New Yorgi Maailma Kaubanduskeskuse asemele uue hoone rajamiseks korraldatud rahvusvahelise athitektuurikonkursi II vooru finaali jõudsid disainitandemi THINK (Rafael Vinoly, Frederic Schwartz) ja Daniel Libeskindi projektid. 25. II valis žürii välja D. Libeskindi variandi
Rajalo, Priit, 1975-
Viiendat korda välja antud Tartu aasta teo konkursi aunimetuse pälvis tänavu Huga Treffneri gümnaasiumi renoveeritud hoone, sümboliseerides vajadust anda rohkem raha haridusele. Tartu linnapea Andrus Ansipi sõnul kuulub see hoone praegu Euroopa kümne parima gümnaasiumihoone hulka
Ojari, Triin, 1974-
Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursist, žürii koosseis, väljavõtted žürii lõppraportist. I preemia - "Art Plaza", SEA: Uffe Leth Laursen, Karsten Gori + EFFEKT: Tue Hesselberg Foged, Sinus Lynge (Taani), kaasa töötasid Greta Tedje, Simon Sorensen, Lawrence Aeberhard, Lyndal Brown, Morgan Jacobsen. II preemia - "TLN 247", NAT Architecten (Holland): Frank van Manen, Metin van Zijl, Vincent van der Klei, Tjalf van Dijkhuizen, Suzanna van der Meer, Daniel Aw, Bobby de Graaf, John Kuilman, Niels Limburg. III preemia - "Arts Factory", NERALP-Arquitectura Engenharia e Construcoes LDA (Portugal): Paulo Sergio Goncalves Teixeira de Sousa. Kommenteerib võistluse tingimused koostanud arhitekt Tiit Sild
Kodres, Krista, 1957-
16.-18. sajandil. Tallinna raekoja kujundusloost (gobeläänid: H. van Lacke, nikerdfriis: E. Thiele, J. Armbrust), vaekojast (1554-1555), raeapteegist, Suurgildi hoonest, Mustpeade majast (ümberehitus 1597: A. Passer, H. Luttigk, uks: B. Geistman). Tartu avalikust arhitektuurist, raekojast (1782-89, J. H. B. Walther). Narva raekojast (1665-71, G. Teuffel) ja börsihoonest (1691-1704, J. G. Heroldt, H. Kindler). Pärnu avalikest hoonetest. Kuressaare raekojast (u. 1653-70, M. G. De la Gardie) ja vaekojast (1654). Haapsalu raekojast. Linnaväravatest, ülikooli- (TÜ hoone ümberehitus Tartus, arhitekt P. von Essen ja Pärnus, arhitekt N. Tessin) ja koolihoonetest. Bibliograafia lk. 444-446
McCulloh, Ian; Webb, Matthew; Graham, John; Carley, Kathleen; Horn, Daniel B
.... This project proposes a new method for detecting change in social networks over time, by applying a cumulative sum statistical process control statistic to normally distributed network measures...
McCulloh, Ian A; Carley, Kathleen M
... between group members. The ability to systematically, statistically, effectively and efficiently detect these changes has the potential to enable the anticipation of change, provide early warning of change, and enable...
Kalm, Mart, 1961-
1998. a. arhitektuurivõistlusest, kus esikoha pälvis Aivo Schultsi ja Marti Kahu võistlusprojekt "Vihm". 2003. a. hakkas hoonet ehitama AS Merko Ehitus. Sisearhitekt Priit Põldme. Novembris 2003 valminud hoonest, muudatustest. Ill.: 5 konkursitöö joonised, valminud hoone välis- ja sisevaade
Full Text Available Change is a fundamental ingredient of interaction patterns in biology, technology, the economy, and science itself: Interactions within and between organisms change; transportation patterns by air, land, and sea all change; the global financial flow changes; and the frontiers of scientific research change. Networks and clustering methods have become important tools to comprehend instances of these large-scale structures, but without methods to distinguish between real trends and noisy data, these approaches are not useful for studying how networks change. Only if we can assign significance to the partitioning of single networks can we distinguish meaningful structural changes from random fluctuations. Here we show that bootstrap resampling accompanied by significance clustering provides a solution to this problem. To connect changing structures with the changing function of networks, we highlight and summarize the significant structural changes with alluvial diagrams and realize de Solla Price's vision of mapping change in science: studying the citation pattern between about 7000 scientific journals over the past decade, we find that neuroscience has transformed from an interdisciplinary specialty to a mature and stand-alone discipline.
Eesti Rahvusringhäälingu hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Erik Nobel Taani arhitektuuribüroost Nobel Arkitekter A/S. Teise koha saavutasid Trevor Harris ja Taru Niskanen Soome arhitektuuribüroost Arkkitehtitoimisto Harris ja Kjisk Oy. Maja ehitatakse Tallinnasse Tuisu tänav 12
Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-
Eesti Rahva muuseumi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööst "Memory Field" (autorid itaalia arhitekt Dan Dorell, liibanoni arhitekt Lina Ghotmeh, jaapani arhitekt Tsuyoshi Tane). Kommenteerivad Jaanus Plaat, Tõnis Lukas, Karin Hallas-Murula, Raivo Palmaru, Laine Jänes, Marika Valk
in describing the novel pedagogical potentials of these new technologies and practices (e.g. in debates around virtual learning environments versus personal learning environment). Likewise, I shall briefly discuss the notions of ‘digital natives’ or ‘the net generation’ from a critical perspective...... of social technologies. I argue that we are seeing the emergence of new architectures and scales of participation, collaboration and networking e.g. through interesting formations of learning networks at different levels of scale, for different purposes and often bridging boundaries such as formal...
Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.
This work offers a summary of the book: « Google+ for business: How Google's Social Network Changes Everything » by Chris Brogan.Summary of the ideas in Chris Brogan's book « Google+ for business » highlights that the social network created by Google now has lore than 175 million users and is tied to the largest search engines in the world. Therefore, Google+ could end up being the best online business building tool ever developed. So if you can master using Google+ today, you will be well positioned for what happens in the future as Google, YouTube and others continue to bring new developmen
Full Text Available Network technology is changing rapidly and those adept at ICT analysis need resolve rate of change issues. Developments in networking now are in the direction of heuristic intelligence. Since about 1980, networking techniques have encouraged combining bits of information with imagination cognitively to improve ideas about reality. ICT enterprise projects utilize networking to sustain requisite imagination. Assumptions and misassuptions of project builders are rationally comprehended as networking sustains creative processes. The monopolization of valuable network techniques influences in the direction of esoteric networking. Data presents that substantial knowledge and networking is now occurring globally. As a netaphor, networking
Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman
This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...
Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoone. Püsinäitus "Visa hing. 11 000 aastat Eesti ajalugu" = Restoration of the Estonian History Museum Great Guild Hall building, permanent exhibition "Spirit of survival. 11,000 years of Estonian history" / Margit A
Argus, Margit, 1981-
Suurgildi hoone renoveerimisest, sisekujundusest, ekspositsioonist. Sisearhitektid Margit Aule, Liis Lindvere, Margit Argus (Koko Arhitektid). Restaureerimisarhitekt: Mart Keskküla (Restor). Graafilise disaini autorid Jan Tomson, Indrek Sirkel, Mikk Heinsoo, Kaarel Nõmmik, Andrus Kõresaar (Produktsioonigrupp). Ekspositsiooni multimeedia ja interaktsioon: Produktsioonigrupp
Huisman, M; Snijders, TAB; Snijders, Tom A.B.
Markov chains can be used for the modeling of complex longitudinal network data. One class of probability models to model the evolution of social networks are stochastic actor-oriented models for network change proposed by Snijders. These models are continuous-time Markov chain models that are
In Norway, it is expected that owners of electric distribution networks will be required to make it possible for the customers to change supplier each week. This report examines what consequences such a requirement will have for the network owners. An inquiry among nine network owners shows that at present changing supplier implies a great deal of manual work on the part of the network owner since many do not have computer based tools adapted to handle the situation. If the number of weekly changes of suppliers does not increase beyond a few percent of the network owner's total number of customers over 1 to 3 years, the network owner can cope with the situation. However, if for some reason the increase becomes larger, many network owners will have great problems because they lack the necessary computer tools. 1 table
Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P
Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Dittrich, Koen; Duysters, Geert; Man, Ard-Pieter
textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity alliances, involving new partners in the network and loosening the ties with existing partners, IBM supported its transformation from a hardware manufacturing company to a global service provider and so...
K. Dittrich (Koen); G.M. Duysters (Geert); A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter)
textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity
Tom van Engers
Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.
Syri, S.; Martikeinen, A.; Lehtonen, M.
The climate change is widely known to cause remarkable effects to electricity network systems on the whole. Some of the changes are good but the most of the changes cause disadvantages to electricity network. Consequence of climate change, blackouts can be long-standing which affect remarkable society and economic life. Most of electricity networks are coming to a renovation phase and the solutions, that are being made nowadays, affect still after decades. Taking account of climate change, now when networks are being developed and planned, it is possible to avoid possible large repair operation and increase reliability of distribution in the future. The aim of this project is to clarify how climate change should be noticed in planning and construction processes. According to the results of this project electricity network companies can be prepared for climate change by developing planning processes and network cost effectively. Also construction processes are being developed but emphasis is on planning process. The results and developed knowledge of VTT research project 'Impacts of climate change on electricity network business' are exploited in this project. In addition, impacts of climate change on cables and transformers are analyzed in collaboration with TKK in the project. (orig.)
Climate has a significant impact on the electricity network business. The electricity network is under the weather pressure all the time and it is planned and constructed to withstand normal climatic stresses. The electricity network that has been planned and constructed now, is expected to be in operation next 40 years. If climatic stresses change in this period, it can cause significant impacts on electricity network business. If the impacts of climate change are figured out in advance, it is possible to mitigate negative points of climate change and exploit the positive points. In this paper the impact of climate change on electricity network business is presented. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016. 2045. The period 1960.1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. The impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. The estimation was based on the change predictions of the climate variables. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity
Yang, Yang; Medaglia, Rony
Social networking platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique socio-cultural and institutional environment. This paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different-minded interactions ov...
Sipos, Marton A.; Venkat, Narayan; Oran, David
As faster storage devices become commercially viable alternatives to disk drives, the network is increasingly becoming the bottleneck in achieving good performance in distributed storage systems. This is especially true for erasure coded storage, where the reconstruction of lost data can signific...
Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.
Feedback surveys are an assessment exercise that differs from conventional evaluation by creating a comparative data set. Transnational social change networks are international networks with members spread across multiple countries working to collectively organize towards a common long-term goal that would not be ...
Terhell, E.L.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.
This study explains changes in contact frequency in relationships of the preseparation personal network in the early and later years after partners separate. The explanation includes general and separation-related characteristics of the network relationship and the individual. Personal interviews
Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie
End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Richard, E.; van Gool, W.A.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; van Haastert, E.S.; Eikelenboom, P.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; van de Berg, W.D.J.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is accompanied by abnormalities of the microvasculature. Despite the potential importance of morphometric changes in the cortical capillary network on neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment, few autopsy studies have addressed this issue. In the present
Auvinen, O.; Martikainen, A.
In this project the impact of climate change on electricity network business was study. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016- 2045. The period 1960-1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. Impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change in distribution network. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity consumption and the peak load of temperature-dependent electricity users. (orig.)
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy M.
The Network Support Project was designed to determine whether a treatment could lead patients to change their social network from one that supports drinking to one that supports sobriety. This study reports 2-year posttreatment outcomes. Alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 210) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions:…
Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.
This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.
Patwary, Enayet Ullah; Lee, Jong Youl; Nobi, Ashadun; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo
We consider the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns in the local and global stock markets. We generate the minimal spanning tree (MST) using the correlation matrix. We observe that the MSTs change their structure from chain-like networks to star-like networks during periods of market uncertainty. We quantify the measure of the hierarchical network utilizing the value of the hierarchy measured by the hierarchical path. The hierarchy and betweenness centrality characterize the state of the market regarding the impact of crises. During crises, the non-financial company is established as the central node of the MST. However, before the crisis and during stable periods, the financial company is occupying the central node of the MST in the Korean and the U.S. stock markets. The changes in the network structure and the central node are good indicators of an upcoming crisis.
Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; Wondzell, S. M.; Johnson, S.
Connectivity along river networks is broadly recognized as dynamic, with seasonal and event-based expansion and contraction of the network extent. Intermittently flowing streams are particularly important as they define a crucial threshold for continuously connected waters that enable migration by aquatic species. In the Pacific northwestern U.S., changes in atmospheric circulation have been found to alter rainfall patterns and result in decreased summer low-flows in the region. However, the impact of this climate dynamic on network connectivity is heretofore unstudied. Thus, we ask: How has connectivity in the riparian corridor changed in response to observed changes in climate? In this study we take the well-studied H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest as representative of mountain river networks in the Pacific northwestern U.S. First, we analyze 63 years of stream gauge information from a network of 11 gauges to document observed changes in timing and magnitude of stream discharge. We found declining magnitudes of seasonal low-flows and shifting seasonality of water export from the catchment, both of which we attribute to changes in precipitation timing and storage as snow vs. rainfall. Next, we use these discharge data to drive a reduced-complexity model of the river network to simulate network connectivity over 63 years. Model results show that network contraction (i.e., minimum network extent) has decreased over the past 63 years. Unexpectedly, the increasing winter peak flows did not correspond with increasing network expansion, suggesting a geologic control on maximum flowing network extent. We find dynamic expansion and contraction of the network primarily occurs during period of catchment discharge less than about 1 m3/s at the outlet, whereas the network extent is generally constant for discharges from 1 to 300 m3/s. Results of our study are of interest to scientists focused on connectivity as a control on ecological processes both directly (e.g., fish
Northcott, Sarah; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Hilari, Katerina
Social network typologies have been used to classify the general population but have not previously been applied to the stroke population. This study investigated whether social network types remain stable following a stroke, and if not, why some people shift network type. We used a mixed methods design. Participants were recruited from two acute stroke units. They completed the Stroke Social Network Scale (SSNS) two weeks and six months post stroke and in-depth interviews 8-15 months following the stroke. Qualitative data was analysed using Framework Analysis; k-means cluster analysis was applied to the six-month data set. Eighty-seven participants were recruited, 71 were followed up at six months, and 29 completed in-depth interviews. It was possible to classify all 29 participants into one of the following network types both prestroke and post stroke: diverse; friends-based; family-based; restricted-supported; restricted-unsupported. The main shift that took place post stroke was participants moving out of a diverse network into a family-based one. The friends-based network type was relatively stable. Two network types became more populated post stroke: restricted-unsupported and family-based. Triangulatory evidence was provided by k-means cluster analysis, which produced a cluster solution (for n = 71) with comparable characteristics to the network types derived from qualitative analysis. Following a stroke, a person's social network is vulnerable to change. Explanatory factors for shifting network type included the physical and also psychological impact of having a stroke, as well as the tendency to lose contact with friends rather than family.
Godrèche, C; Grandclaude, H; Luck, J M
We investigate various aspects of the statistics of leaders in growing network models defined by stochastic attachment rules. The leader is the node with highest degree at a given time (or the node which reached that degree first if there are co-leaders). This comprehensive study includes the full distribution of the degree of the leader, its identity, the number of co-leaders, as well as several observables characterizing the whole history of lead changes: number of lead changes, number of distinct leaders, lead persistence probability. We successively consider the following network models: uniform attachment, linear attachment (the Barabási–Albert model), and generalized preferential attachment with initial attractiveness
Goswami, Sanchari; Biswas, Soham; Sen, Parongama
In two different classes of network models, namely, the Watts Strogatz type and the Euclidean type, subtle changes have been introduced in the randomness. In the Watts Strogatz type network, rewiring has been done in different ways and although the qualitative results remain the same, finite differences in the exponents are observed. In the Euclidean type networks, where at least one finite phase transition occurs, two models differing in a similar way have been considered. The results show a possible shift in one of the phase transition points but no change in the values of the exponents. The WS and Euclidean type models are equivalent for extreme values of the parameters; we compare their behaviour for intermediate values.
Wang, Rongcun; Huang, Rubing; Qu, Binbin
The object-oriented software systems frequently evolve to meet new change requirements. Understanding the characteristics of changes aids testers and system designers to improve the quality of softwares. Identifying important modules becomes a key issue in the process of evolution. In this context, a novel network-based approach is proposed to comprehensively investigate change distributions and the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. First, software dependency networks are constructed at class level. And then, the number of times of cochanges among classes is minded from software repositories. According to the dependency relationships and the number of times of cochanges among classes, the scope of change propagation is calculated. Using Spearman rank correlation analyzes the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. Three case studies on java open source software projects Findbugs, Hibernate, and Spring are conducted to research the characteristics of change propagation. Experimental results show that (i) change distribution is very uneven; (ii) PageRank, Degree, and CIRank are significantly correlated to the scope of change propagation. Particularly, CIRank shows higher correlation coefficient, which suggests it can be a more useful indicator for measuring the scope of change propagation of classes in object-oriented software system.
Sedlmair, M; Frank, A; Munzner, T; Butz, A
We present a network visualization design study focused on supporting automotive engineers who need to specify and optimize traffic patterns for in-car communication networks. The task and data abstractions that we derived support actively making changes to an overlay network, where logical communication specifications must be mapped to an underlying physical network. These abstractions are very different from the dominant use case in visual network analysis, namely identifying clusters and central nodes, that stems from the domain of social network analysis. Our visualization tool RelEx was created and iteratively refined through a full user-centered design process that included a full problem characterization phase before tool design began, paper prototyping, iterative refinement in close collaboration with expert users for formative evaluation, deployment in the field with real analysts using their own data, usability testing with non-expert users, and summative evaluation at the end of the deployment. In the summative post-deployment study, which entailed domain experts using the tool over several weeks in their daily practice, we documented many examples where the use of RelEx simplified or sped up their work compared to previous practices.
Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L
Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.
Kenney, Michael; Horgan, John; Horne, Cale; Vining, Peter; Carley, Kathleen M; Bigrigg, Michael W; Bloom, Mia; Braddock, Kurt
Social networks are said to facilitate learning and adaptation by providing the connections through which network nodes (or agents) share information and experience. Yet, our understanding of how this process unfolds in real-world networks remains underdeveloped. This paper explores this gap through a case study of al-Muhajiroun, an activist network that continues to call for the establishment of an Islamic state in Britain despite being formally outlawed by British authorities. Drawing on organisation theory and social network analysis, we formulate three hypotheses regarding the learning capacity and social network properties of al-Muhajiroun (AM) and its successor groups. We then test these hypotheses using mixed methods. Our methods combine quantitative analysis of three agent-based networks in AM measured for structural properties that facilitate learning, including connectedness, betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality, with qualitative analysis of interviews with AM activists focusing organisational adaptation and learning. The results of these analyses confirm that al-Muhajiroun activists respond to government pressure by changing their operations, including creating new platforms under different names and adjusting leadership roles among movement veterans to accommodate their spiritual leader's unwelcome exodus to Lebanon. Simple as they are effective, these adaptations have allowed al-Muhajiroun and its successor groups to continue their activism in an increasingly hostile environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.
Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni; Willers, Johann Ole
experts on demographic change. Our findings suggest that on demographic change issues at the EU level, DG EMPL has taken the lead, while DG ECFIN is the secondary actor. Still, internal European Commission dynamics mean that the lead actor on demographic issues has less autonomy in articulating a funded......This paper examines who populates the expert and policy network around demographic change issues in Europe. We examine how competing policy departments in the European Commission Directorates-General (DGs) deal with the issue of Europe’s changing demography, as well as discuss the role of external...... and clear policy position on how to address them. As a consequence, there is little institutional memory and hardly a depository of activity on demographic change. While outside expertise comes primarily from demographers, and other scholars concerned with demographic change, they are primarily an academic...
Moore, A.; Derry, L. A.; Zabel, I.; Duggan-Haas, D.; Ross, R. M.
Earth's Critical Zone extends from the top of the tree canopy to the base of the groundwater lens. Thus the Critical Zone is examined as a suite of interconnected systems and study of the CZ is inherently interdisciplinary. Climate change is an important driver of CZ processes. The US Critical Zone Observatory Network comprises nine observatories and a coordinating National Office. Educational programs and materials developed at each CZO and the National Office have been collected, reviewed, and presented on-line at the CZONO (criticalzone.org/national/education-outreach/resources). Because the CZOs are designed to observe and measure a suite of common parameters on varying geological substrates and within different ecological contexts, educational resources reflect the diversity of processes represented across the network. As climate change has a network-wide impact, the fundamental building blocks of climate change literacy are key elements in many activities within the CZONO resource collection. Carbon-cycle and hydrologic cycle processes are well-represented, with emphasis on human interactions with these resources, as well as the impact of extreme events and the changing climate. Current work on the resource collection focuses on connecting individual resources to "Teach Climate Science" project and the Teacher-Friendly Guide to Climate Change (teachclimatescience.wordpress.com). The Teacher-Friendly Guide is a manual for K-12 teachers that presents both the fundamentals of climate science alongside resources for effective teaching of this controversial topic. Using the reach of the CZO network we hope to disseminate effective climate literacy resources and support to the K-12 community.
Goodarzi, Maryam; Torabi, Mashallah; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Naeimi, Sara
This paper introduces a telemedicine innovation network and reports its implementation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The required conditions for the development of future projects in the field of telemedicine are also discussed; such projects should be based on the common needs and opportunities in the areas of healthcare, education, and technology. The development of the telemedicine innovation network in Tehran University of Medical Sciences was carried out in two phases: identifying the beneficiaries of telemedicine, and codification of the innovation network memorandum; and brainstorming of three workgroup members, and completion and clustering ideas. The present study employed a qualitative survey by using brain storming method. Thus, the ideas of the innovation network members were gathered, and by using Freeplane software, all of them were clustered and innovation projects were defined. In the services workgroup, 87 and 25 ideas were confirmed in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. In the education workgroup, 8 new programs in the areas of telemedicine, tele-education and teleconsultation were codified. In the technology workgroup, 101 and 11 ideas were registered in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Today, innovation is considered a major infrastructural element of any change or progress. Thus, the successful implementation of a telemedicine project not only needs funding, human resources, and full equipment. It also requires the use of innovation models to cover several different aspects of change and progress. The results of the study can provide a basis for the implementation of future telemedicine projects using new participatory, creative, and innovative models.
Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.
The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of
Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Reid, Andrew; Brauer, Jens; Carbonell, Felix; Lewis, John; Ameis, Stephanie; Karama, Sherif; Lee, Junki; Chen, Zhang; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C
Recent findings from developmental neuroimaging studies suggest that the enhancement of cognitive processes during development may be the result of a fine-tuning of the structural and functional organization of brain with maturation. However, the details regarding the developmental trajectory of large-scale structural brain networks are not yet understood. Here, we used graph theory to examine developmental changes in the organization of structural brain networks in 203 normally growing children and adolescents. Structural brain networks were constructed using interregional correlations in cortical thickness for 4 age groups (early childhood: 4.8-8.4 year; late childhood: 8.5-11.3 year; early adolescence: 11.4-14.7 year; late adolescence: 14.8-18.3 year). Late childhood showed prominent changes in topological properties, specifically a significant reduction in local efficiency, modularity, and increased global efficiency, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more random configuration. An increase in number and span of distribution of connector hubs was found in this age group. Finally, inter-regional connectivity analysis and graph-theoretic measures indicated early maturation of primary sensorimotor regions and protracted development of higher order association and paralimbic regions. Our finding reveals a time window of plasticity occurring during late childhood which may accommodate crucial changes during puberty and the new developmental tasks that an adolescent faces.
The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced. From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site. This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.
Full Text Available In the midst of the digital revolution, we are confronted with the task of defining how media will change our lives and how we communicate with each other in the years to come. Narrative, as one of the most ancient communication tools, has undergone substantial structural changes. This paper addresses how these changes impact the way we read and write. Does the same story conveyed through different media channels signify in the same manner? In other words, what are the differences between a printed story and a digitally presented one? Have electronic reader devices altered the way stories are told and created? And how is networked communication changing the ways we tell stories?
Dunbar, Nora; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Ayers-Lopez, Susan; Berge, Jerica M; Christian, Cinda; Gossman, Ginger; Henney, M Susan M; Mendenhall, Tai J; Grotevant, Harold D; McRoy, Ruth G
The purpose of this study was to reveal underlying processes in adoptive kinship networks that experienced increases or decreases in levels of openness during the child's adolescent years. Intensive case study analyses were conducted for 8 adoptive kinship networks (each including an adoptive mother, adoptive father, adopted adolescent, and birth mother), half of whom had experienced an increase in openness from indirect (mediated) to direct (fully disclosed) contact and half of whom had ceased indirect contact between Waves 1 and 2 of a longitudinal study. Adoptive mothers tended to be more involved in contact with the birth mother than were adoptive fathers or adopted adolescents. Members of adoptive kinship networks in which a decrease in level of contact took place had incongruent perspectives about who initiated the stop in contact and why the stop took place. Birth mothers were less satisfied with their degree of contact than were adoptive parents. Adults' satisfaction with contact was related to feelings of control over type and amount of interactions and permeability of family boundaries. In all adoptive kinship networks, responsibility for contact had shifted toward the adopted adolescent regardless of whether the adolescent was aware of this change in responsibility.
