the development of the next generation ICT Infrastructure. CNP is a member of CTIF, Centre for TeleInFrastruktur, ensuring...

  16. The commercial vehicle information systems and networks program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) grant program supports the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrations (FMCSAs) safety mission by providing grant funds to States to: : Improve safety and productivity of moto...

  17. The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network program, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and : Networks (CVISN) program supports that safety : mission by providing grant funds to States for: : Improving safety and productivity of motor : carriers, commercial motor vehicles : (CMVs), and thei...

  18. Fast Program Codes Dissemination for Smart Wireless Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart wireless software defined networks (WSDNs, sensor nodes are deployed in the monitored area to sense data. In order to increase the flexibility of WSDNs configuration, sensor nodes use programmable technology. Thus, programming and software engineering that integrate Internet of Things (IoT lead to a smart world. Due to the large capacity of program codes and the limited energy of wireless network, only a subset of nodes is selected to spread program codes, and the remaining nodes are in sleep status to save energy. In this paper, a fast program codes dissemination (FPCD scheme for smart wireless software defined networking is proposed; many nodes in the area far from the sink will be selected to spread program codes; those areas have much energy left, while the area near the sink chooses less number of active nodes to spread program codes to save energy. Thus, FPCD scheme can reduce delay for spreading program codes while retaining network lifetime. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our approach can reduce transmission delay by 10.76%–105.791% while retaining network lifetime compares with previous broadcast schemes.

  19. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of a CNP analog in a Fgfr3 mouse model recapitulating achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorget, Florence; Kaci, Nabil; Peng, Jeff; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Mugniery, Emilie; Oppeneer, Todd; Wendt, Dan J; Bell, Sean M; Bullens, Sherry; Bunting, Stuart; Tsuruda, Laurie S; O'Neill, Charles A; Di Rocco, Federico; Munnich, Arnold; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2012-12-07

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of dwarfism, is an inherited autosomal-dominant chondrodysplasia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor 3 (FGFR3). C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) antagonizes FGFR3 downstream signaling by inhibiting the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report the pharmacological activity of a 39 amino acid CNP analog (BMN 111) with an extended plasma half-life due to its resistance to neutral-endopeptidase (NEP) digestion. In ACH human growth-plate chondrocytes, we demonstrated a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, confirming that this CNP analog inhibits fibroblast-growth-factor-mediated MAPK activation. Concomitantly, we analyzed the phenotype of Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice and showed the presence of ACH-related clinical features in this mouse model. We found that in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice, treatment with this CNP analog led to a significant recovery of bone growth. We observed an increase in the axial and appendicular skeleton lengths, and improvements in dwarfism-related clinical features included flattening of the skull, reduced crossbite, straightening of the tibias and femurs, and correction of the growth-plate defect. Thus, our results provide the proof of concept that BMN 111, a NEP-resistant CNP analog, might benefit individuals with ACH and hypochondroplasia. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of a CNP Analog in a Fgfr3 Mouse Model Recapitulating Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorget, Florence; Kaci, Nabil; Peng, Jeff; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Mugniery, Emilie; Oppeneer, Todd; Wendt, Dan J.; Bell, Sean M.; Bullens, Sherry; Bunting, Stuart; Tsuruda, Laurie S.; O'Neill, Charles A.; Di Rocco, Federico; Munnich, Arnold; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of dwarfism, is an inherited autosomal-dominant chondrodysplasia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor 3 (FGFR3). C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) antagonizes FGFR3 downstream signaling by inhibiting the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report the pharmacological activity of a 39 amino acid CNP analog (BMN 111) with an extended plasma half-life due to its resistance to neutral-endopeptidase (NEP) digestion. In ACH human growth-plate chondrocytes, we demonstrated a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, confirming that this CNP analog inhibits fibroblast-growth-factor-mediated MAPK activation. Concomitantly, we analyzed the phenotype of Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice and showed the presence of ACH-related clinical features in this mouse model. We found that in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, treatment with this CNP analog led to a significant recovery of bone growth. We observed an increase in the axial and appendicular skeleton lengths, and improvements in dwarfism-related clinical features included flattening of the skull, reduced crossbite, straightening of the tibias and femurs, and correction of the growth-plate defect. Thus, our results provide the proof of concept that BMN 111, a NEP-resistant CNP analog, might benefit individuals with ACH and hypochondroplasia. PMID:23200862

  1. Effect of the C:N:P ratio on the denitrifying dephosphatation in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Artur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Thornton, Arthur J; Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Szymczyk, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A series of investigations were conducted using sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) to explore the influence of C:N:P ratio on biological dephosphatation including the denitrifying dephosphatation and the denitrification process. Biomass in the reactor occurred mainly in the form of a biofilm attached to completely submerged disks. Acetic acid was used as the source of organic carbon. C:N:P ratios have had a significant effect on the profiles of phosphate release and phosphate uptake and nitrogen removal. The highest rates of phosphate release and phosphate uptake were recorded at the C:N:P ratio of 140:70:7. The C:N ratio of 2.5:1 ensured complete denitrification. The highest rate of denitrification was achieved at the C:N:P ratio of 140:35:7. The increase of nitrogen load caused an increase in phosphates removal until a ratio C:N:P of 140:140:7. Bacteria of the biofilm exposed to alternate conditions of mixing and aeration exhibited enhanced intracellular accumulation of polyphosphates. Also, the structure of the biofilm encouraged anaerobic-aerobic as well as anoxic-anaerobic and absolutely anaerobic conditions in a SBBR. These heterogeneous conditions in the presence of nitrates may be a significant factor determining the promotion of denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organism (DNPAO) development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Deep Space Network Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    2010-01-01

    The deep space network (DSN)--with its three complexes in Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia--provides the resources to track and communicate with planetary and deep space missions. Each complex consists of an array of capabilities for tracking probes almost anywhere in the solar system. A number of innovative hardware, software and procedural tools are used for day-to-day operations at DSN complexes as well as at the network control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Systems and technologies employed by the network include large-aperture antennas (34-m and 70-m), cryogenically cooled receivers, high-power transmitters, stable frequency and timing distribution assemblies, modulation and coding schemes, spacecraft transponders, radiometric tracking techniques, etc. The DSN operates at multiple frequencies, including the 2-GHz band, the 7/8-GHz band, and the 32/34-GHz band.

  3. Combined nano-imprint and photolithography (CNP) of integrated polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and substrate are separated, and the un-exposed resist is dissolved. Polymer waveguides are added to the system by an additional UV lithography step in a film of un-doped SU-8, which is spincoated on top of the lasers and substrate. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength range 559...... nm - 600 nm, determined by the grating period. Our results, where 20 laser devices are defined across a 10 cm diameter wafer substrate, demonstrate the feasibility of CNP for wafer-scale fabrication of advanced nano-structured active and passive polymer optical components....

  4. New accreditation program: university health network's experience with Qmentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfers, Anita; Hruska, Christa; Stone, Justin; Moser, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, University Health Network was surveyed using Accreditation Canada's new Qmentum program. The following article describes UHN's experience rolling out the program to over 12,000 staff, physicians and volunteers. The article also outlines key challenges and lessons learned by the multi-site organization, with a focus on staff engagement, on-site survey preparation and sustainability moving forward. Staff feedback on the Qmentum program was extremely positive, and forecast results from Accreditation Canada were excellent.

  5. Learning oncogenetic networks by reducing to mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.

  6. Global biodiversity, stoichiometry and ecosystem function responses to human-induced C-N-P imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Sardans, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Ubach, Andreu; Bartrons, Mireia; Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Global change analyses usually consider biodiversity as a global asset that needs to be preserved. Biodiversity is frequently analysed mainly as a response variable affected by diverse environmental drivers. However, recent studies highlight that gradients of biodiversity are associated with gradual changes in the distribution of key dominant functional groups characterized by distinctive traits and stoichiometry, which in turn often define the rates of ecosystem processes and nutrient cycling. Moreover, pervasive links have been reported between biodiversity, food web structure, ecosystem function and species stoichiometry. Here we review current global stoichiometric gradients and how future distributional shifts in key functional groups may in turn influence basic ecosystem functions (production, nutrient cycling, decomposition) and therefore could exert a feedback effect on stoichiometric gradients. The C-N-P stoichiometry of most primary producers (phytoplankton, algae, plants) has been linked to functional trait continua (i.e. to major axes of phenotypic variation observed in inter-specific analyses of multiple traits). In contrast, the C-N-P stoichiometry of higher-level consumers remains less precisely quantified in many taxonomic groups. We show that significant links are observed between trait continua across trophic levels. In spite of recent advances, the future reciprocal feedbacks between key functional groups, biodiversity and ecosystem functions remain largely uncertain. The reported evidence, however, highlights the key role of stoichiometric traits and suggests the need of a progressive shift towards an ecosystemic and stoichiometric perspective in global biodiversity analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. 47 CFR 73.658 - Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial exclusivity in non-network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial exclusivity in non-network program arrangements. 73.658 Section 73.658... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.658 Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial...

  8. Programming the dynamics of biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Friedrich C

    2013-01-22

    The development of complex self-organizing molecular systems for future nanotechnology requires not only robust formation of molecular structures by self-assembly but also precise control over their temporal dynamics. As an exquisite example of such control, in this issue of ACS Nano, Fujii and Rondelez demonstrate a particularly compact realization of a molecular "predator-prey" ecosystem consisting of only three DNA species and three enzymes. The system displays pronounced oscillatory dynamics, in good agreement with the predictions of a simple theoretical model. Moreover, its considerable modularity also allows for ecological studies of competition and cooperation within molecular networks.

  9. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  10. Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  11. Compiling nested loop programs to process networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turjan, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    New heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms are emerging that are typically composed of loosely coupled components that exchange data using programmable interconnections. The components can be CPUs or DSPs, specialized IP cores, reconfigurable units, or memories. To program such platform, we use the

  12. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  13. AN APPLICATION FOR EFFICIENT TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS PROVISIONING USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.

  14. Biomass allocation and C-N-P stoichiometry in C3 and C4 crops under abiotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass allocation to structural, metabolic and reproductive organs as well as their carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C-N-P) profiles and ratios (C:N, C:P, and N:P) were estimated in C3 and C4 crop plants subjected to multiple abiotic stresses (i.e., combination of temperature and water stress level...

  15. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    Due to the different degrees of controls exerted by biological and geochemical processes, climate changes are suggested to uncouple biogeochemical C, N and P cycles, influencing biomass accumulation, decomposition and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the possible extent of such disruption in grassland ecosystems remains unclear, especially in China’s steppes which have undergone rapid climate changes with increasing drought and warming predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results reveal that the soil from more arid and warmer sites are associated with lower soil organic C, total N and P. The ratios of both soil C:P and N:P decrease, but soil C:N increases with increasing aridity and temperature, indicating the predicted decreases in precipitation and warming for most of the temperate grassland region could lead to a soil C-N-P decoupling that may reduce plant growth and production in arid ecosystems. Soil pH, mainly reflecting long-term climate change in our sites, also contributes to the changing soil C-N-P stoichiometry, indicating the collective influences of climate and soil type on the shape of soil C-N-P balance.

  16. Social Networking Tools to Facilitate Cross-Program Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul; Howard, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Students working on a highly collaborative project used social networking technology for community building activities as well as basic project-related communication. Requiring students to work on cross-program projects gives them real-world experience working in diverse, geographically dispersed groups. An application used at Appalachian State…

  17. The Network Form of Implementing Educational Programs: Differences and Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexandr Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article describes peculiarities of implementation and major differences in network educational programs, currently introduced in Russia. It presents a general typology of models and forms for implementing interaction between educational institutions of Russia, including teacher institutes and federal universities, as well as a typology of…

  18. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  19. Neural network for solving convex quadratic bilevel programming problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Designing Camera Networks by Convex Quadratic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-05-04

    ​In this paper, we study the problem of automatic camera placement for computer graphics and computer vision applications. We extend the problem formulations of previous work by proposing a novel way to incorporate visibility constraints and camera-to-camera relationships. For example, the placement solution can be encouraged to have cameras that image the same important locations from different viewing directions, which can enable reconstruction and surveillance tasks to perform better. We show that the general camera placement problem can be formulated mathematically as a convex binary quadratic program (BQP) under linear constraints. Moreover, we propose an optimization strategy with a favorable trade-off between speed and solution quality. Our solution is almost as fast as a greedy treatment of the problem, but the quality is significantly higher, so much so that it is comparable to exact solutions that take orders of magnitude more computation time. Because it is computationally attractive, our method also allows users to explore the space of solutions for variations in input parameters. To evaluate its effectiveness, we show a range of 3D results on real-world floorplans (garage, hotel, mall, and airport). ​

  1. Genome-wide association study identified CNP12587 region underlying height variation in Chinese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Human height is a highly heritable trait considered as an important factor for health. There has been limited success in identifying the genetic factors underlying height variation. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with adult height by a genome-wide association study of copy number variants (CNVs in Chinese.Genome-wide CNV association analyses were conducted in 1,625 unrelated Chinese adults and sex specific subgroup for height variation, respectively. Height was measured with a stadiometer. Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform was used to identify copy number polymorphisms (CNPs. We constructed a genomic map containing 1,009 CNPs in Chinese individuals and performed a genome-wide association study of CNPs with height.We detected 10 significant association signals for height (p<0.05 in the whole population, 9 and 11 association signals for Chinese female and male population, respectively. A copy number polymorphism (CNP12587, chr18:54081842-54086942, p = 2.41 × 10(-4 was found to be significantly associated with height variation in Chinese females even after strict Bonferroni correction (p = 0.048. Confirmatory real time PCR experiments lent further support for CNV validation. Compared to female subjects with two copies of the CNP, carriers of three copies had an average of 8.1% decrease in height. An important candidate gene, ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L, was detected at this region, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to bone formation regulators.Our findings suggest the important genetic variants underlying height variation in Chinese.

  2. Optical Neural Network Models Applied To Logic Program Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Charles D.

    1988-05-01

    Logic programming is being used extensively by Artificial Intelligence researchers to solve problems including natural language processing and expert systems. These languages, of which Prolog is the most widely used, promise to revolutionize software engineering, but much greater performance is needed. Researchers have demonstrated the applicability of neural network models to the solution of certain NP-complete problems, but these methods are not obviously applicable to the execution of logic programs. This paper outlines the use of neural networks in four aspects of the logic program execution cycle, and discusses results of a simulation of three of these. Four neural network functional units are described, called the substitution agent, the clause filter, the structure processor, and the heuristics generator, respectively. Simulation results suggest that the system described may provide several orders of magnitude improvement in execution speed for large logic programs. However, practical implementation of the proposed architecture will require the application of optical computing techniques due to the large number of neurons required, and the need for massive, adaptive connectivity.

  3. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan--URL Correction AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests...

  4. 78 FR 57845 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program Environmental Assessment. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Notice of Availability (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Program...

  5. Scheduling maintenance of electrical power transmission networks using genetic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, W.B.; Treleaven, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Grid Company plc is responsible for the maintenance of the high voltage electricity transmission network in England and Wales. It must plan maintenance so as to minimise costs taking into account: (i) location and size of demand, (ii) generator capacities and availabilities, (iii) electricity carrying capacity of the remainder of the network, i.e. that part not undergoing maintenance. Previous work showed the combination of a genetic algorithm using an order or permutation chromosome combined with hand coded ``greedy`` optimisers can readily produce an optimal schedule for a four node test problem [10]. Following this the same GA has been used to find low cost schedules for the South Wales region of the UK high voltage power network. This paper describes the evolution of the best known schedule for the base South Wales problem using genetic programming starting from the hand coded heuristics used with the GA. (Author)

  6. The Portals 4.0 network programming interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian W.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Riesen, Rolf E.; Underwood, Keith Douglas; Maccabe, Arthur Bernard; Hudson, Trammell B.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4.0 network programming interface. Portals 4.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 4.0 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandias Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4.0 is targeted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enhanced offload capabilities.

  7. The portals 4.0.1 network programming interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian W.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Riesen, Rolf E.; Underwood, Keith Douglas; Maccabe, Arthur Bernard; Hudson, Trammell B.

    2013-04-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4.0 network programming interface. Portals 4.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 4.0 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandias Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4.0 is targeted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enhanced offload capabilities. 3

  8. Effect of Discontinuous Ultrasonic Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Cast Al413-SiCnp Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Dehnavi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of discontinuous ultrasonic treatment on the microstructure, nanoparticle distribution, and mechanical properties of cast Al413-SiCnp nanocomposites were studied. The results showed that discontinuous ultrasonic treatment was more effective in improving the mechanical properties of the cast nanocomposites than the equally timed continuous treatment. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of Al413-2%SiCnp nanocomposites discontinuously treated for two 20 minute periods increased by about 126% and 100% compared to those of the monolithic sample, respectively. These improvements were about 107% and 94% for the nanocomposites continuously treated for a single 40 minute period. The improvement in the mechanical properties was associated with severe refinement of the microstructure, removal of the remaining gas layers on the particles surfaces, more effective fragmentation of the remaining agglomerates as well as improved wettability and distribution of the reinforcing particles during the first stage of solidification.

  9. Network interventions on physical activity in an afterschool program: an agent-based social network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-04-01

    We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.

  10. Cyclic di-AMP-mediated interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔcnpB and macrophages implicates a novel strategy for improving BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jun; Bai, Guangchun

    2018-01-31

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play an important role in bacterial physiology and pathogen-host interactions. We previously reported that deletion of the sole c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase-encoding gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) led to significant virulence attenuation. In this study, we found that ΔcnpB of M. bovis BCG (BCG) was unable to secrete c-di-AMP, which differs from Mtb ΔcnpB. We infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with c-di-AMP-associated mutants generated from both Mtb and BCG. Our results showed that upon infection with Mtb ΔcnpB, BMDMs of WT mice secreted a large amount of interferon-β (IFN-β) post-infection similarly as we reported previously. In contrast, the response was less pronounced with BMDMs isolated from cGAS-/- mice and was nearly abolished with BMDMs prepared from STING-/- mice. Deletion of the region of difference 1 (RD1) locus in Mtb ΔcnpB did not alter the c-di-AMP secretion of ΔcnpB but eliminated the IFN-β production in the infected cells. In contrast, neither BCG ΔcnpB nor a recombinant BCG ΔcnpB with a pRD1 cosmid induced a type I interferon response. Interestingly, multiple studies have demonstrated that type I IFN enhances BCG's immunity. Thus, amending BCG based on our findings might improve BCG vaccination. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. CNP-pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP Signal Pathway Upregulated in Gastric Smooth Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lan Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that CNP-NPR-B/pGC-cGMP is upregulated in the diabetic rats. The present study was designed to determine whether the upregulation of CNP-NPR-B/pGC-cGMP signal pathway affects cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signal pathway in diabetic gastric smooth muscle. The gastric smooth muscle motility was observed by using isometric measurement. PDEs expressions in diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue were observed by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and RT-PCR methods. The results demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of CNP on the spontaneous contraction of gastric antral circular smooth muscle was potentiated in STZ-induced diabetic rat. CNP-induced increase of cGMP and cAMP was much higher in diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue than in controls. The expression of PDE3 is downregulated while the levels of gene expression of PDE1, PDE2, PDE4, and PDE5 were not altered in the diabetic gastric smooth muscle tissue. The results suggest that the sensitivity of gastric smooth muscle to CNP is potentiated via activation of CNP-pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signal pathway in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which may be associated with diabetes-induced gastric motility disorder.

  12. Student Support Networks in Online Doctoral Programs: Exploring Nested Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharla Berry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Enrollment in online doctoral programs has grown over the past decade. A sense of community, defined as feelings of closeness within a social group, is vital to retention, but few studies have explored how online doctoral students create community. Background: In this qualitative case study, I explore how students in one online doctoral program created a learning community. Methodology: Data for the study was drawn from 60 hours of video footage from six online courses, the message boards from the six courses, and twenty interviews with first and second-year students. Contribution: Findings from this study indicate that the structure of the social network in an online doctoral program is significantly different from the structure of learning communities in face-to-face programs. In the online program, the doctoral community was more insular, more peer-centered, and less reliant on faculty support than in in-person programs. Findings: Utilizing a nested communities theoretical framework, I identified four subgroups that informed online doctoral students’ sense of community: cohort, class groups, small peer groups, and study groups. Students interacted frequently with members of each of the aforementioned social groups and drew academic, social, and emotional support from their interactions. Recommendations for Practitioners: Data from this study suggests that online doctoral students are interested in making social and academic connections. Practitioners should leverage technology and on-campus supports to promote extracurricular interactions for online students. Recommendation for Researchers: Rather than focus on professional socialization, students in the online doctoral community were interested in providing social and academic support to peers. Researchers should consider how socialization in online doctoral programs differs from traditional, face-to-face programs. Impact on Society: As universities increase online offerings

  13. Multilayer Optimization of Heterogeneous Networks Using Grammatical Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Michael; Lynch, David; Kucera, Stepan; Claussen, Holger; O'Neill, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneous cellular networks are composed of macro cells (MCs) and small cells (SCs) in which all cells occupy the same bandwidth. Provision has been made under the third generation partnership project-long term evolution framework for enhanced intercell interference coordination (eICIC) between cell tiers. Expanding on previous works, this paper instruments grammatical genetic programming to evolve control heuristics for heterogeneous networks. Three aspects of the eICIC framework are addressed including setting SC powers and selection biases, MC duty cycles, and scheduling of user equipments (UEs) at SCs. The evolved heuristics yield minimum downlink rates three times higher than a baseline method, and twice that of a state-of-the-art benchmark. Furthermore, a greater number of UEs receive transmissions under the proposed scheme than in either the baseline or benchmark cases.

  14. The Portals 4.1 Network Programming Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Brian; Brightwell, Ronald B.; Grant, Ryan; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Pedretti, Kevin; Wheeler, Kyle; Underwood, Keith D; Riesen, Rolf; Maccabe, Arthur B.; Hudson, Trammel

    2017-04-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 4 networ k programming interface. Portals 4 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication betwee n nodes of a parallel computing system. Portals 4 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded syste ms. Portals 4 represents an adaption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platfor ms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine. Sandia's Cplant cluster project motivated the development of Version 3.0, which was later extended to Version 3.3 as part of the Cray Red Storm machine and XT line. Version 4 is tar geted to the next generation of machines employing advanced network interface architectures that support enh anced offload capabilities.

  15. A recurrent neural network for solving bilevel linear programming problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie; Huang, Junjian

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through a recurrent neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raja

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we study the recurrent neural network for solving linear programming problems. To achieve optimality in accuracy and also in computational effort, an algorithm is presented. We investigate the sensitivity analysis of linear programming problem through the neural network. A detailed example is also presented to demonstrate the performance of the recurrent neural network.

  17. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  18. Analyzing Nonblocking Switching Networks using Linear Programming (Duality)

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Hung Q; Le, Anh N; Nguyen, Thanh-Nhan

    2012-01-01

    The main task in analyzing a switching network design (including circuit-, multirate-, and photonic-switching) is to determine the minimum number of some switching components so that the design is non-blocking in some sense (e.g., strict- or wide-sense). We show that, in many cases, this task can be accomplished with a simple two-step strategy: (1) formulate a linear program whose optimum value is a bound for the minimum number we are seeking, and (2) specify a solution to the dual program, whose objective value by weak duality immediately yields a sufficient condition for the design to be non-blocking. We illustrate this technique through a variety of examples, ranging from circuit to multirate to photonic switching, from unicast to $f$-cast and multicast, and from strict- to wide-sense non-blocking. The switching architectures in the examples are of Clos-type and Banyan-type, which are the two most popular architectural choices for designing non-blocking switching networks. To prove the result in the multir...

  19. A Matlab Program for Textural Classification Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, E. P.; de Souza, C.

    2008-12-01

    A new MATLAB code that provides tools to perform classification of textural images for applications in the Geosciences is presented. The program, here coined TEXTNN, comprises the computation of variogram maps in the frequency domain for specific lag distances in the neighborhood of a pixel. The result is then converted back to spatial domain, where directional or ominidirectional semivariograms are extracted. Feature vectors are built with textural information composed of the semivariance values at these lag distances and, moreover, with histogram measures of mean, standard deviation and weighted fill-ratio. This procedure is applied to a selected group of pixels or to all pixels in an image using a moving window. A feed- forward back-propagation Neural Network can then be designed and trained on feature vectors of predefined classes (training set). The training phase minimizes the mean-squared error on the training set. Additionally, at each iteration, the mean-squared error for every validation is assessed and a test set is evaluated. The program also calculates contingency matrices, global accuracy and kappa coefficient for the three data sets, allowing a quantitative appraisal of the predictive power of the Neural Network models. The interpreter is able to select the best model obtained from a k-fold cross-validation or to use a unique split-sample data set for classification of all pixels in a given textural image. The code is opened to the geoscientific community and is very flexible, allowing the experienced user to modify it as necessary. The performance of the algorithms and the end-user program were tested using synthetic images, orbital SAR (RADARSAT) imagery for oil seepage detection, and airborne, multi-polarimetric SAR imagery for geologic mapping. The overall results proved very promising.

  20. A novel recurrent neural network with finite-time convergence for linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Cao, Jinde; Chen, Guanrong

    2010-11-01

    In this letter, a novel recurrent neural network based on the gradient method is proposed for solving linear programming problems. Finite-time convergence of the proposed neural network is proved by using the Lyapunov method. Compared with the existing neural networks for linear programming, the proposed neural network is globally convergent to exact optimal solutions in finite time, which is remarkable and rare in the literature of neural networks for optimization. Some numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and excellent performance of the new recurrent neural network.

  1. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of 2-Chloro-5-Nitrophenol Degradation in a Newly Isolated Bacterium,Cupriavidussp. Strain CNP-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Jinpei; Hu, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Compound 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP) is a typical chlorinated nitroaromatic pollutant. To date, the bacteria with the ability to degrade 2C5NP are rare, and the molecular mechanism of 2C5NP degradation remains unknown. In this study, Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 utilizing 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP) and meta -nitrophenol (MNP) via partial reductive pathways was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. Biodegradation kinetic analysis indicated that 2C5NP degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate of 21.2 ± 2.3 μM h -1 . Transcriptional analysis showed that the mnp genes are up-regulated in both 2C5NP- and MNP-induced strain CNP-8. Two Mnp proteins were purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of MNP, MnpA, a NADPH-dependent nitroreductase, also catalyzes the partial reduction of 2C5NP to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol via 2-chloro-5-nitrosophenol, which was firstly identified as an intermediate of 2C5NP catabolism. MnpC, an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase, is likely responsible for the ring-cleavage reaction of 2C5NP degradation. Gene knockout and complementation indicated that mnpA is necessary for both 2C5NP and MNP catabolism. To our knowledge, strain CNP-8 is the second 2C5NP-utilizing bacterium, and this is the first report of the molecular mechanism of microbial 2C5NP degradation.

  2. Temporal changes in soil C-N-P stoichiometry over the past 60 years across subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zaipeng; Wang, Minhuang; Huang, Zhiqun; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2018-03-01

    Controlled experiments have shown that global changes decouple the biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), resulting in shifting stoichiometry that lies at the core of ecosystem functioning. However, the response of soil stoichiometry to global changes in natural ecosystems with different soil depths, vegetation types, and climate gradients remains poorly understood. Based on 2,736 observations along soil profiles of 0-150 cm depth from 1955 to 2016, we evaluated the temporal changes in soil C-N-P stoichiometry across subtropical China, where soils are P-impoverished, with diverse vegetation, soil, and parent material types and a wide range of climate gradients. We found a significant overall increase in soil total C concentration and a decrease in soil total P concentration, resulting in increasing soil C:P and N:P ratios during the past 60 years across all soil depths. Although average soil N concentration did not change, soil C:N increased in topsoil while decreasing in deeper soil. The temporal trends in soil C-N-P stoichiometry differed among vegetation, soil, parent material types, and spatial climate variations, with significantly increased C:P and N:P ratios for evergreen broadleaf forest and highly weathered Ultisols, and more pronounced temporal changes in soil C:N, N:P, and C:P ratios at low elevations. Our sensitivity analysis suggests that the temporal changes in soil stoichiometry resulted from elevated N deposition, rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration and regional warming. Our findings revealed that the responses of soil C-N-P and stoichiometry to long-term global changes have occurred across the whole soil depth in subtropical China and the magnitudes of the changes in soil stoichiometry are dependent on vegetation types, soil types, and spatial climate variations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of 2-Chloro-5-Nitrophenol Degradation in a Newly Isolated Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain CNP-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compound 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP is a typical chlorinated nitroaromatic pollutant. To date, the bacteria with the ability to degrade 2C5NP are rare, and the molecular mechanism of 2C5NP degradation remains unknown. In this study, Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 utilizing 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP and meta-nitrophenol (MNP via partial reductive pathways was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. Biodegradation kinetic analysis indicated that 2C5NP degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate of 21.2 ± 2.3 μM h−1. Transcriptional analysis showed that the mnp genes are up-regulated in both 2C5NP- and MNP-induced strain CNP-8. Two Mnp proteins were purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of MNP, MnpA, a NADPH-dependent nitroreductase, also catalyzes the partial reduction of 2C5NP to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol via 2-chloro-5-nitrosophenol, which was firstly identified as an intermediate of 2C5NP catabolism. MnpC, an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase, is likely responsible for the ring-cleavage reaction of 2C5NP degradation. Gene knockout and complementation indicated that mnpA is necessary for both 2C5NP and MNP catabolism. To our knowledge, strain CNP-8 is the second 2C5NP-utilizing bacterium, and this is the first report of the molecular mechanism of microbial 2C5NP degradation.

  4. Indonesian Maritime Logistics Network Optimization Using Mixed Integer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arry Rahmawan Komarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some causes of the high logistic costs and significant disparity in Indonesia’s commodity price is the imbalanced distribution of the flow of goods between west and east regional of Indonesia and the slow development infrastructure. This issue can be happened because maritime transport infrastructure in Indonesia have not served effectively yet,. Therefore, the provider of shipping services should be able to design the Indonesian maritime logistics network that best suits with the current maritime conditions and provide the greatest benefits. This study aims to obtain a model of decision-making at all levels (strategic, tactical, operational to determine the type of vessel, the shipping routes, and cargo allocation that gives the maximum profit. Main purpose from this study is to develop decision-making model for maritime logistics network design at all levels (strategic, tactical, operational by using Mixed Integer Programming which can solve the combination of fleet-design, ship-scheduling, and cargo routing problems simultaneously.

  5. Assembling networks of microbial genomes using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Catherine; Beiko, Robert G

    2010-11-20

    Microbial genomes exhibit complex sets of genetic affinities due to lateral genetic transfer. Assessing the relative contributions of parent-to-offspring inheritance and gene sharing is a vital step in understanding the evolutionary origins and modern-day function of an organism, but recovering and showing these relationships is a challenging problem. We have developed a new approach that uses linear programming to find between-genome relationships, by treating tables of genetic affinities (here, represented by transformed BLAST e-values) as an optimization problem. Validation trials on simulated data demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in recovering and representing vertical and lateral relationships among genomes. Application of the technique to a set comprising Aquifex aeolicus and 75 other thermophiles showed an important role for large genomes as 'hubs' in the gene sharing network, and suggested that genes are preferentially shared between organisms with similar optimal growth temperatures. We were also able to discover distinct and common genetic contributors to each sequenced representative of genus Pseudomonas. The linear programming approach we have developed can serve as an effective inference tool in its own right, and can be an efficient first step in a more-intensive phylogenomic analysis.