Van Waes, Sara; Van den Bossche, Piet; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter
This study examined (1) the extent to which university teachers' networks changed while they participated in an instructional development program, (2) which mechanisms supported or constrained network change, and (3) the extent to which value was created through networks. Longitudinal social network
Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito
Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.
Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.
Ghazi, A [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC
While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993
Ghazi, A. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC
While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993
Full Text Available When exploited in remote sensing analysis, a reliable change rule with transfer ability can detect changes accurately and be applied widely. However, in practice, the complexity of land cover changes makes it difficult to use only one change rule or change feature learned from a given multi-temporal dataset to detect any other new target images without applying other learning processes. In this study, we consider the design of an efficient change rule having transferability to detect both binary and multi-class changes. The proposed method relies on an improved Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM model to acquire and record the change information of long-term sequence remote sensing data. In particular, a core memory cell is utilized to learn the change rule from the information concerning binary changes or multi-class changes. Three gates are utilized to control the input, output and update of the LSTM model for optimization. In addition, the learned rule can be applied to detect changes and transfer the change rule from one learned image to another new target multi-temporal image. In this study, binary experiments, transfer experiments and multi-class change experiments are exploited to demonstrate the superiority of our method. Three contributions of this work can be summarized as follows: (1 the proposed method can learn an effective change rule to provide reliable change information for multi-temporal images; (2 the learned change rule has good transferability for detecting changes in new target images without any extra learning process, and the new target images should have a multi-spectral distribution similar to that of the training images; and (3 to the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that deep learning in recurrent neural networks is exploited for change detection. In addition, under the framework of the proposed method, changes can be detected under both binary detection and multi-class change detection.
Mohammed El Amin, Arabi; Liu, Qingjie; Wang, Yunhong
With the popular use of high resolution remote sensing (HRRS) satellite images, a huge research efforts have been placed on change detection (CD) problem. An effective feature selection method can significantly boost the final result. While hand-designed features have proven difficulties to design features that effectively capture high and mid-level representations, the recent developments in machine learning (Deep Learning) omit this problem by learning hierarchical representation in an unsupervised manner directly from data without human intervention. In this letter, we propose approaching the change detection problem from a feature learning perspective. A novel deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) features based HR satellite images change detection method is proposed. The main guideline is to produce a change detection map directly from two images using a pretrained CNN. This method can omit the limited performance of hand-crafted features. Firstly, CNN features are extracted through different convolutional layers. Then, a concatenation step is evaluated after an normalization step, resulting in a unique higher dimensional feature map. Finally, a change map was computed using pixel-wise Euclidean distance. Our method has been validated on real bitemporal HRRS satellite images according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results obtained confirm the interest of the proposed method.
Schäfer, Carmen B; Morgan, Benjamin R; Ye, Annette X; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) investigations of inter-regional amplitude correlations have yielded new insights into the organization and neurophysiology of resting-state networks (RSNs) first identified using fMRI. Inter-regional MEG amplitude correlations in adult RSNs have been shown to be most prominent in alpha and beta frequency ranges and to express strong congruence with RSN topologies found using fMRI. Despite such advances, little is known about how oscillatory connectivity in RSNs develops throughout childhood and adolescence. This study used a novel fMRI-guided MEG approach to investigate the maturation of resting-state amplitude correlations in physiologically relevant frequency ranges within and among six RSNs in 59 participants, aged 6-34 years. We report age-related increases in inter-regional amplitude correlations that were largest in alpha and beta frequency bands. In contrast to fMRI reports, these changes were observed both within and between the various RSNs analyzed. Our results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in spontaneous neurophysiological connectivity in source-resolved RSNs, which indicate increasing integration within and among intrinsic functional brain networks throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of container shipping network and its operations under changing cargo demand and freight rates. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming problem (MINP with an objective of maximizing the average unit ship-slot profit at three stages using analytical methodology. The issues such as empty container repositioning, ship-slot allocating, ship sizing, and container configuration are simultaneously considered based on a series of the matrices of demand for a year. To solve the model, a bi-level genetic algorithm based method is proposed. Finally, numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed model and algorithms. The obtained results show that the suggested model can provide a more realistic solution to the issues on the basis of changing demand and freight rates and arrange a more effective approach to the optimization of container shipping network structures and operations than does the model based on the average demand.
Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.
own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.
Figueiredo, Maria P.; Grosvenor, Ian; Hoveid, Marit Honerod; Macnab, Natasha
In this article the authors use two EERA networks as a case for a discussion on the development of research networks within the European Educational Research Association (EERA). They contend that EERA networks through their way of working create a European research space. As their case shows, the development of networks is diverse. The emergence…
Bost, Kelly K.; Cox, Martha J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Payne, Chris
Examines patterns of change in family and friend network with parenthood in 137 couples surveyed before the birth of their first child. Husbands and wives who reported larger network sizes and support prior to their first child's birth were more likely to report larger networks after birth. Changes in parents' social systems were related to…
Full Text Available The paper reviewed studies of entrepreneurship based on the emergency of online social networks. Similar to offline social networks, entrepreneurs’ online social networks have their own unique characteristics. We first reviewed the offline network based research on entrepreneurship. Then we reviewed the studies of entrepreneurship in the context of online social networks including those focusing on topics of network structures and network ties. We highlighted online network communities based on the data collected from LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. Our research implies that both researcher and entrepreneurs are facing new opportunities due to the emergence of online social networks.
Miller, B. W.; Davíd-Chavez, D. M.; Elevitch, C.; Hamilton, A.; Hatfield, S. C.; Jones, K. D.; Rabin, R.; Rosemartin, A.; Souza, M. K.; Sparrow, E.
The Indigenous Phenology Network (IPN) is a grassroots organization whose participants are interested in understanding changes to seasonality and timing of life cycle events, and forecasting impacts to lands and species of importance to native peoples. The group focuses on building relationships, ensuring benefit to indigenous communities, and integrating indigenous and western knowledge systems. The IPN's work is guided by the Relational Doctrine, a set of principles founded on the notion that all things are connected. This multimedia presentation and dialogue will bring together IPN members and their experiences in diverse communities and landscapes facing impacts from a changing climate and extreme weather events. Impacts on water supply, vegetation, wildlife, and living conditions, and ideas for minimizing and responding to the projected impacts of continued change will be discussed in the context of multi-generational, place-based traditional knowledge and community resilience. Scalable, community-based gardens, for example, provide a sustainable source of traditional, locally grown food, most valuable in times of disaster when supplies from the outside world are unavailable. Following the concept of Victory Gardens, the model of small-scale agroforestry (VICTree Gardens - Virtually Interconnected Community Tree Gardens), being implemented in Hawaii, has the potential to provide a diverse diet of food grown in very limited space. Gardens build resilience by connecting people with each other, with local food, and with nature. We envision community-based projects which will apply local, multi-generational knowledge to adapt the gardens to changing environments. Going forward, direct observation of garden conditions can be combined with satellite and ground-based measurements of environmental conditions, such as soil moisture, soil and air temperature, precipitation, and phenology, to further assess and manage these gardens in the context of the surrounding
Chen, Heng; Chen, Xinying
Language is a complex adaptive system, but how does it change? For investigating this process, four diachronic Chinese word co-occurrence networks have been built based on texts that were written during the last 2,000 years. By comparing the network indicators that are associated with the hierarchical features in language networks, we learn that the hierarchy of Chinese lexical networks has indeed evolved over time at three different levels. The connections of words at the micro level are continually weakening; the number of words in the meso-level communities has increased significantly; and the network is expanding at the macro level. This means that more and more words tend to be connected to medium-central words and form different communities. Meanwhile, fewer high-central words link these communities into a highly efficient small-world network. Understanding this process may be crucial for understanding the increasing structural complexity of the language system. PMID:29489837
Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.; Bales, S.; Fraser, J.; Yoder, J. A.
Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. Informal science education institutions can help bridge the gap between climate scientists and the public. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Ultimately, we need to take a strategic approach to the way climate change is communicated. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to bring together three key areas of expertise (as recommended by Pidgeon and Fischhoff, 2011): 1. Climate and decision science experts - who can summarize and explain what is known, characterize risks, and describe appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies; 2. Social scientists - who can bring to bear research, theory, and best practices from cognitive, communication, knowledge acquisition, and social learning theory; and 3. Informal educators and program designers - who bring a practitioner perspective and can exponentially facilitate a learning process for additional interpreters. With support from an NSF CCEP Phase I grant, we have tested this approach, bringing together Interdisciplinary teams of colleagues for a five month "study circles" to develop skills to communicate climate change based on research in the social and cognitive sciences. In 2011
Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cook, John; Lewandowsky, Stephan
Belief polarization is said to occur when two people respond to the same evidence by updating their beliefs in opposite directions. This response is considered to be "irrational" because it involves contrary updating, a form of belief updating that appears to violate normatively optimal responding, as for example dictated by Bayes' theorem. In light of much evidence that people are capable of normatively optimal behavior, belief polarization presents a puzzling exception. We show that Bayesian networks, or Bayes nets, can simulate rational belief updating. When fit to experimental data, Bayes nets can help identify the factors that contribute to polarization. We present a study into belief updating concerning the reality of climate change in response to information about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW). The study used representative samples of Australian and U.S. Among Australians, consensus information partially neutralized the influence of worldview, with free-market supporters showing a greater increase in acceptance of human-caused global warming relative to free-market opponents. In contrast, while consensus information overall had a positive effect on perceived consensus among U.S. participants, there was a reduction in perceived consensus and acceptance of human-caused global warming for strong supporters of unregulated free markets. Fitting a Bayes net model to the data indicated that under a Bayesian framework, free-market support is a significant driver of beliefs about climate change and trust in climate scientists. Further, active distrust of climate scientists among a small number of U.S. conservatives drives contrary updating in response to consensus information among this particular group. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
2009. a. jaanuaris Tallinnas Vene t. 22 taasavatud Vanalinna Hariduskolleegiumi gümnaasiumi koolimajast. Remonditi ja restaureeriti kõik siseruumid, fassaad, katus ja siseõu. Projekteerija: Amhold AS. Restaureerimisprojekti arhitektuurse osa autor Marie Hammer, sisearhitekt Tiiu Lõhmus
de Bie, Jasper L.; de Poot, Christianne J.; Freilich, Joshua D.; Chermak, Steven M.
This paper uses Social Network Analysis to study and compare the organizational structures and division of roles of three jihadist networks in the Netherlands. It uses unique longitudinal Dutch police data covering the 2000–2013 period. This study demonstrates how the organizational structures
A class of models is proposed for longitudinal network data. These models are along the lines of methodological individualism: actors use heuristics to try to achieve their individual goals, subject to constraints. The current network structure is among these constraints. The models are continuous
Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio
Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.
The U.S. road network is one of the nation’s most important capital assets and is vital to the functioning of the U.S. economy. Climate change may represent a risk or an opportunity to this network, as changes in climate stress will affect the resources necessary for both road m...
Cardenas, Alvaro A
.... In this thesis, the author will focus on the detection of three attack scenarios: the spreading of active worms throughout the Internet, distributed denial of service attacks, and routing attacks to wireless ad hoc networks...
Latkin, Carl A; Knowlton, Amy R
Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully used for a range of health behaviors, including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests the relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrates a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and to adjust analytically for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas.
Anderson, Kimberley; Laxhman, Neelam; Priebe, Stefan
Social networks of patients with psychosis can provide social support, and improve health and social outcomes, including quality of life. However, patients with psychosis often live rather isolated with very limited social networks. Evidence for interventions targeting symptoms or social skills, are largely unsuccessful at improving social networks indirectly. As an alternative, interventions may directly focus on expanding networks. In this systematic review, we assessed what interventions have previously been tested for this and to what extent they have been effective. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials, testing psychosocial interventions designed to directly increase the social networks of patients with psychosis. Searches of five online databases (PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, Embase), hand searching of grey literature, and both forward and backward snowballing of key papers were conducted and completed on 12 December 2014. Trial reports were included if they were written in English, the social network size was the primary outcome, participants were ≥ 18 years old and diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Five studies (n = 631 patients) met the complete inclusion criteria. Studies were from different countries and published since 2008. Four trials had significant positive results, i.e. an observable increase in patients' social network size at the end of the intervention. The interventions included: guided peer support, a volunteer partner scheme, supported engagement in social activity, dog-assisted integrative psychological therapy and psychosocial skills training. Other important elements featured were the presence of a professional, and a focus on friendships and peers outside of services and the immediate family. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of included studies, the results suggest that interventions directly targeting social isolation can be effective and achieve a meaningful increase
De Ridder, Simon; Vandermarliere, Benjamin; Ryckebusch, Jan
A framework based on generalized hierarchical random graphs (GHRGs) for the detection of change points in the structure of temporal networks has recently been developed by Peel and Clauset (2015 Proc. 29th AAAI Conf. on Artificial Intelligence). We build on this methodology and extend it to also include the versatile stochastic block models (SBMs) as a parametric family for reconstructing the empirical networks. We use five different techniques for change point detection on prototypical temporal networks, including empirical and synthetic ones. We find that none of the considered methods can consistently outperform the others when it comes to detecting and locating the expected change points in empirical temporal networks. With respect to the precision and the recall of the results of the change points, we find that the method based on a degree-corrected SBM has better recall properties than other dedicated methods, especially for sparse networks and smaller sliding time window widths.
Winkelmann, Aline; Maggio, Nicola; Eller, Joanna; Caliskan, Gürsel; Semtner, Marcus; Häussler, Ute; Jüttner, René; Dugladze, Tamar; Smolinsky, Birthe; Kowalczyk, Sarah; Chronowska, Ewa; Schwarz, Günter; Rathjen, Fritz G; Rechavi, Gideon; Haas, Carola A; Kulik, Akos; Gloveli, Tengis; Heinemann, Uwe; Meier, Jochen C
The mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission and intrinsic neuronal excitability are well characterized; however, the mechanisms that promote disease-causing neural network dysfunction are poorly defined. We generated mice with targeted neuron type-specific expression of a gain-of-function variant of the neurotransmitter receptor for glycine (GlyR) that is found in hippocampectomies from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In this mouse model, targeted expression of gain-of-function GlyR in terminals of glutamatergic cells or in parvalbumin-positive interneurons persistently altered neural network excitability. The increased network excitability associated with gain-of-function GlyR expression in glutamatergic neurons resulted in recurrent epileptiform discharge, which provoked cognitive dysfunction and memory deficits without affecting bidirectional synaptic plasticity. In contrast, decreased network excitability due to gain-of-function GlyR expression in parvalbumin-positive interneurons resulted in an anxiety phenotype, but did not affect cognitive performance or discriminative associative memory. Our animal model unveils neuron type-specific effects on cognition, formation of discriminative associative memory, and emotional behavior in vivo. Furthermore, our data identify a presynaptic disease-causing molecular mechanism that impairs homeostatic regulation of neural network excitability and triggers neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Bakker, M.M.; Alam, S.J.; Dijk, van J.; Rounsevell, T.; Spek, T.; Brink, van den A.
Context Both global change and policy reform will affect the implementation of the National Ecological Network (NEN) in the Netherlands. Global change refers to a combination of changing groundwater tables arising from climate change and improved economic prospects for farming. Policy reform refers
Bakker, Martha; Alam, Shah Jamal; van Dijk, Jerry; Rounsevell, Mark; Spek, Teun; van den Brink, Adri
Context: Both global change and policy reform will affect the implementation of the National Ecological Network (NEN) in the Netherlands. Global change refers to a combination of changing groundwater tables arising from climate change and improved economic prospects for farming. Policy reform refers
Albert, Cécile H; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Dumitru, Maria; Gonzalez, Andrew
Designing connected landscapes is among the most widespread strategies for achieving biodiversity conservation targets. The challenge lies in simultaneously satisfying the connectivity needs of multiple species at multiple spatial scales under uncertain climate and land-use change. To evaluate the contribution of remnant habitat fragments to the connectivity of regional habitat networks, we developed a method to integrate uncertainty in climate and land-use change projections with the latest developments in network-connectivity research and spatial, multipurpose conservation prioritization. We used land-use change simulations to explore robustness of species' habitat networks to alternative development scenarios. We applied our method to 14 vertebrate focal species of periurban Montreal, Canada. Accounting for connectivity in spatial prioritization strongly modified conservation priorities and the modified priorities were robust to uncertain climate change. Setting conservation priorities based on habitat quality and connectivity maintained a large proportion of the region's connectivity, despite anticipated habitat loss due to climate and land-use change. The application of connectivity criteria alongside habitat-quality criteria for protected-area design was efficient with respect to the amount of area that needs protection and did not necessarily amplify trade-offs among conservation criteria. Our approach and results are being applied in and around Montreal and are well suited to the design of ecological networks and green infrastructure for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in other regions, in particular regions around large cities, where connectivity is critically low. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Heerema, M.; van Leeuwen, W.A.
A recurrent neural network with noisy input is studied analytically, on the basis of a Discrete Time Master Equation. The latter is derived from a biologically realizable learning rule for the weights of the connections. In a numerical study it is found that the fixed points of the dynamics of the
Johnson, Colleen Leahy; Barer, Barbara M.
Focuses on the effects divorces of children have on the kinship networks of the older generation. Found a common source of expansion among paternal grandmothers who retained relationships with their former daughters-in-law and her relatives at the same time that they added new relatives with sons' remarriages. (Author/ABB)
Rözer, J.J.; Mollenhorst, G.; Volker, B.
According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear
Scherf, K. Suzanne; Smyth, Joshua M.; Delgado, Mauricio R.
A unique component of adolescent development is the need to master new developmental tasks in which peer interactions become primary (for the purposes of becoming autonomous from parents, forming intimate friendships, and romantic/sexual partnerships). Previously, it has been suggested that the ability to master these tasks requires an important re-organization in the relation between perceptual, motivational, affective, and cognitive systems in a very general and broad way that is fundamentally influenced by the infusion of sex hormones during pubertal development (Scherf et al., 2012). Herein, we extend this argument to suggest that the amygdala, which is vastly connected with cortical and subcortical regions and contains sex hormone receptors, may lie at the heart of this re-organization. We propose that during adolescent development there is a shift in the attribution of relevance to existing stimuli and contexts that is mediated by the amygdala (e.g., heightened relevance of peer faces, reduced relevance of physical distance from parents). As a result, amygdala inputs to existing stable neural networks are re-weighted (increased or decreased), which destabilizes the functional interactions among regions within these networks and allows for a critical restructuring of the network functional organization. This process of network re-organization enables processing of qualitatively new kinds of social information and the emergence of novel behaviors that support mastery of adolescent-specific developmental tasks. PMID:23756154
Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.
Zhang, X. H.; Wang, Q. J.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhang, H.
Traditional prediction of the LOD (length of day) change was based on linear models, such as the least square model and the autoregressive technique, etc. Due to the complex non-linear features of the LOD variation, the performances of the linear model predictors are not fully satisfactory. This paper applies a non-linear neural network - general regression neural network (GRNN) model to forecast the LOD change, and the results are analyzed and compared with those obtained with the back propagation neural network and other models. The comparison shows that the performance of the GRNN model in the prediction of the LOD change is efficient and feasible.
Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rozenfeld, Alejandro; Rahbek, Carsten
Viable populations of species occur in a given place if three conditions are met: the environment at the place is suitable; the species is able to colonize it; co-occurrence is possible despite or because of interactions with other species. Studies investigating the effects of climate change...... on species have mainly focused on measuring changes in climate suitability. Complex interactions among species have rarely been explored in such studies. We extend network theory to the analysis of complex patterns of co-occurrence among species. The framework is used to explore the robustness of networks...... under climate change. With our data, we show that networks describing the geographic pattern of co-occurrence among species display properties shared by other complex networks, namely that most species are poorly connected to other species in the network and only a few are highly connected. In our...
Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kajihara, Kosuke
Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming), whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities.
Full Text Available Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming, whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities.
Sandau, A. (Alexander)
Abstract This research revolves around two major theoretical topics: international network and international sales. The study aims to combine both distinct research areas in order to understand how changes in the sales network influence the sales strategy of the firm. The focus is hereby on born global companies respectively international new ventures. ...
Mary Beth. Adams
The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...
Kern, K.; Bulkeley, H.
This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance.
Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yu
Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are lar...
Van Segbroeck, Sven; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M
Human societies are organized in complex webs that are constantly reshaped by a social dynamic which is influenced by the information individuals have about others. Similarly, epidemic spreading may be affected by local information that makes individuals aware of the health status of their social contacts, allowing them to avoid contact with those infected and to remain in touch with the healthy. Here we study disease dynamics in finite populations in which infection occurs along the links of a dynamical contact network whose reshaping may be biased based on each individual's health status. We adopt some of the most widely used epidemiological models, investigating the impact of the reshaping of the contact network on the disease dynamics. We derive analytical results in the limit where network reshaping occurs much faster than disease spreading and demonstrate numerically that this limit extends to a much wider range of time scales than one might anticipate. Specifically, we show that from a population-level description, disease propagation in a quickly adapting network can be formulated equivalently as disease spreading on a well-mixed population but with a rescaled infectiousness. We find that for all models studied here--SI, SIS and SIR--the effective infectiousness of a disease depends on the population size, the number of infected in the population, and the capacity of healthy individuals to sever contacts with the infected. Importantly, we indicate how the use of available information hinders disease progression, either by reducing the average time required to eradicate a disease (in case recovery is possible), or by increasing the average time needed for a disease to spread to the entire population (in case recovery or immunity is impossible).
Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.
Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics
Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill
Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For
Steiner, Mary Ann
This study of climate change education dissemination takes place in the context of a larger project where institutions in four cities worked together to develop a linked set of informal learning experiences about climate change. Each city developed an organizational network to explore new ways to connect urban audiences with climate change education. The four city-specific networks shared tools, resources, and knowledge with each other. The networks were related in mission and goals, but were structured and functioned differently depending on the city context. This study illustrates how the tools, resources, and knowledge developed in one network were shared with networks in two additional cities. Boundary crossing theory frames the study to describe the role of objects and processes in sharing between networks. Findings suggest that the goals, capacity and composition of networks resulted in a different emphasis in dissemination efforts, in one case to push the approach out to partners for their own work and in the other to pull partners into a more collaborative stance. Learning experiences developed in each city as a result of the dissemination reflected these differences in the city-specific emphasis with the push city diving into messy examples of the approach to make their own examples, and the pull city offering polished experiences to partners in order to build confidence in the climate change messaging. The networks themselves underwent different kinds of growth and change as a result of dissemination. The emphasis on push and use of messy examples resulted in active use of the principles of the approach and the pull emphasis with polished examples resulted in the cultivation of partnerships with the hub and the potential to engage in the educational approach. These findings have implications for boundary object theory as a useful grounding for dissemination designs in the context of networks of informal learning organizations to support a shift in
Full Text Available Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Previous studies have provided evidence about the changes in cognitive control induced by mind-body training. However, the neural correlates underlying the effect of extensive mind-body practice on cognitive control remain largely unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized dynamic fluctuations in large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks associated with mind-body practice, and examined their differences between healthy controls and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC practitioners. Compared with a control group, the TCC group revealed significantly decreased fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF in the bilateral frontoparietal network, default mode network and dorsal prefrontal-angular gyri network. Furthermore, we detected a significant association between mind-body practice experience and fALFF in the default mode network, as well as an association between cognitive control performance and fALFF of the frontoparietal network. This provides the first evidence of large-scale functional connectivity in brain networks associated with mind-body practice, shedding light on the neural network changes that accompany intensive mind-body training. It also highlights the functionally plastic role of the frontoparietal network in the context of the “immune system” of mental health recently developed in relation to flexible hub theory.
Wei, Gao-Xia; Gong, Zhu-Qing; Yang, Zhi; Zuo, Xi-Nian
Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Previous studies have provided evidence about the changes in cognitive control induced by mind-body training. However, the neural correlates underlying the effect of extensive mind-body practice on cognitive control remain largely unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized dynamic fluctuations in large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks associated with mind-body practice, and examined their differences between healthy controls and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners. Compared with a control group, the TCC group revealed significantly decreased fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) in the bilateral frontoparietal network, default mode network and dorsal prefrontal-angular gyri network. Furthermore, we detected a significant association between mind-body practice experience and fALFF in the default mode network, as well as an association between cognitive control performance and fALFF of the frontoparietal network. This provides the first evidence of large-scale functional connectivity in brain networks associated with mind-body practice, shedding light on the neural network changes that accompany intensive mind-body training. It also highlights the functionally plastic role of the frontoparietal network in the context of the "immune system" of mental health recently developed in relation to flexible hub theory.
Blankendaal, Romy; Parinussa, Sarah; Treur, Jan
This paper introduces an integrated temporal-causal model for dynamics in social networks addressing the contagion principle by which states are affected mutually, and both the homophily principle and the more-becomes-more principle by which connections are adapted over time. The integrated model
Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qi-Jie; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hao
Traditional methods for predicting the change in length of day (LOD change) are mainly based on some linear models, such as the least square model and autoregression model, etc. However, the LOD change comprises complicated non-linear factors and the prediction effect of the linear models is always not so ideal. Thus, a kind of non-linear neural network — general regression neural network (GRNN) model is tried to make the prediction of the LOD change and the result is compared with the predicted results obtained by taking advantage of the BP (back propagation) neural network model and other models. The comparison result shows that the application of the GRNN to the prediction of the LOD change is highly effective and feasible.
Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C
Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.
Truong, Cong-Doan; Kwon, Yung-Keun
Biological networks consisting of molecular components and interactions are represented by a graph model. There have been some studies based on that model to analyze a relationship between structural characteristics and dynamical behaviors in signaling network. However, little attention has been paid to changes of modularity and robustness in mutant networks. In this paper, we investigated the changes of modularity and robustness by edge-removal mutations in three signaling networks. We first observed that both the modularity and robustness increased on average in the mutant network by the edge-removal mutations. However, the modularity change was negatively correlated with the robustness change. This implies that it is unlikely that both the modularity and the robustness values simultaneously increase by the edge-removal mutations. Another interesting finding is that the modularity change was positively correlated with the degree, the number of feedback loops, and the edge betweenness of the removed edges whereas the robustness change was negatively correlated with them. We note that these results were consistently observed in randomly structure networks. Additionally, we identified two groups of genes which are incident to the highly-modularity-increasing and the highly-robustness-decreasing edges with respect to the edge-removal mutations, respectively, and observed that they are likely to be central by forming a connected component of a considerably large size. The gene-ontology enrichment of each of these gene groups was significantly different from the rest of genes. Finally, we showed that the highly-robustness-decreasing edges can be promising edgetic drug-targets, which validates the usefulness of our analysis. Taken together, the analysis of changes of robustness and modularity against edge-removal mutations can be useful to unravel novel dynamical characteristics underlying in signaling networks.
De Mazière, Martine; Thompson, Anne M.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Wild, Jeannette D.; Bernhard, Germar; Blumenstock, Thomas; Braathen, Geir O.; Hannigan, James W.; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Leblanc, Thierry; McGee, Thomas J.; Nedoluha, Gerald; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Simon, Paul C.; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Strahan, Susan E.
The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) is an international global network of more than 90 stations making high-quality measurements of atmospheric composition that began official operations in 1991 after 5 years of planning. Apart from sonde measurements, all measurements in the network are performed by ground-based remote-sensing techniques. Originally named the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), the name of the network was changed to NDACC in 2005 to better reflect the expanded scope of its measurements. The primary goal of NDACC is to establish long-term databases for detecting changes and trends in the chemical and physical state of the atmosphere (mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere) and to assess the coupling of such changes with climate and air quality. NDACC's origins, station locations, organizational structure, and data archiving are described. NDACC is structured around categories of ground-based observational techniques (sonde, lidar, microwave radiometers, Fourier-transform infrared, UV-visible DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy)-type, and Dobson-Brewer spectrometers, as well as spectral UV radiometers), timely cross-cutting themes (ozone, water vapour, measurement strategies, cross-network data integration), satellite measurement systems, and theory and analyses. Participation in NDACC requires compliance with strict measurement and data protocols to ensure that the network data are of high and consistent quality. To widen its scope, NDACC has established formal collaborative agreements with eight other cooperating networks and Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). A brief history is provided, major accomplishments of NDACC during its first 25 years of operation are reviewed, and a forward-looking perspective is presented.
M. De Mazière
Full Text Available The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC is an international global network of more than 90 stations making high-quality measurements of atmospheric composition that began official operations in 1991 after 5 years of planning. Apart from sonde measurements, all measurements in the network are performed by ground-based remote-sensing techniques. Originally named the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC, the name of the network was changed to NDACC in 2005 to better reflect the expanded scope of its measurements. The primary goal of NDACC is to establish long-term databases for detecting changes and trends in the chemical and physical state of the atmosphere (mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere and to assess the coupling of such changes with climate and air quality. NDACC's origins, station locations, organizational structure, and data archiving are described. NDACC is structured around categories of ground-based observational techniques (sonde, lidar, microwave radiometers, Fourier-transform infrared, UV-visible DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy-type, and Dobson–Brewer spectrometers, as well as spectral UV radiometers, timely cross-cutting themes (ozone, water vapour, measurement strategies, cross-network data integration, satellite measurement systems, and theory and analyses. Participation in NDACC requires compliance with strict measurement and data protocols to ensure that the network data are of high and consistent quality. To widen its scope, NDACC has established formal collaborative agreements with eight other cooperating networks and Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW. A brief history is provided, major accomplishments of NDACC during its first 25 years of operation are reviewed, and a forward-looking perspective is presented.
Joëlle K Muhlemann
Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.
This paper explores the networks of collaborations that are formed in climate change research, both within the scientific community and with the political and social spheres. It draws on the case of climate change research in a particular national setting, Portugal.
Full Text Available Early in development, neural systems have primarily excitatory coupling, where even GABAergic synapses are excitatory. Many of these systems exhibit spontaneous episodes of activity that have been characterized through both experimental and computational studies. As development progress the neural system goes through many changes, including synaptic remodeling, intrinsic plasticity in the ion channel expression, and a transformation of GABAergic synapses from excitatory to inhibitory. What effect each of these, and other, changes have on the network behavior is hard to know from experimental studies since they all happen in parallel. One advantage of a computational approach is that one has the ability to study developmental changes in isolation. Here, we examine the effects of GABAergic synapse polarity change on the spontaneous activity of both a mean field and a neural network model that has both glutamatergic and GABAergic coupling, representative of a developing neural network. We find some intuitive behavioral changes as the GABAergic neurons go from excitatory to inhibitory, shared by both models, such as a decrease in the duration of episodes. We also find some paradoxical changes in the activity that are only present in the neural network model. In particular, we find that during early development the inter-episode durations become longer on average, while later in development they become shorter. In addressing this unexpected finding, we uncover a priming effect that is particularly important for a small subset of neurons, called the “intermediate neurons.” We characterize these neurons and demonstrate why they are crucial to episode initiation, and why the paradoxical behavioral change result from priming of these neurons. The study illustrates how even arguably the simplest of developmental changes that occurs in neural systems can present non-intuitive behaviors. It also makes predictions about neural network behavioral changes
Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Magon, Stefano
OBJECTIVE: To investigate resting-state functional connectivity in the salience network (SN), the sensorimotor network (SMN), and the default mode network (DMN) during migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized...... connectivity with the bilateral opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus in the SN. In SMN, there was increased connectivity with the right premotor cortex and decreased connectivity with the left visual cortex. Several areas showed increased (left primary auditory, secondary somatosensory, premotor......, and visual cortices) and decreased (right cerebellum and left frontal lobe) connectivity with DMN. We found no resting-state network changes after VIP (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS: PACAP38-induced migraine attack is associated with altered connectivity of several large-scale functional networks of the brain....
Eduardo Moraes Arraut
Full Text Available In order to create the necessary scientific knowledge for Brazil to understand and deal with the causes and consequences of climate change, the federal government created, in 2007, the Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA. Rede CLIMA needs to discuss issues, pose questions, develop methodologies and technological products, find answers, and suggest solutions that are relevant to society. In its first phase, it focused mainly on providing infrastructure and consolidating the sub-networks. Several scientific advances were also achieved, a selection of which are presented in sections focusing on climate modelling, agriculture, energy and water, human development and mobility, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and human health. Now, in its second phase, the objective is to straighten collaboration between sub-networks by means of interdisciplinary projects. It is argued that in order to succeed the Network needs to foster research whose merit is measured not exclusively by academic production.
Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J
Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established...... species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence......, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity....
Md. Emdadul Haque
Full Text Available In ZigBee, the router capable devices have restriction to accept a number of devices as children devices. A router capable device can not allow any new device to join as a child device if it reaches to the maximum capacity of children or depth limit. According to ZigBee specification each device has a permanent 64-bit MAC address. If a device joins a ZigBee network, it receives a short 16-bit MAC address from the parent device. If a device can not join a network, it isolates from the network and becomes an orphan node even though address spaces are available in the network. The orphan problem becomes worse when the topology of the network changes dynamically. In this paper we propose an online expansion technology to connect the maximum number of devices specially for dynamic topology changing ZigBee wireless sensor networks. The proposed technology shares available address spaces of the router devices to reduce the number of orphan nodes in the network.
Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex
The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359078-10$15.00/0.
Deco, Gustavo; Hagmann, Patric; Hudetz, Anthony G; Tononi, Giulio
The transition from wakefulness to sleep represents the most conspicuous change in behavior and the level of consciousness occurring in the healthy brain. It is accompanied by similarly conspicuous changes in neural dynamics, traditionally exemplified by the change from "desynchronized" electroencephalogram activity in wake to globally synchronized slow wave activity of early sleep. However, unit and local field recordings indicate that the transition is more gradual than it might appear: On one hand, local slow waves already appear during wake; on the other hand, slow sleep waves are only rarely global. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging also reveal changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between wake and slow wave sleep. However, it remains unclear how resting-state networks may change during this transition period. Here, we employ large-scale modeling of the human cortico-cortical anatomical connectivity to evaluate changes in resting-state FC when the model "falls asleep" due to the progressive decrease in arousal-promoting neuromodulation. When cholinergic neuromodulation is parametrically decreased, local slow waves appear, while the overall organization of resting-state networks does not change. Furthermore, we show that these local slow waves are structured macroscopically in networks that resemble the resting-state networks. In contrast, when the neuromodulator decrease further to very low levels, slow waves become global and resting-state networks merge into a single undifferentiated, broadly synchronized network. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Coleman, Melinda A; Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; Feng, Ming; van Sebille, Erik; Kelaher, Brendan P
Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity, but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity are required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change. For two key marine species (kelp and sea urchins), we use oceanographic modelling to predict how continental boundary currents are likely to change connectivity among a network of MPAs spanning over 1000 km of coastline off the coast of eastern Australia. Overall change in predicted connectivity among pairs of MPAs within the network did not change significantly over and above temporal variation within climatic scenarios, highlighting the need for future studies to incorporate temporal variation in dispersal to robustly anticipate likely change. However, the intricacies of connectivity between different pairs of MPAs were noteworthy. For kelp, poleward connectivity among pairs of MPAs tended to increase in the future, whereas equatorward connectivity tended to decrease. In contrast, for sea urchins, connectivity among pairs of MPAs generally decreased in both directions. Self-seeding within higher-latitude MPAs tended to increase, and the role of low-latitude MPAs as a sink for urchins changed significantly in contrasting ways. These projected changes have the potential to alter important genetic parameters with implications for adaptation and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. Considering such changes, in the context of managing and designing MPA networks, may ensure that conservation goals are achieved into the future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Jumaily, Ahmed; Chen, Leizhi
This paper presents a novel approach to estimate stiffness changes in airway smooth muscles due to external oscillation. Artificial neural networks are used to model the stiffness changes due to cyclic stretches of the smooth muscles. The nonlinear relationship between stiffness ratios and oscillation frequencies is modeled by a feed-forward neural network (FNN) model. The structure of the FNN is selected through the training and validation using literature data from 11 experiments with different muscle lengths, muscle masses, oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. Data pre-processing methods are used to improve the robustness of the neural network model to match the non-linearity. The validation results show that the FNN model can predict the stiffness ratio changes with a mean square error of 0.0042. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu
Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.
Lutz, Salla; Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole
The article sheds light on, how actors can cope with stability and change in business networks. By applying theoretical elements from the industrial network approach, and the organizational ambidexterity the phenomenon was studied in the context of operation and maintenance in offshore wind farms....... We employed a qualitative research approach through a focus group interview and 20 semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed both activities and resources that can enhance the necessary development of stability. At the same time changes are necessary when striving for well performing wind...... farms. In order to achieve both stability and change knowledge sharing and collaboration play a crucial role in all the levels, i.e. in organizations, in relationship dyads and in the network....
Liu, Jia; Gong, Maoguo; Qin, Kai; Zhang, Puzhao
We propose an unsupervised deep convolutional coupling network for change detection based on two heterogeneous images acquired by optical sensors and radars on different dates. Most existing change detection methods are based on homogeneous images. Due to the complementary properties of optical and radar sensors, there is an increasing interest in change detection based on heterogeneous images. The proposed network is symmetric with each side consisting of one convolutional layer and several coupling layers. The two input images connected with the two sides of the network, respectively, are transformed into a feature space where their feature representations become more consistent. In this feature space, the different map is calculated, which then leads to the ultimate detection map by applying a thresholding algorithm. The network parameters are learned by optimizing a coupling function. The learning process is unsupervised, which is different from most existing change detection methods based on heterogeneous images. Experimental results on both homogenous and heterogeneous images demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed network compared with several existing approaches.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M
Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks - the ties connecting an origin and destination - may operate as "migration corridors" with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying , social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place.
Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai
Future backbone networks shall require full-survivability and support dynamic changes of traffic demands. The Generalized Survivable Networks (GSN) was proposed to meet these challenges. GSN is fully-survivable under dynamic traffic demand changes, so it offers a practical and guaranteed characterization framework for ASTN / ASON survivable network planning and bandwidth-on-demand resource allocation 4. The basic idea of GSN is to incorporate the non-blocking network concept into the survivable network models. In GSN, each network node must specify its I/O capacity bound which is taken as constraints for any allowable traffic demand matrix. In this paper, we consider the following generic GSN network design problem: Given the I/O bounds of each network node, find a routing scheme (and the corresponding rerouting scheme under failure) and the link capacity assignment (both working and spare) which minimize the cost, such that any traffic matrix consistent with the given I/O bounds can be feasibly routed and it is single-fault tolerant under the link restoration scheme. We first show how the initial, infeasible formal mixed integer programming formulation can be transformed into a more feasible problem using the duality transformation of the linear program. Then we show how the problem can be simplified using the Lagrangian Relaxation approach. Previous work has outlined a two-phase approach for solving this problem where the first phase optimizes the working capacity assignment and the second phase optimizes the spare capacity assignment. In this paper, we present a jointly optimized framework for dimensioning the survivable optical network with the GSN model. Experiment results show that the jointly optimized GSN can bring about on average of 3.8% cost savings when compared with the separate, two-phase approach. Finally, we perform a cost comparison and show that GSN can be deployed with a reasonable cost.
Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. Our project represents a cross-disciplinary partnership among climate scientists, social and cognitive scientists, and informal education practitioners. We have built a growing national network of more than 250 alumni, including approximately 15-20 peer leaders who co-lead both in-depth training programs and introductory workshops. We have found that this alumni network has been assuming increasing importance in providing for ongoing learning, support for implementation, leadership development, and coalition building. As we look toward the future, we are exploring potential partnerships with other existing networks, both to sustain our impact and to expand our reach. This presentation will address what we have learned in terms of network impacts, best practices, factors for success, and future directions.
Cavaliere, Carlo; Cirillo, Giovanni; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Adriani, Walter; De Simone, Antonietta; Leo, Damiana; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Papa, Michele
Repeated exposure to psychostimulant drugs induces complex molecular and structural modifications in discrete brain regions of the meso-cortico-limbic system. This structural remodeling is thought to underlie neurobehavioral adaptive responses. Administration to adolescent rats of methylphenidate (MPH), commonly used in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), triggers alterations of reward-based behavior paralleled by persistent and plastic synaptic changes of neuronal and glial markers within key areas of the reward circuits. By immunohistochemistry, we observe a marked increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and a down-regulation of glial glutamate transporter GLAST in dorso-lateral and ventro-medial striatum. Using electron microscopy, we find in the prefrontal cortex a significant reduction of the synaptic active zone length, paralleled by an increase of dendritic spines. We demonstrate that in limbic areas the MPH-induced reactive astrocytosis affects the glial glutamatergic uptake system that in turn could determine glutamate receptor sensitization. These processes could be sustained by NO production and synaptic rearrangement and contribute to MPH neuroglial induced rewiring. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.
Liu, Tao; Li, Ying; Cao, Ying; Shen, Qiang
This paper proposes a model of dual-channel convolutional neural network (CNN) that is designed for change detection in SAR images, in an effort to acquire higher detection accuracy and lower misclassification rate. This network model contains two parallel CNN channels, which can extract deep features from two multitemporal SAR images. For comparison and validation, the proposed method is tested along with other change detection algorithms on both simulated SAR images and real-world SAR images captured by different sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the presented method outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques by a considerable margin.
Osterkamp, W.R.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, Luna Bergere
Long-term monitoring of geomorphic, hydrological, and biological characteristics of landscapes provides an effective means of relating observed change to possible causes of the change. Identification of changes in basin characteristics, especially in arid areas where the response to altered climate or land use is generally rapid and readily apparent, might provide the initial direct indications that factors such as global warming and cultural impacts have affected the environment. The Vigil Network provides an opportunity for earth and life scientists to participate in a systematic monitoring effort to detect landscape changes over time, and to relate such changes to possible causes. The Vigil Network is an ever-increasing group of sites and basins used to monitor landscape features with as much as 50 years of documented geomorphic and related observations.
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Ewango, Corneille E. N. [Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestiere (CEFRECOF); Fischer, Gunter A. [Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); Fletcher, Christine [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Foster, Robin B. [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL (United States). Botany Dept.; Giardina, Christian P. [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Gilbert, Gregory S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Environmental Studies Dept.; Gunatilleke, Nimal [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Gunatilleke, Savitri [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Hao, Zhanqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. of Forest and Soil Ecology. Inst. of Applied Ecology; Hargrove, William W. [USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters, Asheville, NC (United States). Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; Hart, Terese B. [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Hau, Billy C. H. [Univ. of Hong Kong (China). School of Biological Sciences. Kadoorie Inst.; He, Fangliang [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Howe, Robert W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Hubbell, Stephen P. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; Jansen, Patrick A. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Resource Ecology Group; Jiang, Mingxi [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan (China). Wuhan Botanical Garden; Johnson, Daniel J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Kanzaki, Mamoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Kassim, Abdul Rahman [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Kenfack, David [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Kibet, Staline [National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya); Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya). Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology Dept.; Kinnaird, Margaret F. [Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki (Kenya); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States). Global Conservation Programs; Korte, Lisa [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Kral, Kamil [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Larson, Andrew J. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). College of Forestry and Conservation. Dept. of Forest Management; Li, Yide [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Li, Xiankun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guilin (China). Guangxi Inst. of Botany; Liu, Shirong [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection; Lum, Shawn K. Y. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). National Inst. of Education. Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group; Lutz, James A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Wildland Resources Dept.; Ma, Keping [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Maddalena, Damian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Makana, Jean-Remy [Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo); Malhi, Yadvinder [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Marthews, Toby [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Mat Serudin, Rafizah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; McMahon, Sean M. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Memiaghe, Hervé R. [Inst. de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Libreville (Gabon). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Mi, Xiangcheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Mizuno, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Morecroft, Michael [Natural England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Myers, Jonathan A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Novotny, Vojtech [New Guinea Binatang Research Centre, Madang (Papua New Guinea); Univ. of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Faculty of Science. Biology Centre; de Oliveira, Alexandre A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Biosciences. Ecology Dept.; Ong, Perry S. [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Orwig, David A. [Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (United States). Harvard Forest; Ostertag, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Dept. of Biology; den Ouden, Jan [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Parker, Geoffrey G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sack, Lawren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Sainge, Moses N. [Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG), Mundemba (Cameroon); Sang, Weiguo [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Sri-ngernyuang, Kriangsak [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Sukumar, Raman [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Sun, I-Fang [National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualian (Taiwan). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; Sungpalee, Witchaphart [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Tan, Sylvester [Sarawak Forest Dept., Kuching (Malaysia); Thomas, Sean C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Thomas, Duncan W. [Washington State Univ., Vancouver, WA (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Thompson, Jill [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Turner, Benjamin L. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Uriarte, Maria [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology; Valencia, Renato [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Ecuador, Quito (Ecuador). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Vallejo, Marta I. [Inst. Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota (Colombia); Vicentini, Alberto [National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Vrška, Tomáš [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Wang, Xihua [East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China). School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Wang, Xugao [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Weiblen, George [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wolf, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Biology. Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Xu, Han [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Yap, Sandra [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Zimmerman, Jess [Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies
Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change
Ринат Гинаятович Рамазанов
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of network communities, the transformation of the interaction of participants in the evolution of this form of communication. The main characteristics and stages inherent in changing the formats of network interaction are described. The concept of networked communities is multifaceted and includes various processes of socialization: from the behaviour of people in interest groups to the formation of large international online communities. The evolution of such communities includes the transition from guest books and forums to more complex systems with many additional tools for networking. The introduction of modern technologies in all spheres of life leads to the formation of a qualitatively new distinctive model of education. In such conditions, the roles of participants in the educational process are changing, more attention is paid to self-education and development at the expense of the internal need for learning, the organizational and methodological component of the educational process is being reconstructed, and new conditions are created for the development of distance learning technologies. All this allows us to develop a more competitive system of interaction, make management processes transparent and create conditions for the independent development of each participant in the network space. Online network communities are a powerful tool that must be used in the education system in various interpretations, and as an additional resource that allows the principle of “lifelong learning” to be introduced into the teacher’s self-education system.
Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B
Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jurkowski, W; Roomp, K; Crespo, I; Schneider, J G; Del Sol, A
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding domain at serine 273 has been shown to change the expression of a large number of genes implicated in obesity. The difference in gene expression seen when comparing wild-type phosphorylated with mutant non-phosphorylated PPARγ may have important consequences for the cellular molecular network, the state of which can be shifted from the healthy to a stable diseased state. We found that a group of differentially expressed genes are involved in bi-stable switches and form a core network, the state of which changes with disease progression. These findings support the idea that bi-stable switches may be a mechanism for locking the core gene network into a diseased state and for efficiently propagating perturbations to more distant regions of the network. A structural analysis of the PPARγ-RXRα dimer complex supports the hypothesis of a major structural change between the two states, and this may represent an important mechanism leading to the differential expression observed in the core network.
Anthropogenic climate change represents a global threat to human well-being and ecosystem functioning. Yet despite its importance for science and policy, our understanding of the causes of widespread uncertainty and doubt found among the general public remains limited. The political and social processes driving such doubt and uncertainty are difficult to rigorously analyse, and research has tended to focus on the individual-level, rather than the larger institutions and social networks that produce and disseminate contrarian information. This study presents a new approach by using network science to uncover the institutional and corporate structure of the climate change counter-movement, and machine-learning text analysis to show its influence in the news media and bureaucratic politics. The data include a new social network of all known organizations and individuals promoting contrarian viewpoints, as well as the entirety of all written and verbal texts about climate change from 1993-2013 from every organization, three major news outlets, all US presidents, and every occurrence on the floor of the US Congress. Using network and computational text analysis, I find that the organizational power within the contrarian network, and the magnitude of semantic similarity, are both predicted by ties to elite corporate benefactors.
Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros
The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a method to investigate a firm’s strategic changes. Technologies or technological capabilities are a major resource for achieving competitive advantages, so a firm’s R&D effort to improve capabilities on specific technologies is aligned with strategic direction. Therefore, this research analyzes changes in R&D efforts by identifying key R&D personnel using patent co-inventor network and social network analysis. Based on characteristics of application and granted patents, the method analyzes current and future R&D efforts and so identifies strategic changes of a firm. We conducted an empirical analysis using the patents of Samsung Electronics. Our method analyzed the current and future strategies of Samsung Electronics and the result shows clear strategic changes in their focal technologies and business.
Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…
... make/buy point is the point at which the incumbent LEC makes a definite decision to implement a network... changes at the make/buy point, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, but at least 12 months before.../buy point, public notice must be given at the make/buy point, but at least six months before...
Dittrich, K.; Duysters, G.M.
The purpose of this article is to investigate how innovation networks can be used to deal with a changing technological environment. This study combines different concepts related to research and development (R&D) collaboration strategies of large firms and applies these concepts to R&D alliance
Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S
The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Brown, Chris; del Fresno, Miguel
Purpose: The role of relationships in the process of leadership and change is central, yet the social aspect of the work of reform is often background in favor of more technical approaches to improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to argue that social network theory and analysis provides a useful theory and set of tools to unpack the…
Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman
Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...
Bekiros, S.D.; Georgoutsos, D.A.