  6. Integral measurement of the $^{12}$C(n,p)$^{12}$B reaction up to 10 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Žugec, P; Bosnar, D; Ventura, A; Mengoni, A; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A; Cosentino, L; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dressler, R; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Finocchiaro, P; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Heinitz, S; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Meo, S Lo; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Musumarra, A; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T

    2016-01-01

    The integral measurement of the $^{12}$C(n,p)$^{12}$B reaction was performed at the neutron time of flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The total number of $^{12}$B nuclei produced per neutron pulse of the n_TOF beam was determined using the activation technique in combination with a time of flight technique. The cross section is integrated over the n_TOF neutron energy spectrum from reaction threshold at 13.6 MeV to 10 GeV. Having been measured up to 1 GeV on basis of the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction, the neutron energy spectrum above 200 MeV has been reevaluated due to the recent extension of the cross section reference for this particular reaction, which is otherwise considered a standard up to 200 MeV. The results from the dedicated GEANT4 simulations have been used to evaluate the neutron flux from 1 GeV up to 10 GeV. The experimental results related to the $^{12}$C(n,p)$^{12}$B reaction are compared with the evaluated cross sections from major libraries and with the predictions of different GEANT4 models, which m...

  7. Effects of soil C:N:P stoichiometry on biomass allocation in the alpine and arid steppe systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Ma, Xingxing; Yan, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Soil nutrients strongly influence biomass allocation. However, few studies have examined patterns induced by soil C:N:P stoichiometry in alpine and arid ecosystems. Samples were collected from 44 sites with similar elevation along the 220-km transect at spatial intervals of 5 km along the northern Tibetan Plateau. Aboveground biomass (AGB) levels were measured by cutting a sward in each plot. Belowground biomass (BGB) levels were collected from soil pits in a block of 1 m × 1 m in actual root depth. We observed significant decreases in AGB and BGB levels but increases in the BGB:AGB ratio with increases in latitude. Although soil is characterized by structural complexity and spatial heterogeneity, we observed remarkably consistent C:N:P ratios within the cryic aridisols. We observed significant nonlinear relationships between the soil N:P and BGB:AGB ratios. The critical N:P ratio in soils was measured at approximately 2.0, above which the probability of BGB:AGB response to nutrient availability is small. These findings serve as interesting contributions to the global data pool on arid plant stoichiometry, given the previously limited knowledge regarding high-altitude regions.

  8. Linear Programming Approaches for Power Savings in Software-defined Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, F.A.; Grosso, P.

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined networks have been proposed as a viable solution to decrease the power consumption of the networking component in data center networks. Still the question remains on which scheduling algorithms are most suited to achieve this goal. We propose 4 different linear programming

  9. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research.... EDT on October 11, 2010. SUMMARY: With this notice, the National Coordination Office for Networking...

  10. A new one-layer neural network for linear and quadratic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Liao, Li-Zhi

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new neural network for solving linear and quadratic programming problems in real time by introducing some new vectors. The proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and can converge to an exact optimal solution of the original problem when the objective function is convex on the set defined by equality constraints. Compared with existing one-layer neural networks for quadratic programming problems, the proposed neural network has the least neurons and requires weak stability conditions. The validity and transient behavior of the proposed neural network are demonstrated by some simulation results.

  11. Center for development technology and program in technology and human affairs. [emphasizing technology-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The role of technology in nontraditional higher education with particular emphasis on technology-based networks is analyzed nontraditional programs, institutions, and consortia are briefly reviewed. Nontraditional programs which utilize technology are studied. Technology-based networks are surveyed and analyzed with regard to kinds of students, learning locations, technology utilization, interinstitutional relationships, cost aspects, problems, and future outlook.

  12. Network model and short circuit program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Assumptions made and techniques used in modeling the power network to the 480 volt level are discussed. Basic computational techniques used in the short circuit program are described along with a flow diagram of the program and operational procedures. Procedures for incorporating network changes are included in this user's manual.

  13. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  14. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush

    2016-08-01

    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.

  15. Operationalization of Software-Defined Networks (SDN) Program Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — U.S. federal investments in networking research and technologies deployment have fostered and accelerated the development of the Internet from its inception. It is...

  16. Research on Propagation Model of Malicious Programs in Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless network faces more security threats than traditional network due to its P2P system structure and the limited node resources. In recent years, malicious program has become one of the most important researches on international network security and information security. The research of malicious programs on wireless network has become a new research hotspot in the field of malicious programs. This paper first analyzed the Ad Hoc network system structure, security threats, the common classification of malicious programs and the bionic propagation model. Then starting from the differential equations of the SEIR virus propagation model, the question caused by introducing the SEIR virus propagation model in Ad Hoc wireless network was analyzed. This paper improved the malicious program propagation model through introducing the network topology features and concepts such as immunization delay, and designed an improved algorithm combined with the dynamic evolution of malware propagation process. Considering of the network virus propagation characteristics, network characteristics and immunization strategy to improve simulation model experiment analysis, the experimental results show that both the immunization strategy and the degrees of node can affect the propagation of malicious program.

  17. Chemically programmed self-sorting of gelator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kyle L; Chen, Lin; Raeburn, Jaclyn; Sellick, Owen R; Cotanda, Pepa; Paul, Alison; Griffiths, Peter C; King, Stephen M; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Serpell, Louise C; Adams, Dave J

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the order and spatial distribution of self-assembly in multicomponent supramolecular systems could underpin exciting new functional materials, but it is extremely challenging. When a solution of different components self-assembles, the molecules can either coassemble, or self-sort, where a preference for like-like intermolecular interactions results in coexisting, homomolecular assemblies. A challenge is to produce generic and controlled 'one-pot' fabrication methods to form separate ordered assemblies from 'cocktails' of two or more self-assembling species, which might have relatively similar molecular structures and chemistry. Self-sorting in supramolecular gel phases is hence rare. Here we report the first example of the pH-controlled self-sorting of gelators to form self-assembled networks in water. Uniquely, the order of assembly can be predefined. The assembly of each component is preprogrammed by the pK(a) of the gelator. This pH-programming method will enable higher level, complex structures to be formed that cannot be accessed by simple thermal gelation.

  18. Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, Jan; Menni, Michael; Das, Kalyan; van Berckelaer, Lizette; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Nuala M; Liekens, Sandra; Boehmer, Paul E; Arnold, Eddy; Götte, Matthias; Maguire, Anita R

    2017-07-15

    α-Carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) are modified nucleotides that represent a novel class of nucleotide-competing reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NcRTIs). They were designed to act directly against HIV-1 RT without the need for prior activation (phosphorylation). In this respect, they differ from the nucleoside or nucleotide RTIs [N(t)RTIs] that require conversion to their triphosphate forms before being inhibitory to HIV-1 RT. The guanine derivative (G-α-CNP) has now been synthesized and investigated for the first time. The (L)-(+)-enantiomer of G-α-CNP directly and competitively inhibits HIV-1 RT by interacting with the substrate active site of the enzyme. The (D)-(-)-enantiomer proved inactive against HIV-1 RT. In contrast, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of G-α-CNP inhibited herpes (i.e. HSV-1, HCMV) DNA polymerases in a non- or uncompetitive manner, strongly indicating interaction of the (L)-(+)- and the (D)-(-)-G-α-CNPs at a location different from the polymerase substrate active site of the herpes enzymes. Such entirely different inhibition profile of viral polymerases is unprecedented for a single antiviral drug molecule. Moreover, within the class of α-CNPs, subtle differences in their sensitivity to mutant HIV-1 RT enzymes were observed depending on the nature of the nucleobase in the α-CNP molecules. The unique properties of the α-CNPs make this class of compounds, including G-α-CNP, direct acting inhibitors of multiple viral DNA polymerases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resource Allocation Optimization Model of Collaborative Logistics Network Based on Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-feng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative logistics network resource allocation can effectively meet the needs of customers. It can realize the overall benefit maximization of the logistics network and ensure that collaborative logistics network runs orderly at the time of creating value. Therefore, this article is based on the relationship of collaborative logistics network supplier, the transit warehouse, and sellers, and we consider the uncertainty of time to establish a bilevel programming model with random constraints and propose a genetic simulated annealing hybrid intelligent algorithm to solve it. Numerical example shows that the method has stronger robustness and convergence; it can achieve collaborative logistics network resource allocation rationalization and optimization.

  20. Neural network design for J function approximation in dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, X

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows that a new type of artificial neural network (ANN) -- the Simultaneous Recurrent Network (SRN) -- can, if properly trained, solve a difficult function approximation problem which conventional ANNs -- either feedforward or Hebbian -- cannot. This problem, the problem of generalized maze navigation, is typical of problems which arise in building true intelligent control systems using neural networks. (Such systems are discussed in the chapter by Werbos in K.Pribram, Brain and Values, Erlbaum 1998.) The paper provides a general review of other types of recurrent networks and alternative training techniques, including a flowchart of the Error Critic training design, arguable the only plausible approach to explain how the brain adapts time-lagged recurrent systems in real-time. The C code of the test is appended. As in the first tests of backprop, the training here was slow, but there are ways to do better after more experience using this type of network.

  1. Patricia Hyer receives Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network University Change Agent Award

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Patricia Hyer, associate provost for academic administration, was awarded the University Change Agent Award at the Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN) national conference in Austin, Texas.

  2. Cognitive Networking With Regards to NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Vaden, Karl R.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes cognitive networking (CN) and its application to NASA's Space Communication and Networking (SCaN) Program. This report clarifies the terminology and framework of CN and provides some examples of cognitive systems. It then provides a methodology for developing and deploying CN techniques and technologies. Finally, the report attempts to answer specific questions regarding how CN could benefit SCaN. It also describes SCaN's current and target networks and proposes places where cognition could be deployed.

  3. A Critical Agency Network Model for Building an Integrated Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Lee, Jenny J.; Rhoades, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study considers a distinct case of a college outreach program that integrates student affairs staff, academic administrators, and faculty across campus. The authors find that social networks and critical agency help to understand the integration of these various professionals and offer a critical agency network model of enacting change.…

  4. The Structure and Quality of Social Network Support among Mental Health Consumers of Clubhouse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the structure and quality of social network support among a group of adult consumers of community-based mental health programs known as "clubhouses". The structure and quality of social network support was also examined by diagnosis, specifically between consumers living with and without schizophrenia. The study…

  5. Navigating Social Networking and Social Media in School Psychology: Ethical and Professional Considerations in Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking and social media have undoubtedly proliferated within the past decade, allowing widespread communication and dissemination of user-generated content and information. Some psychology graduate programs, including school psychology, have started to embrace social networking and media for instructional and training purposes; however,…

  6. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  7. Policy Subsystem Portfolio Management: A Neural Network Model of the Gulf of Mexico Program

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, George Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study provides insights into the behavior of an environmental policy subsystem. The study uses neural network theory to model the Gulf of Mexico Program's allocation of implementation funds. The Gulf of Mexico Program is a prototype effort to institutionalize a policy subsystem. A project implementation fund is at the core of the Gulf of Mexico Program. The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides the implementation fund and the Mexico Program Office (GMPO) administers it. ...

  8. THE BLENDED LEARNING ACCOMPLISHMENT OF COMPUTER AND NETWORK ENGINEERING EXPERTISE PROGRAM IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Aries Alfian Prasetyo; Setiadi Cahyono Putro; I Made Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to (1) describe supporting and inhibiting factors in blended learning implementation for the students of computer and network engineering expertise program and (2) describe the accomplishment level of the implementation. This study is designed as a descriptive study with quantitative approach. The research object is the blended learning implementation in computer and network engineering expertise program in SMK N 1 Baureno Bojonegoro. The research subjects consist of teachers,...

  9. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in pervasive computing research. Security is usually addressed through the use of encryption and authentication, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: reventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  10. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Sofie Fogh; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in pervasive computing research. Security is usually addressed through the use of encryption and authentication, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: preventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  11. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  12. Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.

  13. A recurrent neural network with exponential convergence for solving convex quadratic program and related linear piecewise equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youshen; Feng, Gang; Wang, Jun

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a recurrent neural network for solving strict convex quadratic programming problems and related linear piecewise equations. Compared with the existing neural networks for quadratic program, the proposed neural network has a one-layer structure with a low model complexity. Moreover, the proposed neural network is shown to have a finite-time convergence and exponential convergence. Illustrative examples further show the good performance of the proposed neural network in real-time applications.

  14. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  15. A new neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandzadeh, Ziba; Safi, Mohammadreza; Nazemi, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems. The original problem involving random interval variable coefficients is first transformed into an equivalent convex second order cone programming problem. A neural network model is then constructed for solving the obtained convex second order cone problem. Employing Lyapunov function approach, it is also shown that the proposed neural network model is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and it is globally convergent to an exact satisfactory solution of the original problem. Several illustrative examples are solved in support of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strengthening prevention program theories and evaluations: contributions from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Scott D; Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Bierman, Karen L; Moody, James

    2011-12-01

    A majority of school-based prevention programs target the modification of setting-level social dynamics, either explicitly (e.g., by changing schools' organizational, cultural or instructional systems that influence children's relationships), or implicitly (e.g., by altering behavioral norms designed to influence children's social affiliations and interactions). Yet, in outcome analyses of these programs, the rich and complicated set of peer network dynamics is often reduced to an aggregation of individual characteristics or assessed with methods that do not account for the interdependencies of network data. In this paper, we present concepts and analytic methods from the field of social network analysis and illustrate their great value to prevention science--both as a source of tools for refining program theories and as methods that enable more sophisticated and focused tests of intervention effects. An additional goal is to inform discussions of the broader implications of social network analysis for public health efforts.

  17. 40 CFR 51.353 - Network type and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation to begin no later than 1 year after program start-up. (5) Areas that qualify for and choose to... those stations, or companies owning those stations, are contractually or legally barred from engaging in... subpart. (1) The State shall report the results of the program evaluation on a biennial basis, starting...

  18. Seasonal variation in marine C:N:P stoichiometry: can the composition of seston explain stable Redfield ratios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frigstad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seston is suspended particulate organic matter, comprising a mixture of autotrophic, heterotrophic and detrital material. Despite variable proportions of these components, marine seston often exhibits relatively small deviations from the Redfield ratio (C:N:P = 106:16:1. Two time-series from the Norwegian shelf in Skagerrak are used to identify drivers of the seasonal variation in seston elemental ratios. An ordination identified water mass characteristics and bloom dynamics as the most important drivers for determining C:N, while changes in nutrient concentrations and biomass were most important for the C:P and N:P relationships. There is no standardized method for determining the functional composition of seston and the fractions of POC, PON and PP associated with phytoplankton, therefore any such information has to be obtained by indirect means. In this study, a generalized linear model was used to differentiate between the live autotrophic and non-autotrophic sestonic fractions, and for both stations the non-autotrophic fractions dominated with respective annual means of 76 and 55%. This regression model approach builds on assumptions (e.g. constant POC:Chl-a ratio and the robustness of the estimates were explored with a bootstrap analysis. In addition the autotrophic percentage calculated from the statistical model was compared with estimated phytoplankton carbon, and the two independent estimates of autotrophic percentage were comparable with similar seasonal cycles. The estimated C:nutrient ratios of live autotrophs were, in general, lower than Redfield, while the non-autotrophic C:nutrient ratios were higher than the live autotrophic ratios and above, or close to, the Redfield ratio. This is due to preferential remineralization of nutrients, and the P content mainly governed the difference between the sestonic fractions. Despite the seasonal variability in seston composition and the generally low contribution of autotrophic

  19. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  20. A Novel Linear Programming Formulation of Maximum Lifetime Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    protocols, and the energy model for transmission. In this paper, we tackle the routing challenge for maximum lifetime of the sensor network. We introduce a novel linear programming approach to the maximum lifetime routing problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mathematical programming...... of the maximum lifetime routing problem that considers the operation modes of the node. Solution of the linear programming gives the upper analytical bound for the network lifetime. In order to illustrate teh application of the optimization model, we solved teh problem for different parameter settings...

  1. INDDGO: Integrated Network Decomposition & Dynamic programming for Graph Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    It is well-known that dynamic programming algorithms can utilize tree decompositions to provide a way to solve some \\emph{NP}-hard problems on graphs where the complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes and edges in the graph, but exponential in the width of the underlying tree decomposition. However, there has been relatively little computational work done to determine the practical utility of such dynamic programming algorithms. We have developed software to construct tree decompositions using various heuristics and have created a fast, memory-efficient dynamic programming implementation for solving maximum weighted independent set. We describe our software and the algorithms we have implemented, focusing on memory saving techniques for the dynamic programming. We compare the running time and memory usage of our implementation with other techniques for solving maximum weighted independent set, including a commercial integer programming solver and a semi-definite programming solver. Our results indicate that it is possible to solve some instances where the underlying decomposition has width much larger than suggested by the literature. For certain types of problems, our dynamic programming code runs several times faster than these other methods.

  2. Effects of P addition on plant C:N:P stoichiometry in an N-limited temperate wetland of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Chen, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Shi, Fu-Xi; Song, Chang-Chun

    2016-07-15

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment induced by anthropogenic activities results in modified plant nutrient status, which potentially alters the stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and P in plants. However, how increased P availability changes plant C:N:P stoichiometry at different hierarchical scales is unclear in N-limited ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a four-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6gPm(-)(2)year(-1)) to elucidate the effect of P enrichment on plant C:N:P stoichiometric ratios at both the species and community levels in a freshwater wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We found that species- and community-level plant C:N:P stoichiometry responded consistently to six years of P addition, although there was a shift in species dominance. Phosphorus addition increased plant N and P concentrations and thus decreased C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios irrespective of the P addition levels. These similar change trends at different scales resulted from the identical responses of plant N and P concentrations in different species to P addition. Moreover, plant N concentration exhibited an increasing trend with increasing P addition levels, whereas plant C:N ratio showed a declining trend. At the community level, P addition at the rates of 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6gPm(-2)year(-1) decreased the C:N ratio by 24%, 27%, and 34%; decreased the C:P ratio by 33%, 35%, and 38%; and decreased the N:P ratio by 12%, 10%, and 6%, respectively. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric responses to P addition are scale-independent, and suggest that altered plant C:N:P stoichiometry induced by P enrichment would stimulate organic matter decomposition and accelerate nutrient cycles in N-limited temperate freshwater wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of C:N:P stoichiometry in affecting denitrification in sediments from agricultural surface and tile-water wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Grebliunas, Brian D.; Perry, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient stoichiometry within a wetland is affected by the surrounding land use, and may play a significant role in the removal of nitrate (NO3?N). Tile-drained, agricultural watersheds experience high seasonal inputs of NO3?N, but low phosphorus (PO4?P) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads relative to surface water dominated systems. This difference may present stoichiometric conditions that limit denitrification within receiving waterways. We investigated how C:N:P ratios affected denit...

  4. Evolving a Network of Networks: The Experience of Partnerships in the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Anderson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP was initiated in December 2000 when the U.S. Congress authorized the Library of Congress to work with a broad range of institutions to develop a national strategy for the preservation of at-risk digital content. Guided by a strategy of collaboration and iteration, the Library of Congress began the formation of a national network of partners dedicated to collecting and preserving important born-digital information. Over the last six years, the Library and its partners have been engaged in learning through action that has resulted in an evolving understanding of the most appropriate roles and functions for a national network of diverse stakeholders. The emerging network is complex and inclusive of a variety of stakeholders; content producers, content stewards and service providers from the public and private sectors. Lessons learned indicate that interoperability is a challenge in all aspects of collaborative work.

  5. An Agglomeration Law for Sorting Networks and its Application in Functional Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Immanuel Schiller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a general agglomeration law for sorting networks. Agglomeration is a common technique when designing parallel programmes to control the granularity of the computation thereby finding a better fit between the algorithm and the machine on which the algorithm runs. Usually this is done by grouping smaller tasks and computing them en bloc within one parallel process. In the case of sorting networks this could be done by computing bigger parts of the network with one process. The agglomeration law in this paper pursues a different strategy: The input data is grouped and the algorithm is generalized to work on the agglomerated input while the original structure of the algorithm remains. This will result in a new access opportunity to sorting networks well-suited for efficient parallelization on modern multicore computers, computer networks or GPGPU programming. Additionally this enables us to use sorting networks as (parallel or distributed merging stages for arbitrary sorting algorithms, thereby creating new hybrid sorting algorithms with ease. The expressiveness of functional programming languages helps us to apply this law to systematically constructed sorting networks, leading to efficient and easily adaptable sorting algorithms. An application example is given, using the Eden programming language to show the effectiveness of the law. The implementation is compared with different parallel sorting algorithms by runtime behaviour.

  6. Effects of taxonomy, sediment, and water column on C:N:P stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes in Yangtze floodplain shallow lakes, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haojie; Wu, Yao; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Cao, Te; Xia, Wulai

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the three most important essential elements limiting growth of primary producers. Submerged macrophytes generally absorb nutrients from sediments by root uptake. However, the C:N:P stoichiometric signatures of plant tissue are affected by many additional factors such as taxonomy, nutrient availability, and light availability. We first revealed the relative importance of taxonomy, sediment, and water column on plant C:N:P stoichiometry using variance partitioning based on partial redundancy analyses. Results showed that taxonomy was the most important factor in determining C:N:P stoichiometry, then the water column and finally the sediment. In this study, a significant positive relationship was found between community C concentration and macrophyte community biomass, indicating that the local low C availability in macrophytes probably was the main reason why submerged macrophytes declined in Yangtze floodplain shallow lakes. Based on our study, it is suggested that submerged macrophytes in Yangtze floodplain shallow lakes are primarily limited by low light levels rather than nutrient availability.

  7. C:N:P Stoichiometry and Leaf Traits of Halophytes in an Arid Saline Environment, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem. PMID:25798853

  8. Changing Social Networks Among Homeless Individuals: A Prospective Evaluation of a Job- and Life-Skills Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Paige M; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

    2016-10-01

    Social networks play important roles in mental and physical health among the general population. Building healthier social networks might contribute to the development of self-sufficiency among people struggling to overcome homelessness and substance use disorders. In this study of homeless adults completing a job- and life-skills program (i.e., the Moving Ahead Program at St. Francis House, Boston), we prospectively examined changes in social network quality, size, and composition. Among the sample of participants (n = 150), we observed positive changes in social network quality over time. However, social network size and composition did not change among the full sample. The subset of participants who reported abstaining from alcohol during the months before starting the program reported healthy changes in their social networks; specifically, while completing the program, they re-structured their social networks such that fewer members of their network used alcohol to intoxication. We discuss practical implications of these findings.

  9. Rehabilitation program for traumatic chronic cervical pain associated with unsteadiness: a single case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck problems are often recurring or chronic. After pain, unsteadiness and balance problems are among the most frequent symptoms reported by chronic neck pain (CNP patients. Altered sensorimotor control of the cervical spine and sensorimotor integration problems affecting postural control have been observed in CNP patients. Very few data are available regarding the post-intervention effects of rehabilitation programs on postural control in CNP. Case presentation This is a case study of a traumatic CNP patient (a 45-year old female with postural unsteadiness who participated in an 8-week rehabilitation program combining therapeutic exercises with spinal manipulative therapy. Pre-intervention data revealed that the postural control system was challenged when postural control sensory inputs were altered, particularly during the head-extended-backward condition. Post-intervention centre of pressure measurements indicated a drastic reduction in postural sway during trials with changes in neck orientation. Conclusion This case report indicates that an 8-week rehabilitation program combining therapeutic exercises with spinal manipulative therapy may have had an effect on improvement of postural control in a trauma CNP patient with unsteadiness. These results warrant further studies to investigate the relationships between pain amelioration, sensorimotor control of the cervical spine, muscle fitness and postural steadiness.

  10. Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve the constrained optimization problem in two phases. The first phase uses heuristic methods such as the ant colony method, particle swarming optimization, and genetic algorithm to seek a near optimal solution among a list of feasible initial populations. The final optimal solution can be found by using the solution of the first phase as the initial condition to the SQP algorithm. We demonstrate the above problem formulation and optimization schemes with a large-scale network that includes the DSN ground stations and a number of spacecraft of deep space missions.

  11. iOS and OS X network programming cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a recipe-based approach that will heavily focus on the code and how to integrate the samples with the reader's projects.Each recipe consists of one or more methods that you can put directly into your app and use.This book is ideal for developers that want to create network applications for the Apple OS X or iOS platforms. All examples are written in Objective-C using XCode as the IDE. Knowledge of Objective-C and X-Code is essential.

  12. Optimization with PDE constraints ESF networking program 'OPTPDE'

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book on PDE Constrained Optimization contains contributions on the mathematical analysis and numerical solution of constrained optimal control and optimization problems where a partial differential equation (PDE) or a system of PDEs appears as an essential part of the constraints. The appropriate treatment of such problems requires a fundamental understanding of the subtle interplay between optimization in function spaces and numerical discretization techniques and relies on advanced methodologies from the theory of PDEs and numerical analysis as well as scientific computing. The contributions reflect the work of the European Science Foundation Networking Programme ’Optimization with PDEs’ (OPTPDE).

  13. The interaction of social networks and child obesity prevention program effects: the pathways trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Valente, Thomas W; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Huh, Jimi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih-Ping; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Social network analysis was used to examine whether peer influence from one's social networks moderates obesity prevention program effects on obesity-related behaviors: healthful and unhealthful. Participants included 557 children residing in Southern California. The survey assessed health-promoting behaviors (i.e., physical activity at school, physical activity outside of school, and fruit and vegetable intake), as well as unhealthful behaviors (high-calorie, low-nutrient intake and sedentary activity), and peer exposure calculated from social network nominations as indicators of peer influence. Multilevel models were conducted separately on outcomes predicted by program participation, peer exposure, and program participation by peer exposure. Results indicated that peer exposure was positively associated with one's own healthful and unhealthful behaviors. Program participation effects were moderated by peer influence, but only when unhealthful peer influence was present. Results suggest that peer influence can diminish or amplify prevention programs Future interventions should consider peer-led components to promote healthful influence of peers on healthful and unhealthful behaviors, and programs should be mindful that their effects are moderated by social networks. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. OPTIMASI KONSENTRASI INOKULUM, RASIO C:N:P DAN pH PADA PROSES BIOREMEDIASI LIMBAH PENGILANGAN MINYAK BUMI MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syukria Ikhsan Zam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to obtain the best inoculum concentration, C:N:P ratio, and pH, and also to identify the ability of mixed culture of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in oil waste degradation. The isolats were used are Acinetobacter baumanni, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus sp1., Methylococcus capsulatus, Bacillus sp2., Morococcus sp., Pseudomonas diminuta, Xanthomonas albilineans, Bacillus cereus and Flavobacterium branchiophiia. Variation of inoculum concentrations were 10%, 15%, and 20% (v/v, C:N:P ratios were 100:10:1, 100:10:0,5, 100:5:1, and 100:5:0,5, and pH were 6,5, 7,0, 7,5. Observed parameters in optimization were Total Plate Count (TPC the culture every 24 hours, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD examined at the end of the bioremediation period. Best optimization result then analyzed with GC/MS. Optimization result indicated the best inoculum concentration was 10% with TPH degradation 61,79% and COD slope 61,75%. It is assumed that the low value of TPH degradation and COD slope at 15% and 20% inoculum concentration were caused by competition inside the bacterial population at that high inoculum concentration. The competition result in low growth and degradation. C:N:P ratio was 100:5:1 with TPH degradation 66,55% and COD slope 85,18%. It is assumed that the C:N:P ratio is equal, so it can enhance the bioremediation procces. The best pH was 7,5 with TPH degradation 73,24% and COD slope 86,28%. The process at the optimum conditions using inoculum as a mixed culture enhanced the bioremediation process with the result as follows, TPH degradation 93,06%, COD 90,73% for treatment. The chromatogram indicated that total hydrocarbon compound from nC9 – nC32 have been degraded by 43,413% – 63,117%. A good result of bioremediation was obtained from mixed culture inoculum at 10% concentration, C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1, and pH 7,5.

  15. Networks Analysis of a Regional Ecosystem of Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha G.; Smith, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Case studies have documented the impact of family-school-community collaboration in afterschool programs on increasing awareness about the problems of at-risk youth, initiating dialogue among leaders and community representatives, developing rich school-based information systems, and demonstrating how to build strong relationships between public…

  16. The nitrogen footprint tool network: a multi-institution program ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper uses the nitrogen footprint tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and the upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions to institution N footprints, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals. In this paper, the first seven institution N footprint results are presented. The institution NFT network aims to develop footprints for many institutions to encourage widespread upper-level management strategies that will create significant reductions in reactive N released to the environment. Energy use and food purchases are the two largest contributors to institution N footprints. Ongoing efforts by institutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also help to reduce the N footprint, but the impact of food production on N pollution has not been directly addressed by the higher-ed sustainability community. The NFT Network found that institutions could reduce their N footprints by optimizing food purchasing to reduce consumption of animal products and minimize food waste, as well as reducing dependence o

  17. Implementation of a primary care physician network obesity management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, S; Bellman, M; Saltsman, P; Garvey, D; Pimstone, K; Skootsky, S; Wang, H J; Elashoff, R; Heber, D

    2001-11-01

    Most primary care physicians do not treat obesity, citing lack of time, resources, insurance reimbursement, and knowledge of effective interventions as significant barriers. To address this need, a 10-minute intervention delivered by the primary care physician was coupled with individual dietary counseling sessions delivered by a registered dietitian via telephone with an automated calling system (House-Calls, Mobile, AL). Patients were seen for follow-up by their physician at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 52. A total of 252 patients (202 women and 50 men) were referred by 18 primary care physicians to the program. The comorbid conditions reported for all patients at baseline included low back pain, 29% (n = 72); hypertension, 45% (n = 113); hypercholesterolemia, 41% (n = 104); type 2 diabetes, 10% (n = 26); and sleep apnea, 5% (n = 12). When offered a choice of meal plans based on foods or meal replacements, two-thirds of patients (n = 166) chose to use meal replacements (Ultra Slim-Fast; Slim-Fast Foods Co., West Palm Beach, FL) at least once daily. Baseline weights of subjects averaged 200 +/- 46 lb for women (n = 202) and 237 +/- 45 lb for men (n = 50). Patients completing 6 months in the program lost an average of 19.0 +/- 4.0 lb for women (n = 94) and 15.5 +/- 8.2 lb for men (n = 26). Physicians reported a high degree of satisfaction with the program, suggesting that a brief, effective physician-directed program with nutritionist support by telephone can be implemented in a busy primary care office.

  18. A mixed-integer linear programming approach to the reduction of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, Annika; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2017-01-03

    Constraint-based analysis has become a widely used method to study metabolic networks. While some of the associated algorithms can be applied to genome-scale network reconstructions with several thousands of reactions, others are limited to small or medium-sized models. In 2015, Erdrich et al. introduced a method called NetworkReducer, which reduces large metabolic networks to smaller subnetworks, while preserving a set of biological requirements that can be specified by the user. Already in 2001, Burgard et al. developed a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach for computing minimal reaction sets under a given growth requirement. Here we present an MILP approach for computing minimum subnetworks with the given properties. The minimality (with respect to the number of active reactions) is not guaranteed by NetworkReducer, while the method by Burgard et al. does not allow specifying the different biological requirements. Our procedure is about 5-10 times faster than NetworkReducer and can enumerate all minimum subnetworks in case there exist several ones. This allows identifying common reactions that are present in all subnetworks, and reactions appearing in alternative pathways. Applying complex analysis methods to genome-scale metabolic networks is often not possible in practice. Thus it may become necessary to reduce the size of the network while keeping important functionalities. We propose a MILP solution to this problem. Compared to previous work, our approach is more efficient and allows computing not only one, but even all minimum subnetworks satisfying the required properties.