This paper investigates the profitability of a trading strategy, based on recurrent neural networks, that attempts to predict the direction-of-change of the market in the case of the NASDAQ composite index. The sample extends over the period 8 February 1971 to 7 April 1998, while the sub-period 8
Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the structure of the international migration system has remained stable through the recent turbulent changes in the world system. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology draws on the social network analysis framework--but with some noteworthy limitations stipulated by the specifics of…
Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.
For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…
Agudelo-Vera, C.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Bongard, T.; Hillegers, S.; Van der Hoek, J.P.
A methodology to determine the robustness of the drinking water distribution system is proposed. The performance of three networks under ten future demand scenarios was tested, using head loss and residence time as indicators. The scenarios consider technological and demographic changes. Daily
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of network changes: Methods for providing notice. 51.329 Section 51.329 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...) Filing a public notice with the Commission; or (2) Providing public notice through industry fora...
Azhoni, A.; Holman, I.; Jude, S.
Adaptation to climate change for water management involves complex interactions between different actors and sectors. The need to understand the relationships between key stakeholder institutions (KSIs) is increasingly recognized. The complexity of water management in India has meant that enhancing adaptive capacity through improved inter-institutional networks remains a challenge for both government and non-governmental institutions. To analyse such complex inter-actions this study has used Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis tools to quantify the participation of, and interactions between, each KSI in the climate change adaptation and water discourse based on keyword analysis of their online presence. Using NodeXL, a Social Network Analysis tool, network diagrams have been used to evaluate the inter-relationships between these KSIs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five KSIs to identify the main barriers to adaptation and to triangulate the findings of the e-documents analysis. The analysis found that there is an inverse relationship between institutions' reference to water and climate change in their web-documents. Most institutions emphasize mitigation rather than adaptation. Bureaucratic delays, poor coordination between the KSIs, unclear policies and systemic deficiencies are identified as key barriers to improving adaptive capacity within water management to climate change. However, the increasing attention being given to the perceived climate change impacts on the water sector and improving the inter-institutional networks are some of the opportunities for Indian water institutions. Although websites of Union Government Institutions seldom directly hyperlink to one another, they are linked through "bridging" websites which have the potential to act as brokers for enhancing adaptive capacity. The research has wider implications for analysis of complex inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional issues involving multi stakeholders.
Full Text Available The occurrence of epileptiform discharges (ED in electroencephalographic (EEG recordings of patients with epilepsy signifies a change in brain dynamics and particularly brain connectivity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been recently acknowledged as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that can be used in focal epilepsy for therapeutic purposes. In this case study, it is investigated whether simple time-domain connectivity measures, namely cross-correlation and partial cross-correlation, can detect alterations in the connectivity structure estimated from selected EEG channels before and during ED, as well as how this changes with the application of TMS. The correlation for each channel pair is computed on non-overlapping windows of 1 s duration forming weighted networks. Further, binary networks are derived by thresholding or statistical significance tests (parametric and randomization tests. The information for the binary networks is summarized by statistical network measures, such as the average degree and the average path length. Alterations of brain connectivity before, during and after ED with or without TMS are identified by statistical analysis of the network measures at each state.
Full Text Available The authors explores the interdependence between demographic changes and transport network centrality, using Saint Petersburg as an example. The article describes the demographic data for the period 2002—2015 and the transportation network data of 2006. The authors employ several methods of demographic research; they identified the centre of gravity of the population, produce the standard deviational ellipsis and use the kernel density estimation. The street network centrality of Saint Petersburg was analyzed using the Multiple Centrality Assessment Model (MCA and the Urban Network Analysis Tool for ArcGIS. The analysis of the population distribution in Saint Petersburg shows that each area of the city has seen their population grow over the last thirteen years. However, it is the population of suburban areas that increased the most. The core area of the city has the tendency of outward diffusion, and the population gravity centre has been moving northwards. Spatial characteristics of the population growth, changes in the population gravity centre, the standard deviational ellipse and characteristics of the street network centrality show that Saint Petersburg is at the final stage of urbanization and its development pattern is similar to that of other major cities.
Maher, Carol A; Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel
The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where "population" included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; "intervention" involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; "comparator" was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; "outcomes" included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and "study design" included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen's d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants (ranging from n=10 to n=107,907). Interventions included
Joel D. Gunn
Full Text Available We report a study of central Maya lowland dynastic information networks, i.e., six cities' external elite ceramic influences, and how they reflect the decision-making practices of Maya elites over 3000 years. Forest cover, i.e., Moraceae family pollen, was added to the network analysis to provide ecological boundary conditions, thus ecologically moderated information networks. Principal components analysis revealed three dominant patterns. First, the networking of interior cities into powerful polities in the Late Preclassic and Classic periods (400 BCE-800 CE. In a second pattern, coastal cities emerged as key entrepôts based on marine navigation (Terminal and Postclassic periods, 800-1500 CE. Climate dynamics and sustainability considerations facilitated the transition. Forest cover, a measure of ecosystem health, shows interior forests diminished as interior cities networked but rebounded as their networks declined. By contrast, coastal forests flourished with networks implying that the marine-based economy was sustainable. Third, in the Classic, the network-dominant coast, west or east, changed with interior polities' political struggles, the critical transition occurring after 695 CE as Tikal gained dominance over the Calakmul-Caracol alliance. Beginning with the Late Preclassic about 2000 years ago, it is possible to assign names to the decision makers by referencing the growing literature on written Maya records. Although the detectable decision sequence evident in this analysis is very basic, we believe it does open possible avenues to much deeper understanding as the study proceeds into the future. The Integrated History and Future of People on Earth-Maya working group that sponsored the analysis anticipates that it will provide actionable social science intelligence for future decision making at the global scale.
Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. More than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the U.S. population. These visitors expect reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Beyond providing in-depth training, we have found that our "alumni network" is assuming an increasingly important role in achieving our goals: 1. Ongoing learning - Training must be ongoing given continuous advances in climate and social science research. 2. Implementation support - Social support is critical as interpreters move from learning to practice, given complex and potentially contentious subject matter. 3. Leadership development - We rely on a national cadre of interpretive leaders to conduct workshops, facilitate study circle trainings, and support alumni. 4. Coalition building - A peer network helps to build and maintain connections with colleagues, and supports further dissemination through the informal science community. We are experimenting with a variety of online and face to face strategies to support the growing alumni network. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national
Bu, Yilei; Gregory, Steve; Mills, Harriet L.
It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic, for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her local network to decide which contacts should be avoided. If the behavior change occurs only when an individual becomes ill or aware of the disease, these strategies can substantially reduce epidemic size with a relatively small cost, measured by the number of contacts avoided.
VARGA V., Attila
Full Text Available The following paper presents the changes and stability of assortative mixing, and inter-group ties in Hungary from 1987 to 2005. The demographic categories under investigation are age, sex, and education. The analysis has a special focus on the rearrangement of the context of tie formation, and the inequality of receiving choices into personal networks along social categories. The most substantial change during the period, is the strong decrease in gender homophily, and some strengthening of intergenerationalties. Both of these findings are in line with the observation that personal networks are recruited more often among the members of the nuclear-family. This latter phenomenon is probably due to the shrinking network size. However, this set of finding is prone to the methodological criticism formulated in the US context, that these observations are in fact the result of the interviewer effect. Finally, the study found stable patterns of educational network prestige, and describes the changes of social capital attached to categories of gender and age.
Shubhada R Hegde
Full Text Available Response of cells to changing environmental conditions is governed by the dynamics of intricate biomolecular interactions. It may be reasonable to assume, proteins being the dominant macromolecules that carry out routine cellular functions, that understanding the dynamics of protein:protein interactions might yield useful insights into the cellular responses. The large-scale protein interaction data sets are, however, unable to capture the changes in the profile of protein:protein interactions. In order to understand how these interactions change dynamically, we have constructed conditional protein linkages for Escherichia coli by integrating functional linkages and gene expression information. As a case study, we have chosen to analyze UV exposure in wild-type and SOS deficient E. coli at 20 minutes post irradiation. The conditional networks exhibit similar topological properties. Although the global topological properties of the networks are similar, many subtle local changes are observed, which are suggestive of the cellular response to the perturbations. Some such changes correspond to differences in the path lengths among the nodes of carbohydrate metabolism correlating with its loss in efficiency in the UV treated cells. Similarly, expression of hubs under unique conditions reflects the importance of these genes. Various centrality measures applied to the networks indicate increased importance for replication, repair, and other stress proteins for the cells under UV treatment, as anticipated. We thus propose a novel approach for studying an organism at the systems level by integrating genome-wide functional linkages and the gene expression data.
Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.
Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined
Full Text Available The past two decades have brought basic changes in the whole Balkan Peninsula, where spatial structures and settlement network were not devoid of changes either. Due to the change of the economic, political and social regime and the new borders spatial structures became differentiated along new factors. Cooperation programs of the Euro-Atlantic integration hold many new challenges and opportunities. Historical and political literature studying the single countries’ transformation is large and far reaching, however, a settlement network and spatial structure focused overview has been, so far, missing from the range of researches. The aim of this study is to examine the urban features and the spatial transition of the Balkan states.
Ortega Díaz, Araceli; Gutiérrez, Erika Casamadrid
This paper analyzes the actors in the climate change arena and their influence in directing Mexico toward policies that decrease greenhouse gas emissions, such as the carbon tax and climate change law. The network analysis of the agreement of these laws and public policies in Mexico is a lesson for any country that is in the process of designing and adopting environmental laws. The research is performed using a network analysis that is derived from interviews with various main actors and a discourse analysis of the media. Results show that actors do not coordinate their efforts-they meet frequently but in different inter-ministerial commissions-and do not enforce the same policies. The actors in the industry have formed strong coalitions against the carbon tax and the General Law on Climate Change, whereas international institutions have formed coalitions that support these policies and laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pozsgai, Gabor; Baird, John; Littlewood, Nick A.; Pakeman, Robin J.; Young, Mark R.
Despite the important roles ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) play in ecosystems, the highly valued ecosystem services they provide, and ample descriptive documentation of their phenology, the relative impact of various environmental factors on carabid phenology is not well studied. Using the long-term pitfall trap capture data from 12 terrestrial Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites from the UK, we examined how changing climate influenced the phenology of common carabids, and the role particular climate components had on phenological parameters. Of the 28 species included in the analyses, 19 showed earlier start of their activity. This advance was particularly pronounced in the spring, supporting the view that early phenophases have a greater tendency to change and these changes are more directly controlled by temperature than later ones. Autumn activity extended only a few cases, suggesting a photoperiod-driven start of hibernation. No association was found between life-history traits and the ability of species to change their phenology. Air temperatures between April and June were the most important factors determining the start of activity of each species, whilst late season precipitation hastened the cessation of activity. The balance between the advantages and disadvantages of changing phenology on various levels is likely to depend on the species and even on local environmental criteria. The substantially changing phenology of Carabidae may influence their function in ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide.
Iglič, Hajdeja; Rus, Andrej
This article deals with the process of elite adaptation in Slovenia in the period between 1988 and 1995. While negotiated settlement between the old and new elites in Slovenia contributed to high reproduction rates of Slovenian old elites, there was significant change going on within the new and old elites. By looking at their ego networks, we show that the debate on elite reproduction is overlooking an important aspect of change, i.e. the adaptation of elites. We analyze changes in the compo...
Engström, Christopher; Silvestrov, Sergei
PageRank was initially developed by S. Brinn and L. Page in 1998 to rank homepages on the Internet using the stationary distribution of a Markov chain created using the web graph. Due to the large size of the web graph and many other real world networks fast methods to calculate PageRank is needed and even if the original way of calculating PageRank using a Power iterations is rather fast, many other approaches have been made to improve the speed further. In this paper we will consider the problem of recalculating PageRank of a changing network where the PageRank of a previous version of the network is known. In particular we will consider the special case of adding or removing edges to a single vertex in the graph or graph component.
Gilbert, Gregg H; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke
Clinical researchers have attempted many methods to translate scientific evidence into routine clinical practice, with varying success. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide an important, practitioner-friendly venue to test these methods. Dentist practitioner-investigators from...... the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) completed a detailed questionnaire about how they diagnose and treat dental caries. Next, they received a customized report that compared their answers to those from all other practitioner-investigators. Then, 126 of them attended the DPBRN's first network......-wide meeting of practitioner-investigators from all five of its regions. During that meeting, certain questions were repeated and new ones were asked about the dentist's intention to change the way that he or she diagnosed or treated dental caries. Less than one-third of practitioner-investigators intended...
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte
This article contributes to the understanding of how to proceed with the development of index-insurance in order to reach extended population coverage with the insurance. The approach is applied to an example from a region in Tanzania. One of the main coping strategies that resource-poor households...... networks become insufficient since the majority of risk-sharers will be affected by the shock at the same time. This paper proposes a collective approach to index-insurance in which the members of an informal network will be insured as one insurance taker. The paper raises a conceptual argument...... that targeting households through existing informal networks will remove a number of prevailing barriers to the takeup of insurance and consequently the approach has the potential to increase households’ resilience to climate change impacts. The policy implications of the conclusions are significant since...
In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. These informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. After two years of project implementation, key findings include: 1. Importance of adaptive management - We continue to make ongoing changes in training format, content, and roles of facilitators and participants. 2. Impacts on interpreters - We have multiple lines of evidence for changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. 3. Social radiation - Trained interpreters have a significant influence on their friends, family and colleagues. 4. Visitor impacts - "Exposure to "strategically framed" interpretation does change visitors' perceptions about climate change. 5. Community of practice - We are seeing evidence of growing participation, leadership, and sustainability. 6. Diffusion of innovation - Peer networks are facilitating dissemination throughout the informal science education community. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education
Full Text Available Language is an essential higher cognitive function supported by large-scale brain networks. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity changes in the left frontoparietal network (LFPN, a language-cognition related brain network in aphasic patients. We enrolled thirteen aphasic patients who had undergone a stroke in the left hemisphere and age-, gender-, educational level-matched controls and analyzed the data by integrating independent component analysis (ICA with a network connectivity analysis method. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and clinical evaluation of language function were assessed at two stages: one and two months after stroke onset. We found reduced functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex and right inferior frontal cortex in aphasic patients as compared to controls. Correlation analysis showed that stronger functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex and medial frontal cortex coincided with more preserved language comprehension ability after stroke. Network connectivity analysis showed reduced LFPN connectivity as indicated by the mean network connectivity index of key regions in the LFPN of aphasic patients. The decreased LFPN connectivity in stroke patients was significantly associated with the impairment of language function in their comprehension ability. We also found significant association between recovery of comprehension ability and the mean changes in intrinsic LFPN connectivity. Our findings suggest that brain lesions may influence language comprehension by altering functional connectivity between regions and that the patterns of abnormal functional connectivity may contribute to the recovery of language deficits.
We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker. Experiment 2 uses computational simulations to test whether this greater malleability could lead people with smaller social networks to be important for the propagation of linguistic change despite the fact that they interact with fewer people. The results indicate that when innovators were connected with people with smaller rather than larger social networks, the population exhibited greater and faster diffusion. Together these experiments show that the properties of people's social networks can influence individuals' learning and use as well as linguistic phenomena at the community level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Atlan, Lorre S; Lan, Ingrid S; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species. Using 32 scalp electrodes, we recorded involuntary auditory event-related potentials from 22 awake four-week-old piglets one day before and one, four, and seven days after two different injury types (diffuse and focal) or sham. From these recordings, we generated event-related potential functional networks and assessed whether the patterns of the observed changes in these networks could distinguish brain-injured piglets from non-injured. Piglet brains exhibited significant changes after injury, as evaluated by five network metrics. The injury prediction algorithm developed from our analysis of the changes in the event-related potentials functional networks ultimately produced a tool with 82% predictive accuracy. This novel approach is the first application of auditory event-related potential functional networks to the prediction of traumatic brain injury. The resulting tool is a robust, objective and predictive method that offers promise for detecting mild traumatic brain injury, in particular because collecting event-related potentials data is noninvasive and inexpensive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Uzzi, Brian [Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.
We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them
We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.
Dalsgaard, Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; González, Ana M. Martin
The structure of species interaction networks is important for species coexistence, community stability and exposure of species to extinctions. Two widespread structures in ecological networks are modularity, i.e. weakly connected subgroups of species that are internally highly interlinked......, and nestedness, i.e. specialist species that interact with a subset of those species with which generalist species also interact. Modularity and nestedness are often interpreted as evolutionary ecological structures that may have relevance for community persistence and resilience against perturbations......, such as climate-change. Therefore, historical climatic fluctuations could influence modularity and nestedness, but this possibility remains untested. This lack of research is in sharp contrast to the considerable efforts to disentangle the role of historical climate-change and contemporary climate on species...
Jurkowski, W; Roomp, K; Crespo, I; Schneider, J G; del Sol, A
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding domain at serine 273 has been shown to change the expression of a large number of genes implicated in obesity. The difference in gene expression seen when comparing wild-type phosphorylated with mutant non-phosphorylated PPARγ may have important consequences for the cellular molecular network,...
Franke, Jasper G.; Werner, Johannes P.; Donner, Reik V.
Obtaining reliable reconstructions of long-term atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic region presents a persistent challenge to contemporary paleoclimate research, which has been addressed by a multitude of recent studies. In order to contribute a novel methodological aspect to this active field, we apply here evolving functional network analysis, a recently developed tool for studying temporal changes of the spatial co-variability structure of the Earth's climate system, to a set of Late Holocene paleoclimate proxy records covering the last two millennia. The emerging patterns obtained by our analysis are related to long-term changes in the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation in the region, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). By comparing the time-dependent inter-regional linkage structures of the obtained functional paleoclimate network representations to a recent multi-centennial NAO reconstruction, we identify co-variability between southern Greenland, Svalbard, and Fennoscandia as being indicative of a positive NAO phase, while connections from Greenland and Fennoscandia to central Europe are more pronounced during negative NAO phases. By drawing upon this correspondence, we use some key parameters of the evolving network structure to obtain a qualitative reconstruction of the NAO long-term variability over the entire Common Era (last 2000 years) using a linear regression model trained upon the existing shorter reconstruction.
Tang, S. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Loh, S. P.; Tham, H. J.
The objectives of this study were to use Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict colour change, shrinkage and texture of osmotically dehydrated pumpkin slices. The effects of process variables such as concentration of osmotic solution, immersion temperature and immersion time on the above mentioned physical properties were studied. The colour of the samples was measured using a colorimeter and the net colour difference changes, ΔE were determined. The texture was measured in terms of hardness by using a Texture Analyzer. As for the shrinkage, displacement of volume method was applied and percentage of shrinkage was obtained in terms of volume changes. A feed-forward backpropagation network with sigmoidal function was developed and best network configuration was chosen based on the highest correlation coefficients between the experimental values versus predicted values. As a comparison, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) statistical analysis was also employed. The performances of both RSM and ANN modelling were evaluated based on absolute average deviation (AAD), correlation of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that ANN has higher prediction capability as compared to RSM. The relative importance of the variables on the physical properties were also determined by using connection weight approach in ANN. It was found that solution concentration showed the highest influence on all three physical properties.
Mao, H.; Bhaduri, B. L.
Understanding public opinions on climate change is important for policy making. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys, which are often too expensive and thus being updated at a low frequency. Twitter has become a major platform for people to express their opinions on social and political issues. Our work attempts to understand if Twitter data can provide complimentary insights about climate change perceptions. Since the nature of social media is real-time, this data source can especially help us understand how public opinion changes over time in response to climate events and hazards, which though is very difficult to be captured by manual surveys. We use the Twitter Streaming API to collect tweets that contain keywords, "climate change" or "#climatechange". Traditional machine-learning based opinion mining algorithms require a significant amount of labeled data. Data labeling is notoriously time consuming. To address this problem, we use hashtags (a significant feature used to mark topics of tweets) to annotate tweets automatically. For example, hashtags, #climatedenial and #climatescam, are negative opinion labels, while #actonclimate and #climateaction are positive. Following this method, we can obtain a large amount of training data without human labor. This labeled dataset is used to train a deep convolutional neural network that classifies tweets into positive (i.e. believe in climate change) and negative (i.e. do not believe). Based on the positive/negative tweets obtained, we will further analyze risk perceptions and opinions towards policy support. In addition, we analyze twitter user profiles to understand the demographics of proponents and opponents of climate change. Deep learning techniques, especially convolutional deep neural networks, have achieved much success in computer vision. In this work, we propose a convolutional neural network architecture for understanding opinions within text. This method is compared with
Micoulaut, M.; Otjacques, C.; Raty, J.-Y.; Bichara, C.
By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity.
Dukes, J. S.; Widhalm, M.
The Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment (IN CCIA) is a stakeholder-informed, service-driven resource developed under the coordination of the Purdue Climate Change Research Center (PCCRC) and with involvement from a diverse mix of contributors throughout the state. The IN CCIA brings together the best available climate change research into a series of reports aimed at helping Hoosiers better understand climate change-related risks so they can prepare for challenges and capitalize on opportunities. The IN CCIA development process aims to 1) increase the dialogue about climate change across the state, 2) provide Indiana decision makers with accessible, credible climate impact information, and 3) build a network of experts and stakeholders to support ongoing assessment efforts and knowledge sharing. This presentation will report on our experience with developing and maintaining a diverse stakeholder network. We will describe our efforts to connect with stakeholders before, during, and after the development of assessment reports and share the top themes that emerged from our pre-assessment inquires and other interactions.
Crop failure (reduction in crop yield) due to extreme weather and climate change could lead to unstable food supply, reflecting the recent globalization in world agricultural production. Specifically, in several major production countries producing large amount of main cereal crops, wheat, maize, soybean and rice, abrupt crop failures in wide area are significantly serious for world food supply system. We examined the simultaneous changes in crop yield in USA, China and Brazil, in terms of the changes in climate system such as El Nino, La nina and so on. In this study, we defined a crop yield networks, which represent the correlation between yearly changes in crop yields and climate resources during the crop growing season in two regions. The climate resources during the crop growing season represents here the average temperature and the accumulated precipitation during the crop growing season of a target crop. As climate data, we used a reanalysis climate data JRA-25 (Japan Meteorological Agency). The yearly changes in crop yields are based on a gridded crop productivity database with a resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude (Iizumi et al. 2013). It is constructed from the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureau in each country, which covers the period during 1982 to 2006 (25 years). For the regions being lack of data, the data was interpolated referring to NPP values estimated by satellite data. Crop yield network is constructed as follows: (1) let DY(i,y) be negative difference in crop yield of year y from the trend yield at grid i; (2) define the correlation of the differences Cij(y) = DY(i, y) DY(j, y); (3) if Cij(y) > Q, then grids i and j are mutually linked for a threshold value Q. Links between grids make a crop yield network. It is here noted that only negative differences are taken into account because we focused on the lean year cases (i.e. yields of both grids were lower than those in the long-term trend). The arrays of
Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E
The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.
Pololi, Linda H; Krupat, Edward; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E
Research suggests an ongoing need for change in the culture of academic medicine. This article describes the structure, activities and evaluation of a culture change project: the C - Change Learning Action Network (LAN) and its impact on participants. The LAN was developed to create the experience of a culture that would prepare participants to facilitate a culture in academic medicine that would be more collaborative, inclusive, relational, and that supports the humanity and vitality of faculty. Purposefully diverse faculty, leaders, and deans from 5 US medical schools convened in 2 1/2-day meetings biannually over 4 years. LAN meetings employed experiential, cognitive, and affective learning modes; innovative dialogue strategies; and reflective practice aimed at facilitating deep dialogue, relationship formation, collaboration, authenticity, and transformative learning to help members experience the desired culture. Robust aggregated qualitative and quantitative data collected from the 5 schools were used to inform and stimulate culture-change plans. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods were used. Participants indicated that a safe, supportive, inclusive, collaborative culture was established in LAN and highly valued. LAN members reported a deepened understanding of organizational change, new and valued interpersonal connections, increased motivation and resilience, new skills and approaches, increased self-awareness and personal growth, emotional connection to the issues of diversity and inclusion, and application of new learnings in their work. A carefully designed multi-institutional learning community can transform the way participants experience and view institutional culture. It can motivate and prepare them to be change agents in their own institutions. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical
DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.
The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; www.ccrnetwork.ca) aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.
Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen
The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.
Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor
Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater
Ouardouz, Mohamed; Carmant, Lionel
The combination of two precipitating factors appears to be more and more recognized in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Using a two-hit rat model, with a neonatal freeze lesion mimicking a focal cortical malformation combined with hyperthermia-induced seizures mimicking febrile seizures, we have previously reported an increase of inhibition in CA1 pyramidal cells at P20. Here, we investigated the changes affecting excitatory and inhibitory drive onto CA1 interneurons to better define the changes in CA1 inhibitory networks and their paradoxical role in epileptogenesis, using electrophysiological recordings in CA1 hippocampus from rat pups (16-20 d old). We investigated interneurons in CA1 hippocampal area located in stratum oriens (Or) and at the border of strata lacunosum and moleculare (L-M). Our results revealed an increase of the excitatory drive to both types of interneurons with no change in the inhibitory drive. The mechanisms underlying the increase of excitatory synaptic currents (EPSCs) in both types of interneurons are different. In Or interneurons, the amplitude of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs increased, while their frequency was not affected suggesting changes at the post-synaptic level. In L-M interneurons, the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs increases, but the amplitude is not affected. Analyses of miniature EPSCs showed no changes in both their frequency and amplitude. We concluded that L-M interneurons increase in excitatory drive is due to a change in Shaffer collateral axon excitability. The changes described here in CA1 inhibitory network may actually contribute to the epileptogenicity observed in this dual pathology model by increasing pyramidal cell synchronization.
Full Text Available Anthropic pressure has been proven to be one of the most evident forces able to alter landscapes. Its impact on the surroundings can be easily detectable especially in a high-density populated country such as Italy. Among the most evident anthropic alterations, the most important are the urbanization processes but also changes in cultural techniques that have been occurring in rural areas. These modifications influence the hydrologic regimes in two ways: by modifying the direct runoff production and by having a strong impact on the drainage system itself. The main objectives of this work are to evaluate the impact of land cover changes in the Veneto region (north-east Italy on the minor drainage network system, and to analyze changes in the direct runoff in the last 50 years. The study area is a typical agrarian landscape and it has been chosen considering its involvement in the major flood of 2010 and considering also the availability of data, including historical aerial photographs, historical information, and a high resolution LiDAR DTM. The results underline how land cover variations over the last 50 years have strongly increased the propension of the soil to produce direct runoff (increase of the Curve Number value and they have also reduced the extent of the minor network system to the detriment of urbanized areas and changes of plots of land boundaries. As a consequence, the capacity of the minor network to attenuate and eventually laminate a flood event is decreased as well. These analysis can be considered useful tools for a suitable land use planning in flood prone areas.
Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven
The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Persson, E.; Olsen, O. H.
that are not likely to be inferred from mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, paths from Met306 to Ile153 (N-terminus) and Trp364, both representing hallmark residues of allostery, are 7% and 37% longer, respectively, in free FVIIa. Thus, there is significantly weaker coupling between the TF contact point and key......Background: Tissue factor (TF) promotes colocalization of enzyme (factorVIIa) and substrate (FX or FIX), and stabilizes the active conformation of FVIIa. Details on how TF induces structural and dynamic changes in the catalytic domain of FVIIa to enhance its efficiency remain elusive. Objective......: To elucidate the activation of allosteric networks in the catalytic domain of the FVIIa protease it is when bound to TF.MethodsLong-timescale molecular dynamics simulations of FVIIa, free and in complex with TF, were executed and analyzed by dynamic network analysis. Results: Allosteric paths of correlated...
This article reports on key findings from a study of subnational governments in Mexico and Nigeria (O'Brien, 2013). With empirical richness of the case study method and small-n statistical analysis across the subnational units for each country, this study asks: How can we push the needle toward more progressive policy change on violence against women in developing and democratizing contexts? This study finds that issue-specific expert networking is a civic pathway to subnational policy responsiveness in Mexico and Nigeria. The dynamics of this pathway illuminate local-global political connections, and this study shows how issue-specific expert networking is important for the diffusion of an international norm and policies on violence against women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.
Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.
Steinmann, Elisabeth; Schmalor, Antonia; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Galka, Andreas; Möhring, Jan; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael
One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.
In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium (NEAq) has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science education institutions (ISEIs) to effectively communicate about the impacts of climate change on the oceans. NEAq is now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI's design is based on best practices in informal science learning, cognitive/social psychology, community and network building: Interpreters as Communication Strategists - Interpreters can serve not merely as educators disseminating information, but can also be leaders in influencing public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Communities of Practice - Learning is a social activity that is created through engagement in a supportive community context. Social support is particularly important in addressing a complex, contentious and distressing subject. Diffusion of Innovation - Peer networks are of primary importance in spreading innovations. Leaders serve as 'early adopters' and influence others to achieve a critical mass of implementation. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a
Sánchez-Cano, Francisco M.; Bonet-García, Francisco J.; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María
Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (southern Spain) aims to improve the ability of ecosystems to address the impacts of global change. To this end, a monitoring program has been implemented based on the collection of long time series on a multitude of biophysical variables. This initiative is part of the Long Term Ecological Research network and is connected to similar ones at national and international level. One of the specific objectives of this LTER site is to improve understanding of the relationships between abiotic factors and ecosystem functioning / structure. Wireless sensor networks are a key instrument for achieving this aim. This contribution describes the design and management of a sensor network that is intended to monitor several biophysical variables with high temporal and spatial resolution in Quercus pyrenaica forests located in this mountain region. The following solution has been adopted in order to obtain the observational data (physical and biological variables). The biological variables will be monitored by PAR sensors (photosynthetically active radiation), and the physical variables will be acquired by a meteorological station and a sensor network composed of temperature and soil moisture sensors, as well as air temperature and humidity ones. To complete the monitoring of the biological variables, a NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera will be deployed focusing to a Quercus pyrenaica forest from the opposite slope. It should be noted that all monitoring systems exposed will be powered by solar energy. The management of the sensor network covers the deployment of more than 100 sensors, guaranteeing both remote accessibility and reliability of the data. The chosen solution is provided by the company Adevice whose ONE-GO communication system ensures a consistent and efficient sending of those values read by the different sensors towards a central point, from where the information (RAW data) is accessible through WiFi/3G
Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William
Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the
Full Text Available An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed to detect human-induced land cover change using a sliding window through a time-series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite surface reflectance pixel values. Training...
Cuesta, F. X.; Muriel, P.; Halloy, S.; Beck, S.; Meneses, R. I.; Irazabal, J.; Aguirre, N.; Viñas, P.; Suarez, D.; Becerra, M. T.; Gloria-Andes Network
It has been shown that predicted warming and increased frequency of extreme weather events increase with altitude in the Andean mountains. Combined with enormous topographic (and hence precipitation) heterogeneity, poverty and intensive land use, creates in the region a situation of high vulnerability to global change. Since 2005 the network Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environment (GLORIA) sites have been progressively installed in Andean countries to monitor changes, document the type and magnitude of impacts and provide guidance to develop adaptation strategies for biodiversity, humans, and productive systems. We report the preliminary results from 10 of those sites, in addition to new sites planned in South America. These sites provide baseline data and identify processes and patterns in plant biodiversity across different geographic contexts. These preliminary results show the tremendous singularity of the vegetation and flora patterns in the study sites, suggesting high sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate anomalies. It is expected that the consolidation of this network will support and strengthen long-term observation and monitoring research programs to enable the documentation and understanding of climate change impacts on the Andean biota. Our research considers complementary modules of investigation (e.g. carbon stocks and fluxes, plant responses to experimental manipulation) that contextualize the challenges and opportunities of adaptation for biodiversity and socio-economic components, providing measures of trends as well as effectiveness of adaptive management strategies.
Massobrio, Carlo; Bernasconi, Marco; Salmon, Philip S
This book is a unique reference work in the area of atomic-scale simulation of glasses. For the first time, a highly selected panel of about 20 researchers provides, in a single book, their views, methodologies and applications on the use of molecular dynamics as a tool to describe glassy materials. The book covers a wide range of systems covering ""traditional"" network glasses, such as chalcogenides and oxides, as well as glasses for applications in the area of phase change materials. The novelty of this work is the interplay between molecular dynamics methods (both at the classical and firs
Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Hacker, Carl L; Callejas, Alicia; Astafiev, Serguei V; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Zinn, Kristi; Rengachary, Jennifer; Snyder, Abraham Z; Carter, Alex R; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio
networks in the right hemisphere; and (iii) increased intrahemispheric connectivity with the basal ganglia. These patterns of functional connectivity:behaviour correlations were stronger in patients with right- as compared to left-hemisphere damage and were independent of lesion volume. Our findings identify large-scale changes in resting state network interactions that are a physiological signature of spatial neglect and may relate to its right hemisphere lateralization. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise
The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...
Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel
About 50% of subjects infected with HIV present deficits in cognitive domains, which are known collectively as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The underlying synaptodendritic damage can be captured using resting state functional MRI, as has been demonstrated by a few earlier studies. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain connectivity networks. We test this hypothesis by capturing the functional interdependence of 90 brain network nodes using a Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) framework with non-linear time series modeling based on Generalized Radial Basis function (GRBF) neural networks. The network nodes are selected based on the regions defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas. Each node is represented by the average time series of the voxels of that region. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We tested for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 10 subjects (6 male and 4 female, 5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-). Global network properties captured some differences between these subject cohorts, though significant differences were seen only with the clustering coefficient measure. Local network properties, such as local efficiency and the degree of connections, captured significant differences in regions of the frontal lobe, precentral and cingulate cortex amongst a few others. These results suggest that our method can be used to effectively capture differences occurring in brain network connectivity properties revealed by resting-state functional MRI in neurological disease states, such as HAND.
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.
Granados, A.; Martín-Carrasco, F.J.; García de Jalón, S.; Iglesias, A.
Agriculture is a particularly sensitive sector to the potential impacts of climate change. Thus, irrigation infrastructure is required to be robust to cope with these potential threats. The objective of this research is designing more robust irrigation networks, considering cost and stakeholder contribution. To that end, the investigation was addressed in three phases: a sensitivity analysis to understand the effectiveness of the distinct variables, a cost-effectiveness analysis assessing their efficiency, and a global study of the most efficient variables to provide an insight into their function. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the networks oversized by means of the coefficient of utilisation or the factor of safety, behave better than those oversized via the continuous specific discharge; moreover, the degree of freedom has been shown ineffective. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that the coefficient of utilisation and the factor of safety are the most efficient variables, as they introduced safety margin oversizing fewer network elements and to a lesser extent than the continuous specific discharge. It also shows that stakeholder contribution, conveyed as a reduction of the degree of freedom, plays an important role in the network’s adaptive capacity to change. The global study of these variables reveals the subtlety of the coefficient of utilisation, which is the variable that better reproduces the farmer behaviour during demand increase scenarios. In conclusion, the results identify the coefficient of utilisation as the variable which provides the safest margins and reveal the importance of stakeholder contribution in absorb the demand increase in a better manner. (Author)
Full Text Available Agriculture is a particularly sensitive sector to the potential impacts of climate change. Thus, irrigation infrastructure is required to be robust to cope with these potential threats. The objective of this research is designing more robust irrigation networks, considering cost and stakeholder contribution. To that end, the investigation was addressed in three phases: a sensitivity analysis to understand the effectiveness of the distinct variables, a cost-effectiveness analysis assessing their efficiency, and a global study of the most efficient variables to provide an insight into their function. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the networks oversized by means of the coefficient of utilisation or the factor of safety, behave better than those oversized via the continuous specific discharge; moreover, the degree of freedom has been shown ineffective. The cost-effectiveness analysis shows that the coefficient of utilisation and the factor of safety are the most efficient variables, as they introduced safety margin oversizing fewer network elements and to a lesser extent than the continuous specific discharge. It also shows that stakeholder contribution, conveyed as a reduction of the degree of freedom, plays an important role in the network’s adaptive capacity to change. The global study of these variables reveals the subtlety of the coefficient of utilisation, which is the variable that better reproduces the farmer behaviour during demand increase scenarios. In conclusion, the results identify the coefficient of utilisation as the variable which provides the safest margins and reveal the importance of stakeholder contribution in absorb the demand increase in a better manner.
Chen, Yan; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro
The key in stock trading model is to take the right actions for trading at the right time, primarily based on the accurate forecast of future stock trends. Since an effective trading with given information of stock prices needs an intelligent strategy for the decision making, we applied Genetic Network Programming (GNP) to creating a stock trading model. In this paper, we propose a new method called Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming (RTU-GNP) for adapting to the change of stock prices. There are three important points in this paper: First, the RTU-GNP method makes a stock trading decision considering both the recommendable information of technical indices and the candlestick charts according to the real time stock prices. Second, we combine RTU-GNP with a Sarsa learning algorithm to create the programs efficiently. Also, sub-nodes are introduced in each judgment and processing node to determine appropriate actions (buying/selling) and to select appropriate stock price information depending on the situation. Third, a Real Time Updating system has been firstly introduced in our paper considering the change of the trend of stock prices. The experimental results on the Japanese stock market show that the trading model with the proposed RTU-GNP method outperforms other models without real time updating. We also compared the experimental results using the proposed method with Buy&Hold method to confirm its effectiveness, and it is clarified that the proposed trading model can obtain much higher profits than Buy&Hold method.
David G. Weissman
Full Text Available Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females reported family income annually when adolescents were 10–16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Keywords: Adversity, Brain, fMRI, Resting state, Socio-economic status, Youth
Diano, Matteo; Tamietto, Marco; Celeghin, Alessia; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; Tatu, Mona-Karina; Bagnis, Arianna; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso
The quest to characterize the neural signature distinctive of different basic emotions has recently come under renewed scrutiny. Here we investigated whether facial expressions of different basic emotions modulate the functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain. To this end, we presented seventeen healthy participants (8 females) with facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and emotional neutrality and analyzed amygdala's psychophysiological interaction (PPI). In fact, PPI can reveal how inter-regional amygdala communications change dynamically depending on perception of various emotional expressions to recruit different brain networks, compared to the functional interactions it entertains during perception of neutral expressions. We found that for each emotion the amygdala recruited a distinctive and spatially distributed set of structures to interact with. These changes in amygdala connectional patters characterize the dynamic signature prototypical of individual emotion processing, and seemingly represent a neural mechanism that serves to implement the distinctive influence that each emotion exerts on perceptual, cognitive, and motor responses. Besides these differences, all emotions enhanced amygdala functional integration with premotor cortices compared to neutral faces. The present findings thus concur to reconceptualise the structure-function relation between brain-emotion from the traditional one-to-one mapping toward a network-based and dynamic perspective.
Martínez, Kenia; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Román, Francisco J; Alfayate, Eva; Privado, Jesús; Escorial, Sergio; Quiroga, María A; Karama, Sherif; Bellec, Pierre; Colom, Roberto
Neuroimaging studies provide evidence for organized intrinsic activity under task-free conditions. This activity serves functionally relevant brain systems supporting cognition. Here, we analyze changes in resting-state functional connectivity after videogame practice applying a test-retest design. Twenty young females were selected from a group of 100 participants tested on four standardized cognitive ability tests. The practice and control groups were carefully matched on their ability scores. The practice group played during two sessions per week across 4 weeks (16 h total) under strict supervision in the laboratory, showing systematic performance improvements in the game. A group independent component analysis (GICA) applying multisession temporal concatenation on test-retest resting-state fMRI, jointly with a dual-regression approach, was computed. Supporting the main hypothesis, the key finding reveals an increased correlated activity during rest in certain predefined resting state networks (albeit using uncorrected statistics) attributable to practice with the cognitively demanding tasks of the videogame. Observed changes were mainly concentrated on parietofrontal networks involved in heterogeneous cognitive functions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek
Full Text Available Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY, nucleus accumbens (NAC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000 at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600. Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%. All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.
Weissman, David G; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E
Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hain, Daniel; Mas Tur, Elena
In this paper, we investigate which characteristics of technological and financial systems might be conductive for technological change. We are particularly in how the interplay between capabilities, resources and networks among investors with the complexity and maturity of technologies affect...... rates of technological change and diversity, and prevents technologies from getting stuck in the financial “valley of death”. In a next step, we introduce investor networks and allow agents to co-invest together in order to pool financial resources and get access to their forecasting capability...... in a specific technological domain. We compare which investor network structures lead to the high rates of technological change and diversity on a given technology landscape. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation indicate networked investor population to outperform the case of isolated stand-alone investors...
Pärnu linnavalitsus lubas Port Artur Grupil püstitada südalinna Lai t. 10 territooriumile 17-korruselise vabaaja- ja kaubanduskeskuse, mida nägi ette 2006. a. endise REV-i territooriumi hoonestamiseks korraldatud rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö "Flood". Kommenteerib Mart Viisitamm
Huang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ying-Chieh; Budd, William W; Yang, Min-Chia
The farm pond system for irrigation is the most prominent feature in the Taoyuan area, Taiwan, giving the region a unique landscape and hydrological character. Although this area had more than 3,290 ponds in the 1970s, fewer than 1,800 now remain. This study analyzes changes in irrigation farm ponds and the canal network landscape in the Taoyuan area. The spatial and temporal changes to ponds and the canal network on the Taoyuan plain were examined graphically for each spatial unit (2,765 m × 2,525 m) using aerial photographs for 1979 and 2005. Landscape metrics were calculated to analyze landscape change associated with increased urbanization. Landscape indices of connectivity and circuitry were utilized to describe changes in the configuration of ponds and canal networks. The total length of canals and total number of ponds in the study area decreased significantly during 1979-2005. The average values of connectivity indices (γ- and α-index) also decreased during 1979-2005, reflecting degradation of canal networks due to urban sprawl. A multivariate technique was applied to portion the study area into three zones according to changes to land cover, ponds, and canal networks. The effects of urban sprawl on the spatial pattern of ponds and canal networks are discussed.
Fortini, L.; Jacobi, J.; Price, J.; Vorsino, A.; Paxton, E.; Amidon, F.; 'Ohukani'ohi'a Gon, S., III; Koob, G.; Brink, K.; Burgett, J.; Miller, S.
As the effects of climate change on individual species become increasingly apparent, there is a clear need for effective adaptation planning to prevent an increase in species extinctions worldwide. Given the limited understanding of species responses to climate change, vulnerability assessments and species distribution models (SDMs) have been two common tools used to jump-start climate change adaptation efforts. However, although these two approaches generally serve the same purpose of understanding species future responses to climate change, they have rarely mixed. In collaboration with research and management partners from federal, state and non-profit organizations, we are conducting a climate change vulnerability assessment for hundreds of plant and forest bird species of the Main Hawaiian Islands. This assessment is the first to comprehensively consider the potential threats of climate change to a significant portion of Hawaii's fauna and flora (over one thousand species considered) and thus fills a critical gap defined by natural resource scientists and managers in the region. We have devised a flexible approach that effectively integrates species distribution models into a vulnerability assessment framework that can be easily updated with improved models and data. This tailors our assessment approach to the Pacific Island reality of often limited and fragmented information on species and large future climate uncertainties, This vulnerability assessment is based on a Bayesian network-based approach that integrates multiple landscape (e.g., topographic diversity, dispersal barriers), species trait (e.g., generation length, fecundity) and expert-knowledge based information (e.g., capacity to colonize restored habitat) relevant to long-term persistence of species under climate change. Our presentation will highlight some of the results from our assessment but will mainly focus on the utility of the flexible approach we have developed and its potential
Joseph, Jane E; Swearingen, Joshua E; Clark, Jonathan D; Benca, Chelsie E; Collins, Heather R; Corbly, Christine R; Gathers, Ann D; Bhatt, Ramesh S
Greater expertise for faces in adults than in children may be achieved by a dynamic interplay of functional segregation and integration of brain regions throughout development. The present study examined developmental changes in face network functional connectivity in children (5-12 years) and adults (18-43 years) during face-viewing using a graph-theory approach. A face-specific developmental change involved connectivity of the right occipital face area. During childhood, this node increased in strength and within-module clustering based on positive connectivity. These changes reflect an important role of the ROFA in segregation of function during childhood. In addition, strength and diversity of connections within a module that included primary visual areas (left and right calcarine) and limbic regions (left hippocampus and right inferior orbitofrontal cortex) increased from childhood to adulthood, reflecting increased visuo-limbic integration. This integration was pronounced for faces but also emerged for natural objects. Taken together, the primary face-specific developmental changes involved segregation of a posterior visual module during childhood, possibly implicated in early stage perceptual face processing, and greater integration of visuo-limbic connections from childhood to adulthood, which may reflect processing related to development of perceptual expertise for individuation of faces and other visually homogenous categories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sperotto, Anna; Molina, José-Luis; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio
The evaluation and management of climate change impacts on natural and human systems required the adoption of a multi-risk perspective in which the effect of multiple stressors, processes and interconnections are simultaneously modelled. Despite Bayesian Networks (BNs) are popular integrated modelling tools to deal with uncertain and complex domains, their application in the context of climate change still represent a limited explored field. The paper, drawing on the review of existing applications in the field of environmental management, discusses the potential and limitation of applying BNs to improve current climate change risk assessment procedures. Main potentials include the advantage to consider multiple stressors and endpoints in the same framework, their flexibility in dealing and communicate with the uncertainty of climate projections and the opportunity to perform scenario analysis. Some limitations (i.e. representation of temporal and spatial dynamics, quantitative validation), however, should be overcome to boost BNs use in climate change impacts assessment and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Looy, Kris; Piffady, Jérémy
Floodplain landscapes are highly fragmented by river regulation resulting in habitat degradation and flood regime perturbation, posing risks to population persistence. Climate change is expected to pose supplementary risks in this context of fragmented landscapes, and especially for river systems adaptation management programs are developed. The association of habitat quality and quantity with the landscape dynamics and resilience to human-induced disturbances is still poorly understood in the context of species survival and colonization processes, but essential to prioritize conservation and restoration actions. We present a modelling approach that elucidates network connectivity and landscape dynamics in spatial and temporal context to identify vital corridors and conservation priorities in the Loire river and its tributaries. Alteration of flooding and flow regimes is believed to be critical to population dynamics in river ecosystems. Still, little is known of critical levels of alteration both spatially and temporally. We applied metapopulation modelling approaches for a dispersal-limited tree species, white elm; and a recruitment-limited tree species, black poplar. In different model steps the connectivity and natural dynamics of the river landscape are confronted with physical alterations (dams/dykes) to species survival and then future scenarios for climatic changes and potential adaptation measures are entered in the model and translated in population persistence over the river basin. For the two tree species we highlighted crucial network zones in relation to habitat quality and connectivity. Where the human impact model already shows currently restricted metapopulation development, climate change is projected to aggravate this persistence perspective substantially. For both species a significant drawback to the basin population is observed, with 1/3 for elm and ¼ for poplar after 25 years already. But proposed adaptation measures prove effective to even
Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco
A key challenge for soil scientists is predicting agricultural management scenarios that combine crop productions with high standards of environmental quality. In this context, reversing the soil organic carbon (SOC) decline in croplands is required for maintaining soil fertility and contributing to mitigate GHGs emissions. Bayesian belief networks (BBN) are probabilistic models able to accommodate uncertainty and variability in the predictions of the impacts of management and environmental changes. By linking multiple qualitative and quantitative variables in a cause-and-effect relationships, BBNs can be used as a decision support system at different spatial scales to find best management strategies in the agroecosystems. In this work we built a BBN to model SOC dynamics (0-30 cm layer) in the low-lying plain of Veneto region, north-eastern Italy, and define best practices leading to SOC accumulation and GHGs (CO2-equivalent) emissions reduction. Regional pedo-climatic, land use and management information were combined with experimental and modelled data on soil C dynamics as natural and anthropic key drivers affecting SOC stock change. Moreover, utility nodes were introduced to determine optimal decisions for mitigating GHGs emissions from croplands considering also three different IPCC climate scenarios. The network was finally validated with real field data in terms of SOC stock change. Results showed that the BBN was able to model real SOC stock changes, since validation slightly overestimated SOC reduction (+5%) at the expenses of its accumulation. At regional level, probability distributions showed 50% of SOC loss, while only 17% of accumulation. However, the greatest losses (34%) were associated with low reduction rates (100-500 kg C ha-1 y-1), followed by 33% of stabilized conditions (-100 < SOC < 100 kg ha-1 y-1). Land use management (especially tillage operations and soil cover) played a primary role to affect SOC stock change, while climate conditions
Full Text Available Motor or perceptual learning is known to influence functional connectivity between brain regions and induce short-term changes in the intrinsic functional networks revealed as correlations in slow blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal fluctuations. However, no cause-and-effect relationship has been elucidated between a specific change in connectivity and a long-term change in global networks. Here, we examine the hypothesis that functional connectivity (i.e. temporal correlation between two regions is increased and preserved for a long time when two regions are simultaneously activated or deactivated. Using the connectivity-neurofeedback training paradigm, subjects successfully learned to increase the correlation of activity between the lateral parietal and primary motor areas, regions that belong to different intrinsic networks and negatively correlated before training under the resting conditions. Furthermore, whole-brain hypothesis-free analysis as well as functional network analyses demonstrated that the correlation in the resting state between these areas as well as the correlation between the intrinsic networks that include the areas increased for at least two months. These ﬁndings indicate that the connectivity-neurofeedback training can cause long-term changes in intrinsic connectivity and that intrinsic networks can be shaped by experience-driven modulation of regional correlation.
Bagan, H.; Li, Z.; Tangud, T.; Yamagata, Y.