  19. Computing Assortative Mixing by Degree with the s-Metric in Networks Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens J. Waldorp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of assortative mixing by degree in networks indicates whether nodes with similar degree are connected to each other. In networks with scale-free distribution high values of assortative mixing by degree can be an indication of a hub-like core in networks. Degree correlation has generally been used to measure assortative mixing of a network. But it has been shown that degree correlation cannot always distinguish properly between different networks with nodes that have the same degrees. The so-called s-metric has been shown to be a better choice to calculate assortative mixing. The s-metric is normalized with respect to the class of networks without self-loops, multiple edges, and multiple components, while degree correlation is always normalized with respect to unrestricted networks, where self-loops, multiple edges, and multiple components are allowed. The challenge in computing the normalized s-metric is in obtaining the minimum and maximum value within a specific class of networks. We show that this can be solved by using linear programming. We use Lagrangian relaxation and the subgradient algorithm to obtain a solution to the s-metric problem. Several examples are given to illustrate the principles and some simulations indicate that the solutions are generally accurate.

  20. Space-based Networking Technology Developments in the Interplanetary Network Directorate Information Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren; Clement, B.; Gao, J.; Hutcherson, J.; Jennings, E.

    2006-01-01

    Described recent development of communications protocols, services, and associated tools targeted to reduce risk, reduce cost and increase efficiency of IND infrastructure and supported mission operations. Space-based networking technologies developed were: a) Provide differentiated quality of service (QoS) that will give precedence to traffic that users have selected as having the greatest importance and/or time-criticality; b) Improve the total value of information to users through the use of QoS prioritization techniques; c) Increase operational flexibility and improve command-response turnaround; d) Enable new class of networked and collaborative science missions; e) Simplify applications interfaces to communications services; and f) Reduce risk and cost from a common object model and automated scheduling and communications protocols. Technologies are described in three general areas: communications scheduling, middleware, and protocols. Additionally developed simulation environment, which provides comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the technologies performance within overall, evolving architecture, as well as ability to refine & optimize specific components.

  1. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  2. Automatic construction of image inspection algorithm by using image processing network programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuichiro; Aoki, Kimiya

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for automatic programming of inspection image processing. In the industrial field, automatic program generators or expert systems are expected to shorten a period required for developing a new appearance inspection system. So-called "image processing expert system" have been studied for over the nearly 30 years. We are convinced of the need to adopt a new idea. Recently, a novel type of evolutionary algorithms, called genetic network programming (GNP), has been proposed. In this study, we use GNP as a method to create an inspection image processing logic. GNP develops many directed graph structures, and shows excellent ability of formulating complex problems. We have converted this network program model to Image Processing Network Programming (IPNP). IPNP selects an appropriate image processing command based on some characteristics of input image data and processing log, and generates a visual inspection software with series of image processing commands. It is verified from experiments that the proposed method is able to create some inspection image processing programs. In the basic experiment with 200 test images, the success rate of detection of target region was 93.5%.

  3. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the principle of complexity management as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model developed within the project.

  4. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the Principle of Complexity Management (PCM as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model (DMM developed within the project.

  5. A dynamic programming approach to missing data estimation using neural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelwamondo, FV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and presents a novel technique for missing data estimation using a combination of dynamic programming, neural networks and genetic algorithms (GA) on suitable subsets of the input data. The method proposed here is well suited...

  6. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  7. Networked Timetable Stability Improvement Based on a Bilevel Optimization Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelei Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train timetable stability is the possibility to recover the status of the trains to serve as arranged according to the original timetable when the trains are disturbed. To improve the train timetable stability from the network perspective, the bilevel programming model is constructed, in which the upper level programming is to optimize the timetable stability on the network level and the lower is to improve the timetable stability on the dispatching railway segments. Timetable stability on the network level is defined with the variances of the utilization coefficients of the section capacity and station capacity. Weights of stations and sections are decided by the capacity index number and the degrees. The lower level programming focuses on the buffer time distribution plan of the trains operating on the sections and stations, taking the operating rules of the trains as constraints. A novel particle swarm algorithm is proposed and designed for the bilevel programming model. The computing case proves the feasibility of the model and the efficiency of the algorithm. The method outlined in this paper can be embedded in the networked train operation dispatching system.

  8. A program for the Bayesian Neural Network in the ROOT framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiahang; Huang, Run-Sheng; Lee, Shih-Chang

    2011-12-01

    We present a Bayesian Neural Network algorithm implemented in the TMVA package (Hoecker et al., 2007 [1]), within the ROOT framework (Brun and Rademakers, 1997 [2]). Comparing to the conventional utilization of Neural Network as discriminator, this new implementation has more advantages as a non-parametric regression tool, particularly for fitting probabilities. It provides functionalities including cost function selection, complexity control and uncertainty estimation. An example of such application in High Energy Physics is shown. The algorithm is available with ROOT release later than 5.29. Program summaryProgram title: TMVA-BNN Catalogue identifier: AEJX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5094 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1,320,987 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer system or cluster with C++ compiler and UNIX-like operating system Operating system: Most UNIX/Linux systems. The application programs were thoroughly tested under Fedora and Scientific Linux CERN. Classification: 11.9 External routines: ROOT package version 5.29 or higher ( http://root.cern.ch) Nature of problem: Non-parametric fitting of multivariate distributions Solution method: An implementation of Neural Network following the Bayesian statistical interpretation. Uses Laplace approximation for the Bayesian marginalizations. Provides the functionalities of automatic complexity control and uncertainty estimation. Running time: Time consumption for the training depends substantially on the size of input sample, the NN topology, the number of training iterations, etc. For the example in this manuscript, about 7 min was used on a PC/Linux with 2.0 GHz processors.

  9. Exploring knowledge processes based on teacher research in a school-university research network of a master's program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof dr Theo Bergen; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; dr Frank Cornelissen; Dr. Jacqueline van Swet

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. Outcomes indicate that use of existing network structures in master's programs is complex, but could be a promising avenue for creating succesful school-university

  10. Cisco Networking Academy Program for high school students: Formative & summative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford-Wesley, Deanne

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are

  11. [Effects of acupuncture on ANP and CNP in adrenal gland and CORT in plasma in rats with chronic emotional stress anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Wei, Daneng; Cai, Dingjun; Yu, Shuguang; Zhang, Chengshun; Wei, Jingjin; Xiao, Xia; Zhou, Qizhi

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the effects of acupuncture on the level of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in adrenal gland and the content of corticosterone (CORT) in plasma in rats withchronic emotional stress anxiety, and to explore the partial action mechanism of acupuncture on anxiety disorder. Thirty-two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, after 7 days of feeding and domestication, were randomly divided into a blank group (10 rats), a model group (11 rats) and an acupuncture group (11 rats). The rats inthe model group and acupuncture group were treated with unpredictable chronic emotional stress (CES) method toestablish the model of anxiety. Rats in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at "Neiguan" (PC 6)and "Shenmen" (HT 7), once every other day, 30 minutes each time. The model establishment and treatment lasted 15 days. Rats in the blank group were treated with identical immobilization but no treatment was given. Theelevated plus maze was used to test the behavioral changes of rats with anxiety; the level of CORT in plasma wasdetected by ELISA, and the expression level of CNP and ANP in adrenal cortex and medulla was detected by immunohistochemical method. (1) The percentage of open-arms time in total time (OT%) in elevated plus maze in the model group was significantly lower than that in the blank group (PANP in adrenal medulla and cortex in the model group was lower than that in the blank group (PANP and CNP in adrenal medulla, affecting the release of CORT and inhibition on the activity !f hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis).

  12. Measurement of the 12C(n,p)12B cross section at n_TOF at CERN by in-beam activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žugec, P.; Colonna, N.; Bosnar, D.; Mengoni, A.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Musumarra, A.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; n TOF Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The integral cross section of the 12C(n,p)12B reaction has been determined for the first time in the neutron energy range from threshold to several GeV at the n_TOF facility at CERN. The measurement relies on the activation technique with the β decay of 12B measured over a period of four half-lives within the same neutron bunch in which the reaction occurs. The results indicate that model predictions, used in a variety of applications, are mostly inadequate. The value of the integral cross section reported here can be used as a benchmark for verifying or tuning model calculations.

  13. Measurement of the $^{12}$C($n,p$)$^{12}$B cross section at n_TOF (CERN) by in-beam activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Žugec, P.; Bosnar, D.; Mengoni, A.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D.G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L.S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Musumarra, A.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2014-01-01

    The integral cross section of the $^{12}$C($n,p$)$^{12}$B reaction has been determined for the first time in the neutron energy range from threshold to several GeV at the n_TOF facility at CERN. The measurement relies on the activation technique, with the $\\beta$-decay of $^{12}$B measured over a period of four half-lives within the same neutron bunch in which the reaction occurs. The results indicate that model predictions, used in a variety of applications, are mostly inadequate. The value of the integral cross section reported here can be used as a benchmark for verifying or tuning model calculations.

  14. Research on e-commerce transaction networks using multi-agent modelling and open application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunhui; Han, Xufang; Wu, Harris

    2010-08-01

    We provide a formal definition of an e-commerce transaction network. Agent-based modelling is used to simulate e-commerce transaction networks. For real-world analysis, we studied the open application programming interfaces (APIs) from eBay and Taobao e-commerce websites and captured real transaction data. Pajek is used to visualise the agent relationships in the transaction network. We derived one-mode networks from the transaction network and analysed them using degree and betweenness centrality. Integrating multi-agent modelling, open APIs and social network analysis, we propose a new way to study large-scale e-commerce systems.

  15. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Overview of Aro Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    This program brings together researchers from disparate disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, not only are new and rewarding solutions sought and obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that is, the human dimension of complex networks, but, in addition, collaborations are established that would not otherwise have formed given the traditional disciplinary compartmentalization of research. This program develops the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the physical and human (cognitive and social) domains as they relate to human decision making. The strategy is to extend the recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes that appear to be characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. We also pursue understanding of the phenomenon of synchronization, whose mathematical formulation has recently provided insight into how complex networks reach accommodation and cooperation. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require computer simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process.

  17. The spectral positioning algorithm of new spectrum vehicle based on convex programming in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Lu, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Spectrum resources are very precious, so it is increasingly important to locate interference signals rapidly. Convex programming algorithms in wireless sensor networks are often used as localization algorithms. But in view of the traditional convex programming algorithm is too much overlap of wireless sensor nodes that bring low positioning accuracy, the paper proposed a new algorithm. Which is mainly based on the traditional convex programming algorithm, the spectrum car sends unmanned aerial vehicles (uses) that can be used to record data periodically along different trajectories. According to the probability density distribution, the positioning area is segmented to further reduce the location area. Because the algorithm only increases the communication process of the power value of the unknown node and the sensor node, the advantages of the convex programming algorithm are basically preserved to realize the simple and real-time performance. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has a better positioning accuracy than the original convex programming algorithm.

  18. Object-Oriented NeuroSys: Parallel Programs for Simulating Large Networks of Biologically Accurate Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, P; Miller, P; Kim, J; Leese, T; Zabiyaka, Y

    2003-05-07

    Object-oriented NeuroSys (ooNeuroSys) is a collection of programs for simulating very large networks of biologically accurate neurons on distributed memory parallel computers. It includes two principle programs: ooNeuroSys, a parallel program for solving the large systems of ordinary differential equations arising from the interconnected neurons, and Neurondiz, a parallel program for visualizing the results of ooNeuroSys. Both programs are designed to be run on clusters and use the MPI library to obtain parallelism. ooNeuroSys also includes an easy-to-use Python interface. This interface allows neuroscientists to quickly develop and test complex neuron models. Both ooNeuroSys and Neurondiz have a design that allows for both high performance and relative ease of maintenance.

  19. Can social networking be used to promote engagement in child maltreatment prevention programs? Two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents' use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors for maltreatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially beneficial supplement for future parents enrolling in parenting programs.

  20. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1997-04-01

    This article presents a survey of the principal efforts of the DSN Advanced Systems Program and its impact upon the operational Deep Space Network from about 1960 to 1995. The article is structured along two main themes. First is a tour of the fundamental services provided by the Network and the physical elements and technologies that support these services. The second theme is presented as a series of focused case histories of changes inspired by specific missions, such as Galileo, Voyager, or Mariner{Venus{Mercury, or by specific technologies, such as the application of fiber optics. A bibliographic entree to a substantial body of other reading material also is provided.

  1. Path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks: a nonlinear programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. E.; Ott, Teunis J.; de Kock, Johan M.; Krzesinski, Anthony E.

    2001-07-01

    Multi-protocol Label Switching extends the IPv4 destination-based routing protocols to provide new and scalable routing capabilities in connectionless networks using relatively simple packet forwarding mechanisms. MPLS networks carry traffic on virtual connections called label switched paths. This paper considers path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks in order to optimize the network quality of service. The optimization is based upon the minimization of a non-linear objective function which under light load simplifies to OSPF routing with link metrics equal to the link propagation delays. The behavior under heavy load depends on the choice of certain parameters: It can essentially be made to minimize maximal expected utilization, or to maximize minimal expected weighted slacks (both over all links). Under certain circumstances it can be made to minimize the probability that a link has an instantaneous offered load larger than its transmission capacity. We present a model of an MPLS network and an algorithm to find and capacitate optimal LSPs. The algorithm is an improvement of the well-known flow deviation non-linear programming method. The algorithm is applied to compute optimal LSPs for several test networks carrying a single traffic class.

  2. Outcomes from the GLEON fellowship program. Training graduate students in data driven network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, H.; Hanson, P. C.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the water sciences there is a massive need for graduate students who possess the analytical and technical skills to deal with large datasets and function in the new paradigm of open, collaborative -science. The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) graduate fellowship program (GFP) was developed as an interdisciplinary training program to supplement the intensive disciplinary training of traditional graduate education. The primary goal of the GFP was to train a diverse cohort of graduate students in network science, open-web technologies, collaboration, and data analytics, and importantly to provide the opportunity to use these skills to conduct collaborative research resulting in publishable scientific products. The GFP is run as a series of three week-long workshops over two years that brings together a cohort of twelve students. In addition, fellows are expected to attend and contribute to at least one international GLEON all-hands' meeting. Here, we provide examples of training modules in the GFP (model building, data QA/QC, information management, bayesian modeling, open coding/version control, national data programs), as well as scientific outputs (manuscripts, software products, and new global datasets) produced by the fellows, as well as the process by which this team science was catalyzed. Data driven education that lets students apply learned skills to real research projects reinforces concepts, provides motivation, and can benefit their publication record. This program design is extendable to other institutions and networks.

  3. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex

  4. Final technical report DOE award DE-SC0007206 Improving CESM Efficiency to Study Variable C:N:P Stoichiometry in the Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, Francois William [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    This report lists the accomplishments of the project, which includes: (1) analysis of inorganic nutrient concentration data as well as suspended particulate organic matter data in the ocean to demonstrate that the carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (C:N:P) of biological uptake and export vary on large spatial scales, (2) the development of a new computationally efficient method for simulating biogeochemical tracers in earth system models, (3) the application of the method to help calibrate an improved representation of dissolved organic matter in the ocean that includes variable C:N:P stoichiometry. This research is important because biological uptake of carbon and nutrients in the upper ocean and export by sinking particles and downward mixing of dissolved organic matter helps maintain a vertical gradient in the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean. This gradient is key to understanding the partitioning of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. The final report lists seven peer reviewed scientific publications, one Ph.D. thesis, one technical report and two papers in preparation.

  5. El Consejo Nacional de la Publicidad (CNP. La “voz” empresarial mexicana en tiempos no democráticos (1959-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgina Sosa Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El Consejo Nacional de la Publicidad (cnp, antecedente del Consejo de la Comunicación (cc, es un organismo del sector empresarial que se fundó en 1959 y que aglutinaba a los empresarios dedicados a la publicidad. Entre ese año y el 2000, generó y difundió 49 campañas publicitarias que reflejaban su visión del país e indicaban, de una manera medianamente clara, su relación con el gobierno en turno. En este artículo me propongo estudiar la acción del cnp a través de estas campañas, teniendo en cuenta que se gestaron en un contexto anterior a la democracia (primero autoritario, después en transición a la democracia. Hago una revisión de algunos de los mensajes más importantes que transmitió el Consejo a partir de su vínculo con el contexto a fin de establecer cuál era su lectura que los empresarios hacían de la coyuntura específica por la que atravesaban.

  6. The role of C:N:P stoichiometry in affecting denitrification in sediments from agricultural surface and tile-water wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebliunas, Brian D; Perry, William L

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient stoichiometry within a wetland is affected by the surrounding land use, and may play a significant role in the removal of nitrate (NO3-N). Tile-drained, agricultural watersheds experience high seasonal inputs of NO3-N, but low phosphorus (PO4-P) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads relative to surface water dominated systems. This difference may present stoichiometric conditions that limit denitrification within receiving waterways. We investigated how C:N:P ratios affected denitrification rates of sediments from tile-drained mitigation wetlands incubated for: 0, 5, 10, and 20 days. We then tested whether denitrification rates of sediments from surface-water and tile-drained wetlands responded differently to C:N ratios of 2:1 versus 4:1. Ratios of C:N:P (P wetland sediments. Carbon limitation of denitrification became evident at elevated NO3-N concentrations (20 mg L(-1)). Denitrification measured from tile water and surface water wetland sediments increased significantly (P wetland sediments provide a limiting pool of labile DOC to maintain prolonged NO3-N removal. Also, DOC limitation became more evident at elevated NO3-N concentrations (20 mg L(-1)). Irrespective of NO3-N concentrations, P did not limit denitrification rates. In addition to wetting period, residence time, and maintenance of anaerobic conditions, the availability of labile DOC is playing an important limiting role in sediment denitrification within mitigation wetlands.

  7. On the relationship between logical Bayesian networks and probabilistic logic programming based on the distribution semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Fierens, Daan

    2009-01-01

    A significant part of current research on (inductive) logic programming deals with probabilistic logical models. Over the last decade many logics or languages for representing such models have been introduced. There is currently a great need for insight into the relationships between all these languages. One kind of languages are those that extend probabilistic models with elements of logic, such as the language of Logical Bayesian Networks (LBNs). Some other languages follow the converse str...

  8. Recruitment of Underrepresented Minority Researchers into HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica L.; Griffith, Sam B.; Jennings, Larissa; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wheeler, Darrell

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the U.S. epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12–18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data. Participation in scientific committees, trainings, protocol teams, and advisory groups was facilitated, followed by evaluative exit surveys. Twenty-six trainees have produced 17 peer-reviewed articles to date. Research topics typically explored health disparities and HIV prevention among black and Hispanic MSM and at-risk black women. Most scholars (81% in the first five cohorts) continued HIV research after program completion. Alumni reported program-related career benefits and subsequent funding successes. Their feedback also suggested that we must improve the scholars' abilities to engage new research protocols that are developed within the network. Mentored engagement can nurture the professional development of young researchers from racial/ethnic and sexual minority communities. Minority scientists can benefit from training and mentoring within research consortia, whereas the network research benefits from perspectives of underrepresented minority scientists. PMID:29145745

  9. NHLBI family blood pressure program: methodology and recruitment in the HyperGEN network. Hypertension genetic epidemiology network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R R; Rao, D C; Ellison, R C; Arnett, D K; Heiss, G; Oberman, A; Eckfeldt, J H; Leppert, M F; Province, M A; Mockrin, S C; Hunt, S C

    2000-08-01

    Hypertension is a common precursor of serious disorders including stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and renal failure in whites and to a greater extent in African Americans. Large genetic-epidemiological studies of hypertension are needed to gain information that will improve future methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hypertension, a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We report successful implementation of a new structure of research collaboration involving four NHLBI "Networks," coordinated under the Family Blood Pressure Program. The Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) involves scientists from six universities and the NHLBI who seek to identify and characterize genes promoting hypertension. Blood samples and clinical data were projected to be collected from a sample of 2244 hypertensive siblings diagnosed before age 60 from 960 sibships (half African-American) with two or more affected persons. Nonparametric sibship linkage analysis of over one million genotype determinations (20 candidate loci and 387 anonymous marker loci) was projected to have sufficient power for detecting genetic loci promoting hypertension. For loci showing evidence for linkage in this study and for loci reported linked or associated with hypertension by other groups, genotypes are compared in hypertensive cases versus population-based controls to identify or confirm genetic variants associated with hypertension. For some of these genetic variants associated with hypertension, detailed physiological and biochemical characterization of untreated adult offspring carriers versus non-carriers may help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms that promote hypertension. The projected sample size of 2244 hypertensive participants was surpassed, as 2407 hypertensive individuals (1262 African-Americans and 1145 whites) from 917 sibships were examined. Detailed consent forms were designed to offer participants

  10. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Nathan J; Robinson, Priscilla; Phillip, Maneesh

    2012-07-19

    In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India and other developing world countries.

  11. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  12. A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.

  13. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  14. A facilitated peer mentoring program for junior faculty to promote professional development and peer networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Geoffrey M; Simmons, Jill H; Xu, Meng; Gesell, Sabina B; Brown, Rebekah F; Cutrer, William B; Gigante, Joseph; Cooper, William O

    2015-06-01

    To explore the design, implementation, and efficacy of a faculty development program in a cohort of early career junior faculty. Interested junior faculty members were divided into interdisciplinary small groups led by senior faculty facilitators. The groups met monthly for 1.5 hours to review a modular curriculum from 2011 to 2013. Using a survey at two time points (September 2011 and 2013) and an interim program evaluation, the authors collected data on participants' demographics, faculty interconnectedness, and self-reported knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) in the domains of professional development and scholarship, including the ability to write career goals and align activities with those goals. A total of 104 junior faculty participated in the program. They demonstrated changes in self-reported KSA in the domains of professional development (P = .013, P = .001) and scholarship (P = .038, P = .015) with an increase in ability to write career goals (P < .001), ability to align activities with those goals (P < .001), and number of and amount of time spent pursuing activities related to those goals (P = .022). These changes were more significant among female faculty and were not affected by academic rank or time since last training. Interconnectedness among faculty increased during the period of study-the number of nodes and ties between nodes within the network increased. This facilitated peer mentoring program for junior faculty was effective in improving the KSA necessary to promote early career advancement and peer networking, especially for women.

  15. Sustaining Employability: A Process for Introducing Cloud Computing, Big Data, Social Networks, Mobile Programming and Cybersecurity into Academic Curricula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razvan Bologa; Ana-Ramona Lupu; Catalin Boja; Tiberiu Marian Georgescu

    2017-01-01

    ... curricula of business students: cloud computing, big data, mobile programming, and social networks and cybersecurity (CAMSS). The results are useful for those trying to implement similar curricular reforms, or to companies that need to manage talent pipelines.

  16. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-19

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  17. Functional model of the system promotion affiliate program in partner networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Сергійович Міроненко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of business processes in promoting affiliate programs in the advertisement network has been done. Processes are considered according to the IDEF0 methodology. The viewpoints of advertisers, webmasters and marketers greatly experienced in affiliate marketing have been taken into account. A virtual company and the business process in it (affiliate program publication and selection, comparative analysis of the affiliate program, advertisement program start, summing up and effectiveness analysis of the affiliate programis the subject of the research. The basic and additional characteristics of the affiliate program must be considered for its effective promotion. The basic characteristics are: description, the main goal, advertiser’s commission for successful operations, test period duration, type of traffic, advertisement materials, targeting. The additional characteristics are: rated online resource, which provides goods or services as compared to the analogues, ranking by country, ranking by category, time spent on making up the internet website, number of the online resource pages, the percentage of visitors who leave the website directly at the entrance page or look through not more than one site, the visitors country of residence, the source of the traffic used by the visitors, the keywords, from which the social networking resources visitors come, interests of the visitors, Internet resources analogues, relating to Internet resource Mobile Apps. The criteria of evaluation the effectiveness of affiliate programs and advertising in general have been introduced: effective number of visitors (visitor becomes effective after the goal, an action, target number of the visitors, costs of advertising, conversion, profit and return on investment

  18. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  19. Exploratory Analysis of the Social Network of Researchers in Inductive Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrač, Nada; Grčar, Miha; Fortuna, Blaž; Velardi, Paola

    In this chapter, we present selected techniques for social network analysis and text mining and interpret the results of exploratory analysis of the social network of researchers in inductive logic programming (ILP), based on the ILP scientific publications database collected within the ILPnet2 project. Part of the analysis was performed with the Pajek software for large (social) network analyses, where the central entity of the analysis was the author, related to other authors by coauthorship links, weighted by the number of his or her publications registered in the ILPnet2 database. The chapter presents also a novel methodology for topic ontology learning from text documents. The proposed methodology, named OntoTermExtraction (Term Extraction for Ontology learning), is based on OntoGen, a semiautomated tool for topic ontology construction, upgraded by using an advanced terminology extraction tool in an iterative, semiautomated ontology construction process. The approach was successfully used for generating the ontology of topics in Inductive Logic Programming, learned semiautomatically from papers indexed in the ILPnet2 publications database.

  20. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  1. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometry in late-season rice under different water and nitrogen managements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Ye

    Full Text Available Water and nitrogen availability plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of essential elements, such as carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal changes of C, N and P concentrations, accumulation, partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in different plant tissues (root, stem-leaf, and panicle of late-season rice under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding, CF; alternate wetting and drying, AWD and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea at 240 kg N ha(-1, UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer at 240 kg N ha(-1, BBF; polymer-coated urea at 240 kg N ha(-1, PCU. We found that water and N treatments had remarkable effects on the measured parameters in different plant tissues after transplanting, but the water and N interactions had insignificant effects. Tissue C:N, N:P and C:P ratios ranged from 14.6 to 52.1, 3.1 to 7.8, and 76.9 to 254.3 over the rice growing seasons, respectively. The root and stem-leaf C:N:P and panicle C:N ratios showed overall uptrends with a peak at harvest whereas the panicle N:P and C:P ratios decreased from filling to harvest. The AWD treatment did not affect the concentrations and accumulation of tissue C and N, but greatly decreased those of P, resulting in enhanced N:P and C:P ratios. N fertilization significantly increased tissue N concentration, slightly enhanced tissue P concentration, but did not affect tissue C concentration, leading to a significant increase in tissue N:P ratio but a decrease in C:N and C:P ratios. Our results suggested that the growth of rice in the Taihu Lake region was co-limited by N and P. These findings broadened our understanding of the responses of plant C:N:P stoichiometry to simultaneous water and N managements in subtropical high-yielding rice systems.

  2. An Evaluation of the Mississippi Recipes for Success Program from the Perspective of Child Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chelsea; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee; Carithers, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Mississippi Recipes for Success (MRS), a customizable selective menu system resource, was developed for child nutrition program (CNP) directors to comply with USDA nutrition regulations. The resource is available in printed and online formats and includes recipes, menu matrixes, food safety, and training materials for meal…

  3. Drainage network extraction from a high-resolution DEM using parallel programming in the .NET Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ye, Aizhong; Gan, Yanjun; You, Jinjun; Duan, Qinyun; Ma, Feng; Hou, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used to extract high-accuracy prerequisite drainage networks. A higher resolution represents a larger number of grids. With an increase in the number of grids, the flow direction determination will require substantial computer resources and computing time. Parallel computing is a feasible method with which to resolve this problem. In this paper, we proposed a parallel programming method within the .NET Framework with a C# Compiler in a Windows environment. The basin is divided into sub-basins, and subsequently the different sub-basins operate on multiple threads concurrently to calculate flow directions. The method was applied to calculate the flow direction of the Yellow River basin from 3 arc-second resolution SRTM DEM. Drainage networks were extracted and compared with HydroSHEDS river network to assess their accuracy. The results demonstrate that this method can calculate the flow direction from high-resolution DEMs efficiently and extract high-precision continuous drainage networks.

  4. The Comprehensive Cancer Care Network of Romagna: the opportunities generated by the OECI accreditation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Valentina; Bernabini, Marna; Zani, Chiara; Altini, Mattia; Amadori, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS is a public-private partnership among 3 public sector bodies and 6 private nonprofit organizations and represents the hub of the Oncology Network of Romagna, which provides a wide range of services for the population ranging from primary prevention to palliative care. In 2012, IRST took part in the ministerial research project of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation program for Comprehensive Cancer Centers. The self-assessment period lasted 6 months and was coordinated by a multidisciplinary project team headed by a project leader. Each project team member coordinated a subgroup whose task was to analyze specific standards from qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. During the self-assessment period for the areas in which IRST did not meet OECI requirements, the project team outlined several improvement plans. At the end of the self-assessment period, the OECI Accreditation & Designation Board approved the documentation presented by IRST and a peer review visit was scheduled. The OECI report suggested establishing a more specific and stronger centralized management and leadership of all the oncologic activities carried out in other centers. In accordance with these suggestions, IRST and the Local Health Authority of Romagna laid the foundations for a new management model for the Oncology Network of Romagna: the Comprehensive Cancer Care Network (CCCN). The CCCN is a territory-oriented model (population approach) based on a principle of cooperation and collaboration among the network nodes.

  5. Community structure detection for overlapping modules through mathematical programming in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bennett

    Full Text Available Community structure detection has proven to be important in revealing the underlying properties of complex networks. The standard problem, where a partition of disjoint communities is sought, has been continually adapted to offer more realistic models of interactions in these systems. Here, a two-step procedure is outlined for exploring the concept of overlapping communities. First, a hard partition is detected by employing existing methodologies. We then propose a novel mixed integer non linear programming (MINLP model, known as OverMod, which transforms disjoint communities to overlapping. The procedure is evaluated through its application to protein-protein interaction (PPI networks of the rat, E. coli, yeast and human organisms. Connector nodes of hard partitions exhibit topological and functional properties indicative of their suitability as candidates for multiple module membership. OverMod identifies two types of connector nodes, inter and intra-connector, each with their own particular characteristics pertaining to their topological and functional role in the organisation of the network. Inter-connector proteins are shown to be highly conserved proteins participating in pathways that control essential cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and their differences with intra-connectors is highlighted. Many of these proteins are shown to possess multiple roles of distinct nature through their participation in different network modules, setting them apart from proteins that are simply 'hubs', i.e. proteins with many interaction partners but with a more specific biochemical role.

  6. The Atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers, currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  7. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    . The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field...... problem to be strongly NP-hard. A benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network is presented. The design of the benchmark suite is discussed in relation to industry standards, business rules, and mathematical programming. The data are based on real......-life data from the largest global liner-shipping company, Maersk Line, and supplemented by data from several industry and public stakeholders. Computational results yielding the first best known solutions for six of the seven benchmark instances is provided using a heuristic combining tabu search...

  8. Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) Relaxation Based Optimal Power Flow with Hybrid VSC-HVDC Transmission and Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    The detailed topology of renewable resource bases may have the impact on the optimal power flow of the VSC-HVDC transmission network. To address this issue, this paper develops an optimal power flow with the hybrid VSC-HVDC transmission and active distribution networks to optimally schedule...... the generation output and voltage regulation of both networks, which leads to a non-convex programming model. Furthermore, the non-convex power flow equations are based on the Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) relaxation approach. Thus, the proposed model can be relaxed to a SOCP that can be tractably solved...

  9. TEXTNN—A MATLAB program for textural classification using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Emilson Pereira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2009-10-01

    A new MATLAB code that provides tools to perform classification of textural images for applications in the geosciences is presented in this paper. The program, here coined as textural neural network (TEXTNN), comprises the computation of variogram maps in the frequency domain for specific lag distances in the neighborhood of a pixel. The result is then converted back to spatial domain, where directional or omni-directional semivariograms are extracted. Feature vectors are built with textural information composed of semivariance values at these lag distances and, moreover, with histogram measures of mean, standard deviation and weighted-rank fill ratio. This procedure is applied to a selected group of pixels or to all pixels in an image using a moving window. A feed-forward back-propagation neural network can then be designed and trained on feature vectors of predefined classes (training set). The training phase minimizes the mean-squared error on the training set. Additionally, at each iteration, the mean-squared error for every validation is assessed and a test set is evaluated. The program also calculates contingency matrices, global accuracy and kappa coefficient for the training, validation and test sets, allowing a quantitative appraisal of the predictive power of the neural network models. The interpreter is able to select the best model obtained from a k-fold cross-validation or to use a unique split-sample dataset for classification of all pixels in a given textural image. The performance of the algorithms and the end-user program were tested using synthetic images, orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (RADARSAT) imagery for oil-seepage detection, and airborne, multi-polarized SAR imagery for geologic mapping, and the overall results are considered quite positive.

  10. A Biobjective and Trilevel Programming Model for Hub Location Problem in Design of a Resilient Power Projection Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ling Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hubs disruptions are taken into account in design of a resilient power projection network. The problem is tackled from a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM perspective. Not only the network cost in normal state is considered, but also the cost in the worst-case situation is taken into account. A biobjective and trilevel integer programming model is proposed using game theory. Moreover, we develop a metaheuristic based on tabu search and shortest path algorithm for the resolution of the complex model. Computational example indicates that making tradeoffs between the performances of the network in different situations is helpful for designing a resilient network.

  11. Social influence and bullying behavior: intervention-based network dynamics of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge  = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The collaborative African genomics network training program: A trainee perspective on training the next generation of African scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative African Genomics Network (CAfGEN) aims to establish sustainable genomics research programs in Botswana and Uganda through long-term training of PhD students from these countries at Baylor College of Medicine. Here, we present an overview of the CAfGEN PhD training program alongside...

  13. Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs: Building Online Knowledge Networks In Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsun KURUBACAK

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In considering how best to optimize distance education systems, economy (cost effectiveness and efficiency, technology (communication technologies and equity (gender, accessibility, minority, language, religion etc. are vital issues in any distance education systems. Moreover, how end-users, distance learners, can equally share and exchange knowledge and resources for educational purposes, how they can promote their higher-order thinking skills as well as how they can cope with the limitations they have (such as time, age, gender, language etc. are major concerns in distance education milieus. Kurubacak strongly emphasize that interactive radio programs, as a forgotten educational media, with a little cost can effectively integrate in any distance education systems. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to focus on interactive radio programs to build critical and creative knowledge networks among diverse learners in the distance education systems of developing countries.

  14. Stochastic Optimal Regulation of Nonlinear Networked Control Systems by Using Event-Driven Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an event-driven stochastic adaptive dynamic programming (ADP)-based technique is introduced for nonlinear systems with a communication network within its feedback loop. A near optimal control policy is designed using an actor-critic framework and ADP with event sampled state vector. First, the system dynamics are approximated by using a novel neural network (NN) identifier with event sampled state vector. The optimal control policy is generated via an actor NN by using the NN identifier and value function approximated by a critic NN through ADP. The stochastic NN identifier, actor, and critic NN weights are tuned at the event sampled instants leading to aperiodic weight tuning laws. Above all, an adaptive event sampling condition based on estimated NN weights is designed by using the Lyapunov technique to ensure ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop signals along with the approximation accuracy. The net result is event-driven stochastic ADP technique that can significantly reduce the computation and network transmissions. Finally, the analytical design is substantiated with simulation results.

  15. SAGRAD: A Program for Neural Network Training with Simulated Annealing and the Conjugate Gradient Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Javier; Torres-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    SAGRAD (Simulated Annealing GRADient), a Fortran 77 program for computing neural networks for classification using batch learning, is discussed. Neural network training in SAGRAD is based on a combination of simulated annealing and Møller's scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the latter a variation of the traditional conjugate gradient method, better suited for the nonquadratic nature of neural networks. Different aspects of the implementation of the training process in SAGRAD are discussed, such as the efficient computation of gradients and multiplication of vectors by Hessian matrices that are required by Møller's algorithm; the (re)initialization of weights with simulated annealing required to (re)start Møller's algorithm the first time and each time thereafter that it shows insufficient progress in reaching a possibly local minimum; and the use of simulated annealing when Møller's algorithm, after possibly making considerable progress, becomes stuck at a local minimum or flat area of weight space. Outlines of the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the simulated annealing procedure and the training process used in SAGRAD are presented together with results from running SAGRAD on two examples of training data.

  16. Model Servqual Rule Base Asean University Network untuk Penilaian Kualitas Program Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Wijayanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known that AUN (Asean University Network.AUN and ABET (Accreditation Boardb for Enginnering and Technology are non-profit organitatinon which have. AUN (Asean University Network were using variable with refer to AUN’s criteria’s there consist of fifteen which are: Expected Learning Outcomes, Programme Specification, Programme Structure and Content, Teaching and Learning Strategy, Student Assessment, Academic Staff Quality, Support Staff Quality, Student Quality, Student Advice and Support, Facilities and Infrastructure, Quality Assurance of Teaching/Learning Process, Staff Development Activities, Stakeholders Feedback, Output, Stakeholders Satisfaction,and adopted score's scale 7. In there here, we discuss the fifteen AUN’s of AUN in the criterias. There servqual of as can be into five dimensions, assurance, empathy, responsive, reliability and facilty in order to make the assessment's process easier. This research outcome indicated that this proposed method can be used to evaluate an education program. The validation result by using AUN's data and the analysis of servqual rule base Asean University Network almost have the same pattern with correlation value is 0,985 and this is can be accepted because its validity have reach 97%.

  17. THE BLENDED LEARNING ACCOMPLISHMENT OF COMPUTER AND NETWORK ENGINEERING EXPERTISE PROGRAM IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Alfian Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 describe supporting and inhibiting factors in blended learning implementation for the students of computer and network engineering expertise program and (2 describe the accomplishment level of the implementation. This study is designed as a descriptive study with quantitative approach. The research object is the blended learning implementation in computer and network engineering expertise program in SMK N 1 Baureno Bojonegoro. The research subjects consist of teachers, facilities, materials and applications and students in the blended learning implementation process. The data was collected using observation, surveys and interviews. It was analyzed using percentages and classification analysis. The results reveals that the blended learning has been appropriately implemented. It is proven by the analysis result of supporting and inhibiting factors including facilities, teachers’ skill, materials and applications and blended learning accomplishment. The result is also supported by the description about blended learning activity, the use of facilities, blended learning composition and the impact of implementing blended learning. The weaknesses in the implementation process are the low quantity and quality of personal computers and inadequate internet connection. Teachers and school boards are expected to work collaboratively to solve the problems thus the implementation of blended learning can be maximized.

  18. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  19. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Beal

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry.To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50% and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks.Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  20. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2011–2012. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory and Mercury Analytical Laboratory (HAL). A blind-audit program was implemented for the MDN during 2011 to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total mercury concentration data. The co-located–sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from the replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages and precipitation collectors that use optical precipitation sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Co-located rain gage results indicate -3.7 to +6.5 percent bias in NADP precipitation-depth measurements. Co-located collector results suggest that the retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause +10 to +36 percent shifts in NADP annual deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate; -7.5 to +41 percent shifts for hydrogen-ion deposition; and larger shifts (-51 to +52 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector typically catches more precipitation than the NADP-approved Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector.

  2. Building Community Partnerships: Using Social Network Analysis to Strengthen Service Networks Supporting a South Carolina Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Elizabeth; Hale, Nathan; Browder, Jennifer; Cartledge, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    In 2013, South Carolina implemented a multi-year program providing support services for pregnant and parenting teens. Local lead sites were responsible for coordinating service delivery in partnership with other multidisciplinary community-based organizations. We used social network theory and analyses (SNA) to examine changes in partnerships over time. Using two-stage purposeful sampling, we identified three lead sites and their self-reported community partners. We administered two web-based surveys grounded in social network theory that included questions about partnership relationships and organizational characteristics. We calculated selected whole-network measures (size, cohesion, equity, diversity). Following the Year 1 surveys, we reviewed our findings with the lead sites and suggested opportunities to strengthen their respective partnerships. Following the Year 3 surveys, we observed changes across the networks. Survey response rates were 91.5% (43/47) in Year 1 and 68.2% (45/66) in Year 3. By Year 3, the average network size increased from 15.6 to 20.3 organizations. By Year 3, one lead site doubled its measure of network cohesion (connectedness); another lead site doubled in size (capacity). A third lead site, highly dense in Year 1, increased in size but decreased in cohesion by Year 3. Innovative use of SNA findings can help community partnerships identify gaps in capacity or services and organizations needed to fulfill program aims. SNA findings can also improve partnership function by identifying opportunities to improve connectedness or reduce redundancies in program work. The ability of lead sites to strategically reconfigure partnerships can be important to program success and sustainability.

  3. A Dynamic Three-Dimensional Network Visualization Program for Integration into CyberCIEGE and Other Network Visualization Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Prevx Home, WinPatrol, and System Safety Monitor, while others cost money like Process Guard, RegRun Gold, and Geek Superhero . NIVA is a network...opposed to the game’s current generic movie clips. After conducting the research discussed previously, the details of a network attack to include in the...depiction of network attacks. Instead of only the generic movie that would play informing the player of an attack, NTAV3D allows the player to

  4. Fuzzy Chance-constrained Programming Based Security Information Optimization for Low Probability of Identification Enhancement in Radar Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Shi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of low probability of identification (LPID improvement for radar network systems is investigated. Firstly, the security information is derived to evaluate the LPID performance for radar network. Then, without any prior knowledge of hostile intercept receiver, a novel fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP based security information optimization scheme is presented to achieve enhanced LPID performance in radar network systems, which focuses on minimizing the achievable mutual information (MI at interceptor, while the attainable MI outage probability at radar network is enforced to be greater than a specified confidence level. Regarding to the complexity and uncertainty of electromagnetic environment in the modern battlefield, the trapezoidal fuzzy number is used to describe the threshold of achievable MI at radar network based on the credibility theory. Finally, the FCCP model is transformed to a crisp equivalent form with the property of trapezoidal fuzzy number. Numerical simulation results demonstrating the performance of the proposed strategy are provided.

  5. Linear programming model to construct phylogenetic network for 16S rRNA sequences of photosynthetic organisms and influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rinku; Adlakha, Neeru

    2014-06-01

    Phylogenetic trees give the information about the vertical relationships of ancestors and descendants but phylogenetic networks are used to visualize the horizontal relationships among the different organisms. In order to predict reticulate events there is a need to construct phylogenetic networks. Here, a Linear Programming (LP) model has been developed for the construction of phylogenetic network. The model is validated by using data sets of chloroplast of 16S rRNA sequences of photosynthetic organisms and Influenza A/H5N1 viruses. Results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by earlier researchers.

  6. 77 FR 65581 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service Program Delivery (SA-SPD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service..., 2012, applicable to workers and former workers of Verizon Business Network Services, Inc., Senior... hereby issued as follows: ] All workers of Verizon Business Network Services, Inc., Senior Analyst...

  7. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  8. Tooling and Language Support for Robust and Easy Network Programming of Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Most of today’s mobile apps rely on the underlying networks to deliver key func- tions such as web browsing, file synchronization, and social networking. Compared to desktop-based networks, mobile networks are much more dynamic with frequent con- nectivity disruptions, network type switches, and quality changes, posing unique pro- gramming challenges for mobile app developers.As revealed in this thesis, many mobile app developers fail to handle these inter- mittent network conditions in the m...

  9. Defense Data Network/TOPS-20 Tutorial. An Interative Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    today and where it’s going: DDN NEW USER GUIDE (NIC 50001 ) MARCH 1985 DDN NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER DDN PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OFFICE DEFENSE...TOS52E C FIPTl.Q’’O.NU()E.y)OT 5 17 LI. 18 TYEN 10 MESG PRPRTO MSAE 18C ED0.40ER8)DM TYPE 16M00J.a ISO TYEM7100 ’’ORDM().Q’’GOT 2 182R(DEM7(1).0ERRWHA...9ring the first’,/, -’ letter of each command. In XED itself, this is not required). iSo now we type’,/, 2’ **R <CR>7 after the ":" prompt. The

  10. Neural-network-observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Huang, Yuzhu; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an observer-based optimal control scheme is developed for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. First, a neural-network (NN) observer is designed to estimate system states. Then, based on the observed states, a neuro-controller is constructed via ADP method to obtain the optimal control. In this design, two NN structures are used: a three-layer NN is used to construct the observer which can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity and without a priori knowledge of system dynamics, and a critic NN is employed to approximate the value function. The optimal control law is computed using the critic NN and the observer NN. Uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. The actor, critic, and observer structures are all implemented in real-time, continuously and simultaneously. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  11. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effort has been made to develop concrete compressive strength prediction models with the help of two emerging data mining techniques, namely, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs and Genetic Programming (GP. The data for analysis and model development was collected at 28-, 56-, and 91-day curing periods through experiments conducted in the laboratory under standard controlled conditions. The developed models have also been tested on in situ concrete data taken from literature. A comparison of the prediction results obtained using both the models is presented and it can be inferred that the ANN model with the training function Levenberg-Marquardt (LM for the prediction of concrete compressive strength is the best prediction tool.

  12. Noninvasive fetal QRS detection using an echo state network and dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoševičius, Mantas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-08-01

    We address a classical fetal QRS detection problem from abdominal ECG recordings with a data-driven statistical machine learning approach. Our goal is to have a powerful, yet conceptually clean, solution. There are two novel key components at the heart of our approach: an echo state recurrent neural network that is trained to indicate fetal QRS complexes, and several increasingly sophisticated versions of statistics-based dynamic programming algorithms, which are derived from and rooted in probability theory. We also employ a standard technique for preprocessing and removing maternal ECG complexes from the signals, but do not take this as the main focus of this work. The proposed approach is quite generic and can be extended to other types of signals and annotations. Open-source code is provided.

  13. Augmented Lagrange Programming Neural Network for Localization Using Time-Difference-of-Arrival Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifa; Leung, Chi Sing; So, Hing Cheung; Constantinides, Anthony George

    2017-08-15

    A commonly used measurement model for locating a mobile source is time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA). As each TDOA measurement defines a hyperbola, it is not straightforward to compute the mobile source position due to the nonlinear relationship in the measurements. This brief exploits the Lagrange programming neural network (LPNN), which provides a general framework to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems, for the TDOA-based localization. The local stability of the proposed LPNN solution is also analyzed. Simulation results are included to evaluate the localization accuracy of the LPNN scheme by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods and the optimality benchmark of Cramér-Rao lower bound.

  14. lpNet: a linear programming approach to reconstruct signal transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta R A; Knapp, Bettina; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-10-01

    With the widespread availability of high-throughput experimental technologies it has become possible to study hundreds to thousands of cellular factors simultaneously, such as coding- or non-coding mRNA or protein concentrations. Still, extracting information about the underlying regulatory or signaling interactions from these data remains a difficult challenge. We present a flexible approach towards network inference based on linear programming. Our method reconstructs the interactions of factors from a combination of perturbation/non-perturbation and steady-state/time-series data. We show both on simulated and real data that our methods are able to reconstruct the underlying networks fast and efficiently, thus shedding new light on biological processes and, in particular, into disease's mechanisms of action. We have implemented the approach as an R package available through bioconductor. This R package is freely available under the Gnu Public License (GPL-3) from bioconductor.org (http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/lpNet.html) and is compatible with most operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS) and hardware architectures. bettina.knapp@helmholtz-muenchen.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Seluge++: a secure over-the-air programming scheme in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Farzan; Abdur Razzaque, Mohammad; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2014-03-11

    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  16. Distributed RSS-based localization in wireless sensor networks based on second-order cone programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Slavisa; Beko, Marko; Dinis, Rui

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach based on convex optimization to address the received signal strength (RSS)-based cooperative localization problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). By using iterative procedures and measurements between two adjacent nodes in the network exclusively, each target node determines its own position locally. The localization problem is formulated using the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, since ML-based solutions have the property of being asymptotically efficient. To overcome the non-convexity of the ML optimization problem, we employ the appropriate convex relaxation technique leading to second-order cone programming (SOCP). Additionally, a simple heuristic approach for improving the convergence of the proposed scheme for the case when the transmit power is known is introduced. Furthermore, we provide details about the computational complexity and energy consumption of the considered approaches. Our simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing ones in terms of the estimation accuracy for more than 1:5 m. Moreover, the new approach requires a lower number of iterations to converge, and consequently, it is likely to preserve energy in all presented scenarios, in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzan Doroodgar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers’ point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare. Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  18. Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the seventh annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, S.G.

    1996-08-01

    The primary goals of the 1996 WEPAN Conference were to: (1) Conduct technical and programmatic seminars for institutions desiring to initiate, replicate, or expand women in engineering programs; (2) Provide assistance in fundraising and grant writing; (3) Profile women in engineering programs of excellence; (4) Sponsor inspiring, knowledgeable and motivational keynote speakers; and, (5) Offer a series of workshops focused on topics such as: establishing partnerships with industry, current research findings, retention strategies, issues affecting special populations, and early intervention techniques. In an effort to provide greater access for women to engineering careers, women in engineering program directors at Purdue University, Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of Washington joined together in 1990 to establish WEPAN, a national network of individuals interested in the recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of women engineering students. This is the seventh year of operation. Success of this effort has been reflected in numerous ways: increased membership in the organization; increased number of women in engineering programs; increased number of women graduating in engineering; and grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the AT&T Foundation, and many other corporations to carry out the goals of WEPAN. The Seventh Annual Women in Engineering Conference entitled, Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, was held in Denver, Colorado on June 1-4, 1996 at the Hyatt Regency. The conference brought together representatives from academia, government, and industry and examined current issues and initiatives for women in technology, science, and education. Building on the successes of the previous conferences, the seventh conference offered a new variety of speakers and topics.

  19. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Network of Dedicated Enrollment Sites: Implications for Surgical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeen, Faisal G; Reda, Domenic J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Cornwell, Lorraine; Omer, Shuab; Al Jurdi, Rayan; Kougias, Panos; Anaya, Daniel; Berger, David H; Huang, Grant D

    2014-06-01

    Surgical clinical trials have played a critical role in shaping clinical practice, yet their launch and conduct remain challenging. Innovative approaches to carrying out such studies can not only help transform how trials produce definitive evidence but also move the field toward increased participation in trials. To review a recently launched pilot program aimed at enhancing patient enrollment and improving surgical trial operations at individual sites and nationally. After a solicitation to create a national network focused on making the conduct of clinical trials more efficient, 10 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) sites were selected. These sites, collectively called the Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Network of Dedicated Enrollment Sites (NODES), were evaluated with regard to their previous participation in CSP multisite trials, the strength of the local clinical research environment, and presentation of innovative plans to coordinate and enhance the operations of local CSP studies and share best practices with other centers. Node accountability was also emphasized and involved metrics that tracked productivity and efficiency. Building from available CSP experience in a range of clinical trials, including ones involving surgical interventions, NODES provides VA surgeons with resources for facilitating timely study initiation, determining patient availability, and addressing enrollment barriers. Such resources are particularly important for surgical studies, which often face challenges in patient recruitment and retention. In addition, NODES can maintain qualified and trained personnel at sites to support surgeons with limited time to fulfill the numerous administrative and regulatory responsibilities that often fall to the investigators. The VA's approach to enhancing trial efficiency may reinvigorate interest in surgical trials by offering a redesigned cooperative framework that builds on a core of high-yield sites and could mitigate traditional

  20. GreenCommute : the Nortel Networks Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Program on how employers can reduce travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinson, S. [Nortel Networks, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the GreenCommute, world class commuter option program offered at Nortel Networks in Ottawa, Ontario. Nortel's Ottawa Carling Campus has incorporated popular commuter options in its' site design. These include walking, cycling, transit, car-pooling and teleworking. The Transportation Demand Management (TDM) program was launched to mitigate traffic congestion, minimize infrastructure requirements, and minimize parking areas. The program also acted as a pilot for the region and demonstrated the benefits of public/private sector partnership. The benefits of TDM programs to the employer, employee and community were also highlighted in this presentation. Nortel Networks has launched a comprehensive Internet site which offers commuting information, a self-serve ride matching system, critical links and promotions. It was noted that ongoing government support is critical for modal shifts to occur. Transit service improvements are necessary for transit to be competitive with driving. figs.

  1. Artificial Neural Networks and Gene Expression Programing based age estimation using facial features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddrud Z. Laskar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is about estimating human age automatically through analysis of facial images. It has got a lot of real-world applications. Due to prompt advances in the fields of machine vision, facial image processing, and computer graphics, automatic age estimation via faces in computer is one of the dominant topics these days. This is due to widespread real-world applications, in areas of biometrics, security, surveillance, control, forensic art, entertainment, online customer management and support, along with cosmetology. As it is difficult to estimate the exact age, this system is to estimate a certain range of ages. Four sets of classifications have been used to differentiate a person’s data into one of the different age groups. The uniqueness about this study is the usage of two technologies i.e., Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Gene Expression Programing (GEP to estimate the age and then compare the results. New methodologies like Gene Expression Programing (GEP have been explored here and significant results were found. The dataset has been developed to provide more efficient results by superior preprocessing methods. This proposed approach has been developed, tested and trained using both the methods. A public data set was used to test the system, FG-NET. The quality of the proposed system for age estimation using facial features is shown by broad experiments on the available database of FG-NET.

  2. ImpNet: Programming Software-Defied Networks Using Imperative Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.; AlSalem, Adel I.

    2014-01-01

    Software and hardware components are basic parts of modern networks. However the software compo- nent is typical sealed and function-oriented. Therefore it is very difficult to modify these components. This badly affected networking innovations. Moreover, this resulted in network policies having complex interfaces that are not user-friendly and hence resulted in huge and complicated flow tables on physical switches of networks. This greatly degrades the network performance in many cases. Soft...

  3. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    They, Ng H; Amado, André M; Cotner, James B

    2017-01-01

    The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region) on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  4. CNP stoichiometry of a lipid-synthesising zooplankton, Calanus finmarchicus, from winter to spring bloom in a sub-Arctic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. B.; Svensen, C.; Hessen, D. O.; Tamelander, T.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal stoichiometry of the high-latitude lipid-synthesising copepod Calanus finmarchicus and assess how this would affect dietary demands with season, ontogeny and lipid storage. C:N:P ratios in different stages (adults, copepodite V and IV), in eggs and faecal pellets as well as in bulk food (seston) was analysed in a sub-Arctic Norwegian sound (69° 47'N, 19° 19'E) from late February to mid-May 2009. The period covered the phytoplankton bloom and was divided into four sequences of the bloom based on chl a and seston C:chl a ratio variations. The calculation of the somatic elemental C:N and C:P body ratios (without the lipid storage) indicates that nearly homeostatic control in C. finmarchicus is maintained in somatic tissues within stages, while not if the lipid storage pool is included. Nutrient limitation was assessed calculating threshold elemental ratios based on the somatic body ratios and for different sets of assimilation efficiencies, and indicated a predominant C limitation that may reflect demands for lipid storage. The results suggest that stoichiometric composition and demands in such high-latitude, lipid-storing species strongly depend on stage and season, and the large contribution of storage lipids highlights the need for a two-compartment approach for lipid-synthesising species, with different dietary requirements for somatic growth and for lipid storage.

  5. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  7. The collaborative African genomics network training program: a trainee perspective on training the next generation of African scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Busisiwe C; Mwesigwa, Savannah; Mboowa, Gerald; Williams, Lesedi; Retshabile, Gaone; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Wayengera, Misaki; Kyobe, Samuel; Brown, Chester W; Hanchard, Neil A; Mardon, Graeme; Joloba, Moses; Anabwani, Gabriel; Mpoloka, Sununguko W

    2017-07-01

    The Collaborative African Genomics Network (CAfGEN) aims to establish sustainable genomics research programs in Botswana and Uganda through long-term training of PhD students from these countries at Baylor College of Medicine. Here, we present an overview of the CAfGEN PhD training program alongside trainees' perspectives on their involvement. Historically, collaborations between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), or North-South collaborations, have been criticized for the lack of a mutually beneficial distribution of resources and research findings, often undermining LMICs. CAfGEN plans to address this imbalance in the genomics field through a program of technology and expertise transfer to the participating LMICs. An overview of the training program is presented. Trainees from the CAfGEN project summarized their experiences, looking specifically at the training model, benefits of the program, challenges encountered relating to the cultural transition, and program outcomes after the first 2 years. Collaborative training programs like CAfGEN will not only help establish sustainable long-term research initiatives in LMICs but also foster stronger North-South and South-South networks. The CAfGEN model offers a framework for the development of training programs aimed at genomics education for those for whom genomics is not their "first language." Genet Med advance online publication 06 April 2017.

  8. Suggestions for planning a migration-monitoring network based on the experience of establishing and operating the maps program

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. DeSante

    2005-01-01

    Based on the experience of creating and implementing the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program, I suggest that, to be successful, a migration-monitoring network must: (1) provide strong justification for the data it proposes to collect; (2) provide direct links between those monitoring data and both research and management goals; (3) provide...

  9. Sequential computation of elementary modes and minimal cut sets in genome-scale metabolic networks using alternate integer linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2017-03-27

    Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Results: Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs.

  10. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  11. Optimizationof neural network architecture using genetic programming improvesdetection and modeling of gene-gene interactions in studies of humandiseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Lance W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate definitionof neural network architecture prior to data analysis is crucialfor successful data mining. This can be challenging when the underlyingmodel of the data is unknown. The goal of this study was to determinewhether optimizing neural network architecture using genetic programmingas a machine learning strategy would improve the ability of neural networksto model and detect nonlinear interactions among genes in studiesof common human diseases. Results Using simulateddata, we show that a genetic programming optimized neural network approachis able to model gene-gene interactions as well as a traditionalback propagation neural network. Furthermore, the genetic programmingoptimized neural network is better than the traditional back propagationneural network approach in terms of predictive ability and powerto detect gene-gene interactions when non-functional polymorphismsare present. Conclusion This study suggeststhat a machine learning strategy for optimizing neural network architecturemay be preferable to traditional trial-and-error approaches forthe identification and characterization of gene-gene interactionsin common, complex human diseases.

  12. System network planning expansion using mathematical programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegheih, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Yazd, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran); Drake, P.R. [E-Business and Operations Management Division, University of Liverpool Management School, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, system network planning expansion is formulated for mixed integer programming, a genetic algorithm (GA) and tabu search (TS). Compared with other optimization methods, GAs are suitable for traversing large search spaces, since they can do this relatively rapidly and because the use of mutation diverts the method away from local minima, which will tend to become more common as the search space increases in size. GA's give an excellent trade off between solution quality and computing time and flexibility for taking into account specific constraints in real situations. TS has emerged as a new, highly efficient, search paradigm for finding quality solutions to combinatorial problems. It is characterized by gathering knowledge during the search and subsequently profiting from this knowledge. The attractiveness of the technique comes from its ability to escape local optimality. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses and the power generation costs. The DC load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions and also provides information regarding the optimal generation at each generation point. This method of solution is demonstrated on the expansion of a 10 bus bar system to 18 bus bars. Finally, a steady-state genetic algorithm is employed rather than generational replacement, also uniform crossover is used. (author)

  13. HerzMobil Tirol network: rationale for and design of a collaborative heart failure disease management program in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Heidt, Andreas; Ammenwerth, Elske; Bauer, Karl; Fetz, Bettina; Fluckinger, Thomas; Gassner, Andrea; Grander, Willhelm; Gritsch, Walter; Haffner, Immaculata; Henle-Talirz, Gudrun; Hoschek, Stefan; Huter, Stephan; Kastner, Peter; Krestan, Susanne; Kufner, Peter; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Noebl, Josef; Radi, Momen; Raffeiner, Clemens; Welte, Stefan; Wiseman, Andreas; Poelzl, Gerhard

    2014-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is approaching epidemic proportions worldwide and is the leading cause of hospitalization in the elderly population. High rates of readmission contribute substantially to excessive health care costs and highlight the fragmented nature of care available to HF patients. Disease management programs (DMPs) have been implemented to improve health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and quality of life, and to reduce health care costs. Telemonitoring systems appear to be effective in the vulnerable phase after discharge from hospital to prevent early readmissions. DMPs that emphasize comprehensive patient education and guideline-adjusted therapy have shown great promise to result in beneficial long-term effects. It can be speculated that combining core elements of the aforementioned programs may substantially improve long-term cost-effectiveness of patient management.We introduce a collaborative post-discharge HF disease management program (HerzMobil Tirol network) that incorporates physician-controlled telemonitoring and nurse-led care in a multidisciplinary network approach.

  14. The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development NITRD Program 2012 Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Information technology IT computers, wired and wireless digital networks, electronic data and information, IT devices and systems, and software applications?today...

  15. Development and Operation of International Nuclear Education/Training Program and HRD Cooperation Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.; Han, K. W. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    The primary result of the project is the establishment of a concept of International Nuclear R and D Academy that integrates the on-going long term activity for international nuclear education/training and a new activity to establish an international cooperation network for nuclear human resources development. For this, the 2007 WNU Summer Institute was hosted with the establishment of an MOU and subsequent preparations. Also, ANENT was promoted through development of a cyber platform for the ANENT web-portal, hosting the third ANENT Coordination Committee meeting, etc. Then a cooperation with universities in Vietnam was launched resulting in preparation of an MOU for the cooperation. Finally, a relevant system framework was established and required procedures were drafted especially for providing students from developing countries with long term education/training programs (e.g. MS and Ph D. courses). The international nuclear education/training programs have offered 13 courses to 182 people from 43 countries. The overall performance of the courses was evaluated to be outstanding. In parallel, the establishment of an MOU for the cooperation of KOICA-IAEA-KAERI courses to ensure their stable and systematic operation. Also, an effort was made to participate in FNCA. Atopia Hall of the International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC) hosted 477 events (corresponding to 18,521 participants) and Nuri Hall (guesthouse) accommodated 4,616 people in 2006. This shows a steady increase of the use rate since the opening of the center, along with a continuous improvement of the equipment.

  16. Control of water distribution networks with dynamic DMA topology using strictly feasible sequential convex programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The operation of water distribution networks (WDN) with a dynamic topology is a recently pioneered approach for the advanced management of District Metered Areas (DMAs) that integrates novel developments in hydraulic modeling, monitoring, optimization, and control. A common practice for leakage management is the sectorization of WDNs into small zones, called DMAs, by permanently closing isolation valves. This facilitates water companies to identify bursts and estimate leakage levels by measuring the inlet flow for each DMA. However, by permanently closing valves, a number of problems have been created including reduced resilience to failure and suboptimal pressure management. By introducing a dynamic topology to these zones, these disadvantages can be eliminated while still retaining the DMA structure for leakage monitoring. In this paper, a novel optimization method based on sequential convex programming (SCP) is outlined for the control of a dynamic topology with the objective of reducing average zone pressure (AZP). A key attribute for control optimization is reliable convergence. To achieve this, the SCP method we propose guarantees that each optimization step is strictly feasible, resulting in improved convergence properties. By using a null space algorithm for hydraulic analyses, the computations required are also significantly reduced. The optimized control is actuated on a real WDN operated with a dynamic topology. This unique experimental program incorporates a number of technologies set up with the objective of investigating pioneering developments in WDN management. Preliminary results indicate AZP reductions for a dynamic topology of up to 6.5% over optimally controlled fixed topology DMAs. This article was corrected on 12 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  17. Exhaustively characterizing feasible logic models of a signaling network using Answer Set Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-09-15

    Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input-output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. santiago.videla@irisa.fr.