In recent years, many advanced neural network methods have been applied in land cover classification, each of which has both strengths and limitations. In which, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method have been used to solve remote sensing data classification problems and have shown potential for efficient classification of remote sensing data. In SOM, both the distribution and the topology of features of the input layer are identified by using an unsupervised, competitive, neighborhood learning method. The high-dimensional data are then projected onto a low-dimensional map (competitive layer), usually as a two-dimensional map. The neurons (nodes) in the competitive layer are arranged by topological order in the input space. Spatio-temporal analyses of land cover change based on grid cells have demonstrated that gridded data are useful for obtaining spatial and temporal information about areas that are smaller than municipal scale and are uniform in size. Analysis based on grid cells has many advantages: grid cells all have the same size allowing for easy comparison; grids integrate easily with other scientific data; grids are stable over time and thus facilitate the modelling and analysis of very large multivariate spatial data sets. This study chose time-series MODIS and Landsat images as data sources, applied SOM neural network method to identify the land utilization in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Then the results were integrated into grid cell to get the dynamic change maps. Land cover change using MODIS data in Inner Mongolia showed that urban area increased more than fivefold in recent 15 years, along with the growth of mining area. In terms of geographical distribution, the most obvious place of urban expansion is Ordos in southwest Inner Mongolia. The results using Landsat images from 1986 to 2014 in northeastern part of the Inner Mongolia show degradation in grassland from 1986 to 2014. Grid-cell-based spatial correlation
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pediatric sepsis is a disease that threatens life of children. The incidence of pediatric sepsis is higher in developing countries due to various reasons, such as insufficient immunization and nutrition, water and air pollution, etc. Exploring the potential genes via different methods is of significance for the prevention and treatment of pediatric sepsis. This study aimed to identify potential genes associated with pediatric sepsis utilizing analysis of gene network and entropy. Methods: The mRNA expression in the blood samples collected from 20 septic children and 30 healthy controls was quantified by using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray. Two condition-specific protein-protein interaction networks (PINs, one for the healthy control and the other one for the children with sepsis, were deduced by combining the fundamental human PINs with gene expression profiles in the two phenotypes. Subsequently, distinct modules from the two conditional networks were extracted by adopting a maximal clique-merging approach. Delta entropy (ΔS was calculated between sepsis and control modules. Results: Then, key genes displaying changes in gene composition were identified by matching the control and sepsis modules. Two objective modules were obtained, in which ribosomal protein RPL4 and RPL9 as well as TOP2A were probably considered as the key genes differentiating sepsis from healthy controls. Conclusion: According to previous reports and this work, TOP2A is the potential gene therapy target for pediatric sepsis. The relationship between pediatric sepsis and RPL4 and RPL9 needs further investigation.
Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Inaba, Yuji; Kano, Toshiyuki; Ragsdale, David; Avoli, Massimo
Rat brain slices comprising the perirhinal cortex (PC) and a portion of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), in standard medium, can generate synchronous oscillatory activity that is associated with action potential discharge and reflects the activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors. We report here that similar synchronous oscillatory events are recorded in the PC in response to single-shock, electrical stimuli delivered in LA. In addition, we found that the latency of these responses progressively increased when the stimulus interval was varied from 10 to 1 s; for example, the response latency during stimuli delivered at 1 Hz was more than twofold longer than that seen during stimulation at 0.1 Hz. This prolongation in latency occurred after approximately 5 stimuli, attained a steady value after 24-35 stimuli, and recovered to control values 30 s after stimulation arrest. These frequency-dependent changes in latency continued to occur during NMDA receptor antagonism but weakened following application of GABAA and/or GABAB receptor blockers. Our findings identify a new type of short-term plasticity that is mediated by GABA receptor function and may play a role in decreasing neuronal network synchronization during repeated activation. We propose that this frequency-dependent adaptive mechanism influences the excitability of limbic networks, thus potentially controlling epileptiform synchronization.
Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L
Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined youths’ friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for online friendships, predicting decreases in internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of social acceptance, but increases in symptoms for youth with higher initial levels over the following year. Across the entire sample, deviant behavior in posted photos predicted increases in young adults’ problematic alcohol use over time. The importance of considering the interplay between online and offline social factors for predicting adjustment is discussed. PMID:23109797
Alfinito, Eleonora; Pennetta, Cecilia; Reggiani, Lino [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM) (Italy)
Integrated nanodevices based on proteins or biomolecules are attracting increasing interest in today's research. In fact, it has been shown that proteins such as azurin and bacteriorhodopsin manifest some electrical properties that are promising for the development of active components of molecular electronic devices. Here we focus on two relevant kinds of protein: bovine rhodopsin, prototype of G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) proteins, and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), whose inhibition is one of the most qualified treatments of Alzheimer's disease. Both these proteins exert their function starting with a conformational change of their native structure. Our guess is that such a change should be accompanied with a detectable variation of their electrical properties. To investigate this conjecture, we present an impedance network model of proteins, able to estimate the different impedance spectra associated with the different configurations. The distinct types of conformational change of rhodopsin and AChE agree with their dissimilar electrical responses. In particular, for rhodopsin the model predicts variations of the impedance spectra up to about 30%, while for AChE the same variations are limited to about 10%, which supports the existence of a dynamical equilibrium between its native and complexed states.
Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær
of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons...... and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset...... of scratching....
Nembhard, Ingrid M; Morrow, Christopher T; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Health care organizations often fail in their effort to implement care-improving innovations. This article differentiates role-changing innovations, altering what workers do, from time-changing innovations, altering when tasks are performed or for how long. We examine our hypothesis that the degree to which access to groups that can alter organizational learning--staff, management, and external network--facilitates implementation depends on innovation type. Our longitudinal study using ordinal logistic regression and survey data on 517 hospitals' implementation of evidence-based practices for treating heart attack confirmed our thesis for factors granting access to each group: improvement team's representativeness (of affected staff), senior management engagement, and network membership. Although team representativeness and network membership were positively associated with implementing role-changing practices, senior management engagement was not. In contrast, senior management engagement was positively associated with implementing time-changing practices, whereas team representativeness was not, and network membership was not unless there was limited management engagement. These findings advance implementation science by explaining mixed results across past studies: Nature of change for workers alters potential facilitators' effects on implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Soto-Girón, María Juliana; García-Vallejo, Felipe
One key step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the integration of its viral cDNA. This process is mediated through complex networks of host-virus interactions that alter several normal cell functions of the host. To study the complexity of disturbances in cell gene expression networks by HIV-1 integration, we constructed a network of human macrophage genes located close to chromatin regions rich in proviruses. To perform the network analysis, we selected 28 genes previously identified as the target of cDNA integration and their transcriptional profiles were obtained from GEO Profiles (NCBI). A total of 2770 interactions among the 28 genes located around the HIV-1 proviruses in human macrophages formed a highly dense main network connected to five sub-networks. The overall network was significantly enriched by genes associated with signal transduction, cellular communication and regulatory processes. To simulate the effects of HIV-1 integration in infected macrophages, five genes with the most number of interaction in the normal network were turned off by putting in zero the correspondent expression values. The HIV-1 infected network showed changes in its topology and alteration in the macrophage functions reflected in a re-programming of biosynthetic and general metabolic process. Understanding the complex virus-host interactions that occur during HIV-1 integration, may provided valuable genomic information to develop new antiviral treatments focusing on the management of some specific gene expression networks associated with viral integration. This is the first gene network which describes the human macrophages genes interactions related with HIV-1 integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.
The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional
Full Text Available Social systems in mountain regions are exposed to a number of disturbances, such as climate change. Calls for conceptual and practical approaches on how to address climate change have been taken up in the literature. The resilience concept as a comprehensive theory-driven approach to address climate change has only recently increased in importance. Limited research has been undertaken concerning tourism and resilience from a network governance point of view. We analyze tourism supply chain networks with regard to resilience to climate change at the municipal governance scale of three Alpine villages. We compare these with a planned destination management organization (DMO as a governance entity of the same three municipalities on the regional scale. Network measures are analyzed via a quantitative social network analysis (SNA focusing on resilience from a tourism governance point of view. Results indicate higher resilience of the regional DMO because of a more flexible and diverse governance structure, more centralized steering of fast collective action, and improved innovative capacity, because of higher modularity and better core-periphery integration. Interpretations of quantitative results have been qualitatively validated by interviews and a workshop. We conclude that adaptation of tourism-dependent municipalities to gradual climate change should be dealt with at a regional governance scale and adaptation to sudden changes at a municipal scale. Overall, DMO building at a regional scale may enhance the resilience of tourism destinations, if the municipalities are well integrated.
Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby
The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...
... (BMC) to network distribution centers (NDC), by replacing all text references to ``BMC'' with ``NDC..., references as follows: Current text Revised text Bulk Mail Center Network Distribution Center. BMC NDC. Destination Bulk Mail Center Destination Network Distribution Center. DBMC DNDC. Origin Bulk Mail Center...
Milner, G. A.
Climate research and information continues to emerge at a rapid pace from the academic and scientific community. Decisions being made today by planners, engineers and staff across the Province of Ontario rely on science and information to plan and build our systems for the long term. Of course, as scientific information evolves continuously to produce lessons learned and new evidence, on the ground decisions often become entrenched in outdated information and need updating. Given this, bridging the gap between research to policy, and research to practice is of critical importance as the Province of Ontario upgrades its infrastructure, plans for long term growth in population within the Great Lakes Basin, and manages its natural systems and resources responsibly. The Ontario Climate Consortium (OCC) is an interdisciplinary network of academics and practitioners established in 2011 in the province that works to mobilize climate research findings towards building capacity, inspiring climate action, and training end-users with the latest science. The OCC has collaborated with more than 39 organizations throughout Ontario and across Canada, including government agencies at all levels (local, provincial and federal), non-profit organizations and private sector companies. This presentation will describe the foundations of climate action in Ontario, Canada including the landscape of climate adaptation practitioners from both public and private organizations. Furthermore, this presentation will feature lessons learned from the OCC network, including: 1) What comprises effective partnerships to undertake climate change adaptation planning for cities; 2) How to build the foundation for capacity at agencies with limited resources or expertise in the climate change field; and 3) How to successfully mobilize complex climate data for end-users to produce usable tools (through a case study research project). The latter will present findings from a two-year research project
Viricel, Clément; de Givry, Simon; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie
Accurate and economic methods to predict change in protein binding free energy upon mutation are imperative to accelerate the design of proteins for a wide range of applications. Free energy is defined by enthalpic and entropic contributions. Following the recent progresses of Artificial Intelligence-based algorithms for guaranteed NP-hard energy optimization and partition function computation, it becomes possible to quickly compute minimum energy conformations and to reliably estimate the entropic contribution of side-chains in the change of free energy of large protein interfaces. Using guaranteed Cost Function Network algorithms, Rosetta energy functions and Dunbrack's rotamer library, we developed and assessed EasyE and JayZ, two methods for binding affinity estimation that ignore or include conformational entropic contributions on a large benchmark of binding affinity experimental measures. If both approaches outperform most established tools, we observe that side-chain conformational entropy brings little or no improvement on most systems but becomes crucial in some rare cases. as open-source Python/C ++ code at sourcesup.renater.fr/projects/easy-jayz. firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Full Text Available Incorporating adaptation into subsistence farming systems is an important strategy to reduce damages related to climate change and to protect livelihoods in developing countries. Using a dataset of 450 farm households collected from three agro-ecological zones, this study examines rural networks, assesses farm-level institutional support and documents any existing structural gaps on climate change adaptation in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, a social network analysis method is used. The study findings reveal that farmers reported a decrease in crop production and increase in pests and diseases due to climate change. Further, changing crop varieties, sowing dates, input mixes and planting trees are the key measures adopted by farmers. Lack of information, finances and resources are the key adaptation constraints. The study findings show that only 28% and 13% of the respondents do not have access to financial services and climate adaptation knowledge, respectively. Support to farmers mainly consists of marketing information and farm equipment from community-based organizations, while private institutions offer weather forecasting services. Public institutions are poorly represented in the network analysis. We also found that extension services are key institutions in the climate adaptation network, while agricultural credits, post-harvest services and marketing of produce were dominant but weakly connected in the financial support network. We also found that with an increase in the provision of services at the farm level, farmers not only adapt more but also move from low-cost and short-term measures to advanced measures. This study proposes an integrated framework to improve the stakeholders’ networking through different kind of partnerships and better adaptation to climate change.
Stevens, Michael C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D
This study examined how the mutual interactions of functionally integrated neural networks during resting-state fMRI differed between adolescence and adulthood. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify functionally connected neural networks in 100 healthy participants aged 12-30 years. Hemodynamic timecourses that represented integrated neural network activity were analyzed with tools that quantified system "causal density" estimates, which indexed the proportion of significant Granger causality relationships among system nodes. Mutual influences among networks decreased with age, likely reflecting stronger within-network connectivity and more efficient between-network influences with greater development. Supplemental tests showed that this normative age-related reduction in causal density was accompanied by fewer significant connections to and from each network, regional increases in the strength of functional integration within networks, and age-related reductions in the strength of numerous specific system interactions. The latter included paths between lateral prefrontal-parietal circuits and "default mode" networks. These results contribute to an emerging understanding that activity in widely distributed networks thought to underlie complex cognition influences activity in other networks. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.
The past several decades have been a period of rapid climatic and environmental change. In western Canada, as in other areas globally, warming and changes in precipitation have led to vast reductions in seasonal snowcover and freshwater ice cover, retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, changing forest composition and structure, increasing northern shrub coverage, and earlier timing of river flows in spring. Yet streamflow volume has exhibited a variety of responses across the region and over different time scales, and patterns of change are not easily generalizable. Improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of the rapidly changing components of the Earth system are key to managing uncertain water futures, but this is challenging due to complex system behavior and sometimes compensatory responses. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a Canadian research network and GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Project that is addressing these issues, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River basins. This paper will present examples of the changes that have been observed at a set of long-term and well-studied headwater research basins, and highlight how various processes confound hydrological responses here, pointing to the need for careful diagnosis. We will discuss some recent CCRN activities and progress toward improving conceptual understanding and developing scenarios of change for the 21st century, which can then be applied within process-based hydrological models for future prediction. Several priority research areas that will be a focus of continued work in CCRN will be recommended.
Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A
Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.
Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.
Gilsing, V.A.; Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Bertrand-Cloodt, D.A.M.
Although central network positions have been associated with above average performance effects, an important void that still remains is how firms come to occupy a more central position in the first place. Whereas recently made exogenous explanations have shed some more light on aggregate changes in
Arnaiz-Schmitz, C; Schmitz, M F; Herrero-Jáuregui, C; Gutiérrez-Angonese, J; Pineda, F D; Montes, C
Socio-ecological systems maintain reciprocal interactions between biophysical and socioeconomic structures. As a result of these interactions key essential services for society emerge. Urban expansion is a direct driver of land change and cause serious shifts in socio-ecological relationships and the associated lifestyles. The framework of rural-urban gradients has proved to be a powerful tool for ecological research about urban influences on ecosystems and on sociological issues related to social welfare. However, to date there has not been an attempt to achieve a classification of municipalities in rural-urban gradients based on socio-ecological interactions. In this paper, we developed a methodological approach that allows identifying and classifying a set of socio-ecological network configurations in the Region of Madrid, a highly dynamic cultural landscape considered one of the European hotspots in urban development. According to their socio-ecological links, the integrated model detects four groups of municipalities, ordered along a rural-urban gradient, characterized by their degree of biophysical and socioeconomic coupling and different indicators of landscape structure and social welfare. We propose the developed model as a useful tool to improve environmental management schemes and land planning from a socio-ecological perspective, especially in territories subject to intense urban transformations and loss of rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The effects of extreme weather and overdevelopment may cause some coastal areas to exhibit erosion problems, which in turn may contribute to creating disasters of varying scale, particularly in regions comprising islands. This study used aerial survey information from three periods (1990, 2001, and 2010 and used graphical software to establish the spatial data of six beaches surrounding the island of Taiwan. An overlaying technique was then implemented to compare the sandy area of each beach in the aforementioned study periods. In addition, an artificial neural network model was developed based on available digitised coordinates for predicting coastline variation for 2015 and 2020. An onsite investigation was performed using a global positioning system for comparing the beaches. The results revealed that two beaches from this study may have experienced significant changes in total sandy areas under a statistical 95% confidence interval. The proposed method and the result of this study may provide a valuable reference in follow-up research and applications.
Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R
networks will hamper efforts to understand and mitigate the vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to climate-induced hydrologic change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.
Gerek, Z. Nevin; Ozkan, S. Banu
The allosteric mechanism plays a key role in cellular functions of several PDZ domain proteins (PDZs) and is directly linked to pharmaceutical applications; however, it is a challenge to elaborate the nature and extent of these allosteric interactions. One solution to this problem is to explore the dynamics of PDZs, which may provide insights about how intramolecular communication occurs within a single domain. Here, we develop an advancement of perturbation response scanning (PRS) that couples elastic network models with linear response theory (LRT) to predict key residues in allosteric transitions of the two most studied PDZs (PSD-95 PDZ3 domain and hPTP1E PDZ2 domain). With PRS, we first identify the residues that give the highest mean square fluctuation response upon perturbing the binding sites. Strikingly, we observe that the residues with the highest mean square fluctuation response agree with experimentally determined residues involved in allosteric transitions. Second, we construct the allosteric pathways by linking the residues giving the same directional response upon perturbation of the binding sites. The predicted intramolecular communication pathways reveal that PSD-95 and hPTP1E have different pathways through the dynamic coupling of different residue pairs. Moreover, our analysis provides a molecular understanding of experimentally observed hidden allostery of PSD-95. We show that removing the distal third alpha helix from the binding site alters the allosteric pathway and decreases the binding affinity. Overall, these results indicate that (i) dynamics plays a key role in allosteric regulations of PDZs, (ii) the local changes in the residue interactions can lead to significant changes in the dynamics of allosteric regulations, and (iii) this might be the mechanism that each PDZ uses to tailor their binding specificities regulation. PMID:21998559
Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang
Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Nathan P. Kettle
Full Text Available The gap between science and practice is widely recognized as a major concern in the production and application of decision-relevant science. This research analyzed the roles and network connections of scientists, service providers, and decision makers engaged in climate science and adaptation practice in Alaska, where rapid climate change is already apparent. Our findings identify key actors as well as significant differences in the level of bonding ties between network members who perceive similarity in their social identities, bridging ties between network members across different social groups, and control of information across roles—all of which inform recommendations for adaptive capacity and the co-production of usable knowledge. We also find that some individuals engage in multiple roles in the network suggesting that conceptualizing science policy interactions with the traditional categories of science producers and consumers oversimplifies how experts engage with climate science, services, and decision making. Our research reinforces the notion that the development and application of knowledge is a networked phenomenon and highlights the importance of centralized individuals capable of playing multiple roles in their networks for effective translation of knowledge into action.
Robinson, P. W.; Neal, D.; Frome, D.; Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P. E.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z. A.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.
Developing sensor networks robust enough to perform unattended in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks that lack anthropogenic influence. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. The MESA (Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array) project has faced these challenges and developed a wireless mesh sensor network across a 660 m topoclimatic gradient in a wilderness area in central Idaho. This sensor array uses advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies to provide near real-time synchronized data covering a suite of biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The 76 sensors in the network monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, and leaf wetness at synchronized time intervals ranging from two minutes to two hours and spatial scales from a few meters to two kilometers. We present our novel methods of placing sensors and network nodes above, below, and throughout the forest canopy without using meteorological towers. In addition, we explain our decision to use different forms of power (wind and solar) and the equipment we use to control and integrate power harvesting. Further, we describe our use of the network to sense and quantify its own power use. Using examples of environmental data from the project, we discuss how these data may be used to increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystem processes in mountainous environments. MESA sensor locations across a 700 m topoclimatic gradient at the University of Idaho Taylor Wilderness Research Station.
Favé, Marie-Julie; Johnson, Robert A; Cover, Stefan; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian D; Müller, Gerd B; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Abouheif, Ehab
A fundamental and enduring problem in evolutionary biology is to understand how populations differentiate in the wild, yet little is known about what role organismal development plays in this process. Organismal development integrates environmental inputs with the action of gene regulatory networks to generate the phenotype. Core developmental gene networks have been highly conserved for millions of years across all animals, and therefore, organismal development may bias variation available for selection to work on. Biased variation may facilitate repeatable phenotypic responses when exposed to similar environmental inputs and ecological changes. To gain a more complete understanding of population differentiation in the wild, we integrated evolutionary developmental biology with population genetics, morphology, paleoecology and ecology. This integration was made possible by studying how populations of the ant species Monomorium emersoni respond to climatic and ecological changes across five 'Sky Islands' in Arizona, which are mountain ranges separated by vast 'seas' of desert. Sky Islands represent a replicated natural experiment allowing us to determine how repeatable is the response of M. emersoni populations to climate and ecological changes at the phenotypic, developmental, and gene network levels. We show that a core developmental gene network and its phenotype has kept pace with ecological and climate change on each Sky Island over the last ~90,000 years before present (BP). This response has produced two types of evolutionary change within an ant species: one type is unpredictable and contingent on the pattern of isolation of Sky lsland populations by climate warming, resulting in slight changes in gene expression, organ growth, and morphology. The other type is predictable and deterministic, resulting in the repeated evolution of a novel wingless queen phenotype and its underlying gene network in response to habitat changes induced by climate warming. Our
A. Paige. Fischer
Full Text Available Because wildfire size and frequency are expected to increase in many forested areas in the United States, organizations involved in forest and wildfire management could arguably benefit from working together and sharing information to develop strategies for how to adapt to this increasing risk. Social capital theory suggests that actors in cohesive networks are positioned to build trust and mutual understanding of problems and act collectively to address these problems, and that actors engaged with diverse partners are positioned to access new information and resources that are important for innovation and complex problem solving. We investigated the patterns of interaction within a network of organizations involved in forest and wildfire management in Oregon, USA, for evidence of structural conditions that create opportunities for collective action and learning. We used descriptive statistical analysis of social network data gathered through interviews to characterize the structure of the network and exponential random graph modeling to identify key factors in the formation of network ties. We interpreted our findings through the lens of social capital theory to identify implications for the network's capacity to engage in collective action and complex problem-solving about how to adapt to environmental change. We found that tendencies to associate with others with similar management goals, geographic emphases, and attitudes toward wildfire were strong mechanisms shaping network structure, potentially constraining interactions among organizations with diverse information and resources and limiting opportunities for learning and complex problem-solving needed for adaptation. In particular, we found that organizations with fire protection and forest restoration goals comprised distinct networks despite sharing concern about the problem of increasing wildfire risk.
Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).
Kutch, Jason J; Labus, Jennifer S; Harris, Richard E; Martucci, Katherine T; Farmer, Melissa A; Fenske, Sonja; Fling, Connor; Ichesco, Eric; Peltier, Scott; Petre, Bogdan; Guo, Wensheng; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean C; Apkarian, A Vania; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A
Chronic pain symptoms often change over time, even in individuals who have had symptoms for years. Studying biological factors that predict trends in symptom change in chronic pain may uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction of short-term (3 month) pain reduction with 73.1% accuracy (69.2% sensitivity and 75.0% precision). In addition, we found that the brain regions with greatest contribution to the classification were preferentially aligned with the left frontoparietal network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures seemed to be less informative about 6- or 12-month symptom change. Our study provides the first evidence that future trends in symptom change in patients in a state of chronic pain may be linked to functional connectivity within specific brain networks.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in the hydrographic network of Słowiński National Park. The authors analysed the changes occurring in the drainage network due to limited maintenance in this legally protected natural area. To accomplish this task, elaborations prepared on the basis of aerial photographs were used: an orthophoto map from 1996, hyperspectral imaging from June 2015, and a digital terrain model based on airborne laser scanning (ALS from June 2015. These spatial data resources enabled the digitisation of the water courses for which selected hydro-morphological features had been defined. As a result of analysing the differences of these features, a quality map was elaborated which was then subjected to interpretation, and the identified changes were quantified in detail.
Full Text Available The modern development of the Kerch Peninsula is closely connected with the large-scale man-caused impact, which leads to significant changes in the functioning of natural complexes. The paper demonstrates the neural network approach to studying changes in the state of the landscape cover and attempts are made to predict it. The modeling was carried out on the basis of available data on various components of the environment of the Kerch Peninsula and the anthropogenic factors affecting them. The analysis showed significant changes in the landscape component of the peninsula, which could potentially lead to a deterioration in the situation with the manifestations of landslides.
Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon
patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower...... latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation...... specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks....