  18. Networking Course Syllabus in Accredited Library and Information Science Programs: A Comparative Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated networking courses offered in accredited Library and Information Science schools in the United States in 2009. The study analyzed and compared network syllabi according to Course Syllabus Evaluation Rubric to obtain in-depth understanding of basic features and characteristics of networking courses taught. The study embraced…

  19. Computing assortative mixing by degree with the s-metric in networks using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldorp, L.J.; Schmittmann, V.D.

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of assortative mixing by degree in networks indicates whether nodes with similar degree are connected to each other. In networks with scale-free distribution high values of assortative mixing by degree can be an indication of a hub-like core in networks. Degree correlation has generally

  20. 77 FR 35711 - Strong Cities, Strong Communities National Resource Network Pilot Program Advance Notice and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., commercial, and social assets that they possess. SC2 provides a number of local capacity-building tools to... example, a city might come to the SC2 Network for help with a structural budget deficit. The Network would... progress on budget deficits and municipal bond ratings. For every engagement, the Network Administrator...

  1. Making Connections: Using Social Network Analysis for Program Evaluation. Issue Brief. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a methodological approach to measuring and mapping relationships. It can be used to study whole networks, all of the ties within a defined group, or connections that individuals have in their personal communities. The resulting graph-based structures illustrate the composition and effectiveness of networks on a…

  2. Achievement of Weight Loss and Other Requirements of the Diabetes Prevention and Recognition Program: A National Diabetes Prevention Program Network Based on Nationally Certified Diabetes Self-management Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Joanna Craver; Blum, Natalie M; O'Brian, Catherine A; Kolb, Leslie E; Lipman, Ruth D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to describe the use of the American Association of Diabetes Educators' (AADE's) model of implementation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program through nationally certified diabetes self-management education (DSME) programs and (2) to report the aggregated program outcomes as defined by the Diabetes Prevention and Recognition Program standards of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2012, the AADE worked with the CDC to select 30 certified DSME programs for National Diabetes Prevention Program delivery. For the following 3 years, the AADE continued to work with 25 of the 30 original programs. Results for all CDC recognition standards have been collected from these 25 programs and analyzed as aggregated data over the course of 36 months. At the end of the full-year program, average percentage body weight loss for participants across all 25 programs exceeded the CDC's minimum requirement of 5% weight loss. All programs on average met the CDC requirements for program attendance. Increasing access to the National Diabetes Prevention Program, through an array of networks, including certified DSME programs, will better ensure that people are able to engage in an effective approach to reducing their risk of diabetes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2017-08-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  4. Evolutionary programming technique for reducing complexity of artifical neural networks for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Joseph Y.; Land, Walker H., Jr.; Morrison, Clayton T.

    2000-06-01

    An evolutionary programming (EP) technique was investigated to reduce the complexity of artificial neural network (ANN) models that predict the outcome of mammography-induced breast biopsy. By combining input variables consisting of mammography lesion descriptors and patient history data, the ANN predicted whether the lesion was benign or malignant, which may aide in reducing the number of unnecessary benign biopsies and thus the cost of mammography screening of breast cancer. The EP has the ability to optimize the ANN both structurally and parametrically. An EP was partially optimized using a data set of 882 biopsy-proven cases from Duke University Medical Center. Although many different architectures were evolved, the best were often perceptrons with no hidden nodes. A rank ordering of the inputs was performed using twenty independent EP runs. This confirmed the predictive value of the mass margin and patient age variables, and revealed the unexpected usefulness of the history of previous breast cancer. Further work is required to improve the performance of the EP over all cases in general and calcification cases in particular.

  5. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  6. [Networks, disease management programs, GP coordinator: analysis of recent ambulatory reforms in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening the role of the general practitioner in the conduction and coordination of specialized, inpatient and social care to ensure the continuity is a trend observed in recent health reforms in European countries. In Germany, from the second half of the 1990s, driven by economic pressures, a specific legislation and initiatives of the providers themselves have developed new organizational structures and care models for the purpose of the integration of the health care system and the coordination of health care in the form of: physicians networks, practitioner coordinator model, diseases management programs and integrated care. From a literature review, document analysis, visits to services and interviews with key informants, this paper analyzes the dynamics of these organizational changes in the German outpatient sector. The mechanisms of integration and coordination proposed are examined, and the potential impacts on the efficiency and quality of new organizational arrangements are discussed. Also it is analyzed the reasons and interests involved that point out the obstacles to the implementation. It was observed the process of an incremental reform with a tendency of diversification of the healthcare panorama in Germany with the presence of integrated models of care and strengthening the role of general practitioners in the coordination of patient care.

  7. The development and feasibility of an online aphasia group intervention and networking program - TeleGAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Rachelle; Theodoros, Deborah; Hill, Anne J; Russell, Trevor

    2017-09-04

    Aphasia group therapy offers many benefits, however people with aphasia report difficulty accessing groups and speech-language pathologists are faced with many challenges in providing aphasia group therapy. Telerehabilitation may offer an alternative service delivery option. An online aphasia group therapy program - Telerehabilitation Group Aphasia Intervention and Networking (TeleGAIN) - has been developed according to the guidelines of the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex interventions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of TeleGAIN and the results of a pilot trial to determine feasibility and acceptability. The development of TeleGAIN was informed through literature reviews in relevant topic areas, consideration of expert opinion and application of the social cognitive theory. TeleGAIN was then modelled through a feasibility pilot trial with four people with aphasia. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable to participants and able to be implemented as planned. Participant satisfaction with treatment was high and results suggested some potential for improvements in language functioning and communication-related quality of life. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable, however the study highlighted issues related to technology, clinical implementation and participant-specific factors that should be addressed prior to a larger trial.

  8. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  9. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  10. Integer programming-based method for designing synthetic metabolic networks by Minimum Reaction Insertion in a Boolean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Tamura, Takeyuki; Song, Jiangning; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem for finding the minimum number of additional reactions from a reference metabolic network to a host metabolic network so that a target compound becomes producible in the revised host metabolic network in a Boolean model. Although a similar problem for larger networks is solvable in a flux balance analysis (FBA)-based model, the solution of the FBA-based model tends to include more reactions than that of the Boolean model. However, solving MRI using the Boolean model is computationally more expensive than using the FBA-based model since the Boolean model needs more integer variables. Therefore, in this study, to solve MRI for larger networks in the Boolean model, we have developed an efficient Integer Programming formalization method in which the number of integer variables is reduced by the notion of feedback vertex set and minimal valid assignment. As a result of computer experiments conducted using the data of metabolic networks of E. coli and reference networks downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we have found that the developed method can appropriately solve MRI in the Boolean model and is applicable to large scale-networks for which an exhaustive search does not work. We have also compared the developed method with the existing connectivity-based methods and FBA-based methods, and show the difference between the solutions of our method and the existing methods. A theoretical analysis of MRI is also conducted, and the NP-completeness of MRI is proved in the Boolean model. Our developed software is available at "http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~rogi/minRect/minRect.html."

  11. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK FOR STUDIES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND PERINATAL HEALTH: THE POWER OF COLLABORATION IN POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G Cecatti

    Full Text Available The scientific collaboration in networks may be developed among countries, academic institutions and among peer researchers. Once established, they contribute for knowledge dissemination and a strong structure for research in health. Several advantages are attributed to working in networks: the inclusion of a higher number of subjects in the studies; generation of stronger evidence with a higher representativeness of the population (secondary generalization and external validity; higher likelihood of articles derived from these studies to be accepted in high impact journals with a wide coverage; a higher likelihood of obtaining budgets for sponsorship; easier data collection on rare conditions; inclusions of subjects from different ethnic groups and cultures, among others. In Brazil, the Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health was created in 2008 with the initial purpose of developing a national network of scientific cooperation for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity. Since the establishment of this Network, five studies were developed, some of them already finished and others almost being completed, and two new ones being implemented. Results of the activities in this Network have been very productive and with a positive impact on not only the Postgraduate Program of Obstetrics and Gynecology from the University of Campinas, its coordinating center, but also on other participating centers. A considerable number of scientific articles was published, master´s dissertations and PhD theses were presented, and post-doctorate programs were performed, including students from several areas of health, from distinct regions and from several institutions of the whole country. This represents a high social impact taking into account the relevance of the studied topics for the country.

  12. STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    Science and technology are widely recognized as major drivers of innovation and industry (e.g. Rising above the Gathering Storm, 2006). While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement and public understanding of STEM disciplines. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. Designed spaces, like libraries, allow lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep learning to take place though the research basis for learning in libraries is not as developed as other informal settings like science centers. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national education project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. This project will deepen our knowledge of informal/lifelong learning that takes place in libraries and establish a learning model that can be compared to the more established free-choice learning model for science centers and museums. The project includes the development of two STEM hands-on exhibits on topics that are of interest to library staff and their patrons: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. In addition, the project will produce resources and inquiry-based activities that libraries can use to enrich the exhibit experience. Additional resources will be provided through partnerships with relevant

  13. Sequential computation of elementary modes and minimal cut sets in genome-scale metabolic networks using alternate integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2017-08-01

    Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs. The software is implemented in Matlab, and is provided as supplementary information . hyunseob.song@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Building an Online Community: Student Teachers’ Perceptions on the Advantages of Using Social Networking Services in A Teacher Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad HABIBI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry examined student teachers' perceptions on the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in an English teacher education program at a public university in Jambi, Indonesia to ease the communication, supervision, discussion, and report submissions between supervisors and student teachers. The networking types included in the program are Whatsapp, Telegram, Email, and Google Form. The method of the research was qualitative through using focus group discussions as the technique of collecting data involving forty-two student teachers. We organized our analysis and discussion around their perceptions and the contexts in which the advantages they perceived emerge. The analyses of the texts revealed that two salient themes with their sub-themes related to the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in a teacher education program were social interaction (peer discussion and platform to interact with supervisors or lecturers and learning motivation and experience supports (self-directed learning, promotes critical thinking, content engagement. Some pedagogical and social implications are also discussed.

  15. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  16. Energy Research and Development Administration Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group: experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.

    1975-03-19

    The Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group was established to investigate the potential advantages and costs of newer forms of remote resource sharing and computer networking. The areas of research and investigation that are within the scope of the ERDA CNG are described. (GHT)

  17. Optimal phasing of district heating network investments using multi-stage stochastic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Stephane Claude Lambert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most design optimisation studies for district heating systems have focused on the optimal sizing of network assets and on the location of production units. However, the strategic value of the flexibility in phasing of the inherently modular heat networks, which is an important aspect in many feasibility studies for district heating schemes in the UK, is almost always neglected in the scientific literature. This paper considers the sequential problem faced by a decision-maker in the phasing of long-term investments into district heating networks and their expansions. The problem is formulated as a multi-stage stochastic programme to determine the annual capital expenditure that maximises the expected net present value of the project. The optimisation approach is illustrated by applying it to the hypothetical case of the UK’s Marston Vale eco town. It was found that the approach is capable of simulating the optimal growth of a network, from both a single heat source or separate islands of growth, as well as the optimal marginal expansion of an existing district heating network. The proposed approach can be used by decision makers as a framework to determine both the optimal phasing and extension of district heating networks and can be adapted simply to various, more complex real-life situations by introducing additional constraints and parameters. The versatility of the base formulation also makes it a powerful approach regardless of the size of the network and also potentially applicable to cooling networks.

  18. Nurse turnover in substance abuse treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M; Studts, Jamie L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005-2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. Most of the administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than 2 months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Afya Bora Fellowship: An Innovative Program Focused on Creating an Interprofessional Network of Leaders in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Wendy M; Farquhar, Carey; Mashalla, Yohana

    2017-09-01

    Most current health professions education programs are focused on the development of clinical skills. As a result, they may not address the complex and interconnected nature of global health. Trainees require relevant clinical, programmatic, and leadership skills to meet the challenges of practicing in an increasingly globalized environment. To develop health care leaders within sub-Saharan Africa, the Afya Bora Consortium developed a one-year fellowship for medical doctors and nurses. Fellows from nine institutions in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa participate in 12 learning modules focused on leadership development and program management. Classroom-based training is augmented with an experiential apprenticeship component. Since 2011, 100 fellows have graduated from the program. During their apprenticeships, fellows developed projects beneficial to their development and to host organizations. The program has developed fellows' skills in leadership, lent expertise to local organizations, and built knowledge in local contexts. Most fellows have returned to their countries of origin, thus building local capacity. U.S.-based fellows examine global health challenges from regional perspectives and learn from sub-Saharan African experts and peers. The Consortium provides ongoing support to alumni through career development awards and alumni network engagement with current and past fellow cohorts. The Consortium expanded from its initial network of five countries to six and continues to seek opportunities for geographical and institutional expansion.

  20. Focus Group Evaluation of the LIVE Network-An Audio Music Program to Promote ART Adherence Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Baumann, Maya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Logwood, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of 3 focus groups conducted to assess the utility, appeal, and feasibility of the LIVE Network (LN), a 70-minute audio music program developed to educate and motivate HIV-infected persons to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and self-manage medication-related side effects. Participants included 15 African American, 2 caucasian, and 1 race unknown HIV-infected persons who had been taking ART for at least 6 months. In general, the LN was well liked, relevant, educational, and motivational. It empowered and motivated participants to be responsible for their adherence self-care. One of the more surprising findings was how freely focus group participants shared the program with family and friends as a means of education and also as a means of disclosure. Moreover, the positive reception of the LN by individuals outside of the focus groups, especially children and adolescents, speaks well for the potential broad appeal of this type of program.

  1. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villar-Argaiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T, light (L, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, nutrients (Nut, carbon dioxide (CO2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and salinity (S impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters. While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our

  2. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Carrillo, Presentación

    2018-01-01

    A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T), light (L), ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nutrients (Nut), carbon dioxide (CO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and salinity (S) impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems) compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters). While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our findings

  3. Revisiting the concept of Redfield ratios applied to plankton stoichiometry - Addressing model uncertainties with respect to the choice of C:N:P ratios for phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreus, Markus; Paetsch, Johannes; Grosse, Fabian; Lenhart, Hermann; Peck, Myron; Pohlmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing Ocean Acidification (OA) and climate change related trends impact on physical (temperature), chemical (CO2 buffer capacity) and biological (stoichiometric) properties of the marine environment. These threats affect the global ocean but they appear particularly pronounced in marginal and shelf seas. Marine biogeochemical models are often used to investigate the impacts of climate change and changes in OA on the marine system as well as its exchange with the atmosphere. Different studies showed that both the structural composition of the models and the elemental ratios of particulate organic matter in the surface ocean affect the key processes controlling the ocean's efficiency storing atmospheric excess carbon. Recent studies focus on the variability of the elemental ratios of phytoplankton and found that the high plasticity of C:N:P ratios enables the storage of large amounts of carbon by incorporation into carbohydrates and lipids. Our analysis focuses on the North Sea, a temperate European shelf sea, for the period 2000-2014. We performed an ensemble of model runs differing only in phytoplankton stoichiometry, representing combinations of C:P = [132.5, 106, 79.5] and N:P=[20, 16, 12] (i.e., Redfield ratio +/- 25%). We examine systematically the variations in annual averages of net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem production in the upper 30 m (NEP30), export production below 30 m depth (EXP30), and the air-sea flux of CO2 (ASF). Ensemble average fluxes (and standard deviations) resulted in NPP = 15.4 (2.8) mol C m-2 a-1, NEP30 = 5.4 (1.1) mol C m-2 a-1, EXP30 = 8.1 (1.1) mol C m-2 a-1 and ASF = 1.1 (0.5) mol C m-2 a-1. All key parameters exhibit only minor variations along the axis of constant C:N, but correlate positively with increasing C:P and decreasing N:P ratios. Concerning regional differences, lowest variations in local fluxes due to different stoichiometric ratios can be found in the shallow southern and coastal North Sea. Highest

  4. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Concept Development of the Next Generation Diagnostic Breast Imaging Using Digital Image Library and Networking Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chouikha, Mohamed F

    2004-01-01

    ...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...

  5. Derivative-free neural network for optimizing the scoring functions associated with dynamic programming of pairwise-profile alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori D

    2018-01-01

    A profile-comparison method with position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) is among the most accurate alignment methods. Currently, cosine similarity and correlation coefficients are used as scoring functions of dynamic programming to calculate similarity between PSSMs. However, it is unclear whether these functions are optimal for profile alignment methods. By definition, these functions cannot capture nonlinear relationships between profiles. Therefore, we attempted to discover a novel scoring function, which was more suitable for the profile-comparison method than existing functions, using neural networks. Although neural networks required derivative-of-cost functions, the problem being addressed in this study lacked them. Therefore, we implemented a novel derivative-free neural network by combining a conventional neural network with an evolutionary strategy optimization method used as a solver. Using this novel neural network system, we optimized the scoring function to align remote sequence pairs. Our results showed that the pairwise-profile aligner using the novel scoring function significantly improved both alignment sensitivity and precision relative to aligners using existing functions. We developed and implemented a novel derivative-free neural network and aligner (Nepal) for optimizing sequence alignments. Nepal improved alignment quality by adapting to remote sequence alignments and increasing the expressiveness of similarity scores. Additionally, this novel scoring function can be realized using a simple matrix operation and easily incorporated into other aligners. Moreover our scoring function could potentially improve the performance of homology detection and/or multiple-sequence alignment of remote homologous sequences. The goal of the study was to provide a novel scoring function for profile alignment method and develop a novel learning system capable of addressing derivative-free problems. Our system is capable of optimizing the performance of other

  6. Design and Evaluation of the User-Adapted Program Scheduling system based on Bayesian Network and Constraint Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hirotoshi; Sega, Shinichiro; Hiraishi, Hironori; Mizoguchi, Fumio

    In recent years, lots of music content can be stored in mobile computing devices, such as a portable digital music player and a car navigation system. Moreover, various information content like news or traffic information can be acquired always anywhere by a cellular communication and a wireless LAN. However, usability issues arise from the simple interfaces of mobile computing devices. Moreover, retrieving and selecting such content poses safety issues, especially while driving. Thus, it is important for the mobile system to recommend content automatically adapted to user's preference and situation. In this paper, we present the user-adapted program scheduling that generates sequences of content (Program) suiting user's preference and situation based on the Bayesian network and the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) technique. We also describe the design and evaluation of its realization system, the Personal Program Producer (P3). First, preference such as a genre ratio of content in a program is learned as a Bayesian network model using simple operations such as a skip behavior. A model including each content tends to become large-scale. In order to make it small, we present the model separation method that carries out losslessly compression of the model. Using the model, probabilistic distributions of preference to generate constraints are inferred. Finally satisfying the constraints, a program is produced. This kind of CSP has an issue of which the number of variables is not fixedness. In order to make it variable, we propose a method using metavariables. To evaluate the above methods, we applied them to P3 on a car navigation system. User evaluations helped us clarify that the P3 can produce the program that a user prefers and adapt it to the user.

  7. Changes in Social Capital and Networks: A Study of Community-Based Environmental Management through a School-Centered Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Teresa; Leahy, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science research tool that has not been applied to educational programs. This analysis is critical to documenting the changes in social capital and networks that result from community based K-12 educational collaborations. We review SNA and show an application of this technique in a school-centered,…

  8. Building an Online Community: Student Teachers' Perceptions on the Advantages of Using Social Networking Services in a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Akhmad; Mukinin, Amirul; Riyanto, Yatim; Prasohjo, Lantip Diat; Sulistiyo, Urip; Sofwan, Muhammad; Saudagar, Ferdiaz

    2018-01-01

    This inquiry examined student teachers' perceptions on the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS) in an English teacher education program at a public university in Jambi, Indonesia to ease the communication, supervision, discussion, and report submissions between supervisors and student teachers. The networking types included in the…

  9. Data systems and computer science: Neural networks base R/T program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sandeep

    1991-01-01

    The research base, in the U.S. and abroad, for the development of neural network technology is discussed. The technical objectives are to develop and demonstrate adaptive, neural information processing concepts. The leveraging of external funding is also discussed.

  10. Innovation in Innovation Management: The Experience of Petrobras Centers and Networks of Excellence Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Britto Pires

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, Petrobras – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., the biggest company in Latin America, has supported the development of a method to structure networks of partnerships called Centers and Networks of Excellence Practice (PCREX. It aims to support the establishment of centers and networks of excellence in areas in which innovation depends heavily on the articulation of various players from outside the company and different internal areas. This article presents the results of the analysis of the PCREX method, including its characterization and field research carried out in eight Centers and Networks of Excellence developed by Petrobras. The field research and subsequent analysis helped identify (i the alignment between the PCREX method and the best innovation management practices and (ii the difficulties faced by new management models based on resource and knowledge sharing, which highlights that organizational innovations need to be able to count on strong institutional support to succeed.

  11. Algorithm and Program for Calculation and Analysis of Modes and Losses of Electric Energy in Electricity Distribution Networks of 6–20 kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A refined mathematical model and algorithm for operative control of the modes and detection of energy loss sites in electricity distribution networks of 6–20 kV have been developed in the paper. The developed software program can be used for testing other technical solutions and computer programs pertaining to the area of research and it is considered as one of the most important components applied for creation of intellectual electric networks.

  12. Legacy of Polio-Use of India's Social Mobilization Network for Strengthening of the Universal Immunization Program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nicole; Singh, Prem; Singh, Vivek; Curtis, Rod; Siddique, Anisur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    The Social Mobilization Network (SMNet) has been lauded as one of the most successsful community engagement strategies in public health for its role in polio elimination in India. The UNICEF-managed SMNet was created as a strategy to eradicate polio by engaging >7000 frontline social mobilizers to advocate for vaccination in some of the most underserved, marginalized, and at-risk communities in India. This network focused initially on generating demand for polio vaccination but later expanded its messaging to promote routine immunization and other health and sanitation interventions related to maternal and children's health. As an impact of the network's interventions, in collaboration with other eradication efforts, these high-risk pockets witnessed an increase in full routine immunization coverage. The experience of the SMNet offers lessons for health-system strengthening for social mobilization and promoting positive health behaviors for other priority health programs like the Universal Immunization Program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  14. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  15. AC Transmission Network Expansion Planning: A Semidefinite Programming Branch-and-Cut Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaddar, Bissan; Jabr, Rabih

    2017-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning is a mixed-integer optimization problem, whose solution is used to guide future investment in transmission equipment. An approach is presented to find the global solution of the transmission planning problem using an AC network model. The approach builds on the semidefinite relaxation of the AC optimal power flow problem (ACOPF); its computational engine is a new specialized branch-and-cut algorithm for transmission expansion planning to deal with the u...

  16. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  17. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  18. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for the Design of Remanufacturing Closed–loop Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbarek Elbounjimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop supply chain network design is a critical issue due to its impact on both economic and environmental performances of the supply chain. In this paper, we address the problem of designing a multi-echelon, multi-product and capacitated closed-loop supply chain network. First, a mixed-integer linear programming formulation is developed to maximize the total profit. The main contribution of the proposed model is addressing two economic viability issues of closed-loop supply chain. The first issue is the collection of sufficient quantity of end-of-life products are assured by retailers against an acquisition price. The second issue is exploiting the benefits of colocation of forward facilities and reverse facilities. The presented model is solved by LINGO for some test problems. Computational results and sensitivity analysis are conducted to show the performance of the proposed model.

  19. The design, implementation, and operational management of a comprehensive quality management program to support national telehealth networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkins, Adam; Foster, Linda; Anderson, Carla; Goldschmidt, Leonard; Selvin, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a large integrated healthcare system with a mission to care for over 5.6 million Veteran patients annually. VHA, like other healthcare organizations, is challenged with providing access to care to those it serves when they live at a distance from a physical site of care. VHA has embraced telehealth as a way of delivering care at a distance and increase access to specialty care services. Since 2003 VHA has developed large national telehealth networks that provided care to 497,342 patients in fiscal year 2012, who received 1,429,424 episodes of care, and is recognized as a national leader in this field. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of its telehealth networks in their delivery of care VHA has implemented a dedicated quality management (QM) program for telehealth. QM data for telehealth are reviewed at 3-month intervals, and the procedures and processes in place to support telehealth in VHA are assessed biannually in an internal accreditation process called "Telehealth Conditions of Participation." This collegial, nonadversarial process has ensured that all designated telehealth programs meet minimal standards and disseminate best practice. As a result of VHA's QM program, telehealth services in VHA meet consistently high clinical outcomes and have received no adverse Joint Commission citations. The Joint Commission regularly assesses patients managed via telehealth under its tracer methodology reviews.

  20. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  1. Reconstruction of cellular signal transduction networks using perturbation assays and linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Bettina; Kaderali, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Perturbation experiments for example using RNA interference (RNAi) offer an attractive way to elucidate gene function in a high throughput fashion. The placement of hit genes in their functional context and the inference of underlying networks from such data, however, are challenging tasks. One of the problems in network inference is the exponential number of possible network topologies for a given number of genes. Here, we introduce a novel mathematical approach to address this question. We formulate network inference as a linear optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently even for large-scale systems. We use simulated data to evaluate our approach, and show improved performance in particular on larger networks over state-of-the art methods. We achieve increased sensitivity and specificity, as well as a significant reduction in computing time. Furthermore, we show superior performance on noisy data. We then apply our approach to study the intracellular signaling of human primary nave CD4(+) T-cells, as well as ErbB signaling in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells. In both cases, our approach recovers known interactions and points to additional relevant processes. In ErbB signaling, our results predict an important role of negative and positive feedback in controlling the cell cycle progression.

  2. Reconstruction of cellular signal transduction networks using perturbation assays and linear programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Knapp

    Full Text Available Perturbation experiments for example using RNA interference (RNAi offer an attractive way to elucidate gene function in a high throughput fashion. The placement of hit genes in their functional context and the inference of underlying networks from such data, however, are challenging tasks. One of the problems in network inference is the exponential number of possible network topologies for a given number of genes. Here, we introduce a novel mathematical approach to address this question. We formulate network inference as a linear optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently even for large-scale systems. We use simulated data to evaluate our approach, and show improved performance in particular on larger networks over state-of-the art methods. We achieve increased sensitivity and specificity, as well as a significant reduction in computing time. Furthermore, we show superior performance on noisy data. We then apply our approach to study the intracellular signaling of human primary nave CD4(+ T-cells, as well as ErbB signaling in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells. In both cases, our approach recovers known interactions and points to additional relevant processes. In ErbB signaling, our results predict an important role of negative and positive feedback in controlling the cell cycle progression.

  3. Social/Electronic Media Use of Children and Adolescents Who Attend the Pediatric Weight Management Programs of the COMPASS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Fals, Angela; Mirza, Nazrat; Datto, George; Stratbucker, William; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Christison, Amy; Wang, Yu; Woolford, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a major healthcare problem in youth and their social/electronic media (SEM) use has been described as a risk factor. Though much is known about the newer technologies youth use to communicate, little is known about what is used by those in weight management programs. The aim of this study was to determine what types of SEM, including sedentary and active video games, youth in weight management programs use and which they prefer for communicating with healthcare providers. This was a multisite study using a 24-question online SurveyMonkey® questionnaire. Youth, 12-17 years old, attending pediatric weight management programs at seven participating centers in the Childhood Obesity Multi Program Analysis and Study System network were eligible. There were 292 responders with a mean age of 14.2 years. Fifty-four percent were female, 36% Caucasian, 35% African American, and 33% were Hispanic. Ninety-four percent had access to a computer, 71% had Internet access, and 63% had smartphones. Whereas 87% had at least one gaming system at home, 50% reported they never played sedentary video games (71% of females vs. 25% males; p social media (6%). Face-to-face communication with healthcare providers is the preferred method for youth in pediatric weight management programs. They self-reported video game use less than previously described.

  4. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  5. A linear programming approach for estimating the structure of a sparse linear genetic network from transcript profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nagasuma R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genetic network can be represented as a directed graph in which a node corresponds to a gene and a directed edge specifies the direction of influence of one gene on another. The reconstruction of such networks from transcript profiling data remains an important yet challenging endeavor. A transcript profile specifies the abundances of many genes in a biological sample of interest. Prevailing strategies for learning the structure of a genetic network from high-dimensional transcript profiling data assume sparsity and linearity. Many methods consider relatively small directed graphs, inferring graphs with up to a few hundred nodes. This work examines large undirected graphs representations of genetic networks, graphs with many thousands of nodes where an undirected edge between two nodes does not indicate the direction of influence, and the problem of estimating the structure of such a sparse linear genetic network (SLGN from transcript profiling data. Results The structure learning task is cast as a sparse linear regression problem which is then posed as a LASSO (l1-constrained fitting problem and solved finally by formulating a Linear Program (LP. A bound on the Generalization Error of this approach is given in terms of the Leave-One-Out Error. The accuracy and utility of LP-SLGNs is assessed quantitatively and qualitatively using simulated and real data. The Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM initiative provides gold standard data sets and evaluation metrics that enable and facilitate the comparison of algorithms for deducing the structure of networks. The structures of LP-SLGNs estimated from the INSILICO1, INSILICO2 and INSILICO3 simulated DREAM2 data sets are comparable to those proposed by the first and/or second ranked teams in the DREAM2 competition. The structures of LP-SLGNs estimated from two published Saccharomyces cerevisae cell cycle transcript profiling data sets capture known

  6. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Outcomes and Metrics of Pharmacogenetic Implementations Across Diverse Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzum, J A; Pakyz, R E; Elsey, A R; Haidar, C E; Peterson, J F; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Handelman, S K; Palmer, K; Pulley, J M; Beller, M; Schildcrout, J S; Field, J R; Weitzel, K W; Cooper-DeHoff, R M; Cavallari, L H; O'Donnell, P H; Altman, R B; Pereira, N; Ratain, M J; Roden, D M; Embi, P J; Sadee, W; Klein, T E; Johnson, J A; Relling, M V; Wang, L; Weinshilboum, R M; Shuldiner, A R; Freimuth, R R

    2017-09-01

    Numerous pharmacogenetic clinical guidelines and recommendations have been published, but barriers have hindered the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics. The Translational Pharmacogenetics Program (TPP) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pharmacogenomics Research Network was established in 2011 to catalog and contribute to the development of pharmacogenetic implementations at eight US healthcare systems, with the goal to disseminate real-world solutions for the barriers to clinical pharmacogenetic implementation. The TPP collected and normalized pharmacogenetic implementation metrics through June 2015, including gene-drug pairs implemented, interpretations of alleles and diplotypes, numbers of tests performed and actionable results, and workflow diagrams. TPP participant institutions developed diverse solutions to overcome many barriers, but the use of Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines provided some consistency among the institutions. The TPP also collected some pharmacogenetic implementation outcomes (scientific, educational, financial, and informatics), which may inform healthcare systems seeking to implement their own pharmacogenetic testing programs. © 2017, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Routing UAVs to Co-Optimize Mission Effectiveness and Network Performance with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    OSPF versus routing using a CDS approximation .................................... 27 Networked UAS C3 Architecture [25...were to simply travel in the direction of its ultimate destination using an open shortest path first ( OSPF ) algorithm, the resulting path cost would...Routing using OSPF versus routing using a CDS approximation Figure 7: Routing using OSPF versus routing using a CDS approximation 28 Analysis from

  8. Work Study Program Provides Revenue to School and Experience to Students: Cristo Rey Network, Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-two Catholic Cristo Rey schools, all independently owned and operated, serve 9,953 students in grades 9-12. Cristo Rey calls itself "the largest network of high schools in the United States whose enrollment is limited to low-income youth." Students' average family income is $35,000; 97 percent are students of color. To fund the…

  9. Largenet2: an object-oriented programming library for simulating large adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschaler, Gerd; Gross, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    The largenet2 C++ library provides an infrastructure for the simulation of large dynamic and adaptive networks with discrete node and link states. The library is released as free software. It is available at http://biond.github.com/largenet2. Largenet2 is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. gerd@biond.org

  10. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  11. Training programs within global networks: lessons learned in the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Catherine L; Heimburger, Douglas C; Schlachter, Sarah; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Warner, Tokesha L; Vermund, Sten H

    2014-01-01

    The Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Support Center at Vanderbilt describes administrative lessons learned from the management of 436 scholars (American students or host country junior trainees) and 122 post-doctoral fellows (Americans or host country nationals). Trainees spent 10-11 months working on mentored research projects at 61 well-vetted sites in 27 low- or middle-income host countries (LMICs) with strong US partners. Economies of scale, strong centralized information exchange, and effective standardized operations linking US institutions with LMIC field sites were achieved in a program that minimized administrative overhead. Advantages and drawbacks of this approach are presented and discussed. Training of a new generation of global research leaders is greatly facilitated by an overseas mentored research experience that is administratively streamlined to optimize the use of resources for training, research, and capacity building.

  12. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.

  13. A Social Network Analysis of 140 Community-Academic Partnerships for Health: Examining the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Zeno E; Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl A; DeFino, Mia C; Brewer, Devon D

    2015-08-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides an important, underutilized approach to evaluating Community Academic Partnerships for Health (CAPHs). This study examines administrative data from 140 CAPHs funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP). Funder data was normalized to maximize number of interconnections between funded projects and 318 non-redundant community partner organizations in a dual mode analysis, examining the period from 2003-2013.Two strategic planning periods, 2003-2008 vs. 2009-2014, allowed temporal comparison. Connectivity of the network was largely unchanged over time, with most projects and partner organizations connected to a single large component in both time periods. Inter-partner ties formed in HWPP projects were transient. Most community partners were only involved in projects during one strategic time period. Community organizations participating in both time periods were involved in significantly more projects during the first time period than partners participating in the first time period only (Cohen's d = 0.93). This approach represents a significant step toward using objective (non-survey) data for large clusters of health partnerships and has implications for translational science in community settings. Considerations for government, funders, and communities are offered. Examining partnerships within health priority areas, orphaned projects, and faculty ties to these networks are areas for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development of a New Aprepitant Liquisolid Formulation with the Aid of Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Grypioti, Agni; Eleftheriadis, Georgios K; Fatouros, Dimitris G

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, liquisolid formulations were developed for improving dissolution profile of aprepitant (APT) in a solid dosage form. Experimental studies were complemented with artificial neural networks and genetic programming. Specifically, the type and concentration of liquid vehicle was evaluated through saturation-solubility studies, while the effect of the amount of viscosity increasing agent (HPMC), the type of wetting (Soluplus® vs. PVP) and solubilizing (Poloxamer®407 vs. Kolliphor®ELP) agents, and the ratio of solid coating (microcrystalline cellulose) to carrier (colloidal silicon dioxide) were evaluated based on in vitro drug release studies. The optimum liquisolid formulation exhibited improved dissolution characteristics compared to the marketed product Emend®. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a novel method combining particle size analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and HPLC, revealed that the increase in dissolution rate of APT in the optimum liquisolid formulation was due to the formation of stable APT nanocrystals. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) revealed the presence of intermolecular interactions between APT and liquisolid formulation excipients. Multilinear regression analysis (MLR), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and genetic programming (GP) were used to correlate several formulation variables with dissolution profile parameters (Y 15min and Y 30min) using a full factorial experimental design. Results showed increased correlation efficacy for ANNs and GP (RMSE of 0.151 and 0.273, respectively) compared to MLR (RMSE = 0.413).

  15. The Innovative Technology Deployment (ITD)/ Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) Program, 2016 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    On December 4, 2015, the Fixing Americas Surface Transportation Act, 2015 (FAST Act) (Pub. L. 114-94) established the Innovative Technology Deployment (ITD) Grant Program, replacing the long-standing Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Netw...

  16. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  17. CCITT Study Group XVIII Work Program 1981-1984; (Integrated Services Digital Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    new transmission media including optical fibre, coaxial and radio systems will be used as appropriate. 10. Customer/network signalling Digital accese...Subscriber Line implemented using very wide bandwidth transmission media (such as fiber optic links) the possibility of the inclusion of video bandwidth...kind of noise does not present a great infuence on subjective osessments, while it is more important, for the overall noise object-ve =easurenent

  18. An integer programming model and benchmark suite for liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfstedt, Berit; Alvarez, Jose Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    Maritime transportation is accountable for 2.7% of the worlds CO2 emissions and the liner shipping industry is committed to a slow steaming policy to provide low cost and environmentally conscious global transport of goods without compromising the level of service. The potential for making cost...... effective and energy efficient liner shipping networks using operations research is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon operations research has enhanced performance of both airlines, railways and general transportation companies, but within the field of liner...

  19. Aircraft optical cable plant program plan: the approach for the physical layer for fly-by-light control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits. Among them are increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability by redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. Over the past two decades, considerable effort has been expended on applying photonic technologies to aircraft. Great successes have occurred in optoelectronic components development. In the development of these systems to link those components, known as the cable plant, progress has also been made, but only recently has it been organized in a coordinated, systems-oriented fashion. The FLASH program will expand on the nascent cable plant systems efforts by building upon recent work in individual components, and integrating that work into a cohesive aircraft cable plant. Therefore, the FLASH program will develop the low cost, reliable cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, test methods, support equipment, and training systems needed to form a true optical cable plant for transport aircraft, tactical aircraft, and helicopters.

  20. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  1. MOEPGA: A novel method to detect protein complexes in yeast protein-protein interaction networks based on MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Buwen; Luo, Jiawei; Liang, Cheng; Wang, Shulin; Song, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The identification of protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has greatly advanced our understanding of biological organisms. Existing computational methods to detect protein complexes are usually based on specific network topological properties of PPI networks. However, due to the inherent complexity of the network structures, the identification of protein complexes may not be fully addressed by using single network topological property. In this study, we propose a novel MultiObjective Evolutionary Programming Genetic Algorithm (MOEPGA) which integrates multiple network topological features to detect biologically meaningful protein complexes. Our approach first systematically analyzes the multiobjective problem in terms of identifying protein complexes from PPI networks, and then constructs the objective function of the iterative algorithm based on three common topological properties of protein complexes from the benchmark dataset, finally we describe our algorithm, which mainly consists of three steps, population initialization, subgraph mutation and subgraph selection operation. To show the utility of our method, we compared MOEPGA with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two yeast PPI datasets. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only find more protein complexes but also achieve higher accuracy in terms of fscore. Moreover, our approach can cover a certain number of proteins in the input PPI network in terms of the normalized clustering score. Taken together, our method can serve as a powerful framework to detect protein complexes in yeast PPI networks, thereby facilitating the identification of the underlying biological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Assessment of laboratory diagnostic network in the implementation of the Program for Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control in São Paulo State, Brazil, 1997-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Cristiano Corrêa de Azevedo; Carvalheiro, José da Rocha

    2017-01-01

    to assess the performance of the diagnostic network in the implementation process of the Program for Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control in São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2012. evaluation study based on documentary research and structured interviews, combined with a historical series analysis of indicators developed to assess the implementation process of the program, using data from the Department of the Brazilian National Health System. from 1997 to 2012, the serology, biopsy and molecular biology diagnostic networks showed an increase in the coefficients of coverage of 7.4, 7.3, and 62.0 times, respectively, with an increase in cases detection and treatment access. despite the effective implementation of the diagnostic network, there is a need to review the search strategy for new cases, and access to liver biopsy, still insufficient to the program demand.

  3. GIS Application to Define Biomass Collection Points as Sources for Linear Programming of Delivery Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2009-01-01

    Much bio-energy can be obtained from wood pruning operations in forests and fruit orchards. Several spatial studies have been carried out for biomass surveys, and many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models can assist in determining

  4. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing through Quadratic Programming for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2015-01-01

    ) calculates dynamic tariffs and publishes them to the aggregators, who make the optimal energy plans for the flexible demands. The DLMP through QP instead of linear programing as studied in previous literatures solves the multiple solution issue of the ag- gregator optimization which may cause...

  5. Ab initio Algorithmic Causal Deconvolution of Intertwined Programs and Networks by Generative Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2018-02-18

    To extract and learn representations leading to generative mechanisms from data, especially without making arbitrary decisions and biased assumptions, is a central challenge in most areas of scientific research particularly in connection to current major limitations of influential topics and methods of machine and deep learning as they have often lost sight of the model component. Complex data is usually produced by interacting sources with different mechanisms. Here we introduce a parameter-free model-based approach, based upon the seminal concept of Algorithmic Probability, that decomposes an observation and signal into its most likely algorithmic generative mechanisms. Our methods use a causal calculus to infer model representations. We demonstrate the method ability to distinguish interacting mechanisms and deconvolve them, regardless of whether the objects produce strings, space-time evolution diagrams, images or networks. We numerically test and evaluate our method and find that it can disentangle observations from discrete dynamic systems, random and complex networks. We think that these causal inference techniques can contribute as key pieces of information for estimations of probability distributions complementing other more statistical-oriented techniques that otherwise lack model inference capabilities.

  6. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool network: A multi-institution program to reduce nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Elizabeth A.; Leah, Allison M.; Leary, Neal; Baron, Jill; Compton, Jana E.; Galloway, James N.; Hastings, Meredith G.; Kimiecik, Jacob; Lantz-Trissel, Jonathan; de la Riguera, Elizabeth; Ryals, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper uses the nitrogen footprint tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals. In this paper, the first seven completed institution nitrogen footprint results are presented. The institution NFT network aims to develop footprints for many institutions to encourage widespread upper-level management strategies that will create significant reductions in reactive nitrogen released to the environment. Energy use and food purchases are the two largest sectors contributing to institution nitrogen footprints. Ongoing efforts by institutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also help to reduce the nitrogen footprint, but the impact of food production on nitrogen pollution has not been directly addressed by the higher-ed sustainability community. The NFT Network found that institutions could reduce their nitrogen footprints by optimizing food purchasing to reduce consumption of animal products and minimize food waste, as well as reducing dependence on fossil fuels for energy.

  7. Energy Effciency of Particle Accelerators - A Networking Effort within the EUCARD2 Program

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Gehring, R; Jensen, E; Parker, T; Seidel, M

    2014-01-01

    EuCARD is an Integrating Activity Project for coordinated Research and Development on Particle Accelerators, co-funded by the European Commission under the FP7 Capacities Programme. Within the network EnEfficient [1] we address topics around energy efficiency of research accelerators. The ambitious scientific research goals of modern accelerator facilities lead to high requirements in beam power and beam quality for those research accelerators. In conjunction with the user’s needs the power consumption and environmental impact of the research facilities becomes a major factor in the perception of both funding agencies and the general public. In this Network we combine and focus the R&D done individually at different research centers into a series of workshops. We cover the topics “Energy recovery from cooling circuits “, “Higher electronic efficiency RF power generation“, “Short term energy storage systems”, “Virtual power plants” and “Beam transfer channels with low power consumption�...

  8. Sustaining Employability: A Process for Introducing Cloud Computing, Big Data, Social Networks, Mobile Programming and Cybersecurity into Academic Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bologa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a process for introducing modern technological subjects into the academic curricula of non-technical universities. The process described may increase and contribute to social sustainability by enabling non-technical students’ access to the field of the Internet of Things and the broader Industry 4.0. The process has been defined and tested during a curricular reform project that took place in two large universities in Eastern Europe. In this article, the authors describe the results and impact, over multiple years, of a project financed by the European Union that aimed to introduce the following subjects into the academic curricula of business students: cloud computing, big data, mobile programming, and social networks and cybersecurity (CAMSS. The results are useful for those trying to implement similar curricular reforms, or to companies that need to manage talent pipelines.

  9. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people’s behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community......This paper provides an example of the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located...... to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The paper draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way...

  10. Consumer Loyalty and Loyalty Programs: a topographic examination of the scientific literature using bibliometrics, spatial statistics and network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Moura Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a topographic analysis of the fields of consumer loyalty and loyalty programs, vastly studied in the last decades and still relevant in the marketing literature. After the identification of 250 scientific papers that were published in the last ten years in indexed journals, a subset of 76 were chosen and their 3223 references were extracted. The journals in which these papers were published, their key words, abstracts, authors, institutions of origin and citation patterns were identified and analyzed using bibliometrics, spatial statistics techniques and network analyses. The results allow the identification of the central components of the field, as well as its main authors, journals, institutions and countries that intermediate the diffusion of knowledge, which contributes to the understanding of the constitution of the field by researchers and students.

  11. Development of a program for tele-rehabilitation of COPD patients across sectors: co-innovation in a network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Dinesen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the Telekat project is to prevent re-admissions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by developing a preventive programof tele-rehabilitation across sectors for COPD patients. The development of the program is based on a co-innovation process between COPD patients, relatives, healthcare professionals and representatives from private firms and universities. This paper discusses theobstacles that arise in the co-innovation process of developing an integrated technique for tele-rehabilitation of COPD patients.Theory: Network and innovation theory.Methods: The casestudy was applied. A triangulation of data collection techniques was used: documents, observations (123 hours, qualitative interviews (n=32 and action research.Findings: Obstacles were identified in the network context; these obstacles included the mindset of the healthcare professionals, inter-professionals relations, views of technology as a tool and competing visions for the goals of tele-rehabilitation.Conclusion: We have identified obstacles that emerge in the co-innovation process when developing a programme for tele-rehabilitation of COPD patients in an inter-organizational context. Action research has been carried out and can have helped to facilitate the co-innovation process.

  12. Using Generalized Annotated Programs to Solve Social Network Diffusion Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    entropy. Artificial Intelligence 157, 1-2, 139–202. KHULLER, S., MARTINEZ, M. V., NAU, D. S., SLIVA, A., SIMARI, G. I., AND SUBRAHMANIAN, V. S. 2007...Computing most probable worlds of action probabilistic logic programs: scalable estimation for 1030, 000 worlds. Ann. Math. Artif . Intell. 51, 2-4...application in link discovery. In IJCAI. 2462–2467. ROTH, D. 1996. On the hardness of approximate reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 82, 273–302. RYCHTÁŘ, J

  13. Changes in Social Capital and Networks: A Study of Community-Based Environmental Management Through a School-Centered Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Teresa; Leahy, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science research tool that has not been applied to educational programs. This analysis is critical to documenting the changes in social capital and networks that result from community based K-12 educational collaborations. We review SNA and show an application of this technique in a school-centered, community based environmental monitoring research (CBEMR) program. This CBEMR employs K-12 students, state and local government employees, environmental organization representatives, local businesses, colleges, and community volunteers. As citizen scientists and researchers, collaborators create a database of local groundwater quality to use as a baseline for long-term environmental health management and public education. Past studies have evaluated the reliability of data generated by students acting as scientists, but there have been few studies relating to power dynamics, social capital, and resilience in school-centered CBEMR programs. We use qualitative and quantitative data gathered from a science education program conducted in five states in the northeastern United States. SPSS and NVivo data were derived from semi-structured interviews with thirty-nine participants before and after their participation in the CBEMR. Pajek software was used to determine participant centralities and power brokers within networks. Results indicate that there were statistically significant increases in social capital and resilience in social networks after participation in the school-centered CBEMR program leading to an increased community involvement in environmental health management. Limiting factors to the CBMER were based on the educator/administration relationship.

  14. Co-authorship Network Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Strategic Planning of Research, Development and Capacity Building Programs on Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Background New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Conclusions/Significance Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more

  15. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-08-18

    New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more consistent engagement of institutions and authors from endemic regions

  16. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medicis Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building

  17. APPLICATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN PROGRAMMING INTELLIGENT ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN PROSUMERS’ HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Horyński

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cloud computing models are provided with increasing a number of new functionalities. The paper describes a laboratory model of intelligent KNX system which makes it possible to test the practical use of cloud computing in components programming for this system. The cloud computing elements were used for this purpose. Innovatory features of services transferred to the cloud computing models consists in the integration of advanced IT techniques and Internet technologies based systems with the users services, in this case with the management of an intelligent building system. The software ETS5 installed on workstation is another important component of the station being discussed.

  18. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  19. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  20. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ 2 = 14.8, P < 0.001). We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas. PMID:25648221

  1. A dynamic programming approach for quickly estimating large network-based MEV models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Tien; Frejinger, Emma; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined by a ro...... to converge (4.3 h on an Intel(R) 3.2 GHz machine using a non-parallelized code). We also show that our approach allows to estimate a cross-nested logit model of 111 nests with a real data set of more than 100,000 observations in 14 h.......We propose a way to estimate a family of static Multivariate Extreme Value (MEV) models with large choice sets in short computational time. The resulting model is also straightforward and fast to use for prediction. Following Daly and Bierlaire (2006), the correlation structure is defined...... by a rooted, directed graph where each node without successor is an alternative. We formulate a family of MEV models as dynamic discrete choice models on graphs of correlation structures and show that the dynamic models are consistent with MEV theory and generalize the network MEV model (Daly and Bierlaire...

  2. Summary report on the Solar Consumer Assurance Network (SOLCAN) Program Planning Task in the southern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, M. B. [comp.

    1981-03-15

    The goal of the SOLCAN Program Planning Task is to assist in the development, at the state and local levels, of consumer assurance approaches that will support the accelerated adoption and effective use of new products promoted by government incentives to consumers to meet our nation's energy needs. The task includes state-conducted evaluations and state SOLCAN meetings to identify consumer assurance mechanisms, assess their effectiveness, and identify and describe alternative means for strengthening consumer and industry assurance in each state. Results of the SOLCAN process are presented, including: a Solar Consumer Protection State Assessment Guide; State Solar Consumer Assurance Resources for Selected States; State Solar Consumer Protection Assessment Interviews for Florida; and state SOLCAN meeting summaries and participants. (LEW)

  3. A parallel program for numerical simulation of discrete fracture network and groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Kalatehjari, Roohollah

    2017-04-01

    The ability of modeling fluid flow in Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is critical to various applications such as exploration of reserves in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide and final disposal of spent nuclear fuels. Although several commerical or acdametic DFN flow simulators are already available (e.g., FracMan and DFNWORKS), challenges in terms of computational efficiency and three-dimensional visualization still remain, which therefore motivates this study for developing a new DFN and flow simulator. A new DFN and flow simulator, DFNbox, was written in C++ under a cross-platform software development framework provided by Qt. DFNBox integrates the following capabilities into a user-friendly drop-down menu interface: DFN simulation and clipping, 3D mesh generation, fracture data analysis, connectivity analysis, flow path analysis and steady-state grounwater flow simulation. All three-dimensional visualization graphics were developed using the free OpenGL API. Similar to other DFN simulators, fractures are conceptualized as random point process in space, with stochastic characteristics represented by orientation, size, transmissivity and aperture. Fracture meshing was implemented by Delaunay triangulation for visualization but not flow simulation purposes. Boundary element method was used for flow simulations such that only unknown head or flux along exterior and interection bounaries are needed for solving the flow field in the DFN. Parallel compuation concept was taken into account in developing DFNbox for calculations that such concept is possible. For example, the time-consuming seqential code for fracture clipping calculations has been completely replaced by a highly efficient parallel one. This can greatly enhance compuational efficiency especially on multi-thread platforms. Furthermore, DFNbox have been successfully tested in Windows and Linux systems with equally-well performance.

  4. Lactation undernutrition leads to multigenerational molecular programming of hypothalamic gene networks controlling reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Monika M; Mendoza, Tamra; Kozak, Leslie P

    2016-05-04

    Reproductive success is dependent on development of hypothalamic circuits involving many hormonal systems working in concert to regulate gonadal function and sexual behavior. The timing of pubertal initiation and progression in mammals is likely influenced by the nutritional and metabolic state, leading us to the hypothesis that transient malnutrition experienced at critical times during development may perturb pubertal progression through successive generations. To test this hypothesis we have utilized a mouse model of undernutrition during suckling by exposing lactating mothers to undernutrition. Using a combination of transcriptomic and biological approaches, we demonstrate that molecular programming of hypothalamus may perturb gender specific phenotypes across generations that are dependent on the nutritional environment of the lactation period. Lactation undernutrition in first (F1) generation offspring affected body composition, reproductive performance parameters and influenced the expression of genes responsible for hypothalamic neural circuits controlling reproductive function of both sexes. Strikingly, F2 offspring showed phenotypes similar to F1 progeny; however, they were sex and parental nutritional history specific. Here, we showed that deregulated expression of genes involved in kisspeptin signaling within the hypothalamus is strongly associated with a delay in the attainment of puberty in F1 and F2 male and female offspring. The early developmental plasticity of hypothalamus when challenged with undernutrition during postnatal development not only leads to altered expression of genes controlling hypothalamic neural circuits, altered body composition, delayed puberty and disturbed reproductive performance in F1 progeny, but also affects F2 offspring, depending on parental malnutrition history and in sexually dimorphic manner.

  5. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  6. Title: Using Video to Enhance a Citizen Science Program: Digital Earth Watch And The Picture Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Beaudry, J.; Schloss, A. L.; Pickle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The DEW Picture Post network offers people the means to make and share their own observations. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of climate change. As a web-based program, it is critical to bring in new participants and to convey technical, scientific, and participant information with little or no human interaction. Once they get going, it is also important to keep participants engaged by getting their feedback as well as by sharing their experiences. This presentation will demonstrate our use of video to enhance the program, in particular the power of video for teaching skills needed to start up and contribute to a picture post, to convey findings and other scientific information collected at picture posts, and to engage participants and the community in an ongoing effort in monitoring and understanding their local environment and changing conditions. A DEW video library is being developed by a collaborative effort led by the University of New Hampshire with the University of Southern Maine, and Concord Academy. We invite individuals, schools, informal education centers, groups and communities to join: visit us atPicture Post is supported by NASA

  7. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: community networks program centers' recruitment in cancer prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, K Allen; Friedman, Daniela B; Adams, Swann Arp; Gwede, Clement K; Cupertino, Paula; Engelman, Kimberly K; Meade, Cathy D; Hébert, James R

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD)-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC), in Florida, Kansas, and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Community-engaged approaches used included establishing colearning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment was actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to more than 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%-100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%-11%). Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities, from strategic planning to project implementation, has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. ©2014 AACR.

  8. A De Novo programming approach for a robust closed-loop supply chain network design under uncertainty: An M/M/1 queueing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarow Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the capacity determination in a closed-loop supply chain network when a queueing system is established in the reverse flow. Since the queueing system imposes costs on the model, the decision maker faces the challenge of determining the capacity of facilities in such a way that a compromise between the queueing costs and the fixed costs of opening new facilities could be obtained. We develop a De Novo programming approach to determine the capacity of recovery facilities in the reverse flow. To this aim, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model is integrated with the De Novo programming and the robust counterpart of this model is proposed to cope with the uncertainty of the parameters. To solve the model, an interactive fuzzy programming approach is combined with the hard worst case robust programming. Numerical results show the performance of the developed model in determining the capacity of facilities.

  9. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK FOR STUDIES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND PERINATAL HEALTH: THE POWER OF COLLABORATION IN POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, José G; Silveira, Carla; Souza, Renato T; Fernandes, Karayna G; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    The scientific collaboration in networks may be developed among countries, academic institutions and among peer researchers. Once established, they contribute for knowledge dissemination and a strong structure for research in health. Several advantages are attributed to working in networks: the inclusion of a higher number of subjects in the studies; generation of stronger evidence with a higher representativeness of the population (secondary generalization and external validity); higher likelihood of articles derived from these studies to be accepted in high impact journals with a wide coverage; a higher likelihood of obtaining budgets for sponsorship; easier data collection on rare conditions; inclusions of subjects from different ethnic groups and cultures, among others. In Brazil, the Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health was created in 2008 with the initial purpose of developing a national network of scientific cooperation for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity. Since the establishment of this Network, five studies were developed, some of them already finished and others almost being completed, and two new ones being implemented. Results of the activities in this Network have been very productive and with a positive impact on not only the Postgraduate Program of Obstetrics and Gynecology from the University of Campinas, its coordinating center, but also on other participating centers. A considerable number of scientific articles was published, master´s dissertations and PhD theses were presented, and post-doctorate programs were performed, including students from several areas of health, from distinct regions and from several institutions of the whole country. This represents a high social impact taking into account the relevance of the studied topics for the country. As colaborações científicas em rede podem ocorrer entre países, instituições acadêmicas e entre pares de pesquisadores e, uma vez estabelecidas

  10. From Heuristic to Mathematical Modeling of Drugs Dissolution Profiles: Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Aleksander; Güres, Sinan; Jachowicz, Renata; Szlęk, Jakub; Polak, Sebastian; Wiśniowska, Barbara; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a mathematical model of the drug dissolution (Q) from the solid lipid extrudates based on the empirical approach. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP) tools were used. Sensitivity analysis of ANNs provided reduction of the original input vector. GP allowed creation of the mathematical equation in two major approaches: (1) direct modeling of Q versus extrudate diameter (d) and the time variable (t) and (2) indirect modeling through Weibull equation. ANNs provided also information about minimum achievable generalization error and the way to enhance the original dataset used for adjustment of the equations' parameters. Two inputs were found important for the drug dissolution: d and t. The extrudates length (L) was found not important. Both GP modeling approaches allowed creation of relatively simple equations with their predictive performance comparable to the ANNs (root mean squared error (RMSE) from 2.19 to 2.33). The direct mode of GP modeling of Q versus d and t resulted in the most robust model. The idea of how to combine ANNs and GP in order to escape ANNs' black-box drawback without losing their superior predictive performance was demonstrated. Open Source software was used to deliver the state-of-the-art models and modeling strategies.

  11. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  12. Solid dispersions in the development of a nimodipine floating tablet formulation and optimization by artificial neural networks and genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Georgarakis, Emanouil

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of nimodipine-polyethylene glycol solid dispersions for the development of effervescent controlled release floating tablet formulations. The physical state of the dispersed nimodipine in the polymer matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and polarized light microscopy, and the mixture proportions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), effervescent agents (EFF) and nimodipine were optimized in relation to drug release (% release at 60 min, and time at which the 90% of the drug was dissolved) and floating properties (tablet's floating strength and duration), employing a 25-run D-optimal mixture design combined with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP). It was found that nimodipine exists as mod I microcrystals in the solid dispersions and is stable for at least a three-month period. The tablets showed good floating properties and controlled release profiles, with drug release proceeding via the concomitant operation of swelling and erosion of the polymer matrix. ANNs and GP both proved to be efficient tools in the optimization of the tablet formulation, and the global optimum formulation suggested by the GP equations consisted of PEG=9%, PVP=30%, HPMC=36%, EFF=11%, nimodipine=14%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integer-linear-programing optimization in scalable video multicast with adaptive modulation and coding in wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  14. A Double-Deck Elevator Group Supervisory Control System with Destination Floor Guidance System Using Genetic Network Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.

  15. A pilot program to evaluate deceased donor disease transmission risk: the New York Organ Donor Network Infectious Disease Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett Madan, Rebecca; Delli Carpini, Kristin; Huprikar, Shirish; Lerner, Harvey; Patel, Gopi; Ratner, Lloyd E; Goldstein, Michael J; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-10-27

    Recent cases of donor-derived infections raise the question of how best to screen donors without excessive restriction of the donor pool. The New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) established an Infectious Diseases Working Group (IDWG) in 2008, which established an on-call schedule of voluntary transplant infectious disease physicians to provide remote evaluations for donors at increased risk for disease transmission. Data were reviewed from 40 available IDWG evaluations from 2008 to 2011. Eighteen cases (45%) were considered to be at unacceptable risk for infection transmission. Sixteen of these cases were excluded from donation secondary to IDWG recommendation; there was limited recipient center interest in the remaining two cases. Approximately 22 (55%) cases were categorized by the IDWG as acceptable, with 14 proceeding to recovery of 49 organs. IDWG physician recommendations were conveyed to recipient centers, and screening guidelines for donors were revised based on the IDWG experiences. Establishment of a donation service area disease transmission evaluation service is a valuable program for donor screening and may promote dissemination of more detailed donor information to recipient centers.

  16. A mixed integer linear programming model for operational planning of a biodiesel supply chain network from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonrinaldi, Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh; Salastino, Rades

    2017-11-01

    Environmental consciousness has paid many attention nowadays. It is not only about how to recycle, remanufacture or reuse used end products but it is also how to optimize the operations of the reverse system. A previous research has proposed a design of reverse supply chain of biodiesel network from used cooking oil. However, the research focused on the design of the supply chain strategy not the operations of the supply chain. It only decided how to design the structure of the supply chain in the next few years, and the process of each stage will be conducted in the supply chain system in general. The supply chain system has not considered operational policies to be conducted by the companies in the supply chain. Companies need a policy for each stage of the supply chain operations to be conducted so as to produce the optimal supply chain system, including how to use all the resources that have been designed in order to achieve the objectives of the supply chain system. Therefore, this paper proposes a model to optimize the operational planning of a biodiesel supply chain network from used cooking oil. A mixed integer linear programming is developed to model the operational planning of biodiesel supply chain in order to minimize the total operational cost of the supply chain. Based on the implementation of the model developed, the total operational cost of the biodiesel supply chain incurred by the system is less than the total operational cost of supply chain based on the previous research during seven days of operational planning about amount of 2,743,470.00 or 0.186%. Production costs contributed to 74.6 % of total operational cost and the cost of purchasing the used cooking oil contributed to 24.1 % of total operational cost. So, the system should pay more attention to these two aspects as changes in the value of these aspects will cause significant effects to the change in the total operational cost of the supply chain.

  17. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. Supplement to the President’s Budget for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    framework and mechanisms for coordination among Federal agencies that support R&D in advanced networking and information technology . The NITRD...Supplement describes the FY 2011 networking and information technology R&D plans and current technical and coordination activities of the 13 Federal member...This Supplement to the President’s Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information

  18. Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the

  19. Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer

  20. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    are treated empirically with broad spectrum antibiotics. The drug resistance profiles, especially of gonorrhea , is largely unknown. In partnership...and Kahawa barracks clinic with symptoms suggestive of gonorrhoea are offered anonymous screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia 11 (GC

  1. Effect of the Network Structure and Programming Temperature on the Shape-Memory Response of Thiol-Epoxy “Click” Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Belmonte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology to develop “thiol-epoxy” shape-memory polymers (SMPs with enhanced mechanical properties in a simple and efficient manner via “click” chemistry by using thermal latent initiators. The shape-memory response (SMR, defined by the mechanical capabilities of the SMP (high ultimate strength and strain, the shape-fixation and the recovery of the original shape (shape-recovery, was analyzed on thiol-epoxy systems by varying the network structure and programming temperature. The glass transition temperature (Tg and crosslinking density were modified using 3- or 4- functional thiol curing agents and different amounts of a rigid triglycidyl isocyanurate compound. The relationship between the thermo-mechanical properties, network structure and the SMR was evidenced by means of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The influence of the programming temperature (Tprog on the SMR was also analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring SMPs with enhanced mechanical capabilities and excellent SMR, and intend to provide a better insight into the relationship between the network structure properties, programming temperature and the SMR of unconstrained (stress-free systems; thus, making it easier to decide between different SMP and to define the operative parameters in the useful life.