Chyl, Katarzyna; Kossowski, Bartosz; Dębska, Agnieszka; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Banaszkiewicz, Anna; Żelechowska, Agata; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, William Einar; Wypych, Marek; Marchewka, Artur; Pugh, Kenneth R; Jednoróg, Katarzyna
Literacy acquisition is a demanding process that induces significant changes in the brain, especially in the spoken and written language networks. Nevertheless, large-scale paediatric fMRI studies are still limited. We analyzed fMRI data to show how individual differences in reading performance correlate with brain activation for speech and print in 111 children attending kindergarten or first grade and examined group differences between a matched subset of emergent-readers and prereaders. Across the entire cohort, individual differences analysis revealed that reading skill was positively correlated with the magnitude of activation difference between words and symbol strings in left superior temporal, inferior frontal and fusiform gyri. Group comparisons of the matched subset of pre- and emergent-readers showed higher activity for emergent-readers in left inferior frontal, precentral, and postcentral gyri. Individual differences in activation for natural versus vocoded speech were also positively correlated with reading skill, primarily in the left temporal cortex. However, in contrast to studies on adult illiterates, group comparisons revealed higher activity in prereaders compared to readers in the frontal lobes. Print-speech coactivation was observed only in readers and individual differences analyses revealed a positive correlation between convergence and reading skill in the left superior temporal sulcus. These results emphasise that a child's brain undergoes several modifications to both visual and oral language systems in the process of learning to read. They also suggest that print-speech convergence is a hallmark of acquiring literacy. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available We used amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS as a model of prefrontal dysfunction in order to re-assess the potential neuronal substrates of two sub processes of working memory, namely information storage and filtering. To date it is unclear which exact neuronal networks sustain these two processes and the prefrontal cortex was suggested to play a crucial role both for filtering out of irrelevant information and for the storage of relevant information in memory. Other research has attributed information storage to more posterior brain regions, including the parietal cortex and stressed the role of subcortical areas in information filtering. We studied fourteen patients suffering from ALS and the same number of healthy controls in an fMRI-task that allowed calculating separate storage and filtering scores. A brain volume analysis confirmed prefrontal atrophy in the patient group. Regarding their performance in the working memory task, we observed a trend towards slightly impaired storage capabilities whereas filtering appeared completely intact. Despite the rather subtle behavioral deficits we observed marked changes in neuronal activity associated with ALS: Compared to healthy controls patients showed significantly reduced hemodynamic responses in the left occipital cortex and right prefrontal cortex in the storage contrast. The filter contrast on the other hand revealed a relative hyperactivation in the superior frontal gyrus of the ALS patients. This hyperactivation might reflect a possible compensational mechanism for the prefrontal degeneration found in ALS. The reduced hemodynamic responses in the storage contrast might reflect a disruption of prefrontal top-down control of posterior brain regions, a process which was especially relevant in the most difficult high load memory task. Taken together, the present study demonstrates marked neurophysiological changes in ALS patients compared to healthy controls during the filtering and storage of
Renwick, Laoise; Owens, Liz; Lyne, John; O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Drennan, Jonathan; Sheridan, Ann; Pilling, Mark; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
Diminished social networks are common in psychosis but few studies have measured these comprehensively and prospectively to determine how networks and support evolve during the early phase. There is little information regarding perceived support in the early phase of illness. The aim of this study was to describe social support, networks and perceived satisfaction, explore the clinical correlates of these outcomes and examine whether phases of untreated psychosis are linked with social network variables to determine potential opportunities for intervention. During the study period, we assessed 222 people with first-episode psychosis at entry into treatment using valid and reliable measures of diagnosis, positive and negative symptoms, periods of untreated psychosis and prodrome and premorbid adjustment. For follow-up we contacted participants to conduct a second assessment (n=158). There were 97 people who participated which represented 61% of those eligible. Social network and support information obtained at both time points included the number of friends, self-reported satisfaction with support and social network size and clinician's evaluation of the degree of support received through networks. Mixed effects modelling determined the contribution of potential explanatory variables to social support measured. A number of clinical variables were linked with social networks, support and perceived support and satisfaction. The size of networks did not change over time but those with no friends and duration of untreated psychosis was significantly longer for those with no friends at entry into treatment (n=129, Median=24.5mths, IQR=7.25-69.25; Mann-Whitney U=11.78, p=0.008). Social support at baseline and at one year was predicted by homelessness (t=-2.98, p=0.001, CI -4.74 to -1.21), duration of untreated psychosis (t=-0.86, p=0.031, CI -1.65 to -0.08) and premorbid adjustment (t=-2.26, p=0.017, CI -4.11 to -0.42). Social support improved over time but the duration
Willem M Otte
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although focal epilepsies are increasingly recognized to affect multiple and remote neural systems, the underlying spatiotemporal pattern and the relationships between recurrent spontaneous seizures, global functional connectivity, and structural integrity remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we utilized serial resting-state functional MRI, graph-theoretical analysis of complex brain networks and diffusion tensor imaging to characterize the evolution of global network topology, functional connectivity and structural changes in the interictal brain in relation to focal epilepsy in a rat model. Epileptic networks exhibited a more regular functional topology than controls, indicated by a significant increase in shortest path length and clustering coefficient. Interhemispheric functional connectivity in epileptic brains decreased, while intrahemispheric functional connectivity increased. Widespread reductions of fractional anisotropy were found in white matter regions not restricted to the vicinity of the epileptic focus, including the corpus callosum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our longitudinal study on the pathogenesis of network dynamics in epileptic brains reveals that, despite the locality of the epileptogenic area, epileptic brains differ in their global network topology, connectivity and structural integrity from healthy brains.
Virkkala, Raimo; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Fronzek, Stefan; Leikola, Niko
National reserve networks are one of the most important means of species conservation, but their efficiency may be diminished due to the projected climatic changes. Using bioclimatic envelope models and spatial data on habitats and conservation areas, we studied how efficient the reserve network will be in preserving 100 forest, mire, marshland, and alpine bird species of conservation concern in Finland in 2051–2080 under three different climate scenarios. The occurrences of the studied bird species were related to the amount of habitat preferred by each species in the different boreal zones. We employed a novel integrated habitat suitability index that takes into account both the species’ probability of occurrence from the bioclimatic models and the availability of suitable habitat. Using this suitability index, the distribution of the topmost 5% suitability squares (“hotspots”) in the four bird species groups in the period 1971–2000 and under the three scenarios were compared with the location of reserves with the highest amounts of the four habitats to study the efficiency of the network. In species of mires, marshlands, and Arctic mountains, a high proportion of protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots in the scenarios in 2051–2080, showing that protected areas cover a high proportion of occurrences of bird species. In contrast, in forests in the southern and middle boreal zones, only a small proportion of the protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots, indicating that the efficiency of the protected area network will be insufficient for forest birds in the future. In the northern boreal zone, the efficiency of the reserve network in forests was highly dependent on the strength of climate change varying between the scenarios. Overall, there is no single solution to preserving biodiversity in a changing climate, but several future pathways should be considered. PMID:23700420
Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Lang, Frieder R
Many previous studies have investigated older adults' attentional preference toward different emotions. Interdependent self-construal is identified to be an important moderator of this phenomenon. However, despite the important social functions of emotions, the social consequence of older adults' emotional preferences in attention have not yet been examined. The current study tested how older adults' attentional preferences assessed in the laboratory influenced changes in their real-life social network, and how interdependent self-construal moderated this effect. A total of 45 older adults aged 60-84 years participated in an eye-tracking session that measured their attentional preference to emotional faces versus neutral faces. After that, participants completed the Self-Construal Scale. Participants' social network was then assessed by the Social Convoy Questionnaire twice over a 2-year period. Interdependent self-construal significantly moderated the effect of attention to angry and sad faces on older adults' real-life social network changes. For older adults with a higher level of interdependent self-construal, more attention toward negative emotions was related to longitudinal decreases in the number of their emotionally close social partners. The present study shows the important role of attentional preferences in older adults' social network maintenance. It identified a real-life macro level social outcome of a micro level laboratory phenomenon, which can be an important direction for future research. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Lu, Xin; Brelsford, Christa
To investigate the dynamics of social networks and the formation and evolution of online communities in response to extreme events, we collected three datasets from Twitter shortly before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan. We find that while almost all users increased their online activity after the earthquake, Japanese speakers, who are assumed to be more directly affected by the event, expanded the network of people they interact with to a much higher degree than English speakers or the global average. By investigating the evolution of communities, we find that the behavior of joining or quitting a community is far from random: users tend to stay in their current status and are less likely to join new communities from solitary or shift to other communities from their current community. While non-Japanese speakers did not change their conversation topics significantly after the earthquake, nearly all Japanese users changed their conversations to earthquake-related content. This study builds a systematic framework for investigating human behaviors under extreme events with online social network data and our findings on the dynamics of networks and communities may provide useful insight for understanding how patterns of social interaction are influenced by extreme events.
Lehmann, T.; Kern, C.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.; Johansson, M.; Galle, B.
The potential for volcanic risk assessment using real-time gas emissions data and the recognized power of sharing data from multiple eruptive centers were the motivation for a European Union FP6 Research Program project entitled NOVAC: Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change. Starting in 2005, a worldwide network of permanent scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments was installed at 26 volcanoes around the world. These ground-based remote sensing instruments record the characteristic absorption of volcanic gas emissions (e.g. SO2, BrO) in the ultra-violet wavelength region. A real-time DOAS retrieval was implemented to evaluate the measured spectra, thus providing the respective observatories with gas emission data which can be used for volcanic risk assessment and hazard prediction. Observatory personnel at each partner institution were trained on technical and scientific aspects of the DOAS technique, and a central database was created to allow the exchange of data and ideas between all partners. A bilateral benefit for volcano observatories as well as scientific institutions (e.g. universities and research centers) resulted. Volcano observatories were provided with leading edge technology for measuring volcanic SO2 emission fluxes, and now use this technology for monitoring and risk assessment, while the involved universities and research centers are working on global studies and characterizing the atmospheric impact of the observed gas emissions. The NOVAC database takes into account that project members use the database in a variety of different ways. Therefore, the data is structured in layers, the top of which contains basic information about each instrument. The second layer contains evaluated emission data such as SO2 column densities, SO2 emission fluxes, and BrO/SO2 ratios. The lowest layer contains all spectra measured by the individual instruments. Online since the middle of 2006, the NOVAC database
Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.
The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...
Koschatzky, Knut; Stahlecker, Thomas
In Germany, but in other countries as well, a trend towards a regionalisation in technology and innovation policy is clearly evident. This triggers the expectation towards universities to establish regional ties and networks and to exploit the advantages of spatial proximity to other research institutes, to industry and to policy and regional administration. It is the objective of this paper to analyse the changing role of universities as driving force in the development of new modes and mode...
Deilmai, B R; Rasib, A W; Ariffin, A; Kanniah, K D
According to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Malaysia lost 8.6% of its forest cover between 1990 and 2005. In forest cover change detection, remote sensing plays an important role. A lot of change detection methods have been developed, and most of them are semi-automated. These methods are time consuming and difficult to apply. One of the new and robust methods for change detection is artificial neural network (ANN). In this study, (ANN) classification scheme is used to detect the forest cover changes in the Johor state in Malaysia. Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering a period of 9 years (2000 and 2009) are used. Results obtained with ANN technique was compared with Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) to investigate whether ANN can perform better in the tropical environment. Overall accuracy of the ANN and MLC techniques are 75%, 68% (2000) and 80%, 75% (2009) respectively. Using the ANN method, it was found that forest area in Johor decreased as much as 1298 km2 between 2000 and 2009. The results also showed the potential and advantages of neural network in classification and change detection analysis
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Shepherd, Hana; Aronow, Peter M.
Theories of human behavior suggest that individuals attend to the behavior of certain people in their community to understand what is socially normative and adjust their own behavior in response. An experiment tested these theories by randomizing an anticonflict intervention across 56 schools with 24,191 students. After comprehensively measuring every school’s social network, randomly selected seed groups of 20–32 students from randomly selected schools were assigned to an intervention that encouraged their public stance against conflict at school. Compared with control schools, disciplinary reports of student conflict at treatment schools were reduced by 30% over 1 year. The effect was stronger when the seed group contained more “social referent” students who, as network measures reveal, attract more student attention. Network analyses of peer-to-peer influence show that social referents spread perceptions of conflict as less socially normative. PMID:26729884
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Shepherd, Hana; Aronow, Peter M
Theories of human behavior suggest that individuals attend to the behavior of certain people in their community to understand what is socially normative and adjust their own behavior in response. An experiment tested these theories by randomizing an anticonflict intervention across 56 schools with 24,191 students. After comprehensively measuring every school's social network, randomly selected seed groups of 20-32 students from randomly selected schools were assigned to an intervention that encouraged their public stance against conflict at school. Compared with control schools, disciplinary reports of student conflict at treatment schools were reduced by 30% over 1 year. The effect was stronger when the seed group contained more "social referent" students who, as network measures reveal, attract more student attention. Network analyses of peer-to-peer influence show that social referents spread perceptions of conflict as less socially normative.
Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.
Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Conde, Vladimir
NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-years-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the study of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2014, 67 instruments have been installed at 25 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 8 years of semi-continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. Examples of correlations with seismicity and other geophysical phenomena, environmental impact studies and comparisons with previous global estimates will be discussed as well as the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.
Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.
A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).
Galle, B.; Arellano, S.; Norman, P.; Conde, V.
NOVAC, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, was initiated in 2005 as a 5-year-long project financed by the European Union. Its main purpose is to create a global network for the monitoring and research of volcanic atmospheric plumes and related geophysical phenomena by using state-of-the-art spectroscopic remote sensing technology. Up to 2012, 64 instruments have been installed at 24 volcanoes in 13 countries of Latin America, Italy, Democratic Republic of Congo, Reunion, Iceland, and Philippines, and efforts are being done to expand the network to other active volcanic zones. NOVAC has been a pioneer initiative in the community of volcanologists and embraces the objectives of the Word Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). In this contribution, we present the results of the measurements of SO2 gas fluxes carried out within NOVAC, which for some volcanoes represent a record of more than 7 years of continuous monitoring. The network comprises some of the most strongly degassing volcanoes in the world, covering a broad range of tectonic settings, levels of unrest, and potential risk. We show a global perspective of the output of volcanic gas from the covered regions, specific trends of degassing for a few selected volcanoes, and the significance of the database for further studies in volcanology and other geosciences.
Kierczak, Marcin; Dramiński, Michał; Koronacki, Jacek; Komorowski, Jan
Despite more than two decades of research, HIV resistance to drugs remains a serious obstacle in developing efficient AIDS treatments. Several computational methods have been developed to predict resistance level from the sequence of viral proteins such as reverse transcriptase (RT) or protease. These methods, while powerful and accurate, give very little insight into the molecular interactions that underly acquisition of drug resistance/hypersusceptibility. Here, we attempt at filling this gap by using our Monte Carlo feature selection and interdependency discovery method (MCFS-ID) to elucidate molecular interaction networks that characterize viral strains with altered drug resistance levels. We analyzed a number of HIV-1 RT sequences annotated with drug resistance level using the MCFS-ID method. This let us expound interdependency networks that characterize change of drug resistance to six selected RT inhibitors: Abacavir, Lamivudine, Stavudine, Zidovudine, Tenofovir and Nevirapine. The networks consider interdependencies at the level of physicochemical properties of mutating amino acids, eg,: polarity. We mapped each network on the 3D structure of RT in attempt to understand the molecular meaning of interacting pairs. The discovered interactions describe several known drug resistance mechanisms and, importantly, some previously unidentified ones. Our approach can be easily applied to a whole range of problems from the domain of protein engineering. A portable Java implementation of our MCFS-ID method is freely available for academic users and can be obtained at: http://www.ipipan.eu/staff/m.draminski/software.htm.
Andrews, Naomi C Z; Hanish, Laura D; Santos, Carlos E
Based on a social dominance approach, aggression is conceptualized as a strategy used to gain position, power, and influence within the peer network. However, aggression may only be beneficial when targeted against particular peers; both victims' social standing and the number of victims targeted may impact aggressors' social standing. The current study examined associations between aggressors' targeting tendencies (victims' social standing and number of victims) and aggressors' own social standing, both concurrently and over time. Analyses were conducted using three analytic samples of seventh and eighth grade aggressors (Ns ranged from 161 to 383, 49% girls; 50% Latina/o). Participants nominated their friends; nominations were used to calculate social network prestige. Peer nominations were used to identify aggressors and their victim(s). For each aggressor, number of victims and victims' social network prestige were assessed. Aggressors with more victims and with highly prestigious victims had higher social network prestige themselves, and they increased more in prestige over time than aggressors with fewer victims and less prestigious victims (though there were some differences across analytic samples). Findings have implications for the need to extend the social dominance approach to better address the links between aggressors and victims. Aggr. Behav. 43:364-374, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Chappin, E.J.L.; Ligtvoet, A.
Sustainability policy in the early 2000s is based on and therefore influenced by scientific literature on ‘transition’. The importance of this link has inspired the authors to explore the structure of cooperating authors and citation networks in the field. In order to understand ‘transition’
Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour.
Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen
The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709
Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.
Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.
Benzekry, Sebastian; Tuszynski, Jack A; Rietman, Edward A; Lakka Klement, Giannoula
The ever-increasing expanse of online bioinformatics data is enabling new ways to, not only explore the visualization of these data, but also to apply novel mathematical methods to extract meaningful information for clinically relevant analysis of pathways and treatment decisions. One of the methods used for computing topological characteristics of a space at different spatial resolutions is persistent homology. This concept can also be applied to network theory, and more specifically to protein-protein interaction networks, where the number of rings in an individual cancer network represents a measure of complexity. We observed a linear correlation of R = -0.55 between persistent homology and 5-year survival of patients with a variety of cancers. This relationship was used to predict the proteins within a protein-protein interaction network with the most impact on cancer progression. By re-computing the persistent homology after computationally removing an individual node (protein) from the protein-protein interaction network, we were able to evaluate whether such an inhibition would lead to improvement in patient survival. The power of this approach lied in its ability to identify the effects of inhibition of multiple proteins and in the ability to expose whether the effect of a single inhibition may be amplified by inhibition of other proteins. More importantly, we illustrate specific examples of persistent homology calculations, which correctly predict the survival benefit observed effects in clinical trials using inhibitors of the identified molecular target. We propose that computational approaches such as persistent homology may be used in the future for selection of molecular therapies in clinic. The technique uses a mathematical algorithm to evaluate the node (protein) whose inhibition has the highest potential to reduce network complexity. The greater the drop in persistent homology, the greater reduction in network complexity, and thus a larger
Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...
Mayer, B.; Chinn, S.C.; Maxwell, R.S.; Reimer, J.
Characterizing and quantifying changes in elastomeric materials upon exposure to harsh environments is important in the estimation of device lifetimes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used effectively in the analysis of such materials and has proved to be both sensitive to micro- and macroscopic changes associated with material 'aging'. Traditional analyses, however, rely on empirical formulae containing a large number of (often arbitrary) independent variables. This ambiguity can be circumvented largely by developing models of NMR observables that are based on basic polymer physics. We compare two such models, one previously published and one derived herein, along with empirical expressions that describe the proton transverse magnetization decay associated with complex polymer networks. One particular extracted parameter, the proton-proton residual dipolar coupling (RDC), can be directly related to network topology, and a comparison of the extracted RDCs reveals high consistency among the models. An expression derived from the properties of a static Gaussian chain can minimize the number of parameters necessarily to describe the solid-like, networked proton population to a single independent parameter, the average residual dipolar coupling, D avg .
Becker, Stefanie I; Grubert, Anna; Dux, Paul E
In visual search, responses are slowed, from one trial to the next, both when the target dimension changes (e.g., from a color target to a size target) and when the target feature changes (e.g., from a red target to a green target) relative to being repeated across trials. The present study examined whether such feature and dimension switch costs can be attributed to the same underlying mechanism(s). Contrary to this contention, an EEG study showed that feature changes influenced visual selection of the target (i.e., delayed N2pc onset), whereas dimension changes influenced the later process of response selection (i.e., delayed s-LRP onset). An fMRI study provided convergent evidence for the two-system view: Compared with repetitions, feature changes led to increased activation in the occipital cortex, and superior and inferior parietal lobules, which have been implicated in spatial attention. By contrast, dimension changes led to activation of a fronto-posterior network that is primarily linked with response selection (i.e., pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area and frontal areas). Taken together, the results suggest that feature and dimension switch costs are based on different processes. Specifically, whereas target feature changes delay attention shifts to the target, target dimension changes interfere with later response selection operations. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laurie R Skelly
Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.
Full Text Available We combined continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS and resting state (RS -fMRI approaches to investigate changes in functional connectivity (FC induced by right dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC cTBS at rest in a group of healthy subjects. Seed based fMRI analysis revealed a specific pattern of correlation between the right prefrontal cortex and several brain regions: based on these results, we defined a 29-node network to assess changes in each network connection before and after, respectively, DLPFC-cTBS and sham sessions. A decrease of correlation between the right prefrontal cortex and right parietal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 40 respectively was detected after cTBS, while no significant result was found when analyzing sham-session data. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates within-subject changes in FC induced by cTBS applied on prefrontal area. The possibility to induce selective changes in a specific region without interfering with functionally correlated area could have several implications for the study of functional properties of the brain, and for the emerging therapeutic strategies based on transcranial stimulation.
Full Text Available The traditions related to mining activities in the Silesia-Cracow area go back to the 11th century when lead, silver, and iron ores were exploited from open pit mines. For centuries, the growth in ore exploitation was an incentive for the development of other industries (hard coal mining, steelmaking. This, in consequence, resulted in progressive urbanization. The areas analyzed are of highly transformed character, mainly because of mining activities. These changes are especially seen in relation to the aquatic environment since this component is exposed to heavy modifications due to the mining processes. Hence the study was carried out in order to determine the quantitative changes in the surface hydrographic network. It was found, that of the 62 main watercourses (existing during the whole analyzed period 25 changed only slightly in terms of their length, 20 shortened by a few hundred meters and 17 lengthened. In the case of the aggregated length of the tributaries, the value increased for the 41 main watercourses, for 10 of them it was constant and was reduced slightly for a further 11. The areas where the length of the watercourses increased and the drainage density grew were found to be as well those where the total area of wetlands decreased. The element of the hydrographic network which was affected by the most changes was the water bodies. During the analyzed period of over 200 years, their number increased from 154 to 1413.
Sailor, D.J.; Hu, T.; Li, X.; Rosen, J.N.
A methodology is presented for downscaling General Circulation Model (GCM) output to predict surface wind speeds at scales of interest in the wind power industry under expected future climatic conditions. The approach involves a combination of Neural Network tools and traditional weather forecasting techniques. A Neural Network transfer function is developed to relate local wind speed observations to large scale GCM predictions of atmospheric properties under current climatic conditions. By assuming the invariability of this transfer function under conditions of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide, the resulting transfer function is then applied to GCM output for a transient run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. This methodology is applied to three test sites in regions relevant to the wind power industry - one in Texas and two in California. Changes in daily mean wind speeds at each location are presented and discussed with respect to potential implications for wind power generation. (author)
Northcott, Sarah; Moss, Becky; Harrison, Kirsty; Hilari, Katerina
Identify what factors are associated with functional social support and social network post stroke; explore stroke survivors' perspectives on what changes occur and how they are perceived. The following electronic databases were systematically searched up to May 2015: Academic Search Complete; CINAHL Plus; E-journals; Health Policy Reference Centre; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES; PsycINFO; and SocINDEX. PRISMA guidelines were followed in the conduct and reporting of this review. All included studies were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tools. Meta-ethnographic techniques were used to integrate findings from the qualitative studies. Given the heterogeneous nature of the quantitative studies, data synthesis was narrative. Seventy research reports met the eligibility criteria: 22 qualitative and 48 quantitative reporting on 4,816 stroke survivors. The qualitative studies described a contraction of the social network, with non-kin contact being vulnerable. Although family were more robust network members, significant strain was observed within the family unit. In the quantitative studies, poor functional social support was associated with depression (13/14 studies), reduced quality of life (6/6 studies) and worse physical recovery (2/2 studies). Reduced social network was associated with depression (7/8 studies), severity of disability (2/2 studies) and aphasia (2/2 studies). Although most indicators of social network reduced post stroke (for example, contact with friends, 5/5 studies), the perception of feeling supported remained relatively stable (4/4 studies). Following a stroke non-kin contact is vulnerable, strain is observed within the family unit, and poor social support is associated with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.
Current climate change projections indicate that temperature increases, ... This project aims to design a framework for managing increased risk from climate change ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...
Groppa, Sergiu; Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig
Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and characterized by changes in cortical excitability in response to photic stimulation. Studying functional and structural changes of PPR ...
Thornton, Teresa; Leahy, Jessica
Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science research tool that has not been applied to educational programs. This analysis is critical to documenting the changes in social capital and networks that result from community based K-12 educational collaborations. We review SNA and show an application of this technique in a school-centered,…
Local governments and coastal cities in Southern Africa face a serious threat associated with climate change. Current climate change projections indicate that temperature increases, rising sea levels (permanent and temporary), changes in precipitation, and extreme events (floods, droughts, high winds) are likely to occur.