  2. Programming an Artificial Neural Network Tool for Spatial Interpolation in GIS - A Case Study for Indoor Radio Wave Propagation of WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Bulucu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication networks offer subscribers the possibilities of free mobility and access to information anywhere at any time. Therefore, electromagnetic coverage calculations are important for wireless mobile communication systems, especially in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs. Before any propagation computation is performed, modeling of indoor radio wave propagation needs accurate geographical information in order to avoid the interruption of data transmissions. Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial interpolation techniques are very efficient for performing indoor radio wave propagation modeling. This paper describes the spatial interpolation of electromagnetic field measurements using a feed-forward back-propagation neural network programmed as a tool in GIS. The accuracy of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and geostatistical Kriging were compared by adjusting procedures. The feedforward back-propagation ANN provides adequate accuracy for spatial interpolation, but the predictions of Kriging interpolation are more accurate than the selected ANN. The proposed GIS ensures indoor radio wave propagation model and electromagnetic coverage, the number, position and transmitter power of access points and electromagnetic radiation level. Pollution analysis in a given propagation environment was done and it was demonstrated that WLAN (2.4 GHz electromagnetic coverage does not lead to any electromagnetic pollution due to the low power levels used. Example interpolated electromagnetic field values for WLAN system in a building of Yildiz Technical University, Turkey, were generated using the selected network architectures to illustrate the results with an ANN.

  3. Programmed cell death during early development of the nervous system, modelled by pruning in a neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, JE; vanHeijst, JJ; Greuters, S; Silva, FL; Principe, JC; Almeida, LB

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network model is presented in which the development is simulated of a baby's ability to control movement of his forearm around the elbow, until he is capable of goal-directed reaching. The neural network implementation provides the facility to change the number of nodes (or

  4. [Selection of peer educators for sex education program-based on data from social network analysis among college freshmen students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Deng, H; Yang, F; Li, Y L

    2016-12-10

    Objective: Through combining the results from social network analysis and willingness of the key actors, peer educators for sex education among freshmen to select peer educators for sex education. Methods: Self-developed questionnaires were used to collect information on related demographics, egocentric social networks and whole class-based unit-network. Descriptive analysis was applied. UCINET 6 was used to conduct social network analysis and to draw the whole networking graphs. Results: Classmates appeared as the most important behavior intimate social network (95.8% claimed they could potentially borrow money from them, and 96.6% often went out with them) and were the most important members who could share privacy information with (91.6%) and consulting for private health information on (89.1%), among freshmen students in college. Finally, 17 freshmen were selected to have become peer educators, with 10 of them as the committee members in the class. Conclusion: Classmates formed the most important social network among freshmen students in college. Social network analysis could be used to help identify the suitable peer educators.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPERMATOZOA IN MEN WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND IN A PROGRAM OF PRECONCEPTION PREPARATION TO FATHERHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of diagnostics and treatment of 30 men aged 30–45 (mean age 36.2 ± 5.3 years with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP and male factor infertility in marriage are presented. Among the patients, 15 patients had CNP and secretory infertility (1st group; mean age 35.2 ± 4.3 years, 15 men with infertility caused by CNP and varicocele in the postoperative period (2nd group; mean age 33.6 ± 3.3 years. Duration of the male factor infertility varied from 1 to 4.5 years, and on average it was 2.8 ± 1.6 years. After detailed questioning and examination, including a spermiogram, determination of antisperm antibodies, DNA fragmentation test, and electron microscopy of the ejaculate, patients in the 1st group received Prostatilen AC as rectal suppositories for 10 days. Patients in the second group received Prostatilen AC in the form of rectal suppositories for 20 days. We showed an improvement of quality of life and spermatogenesis characteristics with decreased MAR test (more pronounced in the 2nd group, a decrease in the DNA fragmentation index, and an improvement in ultrastructural morphofunctional characteristics of spermatozoa. We justify the use of Prostatilen AC to increase effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies in men in programs of preconception preparation to fatherhood. 

  6. The status of marine and coastal EBM among a large sample of U.S. federal programs: a social network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Apa, A.; Fullerton, A.; Schwing, F. B.; Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an integrated management approach that considers the entire ecosystem, including humans, across multiple sectors, with the goal to collectively manage natural resources, habitat, and species in a sustainable manner while maintaining ecosystem services to humans on the long-term. In the United States, the National Ocean Council (NOC) established a federal interagency subgroup (National Ocean Policy EBM-Subgroup) to provide policy advice on EBM strategies and technical representation from the federal agencies that are part of the NOC. As part of the NOP EBM-Subgroup effort, this study summarizes the status of EBM for several federal programs within the NOC agencies that implement or support marine and coastal EBM activities. Our objective was to provide an overview of the current state of practice among the many and varied U.S. federal programs employing EBM approaches in the ocean, coastal zone, and the Great Lakes. We used social network analysis techniques to explore similarities among programs in different topic areas (e.g., type of audience, partners, training, EBM best management practices and principles). Results highlight substantial differences in perceived and effective performances across programs, with Management programs showing a higher level of integration of EBM approaches than Non-Management programs. The use of EBM best management practices and principles among programs is unbalanced, with some key elements of EBM strategies less commonly employed in the management planning. This analysis identified gaps in the implementation of EBM strategies that can inform natural resource managers and planners

  7. Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management for Space Networking Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program is integrating its three current agency networks: Space Network (SN), Deep Space Network (DSN), and Near...

  8. PRI: transport and distribution networks of the electric power. Research program 2002/2003 (one year); PRI: Reseaux de transport de et de distribution de l'energie electrique. Programme de recherche 2002 / 2003 (1 an)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This program proposes two actions. The first one deals with the energy transfers in networks. The study presents the control of networks in the new context of the deregulation which will imply a massive insertion of a decentralized production and the research of new tools of networks simulation using the new analysis methods by order reduction and fractals. The second one is devoted to the high voltage electronic and the energy transfer. (A.L.B.)

  9. Program NetMoment; Simultaneous Calculation of Moment, Source Corner Frequency, and Site Specific t* from Network Recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L

    2001-12-12

    The purpose of computer program NetMoment (Appendix I) is to utilize fundamental knowledge of earthquake sources, propagation attenuation, and site response in a simultaneous inversion of network data to determine the moment and source corner frequency of earthquakes, and site specific t*. The source parameters are especially difficult to determine for small earthquakes. A fundamental problem in determining the source corner frequencies of small earthquakes is that site response can result in spectral corner frequencies in the range that may be expected from the earthquakes themselves. Several authors have identified this as fmax (Hanks, 1982), a constant corner frequency for small events so that below threshold moment (about 1.0 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm) the corner frequency remains constant the size of events diminishes. Hutchings and Wu (1990) found that for the southern California region, events with moment less than about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm (about magnitude 3.4) show no source effect in their spectra. Hanks (1982) found the threshold to be about 1.0 x l0{sup 21} dyne-cm for other southern California sites. Baise et al. (2002) found borehole recordings on Yerba Buena Island, in San Francisco Bay, to have corner frequencies limited to about 3-5 Hz for M < 4.0 earthquakes in the region. Some authors have attributed this to a minimum source dimension for earthquakes, which results in a decrease in stress drop for smaller events (Archuleta et al., 1982; Papageorgiou and Aki, 1983). alternative explanation is that the constant corner frequencies result from whole path or near site attenuation and/or amplifications due to soil response. This is supported by a wide body of literature (Anderson and Hough, 1984, Hutchings and Wu, 1990, Blakeslee and Malin, 1991; Aster and Shearer, 1991; Abercrombie, 1995). Abercrombie, for example, estimated source corner frequencies from events recorded in granite at a depth of 2.5 Km in the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole and

  10. Developer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  11. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  12. C:N:P Stoichiometry and Carbon Storage in a Naturally-Regenerated Secondary Quercus variabilis Forest Age Sequence in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale Quercus variabilis natural secondary forests are protected under the Natural Forest Protection (NFP program in China to improve the ecological environment. However, information about nutrient characteristics and carbon (C storage is still lacking. Plant biomass and C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of tree tissues, shrubs, herbs, litter, and soil were determined in young, middle-aged, near-mature and mature Quercus variabilis secondary forests in the Qinling Mountains, China. Tree leaf N and P concentrations indicated that the N-restricted situation worsened with forest age. The per hectare biomass of trees in decreasing order was near-mature, mature, middle-aged, then young stands. The majority of the biomass was in the stems (44.88–48.15%, followed by roots (24.54–28.68%, and branches (10.15–14.16%, and leaves made up the lowest proportion (2.86–3.55% of trees. C storage at plant layer increased significantly with age, reaching maximum values in near-mature stand (100.4 Mg·ha−1 and then decreasing in mature stands. Soil C storage at a depth of 0 to 100 cm was 82.8, 96.8, 85.8, 104.2 Mg·ha−1, and C storage of forest ecosystem was 122.8, 163.0, 184.9, 178.3 Mg·ha−1 in young, middle-aged, near-mature, mature stands, respectively. There were significant correlations between biomass and C, N, P stoichiometry in different layers, especially in young stands.

  13. Attitudes and practices of surgery residency program directors toward the use of social networking profiles to select residency candidates: a nationwide survey analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Pauline H; Klaassen, Zachary; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residency program directors (PDs) of general surgery and surgical subspecialties review social networking (SN) websites during resident selection. A 16-question survey was distributed via e-mail (Survey Monkey, Palo Alto, California) to 641 PDs of general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Institutions with ACGME-accredited general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs. PDs of ACGME-accredited general surgery and surgical subspecialty residency programs. Two hundred fifty (39%) PDs completed the survey. Seventeen percent (n = 43) of respondents reported visiting SN websites to gain more information about an applicant during the selection process, leading 14 PDs (33.3%) to rank an applicant lower after a review of their SN profile. PDs who use SN websites currently are likely to continue (69%), whereas those who do not use SN currently might do so in the future (yes 5.4%, undecided 44.6%). Online profiles displayed on SN websites provide surgery PDs with an additional avenue with which to evaluate highly competitive residency applicants. Applicants should be aware of the expansion of social media into the professional arena and the increasing use of these tools by PDs. SN profiles should reflect the professional standards to which physicians are held while highlighting an applicant's strengths and academic achievements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. City of Rio de Janeiro's Gas Distribution Network Conversion Program; Projeto de conversao do Sistema de Distribuicao de Gas Canalizado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Manoel A.F.; Pallottino, Joao T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, Jose M. [Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the Conversion Program of Rio de Janeiro city, from Town Gas to Natural Gas, looking for evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting mainly those related to consumer's safety. The Conversion Program is been implemented under Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG) supervision, with support of Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ) in service's quality appraisal and conversion technical procedure elaboration and review. This partnership has started in 2001 and 46% of all residential and commercial customers have already been converted up to July 2004. Conversion Program is divided into the following Phases: Design and Planning, Gas Distribution Network Renovation and Adaptation, Revision, Post-Revision, Conversion and Post-Conversion. This Program may serve as model for similar programs, to be developed in other cities where Natural Gas will be distributed, displacing the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and it is one contribution to achieve the federal governmental goal of 12%-NG-participation within Brazilian Energetic Matrix in 2010. (author)

  15. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  16. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A. Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which are then approximately linearized. To deal with the uncertain nature of the item demand levels, we apply a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to generate finite and discrete sets of scenarios. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require restricted assumptions to the behavior of the probabilistic phenomena, as does several existing methods in the literature. Numerical experiments with the proposed approach for randomly generated instances of the problem show results with errors around 1%.

  17. The social network among engineering design teams and their creativity : A case study among teams in two product development programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratzer, Jan; Leenders, Roger Th. A. J.; Van Engelen, Jo M. L.

    Since the creative product development task requires the teams to combine and integrate input from multiple other teams, the team's structure of interaction is an important determinant of their creativity. In this study we investigate different structural aspects of social networks of such team's

  18. Does Academic Apprenticeship Increase Networking Ties among Participants? A Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a 1-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field…

  19. Hospital cost effect of a heart failure disease management program: the Specialized Primary and Networked Care in Heart Failure (SPAN-CHF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Douglas; Kimmelstiel, Carey; Perry, Kathleen; Parikh, Amay; Konstam, Varda; Konstam, Marvin A

    2006-05-01

    Determine the effect on hospitalization cost of a heart failure disease management (HFDM) program delivered within a diverse provider network as demonstrated in the SPAN-CHF randomized controlled trial. The SPAN-CHF trial was a prospective randomized assessment of the effectiveness of HFDM delivered for 90 days across a diverse provider network in a heterogeneous population of 200 patients. Baseline clinical and demographic data were obtained on each patient, mortality was monitored, and hospitalizations were tracked for 90 days. Cost estimates for each hospitalization were based on a subsample of patients seen at Tufts-New England Medical Center for whom hospitalization costs were calculated. Heart failure disease management program costs were estimated using a programmatic budget model. Hospital utilization and cost data were combined to estimate medical costs for intervention and control groups. Heart failure disease management had a favorable effect on heart failure hospitalization, which was partially offset by noncardiac hospitalizations. The relative odds of at least one all-cause hospitalization during the intervention period trended less for the intervention group compared with the control group (0.76 [95% CI 0.38-1.51]). The point estimate of the differential hospitalization cost between control and intervention groups was a reduction in cost of $375 per patient. The net effect including the costs of the program was an increase of $488 per patient for the intervention group compared with the control group. The program would have been cost saving if HFDM costs had been 24% lower. The HFDM intervention, administered over 90 days to patients hospitalized for heart failure, succeeded in reducing the rate of heart failure hospitalizations, although this effect was partially offset by an increase in non-heart failure hospitalizations. The resulting modest reduction in all-cause hospitalization costs was exceeded by the cost of the intervention. Thus, although

  20. Evaluation of the 1997 Joint National Conference, Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN) and National Association of Minority Engineering Program Administrators (NAMEPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, Suzanne G.

    1997-07-01

    The primary goal of the 1997 Joint National Conference was to unite NAMEPA and WEPAN in a unique collaborative effort to further the cause of increasing the participation of women and minorities in science and engineering. The specific objectives were to: (1) conduct technical and programmatic seminars for institutions desiring to initiate, replicate, or expand women and minorities in engineering program; (2) provide assistance in fundraising and grant writing; (3) profile women in engineering programs of excellence; (4) sponsor inspiring knowledgeable and motivational keynote speakers; and (5) offer a series of workshops focused on a multitude of topics.

  1. Knowing, Building and Living Together on Internet and Social Networks: The ConRed Cyberbullying Prevention Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosario Ortega-Ruiz; Rosario Del Rey; José A Casas

    2012-01-01

      An evaluation of the success of the evidence-based ConRed program, which addresses cyberbullying and other emerging problems linked with the use of the internet and seeks to promote a positive use...

  2. System-Level Influences on the Sustainability of a Cognitive Therapy Program in a Community Behavioral Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Matza, Alexis; Gamarra, Jennifer; Toder, Katherine; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew; Beck, Aaron T; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Creed, Torrey

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences on the sustainability of a program to implement an evidence-based psychotherapy in a mental health system. Interviews with program administrators, training consultants, agency administrators, and supervisors (N=24), along with summaries of program evaluation data and program documentation, were analyzed with a directed content-analytic approach. Findings suggested a number of interconnected and interacting influences on sustainability, including alignment with emerging sociopolitical influences and system and organizational priorities; program-level adaptation and evolution; intervention flexibility; strong communication, collaboration, planning, and support; and perceived benefit. These individual factors appeared to mutually influence one another and contribute to the degree of program sustainability achieved at the system level. Although most influences were positive, financial planning and support emerged as potentially both facilitator and barrier, and evaluation of benefits at the patient level remained a challenge. Several factors appeared to contribute to the sustainability of a psychosocial intervention in a large urban mental health system and warrant further investigation. Understanding interconnections between multiple individual facilitators and barriers appears critical to advancing understanding of sustainability in dynamic systems and adds to emerging recommendations for other implementation efforts. In particular, implications of the findings include the importance of implementation strategies, such as long-term planning, coalition building, clarifying roles and expectations, planned adaptation, evaluation, diversification of financing strategies, and incentivizing implementation.

  3. Top-down, bottom-up, and around the jungle gym: a social exchange and networks approach to engaging afterschool programs in implementing evidence-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Wise, Eileen; Rosen, Howard; Rosen, Alison; Childs, Sharon; McManus, Margaret

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses concepts from social networks and social exchange theories to describe the implementation of evidence-based practices in afterschool programs. The members of the LEGACY Together Afterschool Project team have been involved in conducting collaborative research to migrate a behavioral strategy that has been documented to reduce disruptive behaviors in classroom settings to a new setting-that of afterschool programs. We adapted the Paxis Institute's version of the Good Behavior Game to afterschool settings which differ from in-school settings, including more fluid attendance, multiple age groupings, diverse activities that may take place simultaneously, and differences in staff training and experience (Barrish et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 2(2):119-124, 1969; Embry et al. in The Pax Good Behavior Game. Hazelden, Center City, 2003; Hynes et al. in J Child Serv 4(3):4-20, 2009; Kellam et al. in Drug Alcohol Depend 95:S5-S28, 2008; Tingstrom et al. in Behav Modif 30(2):225-253, 2006). This paper presents the experiences of the three adult groups involved in the implementation process who give first-person accounts of implementation: (1) university-based scientist-practitioners, (2) community partners who trained and provided technical assistance/coaching, and (3) an afterschool program administrator. We introduce here the AIMS model used to frame the implementation process conceptualized by this town-gown collaborative team. AIMS builds upon previous work in implementation science using four phases in which the three collaborators have overlapping roles: approach/engagement, implementation, monitoring, and sustainability. Within all four phases principles of Social Exchange Theory and Social Network Theory are highlighted.

  4. Knowing, Building and Living Together on Internet and Social Networks: The ConRed Cyberbullying Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ortega-Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the success of the evidence-based ConRed program, which addresses cyberbullying and other emerging problems linked with the use of the internet and seeks to promote a positive use of this new environment. The main aims of the ConRed program are a to improve perceived control over information on the internet, b to reduce the time dedicated to digital device usage, and c to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The impact of the program was evaluated with a quasi-experimental design with a sample of 893 students (595 experimental and 298 control. The results of the mixed repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrate that ConRed contributes to reducing cyberbullying and cyber-dependence, to adjusting the perception of information control, and to increasing the perception of safety at school.

  5. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  6. Doppler radar observation of thunderstorm circulation in the 1977 trip program. [triple Doppler radar network for lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermitte, R. M.; Conte, D.; Pasqualucci, F.; Lennon, C.; Serafin, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Storm data obtained on August 1, 1977 are examined in an attempt to interpret the relationship between lightning occurrence and the thunderstorm inner dynamics and precipitation processes. Horizontal maps are presented which indicated the position of radiation sources detected by the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network, together with the horizontal motion fields and radar reflectivity data. Detailed inspection of these fields showed that, although radiation sources are found in the vicinity of precipitation cells, they are not located in the heavy precipitation areas, but rather on their rear side in regions where the configuration of the wind fields suggests the presence of updrafts.

  7. The NIH Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) Program | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By generating and making public data that indicates how cells respond to various genetic and environmental stressors, the LINCS project will help us gain a more detailed understanding of cell pathways and aid efforts to develop therapies that might restore perturbed pathways and networks to their normal states. The LINCS website is a source of information for the research community and general public about the LINCS project. This website along with the LINCS Data Portal contains details about the assays, cell types, and perturbagens that are currently part of the library, as well as links to participating sites, data releases from the sites, and software that can be used for analyzing the data.

  8. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  9. Study protocol--Indigenous Australian social networks and the impact on smoking policy and programs in Australia: protocol for a mixed-method prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke

    2013-09-24

    Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions:--do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours;--is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and--does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi(2) statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Our study

  10. The normalization of co-authorship networks in the bibliometric evaluation: the government stimulation programs of China and Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, H.W.; Yoon, J.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2016-01-01

    Using co-authored publications between China and Korea in Web of Science (WoS) during the one-year period of 2014, we evaluate the government stimulation program for collaboration between China and Korea. In particular, we apply dual approaches, full integer versus fractional counting, to

  11. Genetic programming and cae neural networks approach for prediction of the bending capability of ZnTiCu sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, R.; Peruš, I.; Kovačič, M.; Kugler, G.; Terčelj, M.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) and CAE NN analysis have been applied for the prediction of bending capability of rolled ZnTiCu alloy sheet. Investigation revealed that an analysis with CAE NN is faster than GP but less accurate for lower amount of data. Both methods enable good assessment of separate influencing parameters in the complex system.

  12. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2017-06-29

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used. Bivariable analyses, using chi-squared statistics, were conducted to examine correlates of awareness of PrEP with socio-demographic, behavioral, and health care variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted associations and determine differences in awareness of PrEP. The analysis consisted of 118 WWID. Awareness of PrEP was relatively low (31%), and risk factors were high. In the last 12 months, almost two thirds (65%) reported condomless sex, approximately one third (31%) reported transactional sex, and one third (32%) reported sharing injection equipment. In multivariable logistic regression, increased PrEP awareness was associated with reported transactional sex (AOR 3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) and having a conversation about HIV prevention at a syringe exchange program (SEP) (AOR 7.61, 95% CI 2.65-21.84). We did not find race, education, household income, age, binge drinking, or sexual identity to be significantly associated with PrEP awareness. Large proportions of WWID were unaware of PrEP. These findings suggest that social networks (specifically sex work and SEP networks) are an efficient means for disseminating messaging about prevention materials such as PrEP. We recommend that SEP access increase, SEP processes be adopted in other health care settings, and WWID networks be utilized to increase PrEP awareness.

  13. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management...DSN Phone: 524-7909 DSN Fax: 524-7950 Date Assigned: November 15, 2013 Program Information Program Name Consolidated Afloat Networks and...4 Program Description Consolidated Afloat Networks & Enterprise Services (CANES) is the Navy’s only Program of Record to replace existing afloat

  14. An Interactive Fuzzy Programming Approach for Designing a Multi-Echelon, Multi-Product, Multi-Period Supply Chain Network Under Uncertainty Considering Cost and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amirkhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain network design has attracted the attention of many researchers during recent years. This paper presents a new bi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model to integrate procurement, production and distribution planning under uncertainty. This model is set up for the network of a multi-echelon, multi-product, multi-channel, multi-period supply chain with regard to two conflicting objectives, which minimize the costs and minimize the sum of backorders and surpluses of products in all periods using “activity-based costing and the total cost of ownership” and “JIT” concepts, respectively. To solve the presented model, an interactive fuzzy approach is used. The associated results show the amount of purchasing of each supplier, the quantity of producing, the inventory of raw materials and products, backorder or surplus delivery of goods, the mode of transportation, the amount of goods transported between facilities and suppliers used in each period. In addition, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the presented model and exhibit the efficiency of the proposed interactive fuzzy approach. Finally, the results and conclusion are provided.

  15. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  16. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  17. NEOSTEL: the telescope detail design program for the ESA optical ground network dedicated to NEO discovery and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Bernardi, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Salinari, P.

    The Fly-Eye architecture applied for a Space Debris and NEO Surveillance and Tracking optical telescope has been originally proposed by CGS and further refined in the framework of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Program studies. The high level architecture of a Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept has been defined in the TELAD Study. Following TELAD conceptual design, the activities of NEOSTEL aim now at generating the Detailed Design of a NEO Survey Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept. All components of the telescope are designed at detailed level to satisfy the specific requirements for the Survey and Follow Up of the Near Earth Objects. The NEO Survey Telescope detailed design generated under this Program will be directly utilized for the manufacturing of the first prototype, planned to be launched by the SSA Program in the second half of 2015. In addition, the result of the Detailed Design will produce the documentation necessary to prepare the future site that will host the NEO Survey Telescope prototype as well as the high level architecture of the data processing SW that will be required at the telescope site. The product of the prototypation activity will then constitute a full Italian key Optical Core Technology, dedicated to the NEO thematic but also extendable to the SST Segment, therefore offering possibility of application both at Civil and at Institutional level. Furthermore the Fly-Eye Telescope Technology can actively collaborate with a dedicated Space Segment, opening the way to a complete and autonomous EU System.

  18. A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-09-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. Discovering Protein-Protein Interactions within the Programmed Cell Death Network Using a Protein-Fragment Complementation Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Gilad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis and autophagy are distinct biological processes, each driven by a different set of protein-protein interactions, with significant crosstalk via direct interactions among apoptotic and autophagic proteins. To measure the global profile of these interactions, we adapted the Gaussia luciferase protein-fragment complementation assay (GLuc PCA, which monitors binding between proteins fused to complementary fragments of a luciferase reporter. A library encompassing 63 apoptotic and autophagic proteins was constructed for the analysis of ∼3,600 protein-pair combinations. This generated a detailed landscape of the apoptotic and autophagic modules and points of interface between them, identifying 46 previously unknown interactions. One of these interactions, between DAPK2, a Ser/Thr kinase that promotes autophagy, and 14-3-3τ, was further investigated. We mapped the region responsible for 14-3-3τ binding and proved that this interaction inhibits DAPK2 dimerization and activity. This proof of concept underscores the power of the GLuc PCA platform for the discovery of biochemical pathways within the cell death network.

  20. Deterministic and Stochastic Study for an Infected Computer Network Model Powered by a System of Antivirus Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness El Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the various conditions that control the extinction and stability of a nonlinear mathematical spread model with stochastic perturbations. This model describes the spread of viruses into an infected computer network which is powered by a system of antivirus software. The system is analyzed by using the stability theory of stochastic differential equations and the computer simulations. First, we study the global stability of the virus-free equilibrium state and the virus-epidemic equilibrium state. Furthermore, we use the Itô formula and some other theoretical theorems of stochastic differential equation to discuss the extinction and the stationary distribution of our system. The analysis gives a sufficient condition for the infection to be extinct (i.e., the number of viruses tends exponentially to zero. The ergodicity of the solution and the stationary distribution can be obtained if the basic reproduction number Rp is bigger than 1, and the intensities of stochastic fluctuations are small enough. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results.

  1. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The InSIght mission will deploy in September 2016 a Geophysical Station on Mars, equipped with a suite of geophysical instruments, including 3 axis Very Broad Band Seismometer, 3 axis Short Period Seismometer, 3 axis Flux gate Magnetometer, Heat flow probe, geodetic beacon, infrasound/microbarometer, wind sensors and cameras. As for all NASA missions, Children and teenagers will be associated to the mission in the framework of the K12 InSight program, part of it being associated to the SEIS instrument.The two faces of the InSight/SEIS Education program are directed toward the promotion of Space Technologies and of Space Science.For Space technologies, this has already started with the InSight Elysium Educational project. The goal of the project, supported by CNES and performed by Technical High School near Toulouse, was the fabrication of a full scale mockup of the lander (see more at https://jeunes.cnes.fr/fr/elysium-le-jumeau-terrestre-dinsight ). The mockup was exhibited during the June, 2015 Paris air show. More than 300 students participated to the Elysium project.For Space Science, this will be made with the SEIS@Mars Educational project. Its plan is to transmit the SEIS data to a network of several hundred of middle and high schools worldwide, associated to existing "seismo(graph) at school" programs in the United States (https://www.iris.edu/hq/sis), France (www.edusismo.org) Switzerland (www.seismoatschool.ethz.ch) and United Kingdom (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/schoolseismology/). If the transmission of these data to the SEIS@school network will be automatic after their release by the NASA Planetary Data System, an earlier transmission will be made, especially after mid 2017, but also before through the integration of selected Schools to the project activities: the selected classrooms will perform the same activities as the project scientists. They will have to process rapidly the proprietary data in order to identify MarsQuake(s) and will be allowed to perform

  2. Network analysis of Bogotá's Ciclovía Recreativa, a self-organized multisectorial community program to promote physical activity in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jose D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe; Martinez, Edwin O; Lemoine, Pablo D; Valdivia, Juan A; Brownson, Ross C; Zarama, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Conduct a social network analysis of the health and non-health related organizations that participate in Bogotá's Ciclovía Recreativa (Ciclovía). Cross-sectional study. Ciclovía is a multisectoral community-based mass program in which streets are temporarily closed to motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for leisure activities and physical activity. Twenty-five organizations that participate in the Ciclovía. Seven variables were examined by using network analytic methods: relationship, link attributes (integration, contact, and importance), and node attributes (leadership, years in the program, and the sector of the organization). The network analytic methods were based on a visual descriptive analysis and an exponential random graph model. Analysis shows that the most central organizations in the network were outside of the Health sector and include Sports and Recreation, Government, and Security sectors. The organizations work in clusters formed by organizations of different sectors. Organization importance and structural predictors were positively related to integration, while the number of years working with Ciclovía was negatively associated with integration. Ciclovía is a network whose structure emerged as a self-organized complex system. Ciclovía of Bogotá is an example of a program with public health potential formed by organizations of multiple sectors with Sports and Recreation as the most central.

  3. Experience and advantages in implementation of educational program in network form at Department «Closed nuclear fuel cycle Technologies» of National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygel‧, A. G.; Kutsenko, K. V.; Lavrukhin, A. A.; Magomedbekov, E. P.; Pershukov, V. A.; Sofronov, V. L.; Tyupina, E. A.; Zhiganov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The experience of implementation of the basic educational program of magistracy on direction «Nuclear Physics and Technologies» in a network form is presented. Examples of joint implementation of the educational process with employers organizations, other universities and intranet mobility of students are given.

  4. GenCLiP: a software program for clustering gene lists by literature profiling and constructing gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi-Bo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical researchers often want to explore pathogenesis and pathways regulated by abnormally expressed genes, such as those identified by microarray analyses. Literature mining is an important way to assist in this task. Many literature mining tools are now available. However, few of them allows the user to make manual adjustments to zero in on what he/she wants to know in particular. Results We present our software program, GenCLiP (Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, which is based on the methods presented by Chaussabel and Sher (Genome Biol 2002, 3(10:RESEARCH0055 that search gene lists to identify functional clusters of genes based on up-to-date literature profiling. Four features were added to this previously described method: the ability to 1 manually curate keywords extracted from the literature, 2 search genes and gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords, 3 compare analyzed gene results with negative and positive controls generated by GenCLiP, and 4 calculate probabilities that the resulting genes and gene networks are randomly related. In this paper, we show with a set of differentially expressed genes between keloids and normal control, how implementation of functions in GenCLiP successfully identified keywords related to the pathogenesis of keloids and unknown gene pathways involved in the pathogenesis of keloids. Conclusion With regard to the identification of disease-susceptibility genes, GenCLiP allows one to quickly acquire a primary pathogenesis profile and identify pathways involving abnormally expressed genes not previously associated with the disease.

  5. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  6. Motion- and Communication-Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Delay Tolerant Network using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esten I. Grøtli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of data are typically generated in applications such as surveillance of power lines and railways, inspection of gas pipes, and security surveillance. In the latter application it is a necessity that the data is transmitted to the control centre ``on-the-fly'' for analysis. Also missions related to other applications would greatly benefit from near real-time analysis and operator interaction based on captured data. This is the motivation behind this paper on coarse offline motion- and communication-planning for cooperating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem is defined in order to solve the surveillance mission. To efficiently transmit the data back to the base station the vehicles are allowed to store data for later transmission and transmit via other vehicles, in addition to direct transmission. The paths obtained by solving the optimization problem are analyzed using a realistic radio propagation path loss simulator. If the radio propagation path loss exceeds the maximum design criterion the optimization problem is solved again with a stricter communication constraint, and the procedure is continued in an iterative manner until the criterion is met. The proposed algorithm is supported by simulations showing the resulting paths and communication topologies for different choices of delay tolerance.

  7. Role of the insulin/Tor signaling network in starvation-induced programmed cell death in Drosophila oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, T L; McCall, K

    2012-01-01

    Amino-acid starvation leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) in the Drosophila ovary. Disruption of insulin signaling has been shown to inhibit the progression of oogenesis, but it is unclear whether this phenotype mimics starvation. Here, we investigate whether the insulin-mediated phosphoinositide kinase-3 pathway regulates PCD in mid oogenesis. We reasoned that under well-fed conditions, disruption of positive components of the insulin signaling pathway within the germline would mimic starvation and produce degenerating egg chambers. Surprisingly, mutants did not mimic starvation but instead produced many abnormal egg chambers in which the somatic follicle cells disappeared and the germline persisted. These abnormal egg chambers did not show an induction of caspases and lysosomes like that observed in wild-type (WT) degenerating egg chambers. Egg chambers from insulin signaling mutants were resistant to starvation-induced PCD, indicating that a complete block in insulin-signaling prevents the proper response to starvation. However, target of rapamycin (Tor) mutants did show a phenotype that mimicked WT starvation-induced PCD, indicating an insulin independent regulation of PCD via Tor signaling. These results suggest that inhibition of the insulin signaling pathway is not sufficient to regulate starvation-induced PCD in mid oogenesis. Furthermore, starvation-induced PCD is regulated by Tor signaling converging with the canonical insulin signaling pathway. PMID:22240900

  8. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  9. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  10. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010–2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections. PMID:25542013

  11. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  12. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 12: Network Scheduling of Shipyard Production, Engineering, and Material Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Critical Delivery Schedules 2 2 5 MICRONETS Pre-developed sub-networks: * Can be used for any number of projects * Can be used as often as needed...within a given project * Can be linked to other micronets major Benefits: * Increased Confidence in Network By Production and Management * Reduced Network

  13. Data Portal for the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program: integrated access to diverse large-scale cellular perturbation response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleti, Amar; Terryn, Raymond; Stathias, Vasileios; Chung, Caty; Cooper, Daniel J; Turner, John P; Vidovic, Dušica; Forlin, Michele; Kelley, Tanya T; D'Urso, Alessandro; Allen, Bryce K; Torre, Denis; Jagodnik, Kathleen M; Wang, Lily; Jenkins, Sherry L; Mader, Christopher; Niu, Wen; Fazel, Mehdi; Mahi, Naim; Pilarczyk, Marcin; Clark, Nicholas; Shamsaei, Behrouz; Meller, Jarek; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Reichard, John; Medvedovic, Mario; Ma'ayan, Avi; Pillai, Ajay; Schürer, Stephan C

    2017-11-13

    The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program is a national consortium funded by the NIH to generate a diverse and extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation-response signatures, along with novel data analytics tools to improve our understanding of human diseases at the systems level. In contrast to other large-scale data generation efforts, LINCS Data and Signature Generation Centers (DSGCs) employ a wide range of assay technologies cataloging diverse cellular responses. Integration of, and unified access to LINCS data has therefore been particularly challenging. The Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center (DCIC) has developed data standards specifications, data processing pipelines, and a suite of end-user software tools to integrate and annotate LINCS-generated data, to make LINCS signatures searchable and usable for different types of users. Here, we describe the LINCS Data Portal (LDP) (http://lincsportal.ccs.miami.edu/), a unified web interface to access datasets generated by the LINCS DSGCs, and its underlying database, LINCS Data Registry (LDR). LINCS data served on the LDP contains extensive metadata and curated annotations. We highlight the features of the LDP user interface that is designed to enable search, browsing, exploration, download and analysis of LINCS data and related curated content. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Penerapan Metode Analytic Network Process (ANP Untuk Pendukung Keputusan Pemilihan Tema Tugas Akhir (Studi Kasus: Program Studi S1 Informatika ST3 Telkom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dila Nurlaila

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan hasil dari survey yang dilakukan terhadap 30 mahasiswa Informatika yang akan mengambil mata kuliah tugas akhir, lebih dari 80% menjawab belum memiliki konsep Tugas Akhir, hal ini menjadi perhatian bahwa masih banyak dari mahasiswa yang belum mengetahui tema Tugas Akhir apa yang akan dambilnya nanti yang sesuai dengan minat dan kompetensinya. Dari hal tersebut akan dilakukan penelitian penerapan metode Analytic Network Process (ANP pada  Pendukung keputusan pemilihan tugas tema Tugas Akhir. ANP merupakan suatu metode dalam decision making yang mempertimbangkan hubungan antar kriteria. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji tingkat keberhasilan metode ANP dalam mengatasi masalah mahasiswa yang belum mengetahui konsep dari tugas akhir. Langkah pertama, ditentukan kriteria yang menjadi penentu dari pemilihan tema Tugas Akhir di prodi S1 Informatika. Kriteria ini akan dibuat model jaringan ANP menggunakan software super decision dan setiap kriteria akan dilakukan pairwised comparison (perbandingan berpasangan guna untuk mendapatkan pembobotan dari masing – masing kriteria dan sub kriteria. Yang menjadi expert judgement pada pengambil keputusan ini adalah ketua keahlian program studi ICM dan DESTI. Setelah melakukan pengujian dengan membandingkan pilihan secara manual dengan pilihan berdasarkan perhitungan ANP hasilnya sebesar 46,6% tema tugas akhir mahasiswa sesuai dan akurat, hilangnya 53,4% akurasi dikarenakan ketidak sesuaian jawaban mahasiswa saat menentukan nilai peminatan.

  15. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  16. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  17. CRCHD Integrated Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    INB supports the National Outreach Network, the Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program, and advises on women’s health and sexual and gender minority opportunities within and across NCI.

  18. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  19. Airborne Network Camera Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Optical Systems Group Document 466-15 AIRBORNE NETWORK CAMERA STANDARD DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Airborne Network Camera Standard 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...without the focus of standardization for interoperable command and control, storage, and data streaming has been the airborne network camera systems used

  20. Network gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, John

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.

  1. Integrating networks with Mathematica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meijer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a concept that considers network behavior as a collection of software objects, which can be used or modified in computer programs. The interfaces of these software objects are exposed as web services and enable applications to analyze and manipulate networks, e.g. to find

  2. Effectiveness of a Multimodal Intervention Program for Older Individuals Presenting to the Emergency Department After a Fall in the Northern French Alps Emergency Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, François-Xavier; Ricard, Cécile; Perrin-Besson, Sophie; Picot, Françoise; Dumont, Odile; Cabillic, Sandrine; Haesevoet, Marc; Dalmon, Philippe; Gaillard, Corine; Cezard, Odile; Belle, Loïc; Couturier, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Fall-related visits to emergency departments (EDs) are common among older individuals. We aimed to assess effectiveness of a healthcare intervention program for the management of elderly patients admitted to EDs after a fall. Using a before-after observation method, we investigated ED healthcare staff practices related to fall-related injuries in 2010 (period 1) and 2012 (period 2) in 13 centers participating in the Northern French Alps Emergency Network. Following the identification of initial weaknesses, several information and training tools were introduced between the two periods to improve patient management. All individuals aged 75 years or over who presented to an ED after a fall were included in the study. We reviewed the completeness and quality of medical records during both periods and compared the rate of clinical-paraclinical check-ups performed, geriatric evaluation/assessment in the ED, and the 1-month recurrence of visits to the ED for the same reason. During period 1, a total of 2,425 falls were recorded, while 2,684 were reported in period 2. The 2012 medical charts contained significantly more information about risk factors than those of 2010. An electrocardiogram (64% vs. 53%; p < 0.001), biologic check-up (65% vs. 57%; p < 0.001), balance, orthostatic hypotension, and cognitive impairment tests were more often performed in 2012. There was no change in the hospitalization rate, although short-duration hospitalization in the ED was more frequent in 2012. Geriatrists were more often consulted by patients in 2012 (18% vs. 13%; p < 0.001) and more involved in ED evaluation and hospitalization. The intervention program had a beneficial impact on the fall recurrence rate (n = 29 [3.6%] in period 1 and n = 17 [2.0%] in period 2; odds ratio = 0.52; p = 0.037), which significantly decreased between 2010 and 2012. The intervention program was associated with a decrease of fall recurrence. Further efforts should be made in EDs to ensure a sustained level

  3. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  4. Simulation Of Networking Protocols On Software Emulated Network Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Nimkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number and complexity of network based applications the need to easy configuration development and integration of network applications has taken a high precedence. Trivial activities such as configuration can be carried out efficiently if network services are software based rather than hardware based. Project aims at enabling the network engineers to easily include network functionalities into hisher configuration and define hisher own network stack without using the kernel network stack. Having thought of this we have implemented two functionalities UPNP and MDNS. The multicast Domain Name System MDNS resolves host names to IP addresses within small ad-hoc networks and without having need of special DNS server and its configuration. MDNS application provides every host with functionality to register itself to the router make a multicast DNS request and its resolution. To make adding network devices and networked programs to a network as easy as it is to plug in a piece of hardware into a PC we make use of UPnP. The devices and programs find out about the network setup and other networked devices and programs through discovery and advertisements of services and configure themselves accordingly. UPNP application provides every host with functionality of discovering services of other hosts and serving requests on demand. To implement these applications we have used snabbswitch framework which an open source virtualized ethernet networking stack.

  5. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  6. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  7. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  8. Population genetics analysis using R and the Geneland program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Santos, Filipe; Estoup, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Geneland program documentation 2011 Program distributed under GNU license as an R package on the Comprehensive R Archive Network.......Geneland program documentation 2011 Program distributed under GNU license as an R package on the Comprehensive R Archive Network....

  9. The Community Science Workshop Network Story: Becoming a Networked Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Community Science Workshops (CSWs)--with funding from the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation--created a network among the CSW sites in California. The goals of the CSW Network project have been to improve programs, build capacity throughout the Network, and establish new sites. Inverness Research has been…

  10. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  11. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  12. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  13. Comparison of Self-Reported Data on Student Doctor Network to Objective Data of the National Resident Matching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Karna; Wilson, Lynn D; Grills, Inga S

    2017-12-01

    To compare matching outcomes between self-reporting on Student Doctor Network (SDN) and objective data from the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Data were collected from SDN starting in the 2010 to 2011 academic year and extending to the 2015 to 2016 academic year. A total of 193 radiation oncology applicants had reported data during the period. A total of four applicants (2.1%) did not match and were excluded from the analysis. Applicants were compared with the NRMP charting outcomes of 2011, 2014, and 2016. US allopathic seniors comprised a majority of those reporting on SDN (95.2%). The majority of applicants (58.2%) self-reported in the later years between 2014 and 2016. Those reporting on SDN were more likely to be members of Alpha Omega Alpha (39.7% on SDN versus 27.5% in 2016 NRMP, 23.6% in 2014 NRMP, and 31.2% in 2011 NRMP) and had higher mean United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 scores. Of the applicants, 81% matched within their top three ranked residencies on their match list. Common themes associated with reasons for their successful match included research experience, letters of recommendation, and away rotations. Common themes associated with advice given to future applicants were the importance of research, personality, and away rotations. Self-reporting on SDN does have a bias toward more successful radiation oncology applicants compared with the objective NRMP data. However, if self-reporting increases, SDN may serve as a reasonably accurate source of information for future applicants. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The dynamic programming high-order Dynamic Bayesian Networks learning for identifying effective connectivity in human brain from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2017-06-15

    Determination of effective connectivity (EC) among brain regions using fMRI is helpful in understanding the underlying neural mechanisms. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) are an appropriate class of probabilistic graphical temporal-models that have been used in past to model EC from fMRI, specifically order-one. High-order DBNs (HO-DBNs) have still not been explored for fMRI data. A fundamental problem faced in the structure-learning of HO-DBN is high computational-burden and low accuracy by the existing heuristic search techniques used for EC detection from fMRI. In this paper, we propose using dynamic programming (DP) principle along with integration of properties of scoring-function in a way to reduce search space for structure-learning of HO-DBNs and finally, for identifying EC from fMRI which has not been done yet to the best of our knowledge. The proposed exact search-&-score learning approach HO-DBN-DP is an extension of the technique which was originally devised for learning a BN's structure from static data (Singh and Moore, 2005). The effectiveness in structure-learning is shown on synthetic fMRI dataset. The algorithm reaches globally-optimal solution in appreciably reduced time-complexity than the static counterpart due to integration of properties. The proof of optimality is provided. The results demonstrate that HO-DBN-DP is comparably more accurate and faster than currently used structure-learning algorithms used for identifying EC from fMRI. The real data EC from HO-DBN-DP shows consistency with previous literature than the classical Granger Causality method. Hence, the DP algorithm can be employed for reliable EC estimates from experimental fMRI data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drawing rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a collection of species is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree. Sometimes, phylogenetic networks are used as a means of representing reticulate evolution or of showing uncertainty and incompatibilities in evolutionary datasets. This is often done using unrooted phylogenetic networks such as split networks, due in part, to the availability of software (SplitsTree) for their computation and visualization. In this paper we discuss the problem of drawing rooted phylogenetic networks as cladograms or phylograms in a number of different views that are commonly used for rooted trees. Implementations of the algorithms are available in new releases of the Dendroscope and SplitsTree programs.

  16. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  17. Network Speech Systems Technology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    The simple scenario described above will work as long as intermediate nodes can find the required number of free outgoing slots to accommodate newly...buffer the number of packets that 17 CONTROL PREDICTED STREAM 1 TALKER- ACTIXIS CPCT REQUEST ;ATT REQUEST PD’ICTOR GENERATOR TRNMITTED - - SPECH AND...participant’s speech only when the channel is observed to be free . Because of the delay in the satellite transmission, there is a period of time between the

  18. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  19. Stability in the Social Support Networks of Homeless Families in Shelter: Findings from a Study of Families in a Faith-Based Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia; Koehly, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The following article outlines a longitudinal study tracking changes of the social support networks of 28 homeless families in shelter. Weekly changes in support networks of homeless mothers were tracked including 482 dyadic ties between mothers and supportive persons. Findings suggested that informal social support and persons who provided…

  20. The WESTNET Program--SUNY Brockport and the SUNY Campuses in Western New York State: A Case Study in the Benefits and Costs of an Interactive Television Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Frank

    This case study describes a collaborative effort among 10 campuses of the State University of New York (SUNY) to establish a shared distance learning network in western New York state. Participating campuses, led by SUNY Brockport, made a proposal to the SUNY system Office of Educational Technology to form WESTNET, a distance learning network that…

  1. Reconfigureable network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderveen, Keith B [Tracy, CA; Talbot, Edward B [Livermore, CA; Mayer, Laurence E [Davis, CA

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  2. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0056 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D... Pathology Resource Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0056 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D. Betty...The Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (which has since been renamed the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network or PCBN) is a collaboration

  3. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  4. Effectiveness of a Multimodal Intervention Program for Older Individuals Presenting to the Emergency Department After a Fall in the Northern French Alps Emergency Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ageron, François‐Xavier; Ricard, Cécile; Perrin‐Besson, Sophie; Picot, Françoise; Dumont, Odile; Cabillic, Sandrine; Haesevoet, Marc; Dalmon, Philippe; Gaillard, Corine; Cezard, Odile; Belle, Loïc; Couturier, Pascal; Gerson, Lowell W

    2016-01-01

    ...) in 13 centers participating in the Northern French Alps Emergency Network. Following the identification of initial weaknesses, several information and training tools were introduced between the two periods to improve patient management...

  5. Leadership Under Challenge: Information Technology R&D in a Competitive World. An Assessment of the Federal Networking and Information Technology R&D Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marburger, John H; Kvamme, E. F; Scalise, George; Reed, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    ...).That leadership is essential to U.S. economic prosperity, security, and quality of life. This report presents a formal assessment of the Federal Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD...

  6. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks.

  7. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xu; Chen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zeng, Feng

    2016-11-30

    Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP) strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks.

  8. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  9. ESnet Program Plan 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, S.

    1994-11-01

    This Program Plan characterizes ESnet with respect to the current and future needs of Energy Research programs for network infrastructure, services, and development. In doing so, this document articulates the vision and recommendations of the ESnet Steering Committee regarding ESnet`s development and its support of computer networking facilities and associated user services. To afford the reader a perspective from which to evaluate the ever-increasing utility of networking to the Energy Research community, we have also provided a historical overview of Energy Research networking. Networking has become an integral part of the work of DOE principal investigators, and this document is intended to assist the Office of Scientific Computing in ESnet program planning and management, including prioritization and funding. In particular, we identify the new directions that ESnet`s development and implementation will take over the course of the next several years. Our basic goal is to ensure that the networking requirements of the respective scientific programs within Energy Research are addressed fairly. The proliferation of regional networks and additional network-related initiatives by other Federal agencies is changing the process by which we plan our own efforts to serve the DOE community. ESnet provides the Energy Research community with access to many other peer-level networks and to a multitude of other interconnected network facilities. ESnet`s connectivity and relationship to these other networks and facilities are also described in this document. Major Office of Energy Research programs are managed and coordinated by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Office of Magnetic Fusion Energy, the Office of Scientific Computing, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Summaries of these programs are presented, along with their functional and technical requirements for wide-area networking.

  10. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  11. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  12. Social Networks and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe.

  13. Networks in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks. We will report on a number of networking initiatives in ATLAS including participation in the global perfSONAR network monitoring and measuring efforts of WLCG and OSG, the collaboration with the LHCOPN/LHCONE effort, the integration of network awareness into PanDA, the use of the evolving ATLAS analytics framework to better understand our networks and the changes in our DDM system to allow remote access to data. We will also discuss new efforts underway that are exploring the inclusion and use of software defined networks (SDN) and how ATLAS might benefit from: • Orchestration and optimization of distributed data access and data movement. • Better control of workflows, end to end. • Enabling prioritization of time-critical vs normal tasks • Improvements in the efficiency of resource usage

  14. Network Access Control For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Jay; Wessels, Denzil

    2009-01-01

    Network access control (NAC) is how you manage network security when your employees, partners, and guests need to access your network using laptops and mobile devices. Network Access Control For Dummies is where you learn how NAC works, how to implement a program, and how to take real-world challenges in stride. You'll learn how to deploy and maintain NAC in your environment, identify and apply NAC standards, and extend NAC for greater network security. Along the way you'll become familiar with what NAC is (and what it isn't) as well as the key business drivers for deploying NAC.Learn the step

  15. A new focus on the implementation of programs for reducing the waste of electric power from the electric power concessionaires: use of the local network promoter of energy efficiency; Um novo enfoque na implementacao de programas de combate ao desperdicio de energia eletrica das concessionarias de energia eletrica: uso das redes locais promotoras de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Wagner; Simoes, Roberto Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: befreire@terra.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal for using of reinforcement local socio-economical networks approach to implement programs for energy waste reduction by applying 1 per cent of the Net Revenue from Electric Power Concessionaires, for reduction of the existent barriers and to guarantee the participation of greater number of economical agents in those programs allowing a market transformation.

  16. An Integrated Structure for Supplier Selection and Configuration of Knowledge-Based Networks Using QFD, ANP, and Mixed-Integer Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s competitive world conditions and shortened product life cycles have led to the rise of attention towards new product development issue which can guarantee both growth and survival of organizations. The agility of new product development is directed by the efficiency and efficacy of knowledge management skills of an organization. A key issue in thorough success of such networks is the developed knowledge preservation amongst the members. Thus, it is important that reliable relations can be established between the members in order to promote further interactions. To do so, an integrated framework is developed in this paper to configure the new product development network so that sustainable collaborations can be maintained amongst the entities. The proposed framework consists of the network configuration in addition to the supplier selection phase. They are taken into consideration using a biobjective mathematical model in which incurred costs and suppliers' superiority determine the final configuration of the network. Finally, different numerical instances are solved to address the applicability of the proposed model.

  17. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  18. Tracking POD's Engagement with Diversity: A Content Analysis of "To Improve the Academy" and POD Network Conference Programs from 1977 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooters, Stacy E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which sessions from the annual Professional and Organizational Development (POD) Network Conference and articles from "To Improve the Academy" engage questions of diversity. The titles and abstracts of 3,946 conference sessions and 560 journal articles were coded for presence and type of diversity. A…

  19. FMG, RENUM, LINEL, ELLFMG, ELLP and DIMES: Chain of programs for calculating and analyzing fluid flow through two-dimensional fracture networks: Users manuals and listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaux, D.; Peterson, J.; Bodea, S.; Long, J.

    1989-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide the user with sufficient information to run the programs FMG, RENUM, LINEL, and ELLFMG. A previous report explained the theory and the design of these programs, so that by using the two reports, a thorough understanding of the codes is possible. This report should familiarize the user with program options and modes of operation, input variables, input and output files. Information not strictly needed to run the programs, but useful in understanding their internal structure is provided in appendices. The appendices cover program variables and arrays, subroutine outlines, a short description of each subroutine, and finally listings of codes. The additional information on FMG, RENUM, LINEL, and ELLFMG is in Appendices A, C, E, G respectively, and the listings are in Appendices B, D, F, and H.

  20. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  1. Logistical networking: a global storage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it. This work is supported by the Department of Energy SciDAC Program (esp. Terascale Supernova Initiative) under grant #DE-FC02-01ER25465 and by the Center for Gyokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, under award #DE-FG02-04ER25651. Additional support was provided by the Center for Information Technology Research (CITR) of the University of Tennessee. The infrastructure used in this work was supported by the NSF CISE Research Infrastructure program, EIA-9972889 and Research Resources program EIA-022444.

  2. Thermodynamic Constraints Improve Metabolic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L

    2017-08-08

    In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail. Instead, work has focused on the implementation and validation of the thermodynamic poise calculation itself. With the advance of fast linear programming-based network reconciliation, the effects of reversibility constraints on network reconciliation and gene essentiality predictions have become feasible and are the subject of this study. Networks with thermodynamically informed reversibility constraints outperformed gene essentiality predictions compared to networks that were constrained with randomly shuffled constraints. Unconstrained networks predicted gene essentiality as accurately as thermodynamically constrained networks, but predicted substantially fewer essential genes. Networks that were reconciled with sequence similarity data and strongly enforced reversibility constraints outperformed all other networks. We conclude that metabolic network analysis confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic constraints, and that thermodynamic poise information is actionable during network reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation program of fuelwood in Cambodia : the looming of a network of skills with encouraging results; Programme economie de bois de feu au Cambodge : emergence d'un reseau de competences avec des resultats encourageants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozis, J.-F.; Rondet, M.; Vitou, S.

    2000-06-01

    Some studies indicate that the deforestation process initiated in Kompong Chnang Province, in Cambodia has led to the loss of 59 per cent of the thick forest between 1985 and 1993, mainly to fuelwood. The first two years of this study were aimed at laboratory and field testing of different basic models aimed at reducing the consumption of fuelwood while adapting to the acquisition possibilities of users. The first axis concerned domestic cooking. The introduction of baked clay stockpots based on an Indonesian model for the rural communities and a coal-burning Thai model for the urban communities. Field experiments indicated a reduction of 25 to 30 per cent of fuelwood. The production of sugar palm also utilized large quantities of fuelwood, approximately 6 per cent of all fuelwood utilized in the province. The substitution of single stockpot by double stockpot with chimney led to a gain in time, better boiling and a better taste since the smoke was not returning in the stockpot. The successes encountered encouraged decision-makers for the program to establish a network of skills, from the training of professionals, technicians, popular science writers, stockpot manufacturers,etc.. This network was established on March 14, 2000 and comprised 40 government and non-government agencies. The next phase planned involves the development of a national policy on fuelwood, the formation of technicians, the advising of decision-makers, as well as the development of a research and development program.

  4. Connecting and Networking for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  5. Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0173 CONGRESSIONAL) CYBERSECURITY OF CRITICAL CONTROL NETWORKS William Mahoney UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA Final Report 07/14/2015...Congressional) Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...FA9550-10-1-0341 Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks Report Type Final Report Primary Contact E-mail wmahoney@unomaha.edu Primary

  6. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  7. Research Award: Informaon and Networks

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC's Informaon and Networks (I&N) program is seeking a Research Awardee for 2014. The growth of networked technologies has created new opportunies for advancing human development in developing countries. Greater access to the Internet and mobile phones has led to a series of unique and ...

  8. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  9. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  10. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  11. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  12. Global Networks of Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programs is the inclusion of experts from the South in overseas networks. Today more than half a million people from current and former developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and E...

  13. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  14. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  15. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  16. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  17. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  18. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  19. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  20. International Workshop on Discrete Time Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Fields and Networks (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on October 28 and 29, 1993. Program and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Program 0 Berlin, Germany, October 1993 Diana Lawton, Piano 0 W.A. Mozart Sonate d-dur, KV. 311 Allegro con spirito Andante con espressione Rondo II C...exhibiting a cause-to- effect (causality) relationship. The latter in turn gives rise to computational rules that exhibit the sequential nature needed for

  1. Helping Citizens Help Themselves : Neighborhood Improvement Programs and the Impact of Social Networks, Trust, and Norms on Neighborhood-Oriented Forms of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social

  2. The shaping of healthy & organic school meal programs in three Danish municipalities can be understood as a proces of "translation" in actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    Promotion of healthy eating in some Danish public school settings has become a preferred option to counteract the growing rates of obesity among young people. The purpose of study was to explore how these Danish school meal programs are shaped in their local communities. The study analyses...

  3. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  4. ALINE/LALINET Network Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American Lidar Network, ALINE a.k.a LALINET is a federation lidar network established in 2008 which became a member of GALION/GAW program in 2013. Currently the network consists of 9 operational stations with the perspective of two more stations to be included. The network today covers more than 18 million Km2 and spans in latitude from -52° to 21° and in longitude from -78° to -47°. It should cover a larger area in the future as planned with the inclusion of more active stations.

  5. Practical neural network recipies in C++

    CERN Document Server

    Masters

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a cookbook for neural network solutions to practical problems using C++. It will enable those with moderate programming experience to select a neural network model appropriate to solving a particular problem, and to produce a working program implementing that network. The book provides guidance along the entire problem-solving path, including designing the training set, preprocessing variables, training and validating the network, and evaluating its performance. Though the book is not intended as a general course in neural networks, no background in neural works is assum

  6. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  7. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  8. Network coding for multi-resolution multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus and computer program product for utilizing network coding for multi-resolution multicast is presented. A network source partitions source content into a base layer and one or more refinement layers. The network source receives a respective one or more push-back messages from one...... or more network destination receivers, the push-back messages identifying the one or more refinement layers suited for each one of the one or more network destination receivers. The network source computes a network code involving the base layer and the one or more refinement layers for at least one...... of the one or more network destination receivers, and transmits the network code to the one or more network destination receivers in accordance with the push-back messages....

  9. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  10. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  11. Decentralized Network Interdiction Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0169 Decentralized Network Interdiction Games Andrew Liu PURDUE UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/13/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...Interdiction Games 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0275 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew L. Liu (PI...project established the theoretical and computational foundation for a new class of games , termed as the multi-interdictor network games (MINGs

  12. A Washington Perspective on Women and Networking: The Power and the Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Madeleine F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes two successful, institutionalized networking programs of the American Council on Education. Discusses the potential benefits and pitfalls of networking especially as they apply to women. (RC)

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  14. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  15. Technological Developments in Networking, Education and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Elleithy, Khaled; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Karim, Mohammad A; Mahmood, Ausif

    2010-01-01

    "Technological Developments in Networking, Education and Automation" includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the following areas: Computer Networks: Access Technologies, Medium Access Control, Network architectures and Equipment, Optical Networks and Switching, Telecommunication Technology, and Ultra Wideband Communications. Engineering Education and Online Learning: including development of courses and systems for engineering, technical and liberal studies programs; online laboratories; intelligent

  16. Computer Program Newsletter No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, W.G. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This issue of the Computer Program Newsletter updates an earlier newsletter (Number 2, September 1979) and focuses on electrical network analysis computer programs. In particular, five network analysis programs (SCEPTRE, SPICE2, NET2, CALAHAN, and EMTP) will be described. The objective of this newsletter will be to provide a very brief description of the input syntax and semantics for each program, highlight their strong and weak points, illustrate how the programs are run at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the Octopus computer network, and present examples of input for each of the programs to illustrate some of the features of each program. In a sense, this newsletter can be used as a quick reference guide to the programs.

  17. Optimization Models for Flexible and Adaptive SDN Network Virtualization Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zerwas, Johannes; Blenk, Andreas; Kellerer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Network hypervisors provide the network virtualization layer for Software Defined Networking (SDN). They enable virtual network (VN) tenants to bring their SDN controllers to program their logical networks individually according to their demands. In order to make use of the high flexibility of virtual SDN networks and to provide high performance, the deployment of the virtualization layer needs to adapt to changing VN demands. This paper initializes the study of the optimization of dynamic SD...

  18. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  19. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  20. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  1. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  2. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  3. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  4. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  5. A Method for Analyzing the Business Case for Provider Participation in the National Cancer Institute’s Community Clinical Oncology Program and Similar Federally Funded Provider-Based Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Song, Paula H.; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J.; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2011-01-01

    Background The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) efforts to increase enrollment in clinical trials. There is currently little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. This paper presents a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation and provides a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. Methods A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Results Key components of the business case include CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The value of incidental benefits is recognized as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation, but is not currently calculated. Conclusions Providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers’ understanding of the financial implications of participation. PMID:22213241

  6. Journal of EEA, Vol. 28, 2011 SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede

    network design [6,13,15], mixed integer programming [7,15,16,17], stochastic programming. [14,16], heuristic methods, and simulation based methods [4,16]. In this study especial focus is given to SC network design in which optimization techniques are used. This is because it considers the structure of the network and also ...

  7. Neural network technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, James A.

    1991-01-01

    A whole new arena of computer technologies is now beginning to form. Still in its infancy, neural network technology is a biologically inspired methodology which draws on nature's own cognitive processes. The Software Technology Branch has provided a software tool, Neural Execution and Training System (NETS), to industry, government, and academia to facilitate and expedite the use of this technology. NETS is written in the C programming language and can be executed on a variety of machines. Once a network has been debugged, NETS can produce a C source code which implements the network. This code can then be incorporated into other software systems. Described here are various software projects currently under development with NETS and the anticipated future enhancements to NETS and the technology.

  8. Program enhancements demonstrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    Enhancements to the Gastran Program for simulation of steady-state gathering systems are outlined. The operation of the modifications, as well as 2 new major engineering programs (Pipetran and Matbal), is discussed as an example of useable software programs to assist oil and gas production. Pipetran is a program that utilizes the best available multiphase flow correlations in a network structure for design and analysis of multiphase flow gathering systems. Matbal is a general purpose oil material balance program for obtaining reservoir performance information at a reasonable cost for all reservoirs with pressure below the bubble point.

  9. Computational network design from functional specifications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi Han

    2016-07-11

    Connectivity and layout of underlying networks largely determine agent behavior and usage in many environments. For example, transportation networks determine the flow of traffic in a neighborhood, whereas building floorplans determine the flow of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications. Such specifications can be in the form of network density, travel time versus network length, traffic type, destination location, etc. We propose an integer programming-based approach that guarantees that the resultant networks are valid by fulfilling all the specified hard constraints and that they score favorably in terms of the objective function. We evaluate our algorithm in two different design settings, street layout and floorplans to demonstrate that diverse networks can emerge purely from high-level functional specifications.

  10. The Colombia Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  11. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  12. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  13. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  14. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  15. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  16. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  17. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  18. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  19. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  20. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.