Chiong Meza, C.M.
Transitions are processes of change that have always occurred in society: for example, the production of goods changed from handcraft to machine-made. In recent years, these transitions attract more and more attention, mainly because societies now wish to actively bring about certain changes, such
Full Text Available This article deals with both theoretical and practical application of Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol instead of different solution described detailed in the article. It uses periodically HTTP method POST to gain information about a state, which a client stands in. During this process a new connection is created and closed, what enormously makes network traffic mote intensive. Instead of this we used XMPP, this technology eliminates disadvantages of synchronous HTTP connection by its adapting for real time connection. It uses stable connection, what does not need to create it any time any information needs to be sent. It decreased amount of transported data through a network and a time, in which is a client informed about an event due to a fact, that the new solution works in real time.
Klados, Manousos A; Pandria, Niki; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D
Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J
Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.
Full Text Available Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most
Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier
Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from
Wu, Jing-Tao; Wu, Hui-Zhen; Yan, Chao-Gan; Chen, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Ying; He, Yong; Yang, Hai-Shan
Intrinsic brain activity in a resting state incorporates components of the task negative network called default mode network (DMN) and task-positive networks called attentional networks. In the present study, the reciprocal neuronal networks in the elder group were compared with the young group to investigate the differences of the intrinsic brain activity using a method of temporal correlation analysis based on seed regions of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We found significant decreased positive correlations and negative correlations with the seeds of PCC and vmPFC in the old group. The decreased coactivations in the DMN network components and their negative networks in the old group may reflect age-related alterations in various brain functions such as attention, motor control and inhibition modulation in cognitive processing. These alterations in the resting state anti-correlative networks could provide neuronal substrates for the aging brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon
This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes. PMID:29420574
Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon; Jung, Jung-Kyu
This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes.
Laranjo, Liliana; Arguel, Amaël; Neves, Ana L; Gallagher, Aideen M; Kaplan, Ruth; Mortimer, Nathan; Mendes, Guilherme A; Lau, Annie Y S
Objective Our aim was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of interventions using social networking sites (SNSs) to change health behaviors. Materials and methods Five databases were scanned using a predefined search strategy. Studies were included if they focused on patients/consumers, involved an SNS intervention, had an outcome related to health behavior change, and were prospective. Studies were screened by independent investigators, and assessed using Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Randomized controlled trials were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results The database search retrieved 4656 citations; 12 studies (7411 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Facebook was the most utilized SNS, followed by health-specific SNSs, and Twitter. Eight randomized controlled trials were combined in a meta-analysis. A positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior outcomes was found (Hedges’ g 0.24; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.43). There was considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 84.0%; T2 = 0.058) and no evidence of publication bias. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of SNS interventions in changing health-related behaviors. Most studies evaluated multi-component interventions, posing problems in isolating the specific effect of the SNS. Health behavior change theories were seldom mentioned in the included articles, but two particularly innovative studies used ‘network alteration’, showing a positive effect. Overall, SNS interventions appeared to be effective in promoting changes in health-related behaviors, and further research regarding the application of these promising tools is warranted. Conclusions Our study showed a positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior-related outcomes, but there was considerable heterogeneity. Protocol registration The protocol for this systematic review is registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO with the number CRD42013004140. PMID:25005606
Zvyagintsev, M; Klasen, M; Weber, R; Sarkheil, P; Esposito, F; Mathiak, K A; Schwenzer, M; Mathiak, K
In violent video games, players engage in virtual aggressive behaviors. Exposure to virtual aggressive behavior induces short-term changes in players' behavior. In a previous study, a violence-related version of the racing game "Carmageddon TDR2000" increased aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors compared to its non-violence-related version. This study investigates the differences in neural network activity during the playing of both versions of the video game. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded ongoing brain activity of 18 young men playing the violence-related and the non-violence-related version of the video game Carmageddon. Image time series were decomposed into functional connectivity (FC) patterns using independent component analysis (ICA) and template-matching yielded a mapping to established functional brain networks. The FC patterns revealed a decrease in connectivity within 6 brain networks during the violence-related compared to the non-violence-related condition: three sensory-motor networks, the reward network, the default mode network (DMN), and the right-lateralized frontoparietal network. Playing violent racing games may change functional brain connectivity, in particular and even after controlling for event frequency, in the reward network and the DMN. These changes may underlie the short-term increase of aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors as observed after playing violent video games. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen
Full Text Available The hippocampus plays an important role in memory function relying on information interaction between distributed brain areas. The hippocampus can be divided into the anterior and posterior sections with different structure and function along its long axis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of normal aging on the structural covariance of the anterior hippocampus (aHPC and the posterior hippocampus (pHPC. In this study, 240 healthy subjects aged 18–89 years were selected and subdivided into young (18–23 years, middle-aged (30–58 years, and older (61–89 years groups. The aHPC and pHPC was divided based on the location of uncal apex in the MNI space. Then, the structural covariance networks were constructed by examining their covariance in gray matter volumes with other brain regions. Finally, the influence of age on the structural covariance of these hippocampal sections was explored. We found that the aHPC and pHPC had different structural covariance patterns, but both of them were associated with the medial temporal lobe and insula. Moreover, both increased and decreased covariances were found with the aHPC but only increased covariance was found with the pHPC with age (p < 0.05, family-wise error corrected. These decreased connections occurred within the default mode network, while the increased connectivity mainly occurred in other memory systems that differ from the hippocampus. This study reveals different age-related influence on the structural networks of the aHPC and pHPC, providing an essential insight into the mechanisms of the hippocampus in normal aging.
US agencies have long relied upon sustained Arctic observing to achieve their missions, be they in support of long-term monitoring, operationalized forecasts, or long-term process studies. One inventory of Arctic observing activities (arcticobservingviewer.org) suggests that there are more than 10,000 sustained data collection sites that have been supported by US agencies. Yet despite calls from academia (e.g. National Research Council, 2006) and agency leadership (e.g. IARPC, 2007) for more integrated approaches, such coherence - in the form of a US Arctic Observing Network (US AON) - has been slow and ad hoc in emerging. Two approaches have been invoked in systematically creating networks of greater coherence. One involves solving the "backward problem" or drawing existing observations into interoperable, multi-sensor, value-added data products. These approaches have the benefit that they build from existing assets and extend observations over greater time and space scales than individual efforts can approach. They suffer from being high-energy undertakings, often proceeding through voluntary efforts, and are limited by the observational assets already in place. Solving the "forward problem", or designing the network that is "needed" entails its own challenges of aligning multiple agency needs and capabilities into coordinated frameworks, often tied into a societal benefit structure. The solutions to the forward problem are greatly constrained by financial and technical feasibility. The benefit of such approaches is that interoperability and user-needs are baked into the network design, and some critical prioritization has been invoked. In September 2016, NOAA and other US agencies advanced plans to formally establish and fund the coordination of a US AON initiative. This US AON initiative brings new coordination capabilities on-line to support and strengthen US engagement in sustained and coordinated pan-Arctic observing and data sharing systems that serve
Hayes, A. M.; Yasinski, C.; Ben Barnes, J.; Bockting, C. L. H.
The science of dynamic systems is the study of pattern formation and system change. Dynamic systems theory can provide a useful framework for understanding the chronicity of depression and its treatment. We propose a working model of therapeutic change with potential to organize findings from
Stange, K.; Olssen, P.; Österblom, H.
Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years
Technological changes have always had an influence on human relationships in general, as well as more particularly on social norms of privacy - think only of Georg Simmel's observations on changing norms of privacy after the invention of the metropolitan subway and its influence on our behaviour
Adal, K.M.; Van Etten, Peter G.; Martinez, Jose P; Rouwen, Kenneth; Vermeer, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Armato, Samuel G.; Petrick, Nicholas A.
Automated detection and quantification of spatio-temporal retinal changes is an important step to objectively assess disease progression and treatment effects for dynamic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, detecting retinal changes caused by early DR lesions such as
Beale, Colin M; Baker, Neil E; Brewer, Mark J; Lennon, Jack J
The extent to which climate change might diminish the efficacy of protected areas is one of the most pressing conservation questions. Many projections suggest that climate-driven species distribution shifts will leave protected areas impoverished and species inadequately protected while other evidence suggests that intact ecosystems within protected areas will be resilient to change. Here, we tackle this problem empirically. We show how recent changes in distribution of 139 Tanzanian savannah bird species are linked to climate change, protected area status and land degradation. We provide the first evidence of climate-driven range shifts for an African bird community. Our results suggest that the continued maintenance of existing protected areas is an appropriate conservation response to the challenge of climate and environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Crone, Julia Sophia; Schurz, Matthias; Höller, Yvonne; Bergmann, Jürgen; Monti, Martin; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kronbichler, Martin
The intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network has been associated with the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. Especially medial parietal regions are considered to be highly involved in impaired consciousness. To better understand what aspect of this intrinsic architecture is linked to consciousness, we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess effective connectivity within the default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. We included 12 controls, 12 patients in minimally conscious state and 13 in vegetative state in this study. For each subject, we first defined the four key regions of the default mode network employing a subject-specific independent component analysis approach. The resulting regions were then included as nodes in a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis in order to assess how the causal interactions across these regions as well as the characteristics of neuronal fluctuations change with the level of consciousness. The resulting pattern of interaction in controls identified the posterior cingulate cortex as the main driven hub with positive afferent but negative efferent connections. In patients, this pattern appears to be disrupted. Moreover, the vegetative state patients exhibit significantly reduced self-inhibition and increased oscillations in the posterior cingulate cortex compared to minimally conscious state and controls. Finally, the degree of self-inhibition and strength of oscillation in this region is correlated with the level of consciousness. These findings indicate that the equilibrium between excitatory connectivity towards posterior cingulate cortex and its feedback projections is a key aspect of the relationship between alterations in consciousness after severe brain injury and the intrinsic functional architecture of the default mode network. This impairment might be principally due to the disruption of the mechanisms underlying self-inhibition and neuronal
Fischer, Claude S; Beresford, Lauren
This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women's network advantages over men and college graduates' network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in "talk" support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
da Costa, Andréa Oliveira Souza; Silva, Priscila Ferreira; Sabará, Millôr Godoy; da Costa, Esly Ferreira
This paper reports the using of neural networks for water quality analysis in a tropical urban stream before (2002) and after sewerage building and the completion of point-source control-based sanitation program (2003). Mathematical modeling divided water quality data in two categories: (a) input of some in situ water quality variables (temperature, pH, O2 concentration, O2 saturation and electrical conductivity) and (b) water chemical composition (N-NO2(-); N-NO3(-); N-NH4(+) Total-N; P-PO4(3-); K+; Ca2+; Mg+2; Cu2+; Zn2+ and Fe+3) as the output from tested models. Stream water data come from fortnightly sampling in five points along the Ipanema stream (Southeast Brazil, Minas Gerais state) plus two points downstream and upstream Ipanema discharge into Doce River. Once the best models are consistent with variables behavior we suggest that neural networking shows potential as a methodology to enhance guidelines for urban streams restoration, conservation and management.
Lana, Raquel Martins; Gomes, Marcelo Ferreira da Costa; Lima, Tiago França Melo de; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Codeço, Cláudia Torres
Human mobility, presence and passive transportation of Aedes aegypti mosquito, and environmental characteristics are a group of factors which contribute to the success of dengue spread and establishment. To understand this process, we assess data from dengue national and municipal basins regarding population and demographics, transportation network, human mobility, and Ae. aegypti monitoring for the Brazilian state of Acre since the first recorded dengue case in the year 2000 to the year 2015. During this period, several changes in Acre's transport infrastructure and urbanization have been started. To reconstruct the process of dengue introduction in Acre, we propose an analytic framework based on concepts used in malaria literature, namely vulnerability and receptivity, to inform risk assessments in dengue-free regions as well as network theory concepts for disease invasion and propagation. We calculate the probability of dengue importation to Acre from other Brazilian states, the evolution of dengue spread between Acrean municipalities and dengue establishment in the state. Our findings suggest that the landscape changes associated with human mobility have created favorable conditions for the establishment of dengue virus transmission in Acre. The revitalization of its major roads, as well as the increased accessibility by air to and within the state, have increased dengue vulnerability. Unplanned urbanization and population growth, as observed in Acre during the period of study, contribute to ideal conditions for Ae. aegypti mosquito establishment, increase the difficulty in mosquito control and consequently its local receptivity.
Taxis, Tasia M.; Wolff, Sara; Gregg, Sarah J.; Minton, Nicholas O.; Zhang, Chiqian; Dai, Jingjing; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Kerley, Monty S.; Pires, J. Chris; Lamberson, William R.; Conant, Gavin C.
By mapping translated metagenomic reads to a microbial metabolic network, we show that ruminal ecosystems that are rather dissimilar in their taxonomy can be considerably more similar at the metabolic network level. Using a new network bi-partition approach for linking the microbial network to a bovine metabolic network, we observe that these ruminal metabolic networks exhibit properties consistent with distinct metabolic communities producing similar outputs from common inputs. For instance,...
Ryan T Canolty
Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing the dynamic coordination of functional brain networks remains an important unmet goal within neuroscience. How do distributed ensembles of neurons transiently coordinate their activity across a variety of spatial and temporal scales? While a complete mechanistic account of this process remains elusive, evidence suggests that neuronal oscillations may play a key role in this process, with different rhythms influencing both local computation and long-range communication. To investigate this question, we recorded multiple single unit and local field potential (LFP activity from microelectrode arrays implanted bilaterally in macaque motor areas. Monkeys performed a delayed center-out reach task either manually using their natural arm (Manual Control, MC or under direct neural control through a brain-machine interface (Brain Control, BC. In accord with prior work, we found that the spiking activity of individual neurons is coupled to multiple aspects of the ongoing motor beta rhythm (10-45 Hz during both MC and BC, with neurons exhibiting a diversity of coupling preferences. However, here we show that for identified single neurons, this beta-to-rate mapping can change in a reversible and task-dependent way. For example, as beta power increases, a given neuron may increase spiking during MC but decrease spiking during BC, or exhibit a reversible shift in the preferred phase of firing. The within-task stability of coupling, combined with the reversible cross-task changes in coupling, suggest that task-dependent changes in the beta-to-rate mapping play a role in the transient functional reorganization of neural ensembles. We characterize the range of task-dependent changes in the mapping from beta amplitude, phase, and inter-hemispheric phase differences to the spike rates of an ensemble of simultaneously-recorded neurons, and discuss the potential implications that dynamic remapping from oscillatory activity to
Tulbure, M. G.; Bishop-Taylor, R.; Broich, M.
Land use (LU) change and hydroclimatic variability affect spatiotemporal landscape connectivity dynamics, important for species movement and dispersal. Despite the fact that LU change can strongly influence dispersal potential over time, prior research has only focused on the impacts of dynamic changes in the distribution of potential habitats. We used 8 time-steps of historical LU together with a Landsat-derived time-series of surface water habitat dynamics (1986-2011) over the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), a region with extreme hydroclimatic variability, impacted by LU changes. To assess how changing LU and hydroclimatic variability affect landscape connectivity across time, we compared 4 scenarios, namely one where both climate and LU are dynamic over time, one where climate is kept steady (i.e. a median surface water extent layer), and two scenarios where LU is kept steady (i.e. resistance values associated with the most recent or the first LU layer). We used circuit theory to assign landscape features with `resistance' costs and graph theory network analysis, with surface water habitats as `nodes' connected by dispersal paths or `edges' Findings comparing a dry and an average season show high differences in number of nodes (14581 vs 21544) and resistance distances. The combined effect of LU change and landscape wetness was lower than expected, likely a function of the large, MDB-wide, aggregation scale. Spatially explicit analyses are expected to identify areas where the synergistic effect of LU change and landscape wetness greatly reduce or increase landscape connectivity, as well as areas where the two effects cancel each other out.
Andrews, T. C.; Conaway, E. P.; Zhao, J.; Dolan, E. L.
Relationships with colleagues have the potential to be a source of support for faculty to make meaningful change in how they teach, but the impact of these relationships is poorly understood. We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the characteristics of faculty who provide colleagues with teaching resources and facilitate change in teaching, how faculty influence one another. Our exploratory investigation was informed by social network theory and research on the impact of opinion leaders within organizations. We used surveys and interviews to examine collegial interactions about undergraduate teaching in life sciences departments at one research university. Each department included discipline-based education researchers (DBERs). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that DBERs promote changes in teaching to a greater degree than other departmental colleagues. The influence of DBERs derives, at least partly, from a perception that they have unique professional expertise in education. DBERs facilitated change through coteaching, offering ready and approachable access to education research, and providing teaching training and mentoring. Faculty who had participated in a team based–teaching professional development program were also credited with providing more support for teaching than nonparticipants. Further research will be necessary to determine whether these results generalize beyond the studied institution. PMID:27174582
Establishment of networks in the energy economy. Change management in the background of the revised version of the energy economy act; Etablierung von Netzwerken in der Energiewirtschaft. Change Management vor dem Hintergrund der Neufassung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes
The revision of the energy economy act results into fundamental modifications with respect to the energy economy. Especially, smaller public utilities are threatened in their existence due to the liberalisation of the European current markets. In order to exist in the competition, company networks offer themselves as a solution. The establishment of such networks failed due to an extreme complexity, political interests, insufficient trust in co-operation partners as well as company cultural problems. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on an analysis of six successful networks and one unsuccessful network. It is shown how networks generally and especially in the energy economy can be realized successfully. Apart from economical questions sociological and psychological aspects are examined. Main aspects are distribution of power, building up of confidence, regionality and transferring network contents. The author develops a comprehensive approach of change management in order to establish company networks and identifies success factors as well as failure factors with respect to the practical conversion. This book is written for lecturers and students of the applied economics (main field: research of networks, change management, personnel, organization, management and energy economy), managers in the area of company development of power supply companies as well as management consultants and personnel companies.
Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Gold, Anne U.; Niepold, Frank; McCaffrey, Mark
In recent years, various climate change education efforts have been launched, including federally (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, etc.) and privately funded projects. In addition, climate literacy and energy literacy frameworks have been developed and…
Quardokus, Kathleen; Henderson, Charles
Calls for improvement of undergraduate science education have resulted in numerous initiatives that seek to improve student learning outcomes by promoting changes in faculty teaching practices. Although many of these initiatives focus on individual faculty, researchers consider the academic department to be a highly productive focus for creating…
For monitoring and controlling the extent and intensity of an invasive species, a direct multi-date image classification method was applied in invasive species (saltcedar) change detection in the study area of Lovelock, Nevada. With multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspec...
Verboom, J.; Schippers, P.; Cormont, A.; Sterk, M.; Vos, C.C.; Opdam, P.F.M.
There is growing evidence that climate change causes an increase in variation in conditions for plant and animal populations. This increase in variation, e.g. amplified inter-annual variability in temperature and rainfall has population dynamical consequences because it raises the variation in vital
Yin, Z.; Dekker, S.C.; Rietkerk, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Dijkstra, H.A.
Abstract Numerous model studies demonstrate that ecosystems might not shift smoothly with a gradual change in resource concentration. At specific points, vegetation can suddenly shift from one stable state to another. To predict such undesirable shifts, statistical indicators are proposed for early
Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Privado, Jesus; Escorial, Sergio; Martinez, Kenia; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Alfayate, Eva; Garcia, Felipe; Lepage, Claude; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Karama, Sherif
Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young…
Kumar, Nitin; Gardel, Margaret
Motor proteins in conjunction with filamentous proteins convert biochemical energy into mechanical energy which serves a number of cellular processes including cell motility, force generation and intracellular cargo transport. In-vitro experiments suggest that the forces generated by kinesin motors on microtubule bundles are extensile in nature whereas myosin motors on actin filaments are contractile. It is not clear how qualitatively similar systems can show completely different behaviors in terms of the nature of force generation. In order to answer this question, we carry out in vitro experiments where we form quasi 2D filamentous actomyosin networks and vary the length of actin filaments by adding capping protein. We show that when filaments are much shorter than their typical persistence length (approximately 10 microns), the forces generated are extensile and we see active nematic defect propagation, as seen in the microtubule-kinesin system. Based on this observation, we claim that the rigidity of rods plays an important role in dictating the nature of force generation in such systems. In order to understand this transition, we selectively label individual filaments and find that longer filaments show considerable bending and buckling, making them difficult to slide and extend along their length.
Shamloo, Farzin; Helie, Sebastien
The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions in which blood oxygen level dependent signal is suppressed during attentional focus on the external environment. Because automatic task processing requires less attention, development of automaticity in a rule-based categorization task may result in less deactivation and altered functional connectivity of the DMN when compared to the initial learning stage. We tested this hypothesis by re-analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging data of participants trained in rule-based categorization for over 10,000 trials (Helie et al., 2010) [12,13]. The results show that some DMN regions are deactivated in initial training but not after automaticity has developed. There is also a significant decrease in DMN deactivation after extensive practice. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses with the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (two important DMN regions) and Brodmann area 6 (an important region in automatic categorization) were also performed. The results show increased functional connectivity with both DMN and non-DMN regions after the development of automaticity, and a decrease in functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these results further support the hypothesis of a strategy shift in automatic categorization and bridge the cognitive and neuroscientific conceptions of automaticity in showing that the reduced need for cognitive resources in automatic processing is accompanied by a disinhibition of the DMN and stronger functional connectivity between DMN and task-related brain regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Swain, Eric D.; Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo
Lago Loíza reservoir in east-central Puerto Rico is one of the primary sources of public water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. To evaluate and predict the Lago Loíza water budget, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is trained to predict river inflows. A method is developed to combine ANN-predicted daily flows with ANN-predicted 30-day cumulative flows to improve flow estimates. The ANN application trains well for representing 2007–2012 and the drier 1994–1997 periods. Rainfall data downscaled from global circulation model (GCM) simulations are used to predict 2050–2055 conditions. Evapotranspiration is estimated with the Hargreaves equation using minimum and maximum air temperatures from the downscaled GCM data. These simulated 2050–2055 river flows are input to a water budget formulation for the Lago Loíza reservoir for comparison with 2007–2012. The ANN scenarios require far less computational effort than a numerical model application, yet produce results with sufficient accuracy to evaluate and compare hydrologic scenarios. This hydrologic tool will be useful for future evaluations of the Lago Loíza reservoir and water supply to the San Juan metropolitan area.
Engen, Haakon G; Bernhardt, Boris C; Skottnik, Leon; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania
Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k h, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices. To identify functional networks relevant for the generation of socio-affective states, structural imaging analysis were complemented by fMRI analysis in LTMs, showing amplitude increases during a loving-kindness meditation session relative to non-meditative rest in multiple prefrontal and insular regions bilaterally. Importantly, functional findings partially overlapped with regions of cortical thickness increases in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, suggesting that these regions may play a central role in the generation of emotional states relevant for the meditative practice. Our multi-modal MRI approach revealed structural changes in LTMs who have cultivated loving-kindness and compassion for a significant period of their life in functional networks activated by these practices. These preliminary cross-sectional findings motivate future longitudinal work studying brain plasticity following the regular practice of skills aiming at enhancing human altruism and prosocial motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present the first intercalibration of dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 retrieved from solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC in the mid-infrared (MIR versus near-infrared (NIR soundings from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The study uses multi-annual quasi-coincident MIR and NIR measurements from the stations Garmisch, Germany (47.48° N, 11.06° E, 743 m a.s.l., and Wollongong, Australia (34.41° S, 150.88° E, 30 m a.s.l..
Direct comparison of the retrieved MIR and NIR XCH4 time series for Garmisch shows a quasi-periodic seasonal bias leading to a standard deviation (stdv of the difference time series (NIR–MIR of 7.2 ppb. After reducing time-dependent a priori impact by using realistic site- and time-dependent ACTM-simulated profiles as a common prior, the seasonal bias is reduced (stdv = 5.2 ppb. A linear fit to the MIR/NIR scatter plot of monthly means based on same-day coincidences does not show a y-intercept that is statistically different from zero, and the MIR/NIR intercalibration factor is found to be close to ideal within 2-σ uncertainty, i.e. 0.9996(8. The difference time series (NIR–MIR do not show a significant trend. The same basic findings hold for Wollongong. In particular an overall MIR/NIR intercalibration factor close to the ideal 1 is found within 2-σ uncertainty. At Wollongong the seasonal cycle of methane is less pronounced and corresponding smoothing errors are not as significant, enabling standard MIR and NIR retrievals to be used directly, without correction to a common a priori.
Our results suggest that it is possible to set up a harmonized NDACC and TCCON XCH4 data set which can be exploited for joint trend studies, satellite validation, or the inverse modeling of sources and sinks.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to examine the cognitive flexibility of three-year-olds, who usually persevere in the Dimensional Change Card Sort task, when a constant representation was referred in the classic instruction. In accordance with this purpose, the Dimensional Change Pencil Sort task was developed and used in the current study that 13 three-year-olds participated in. Findings seemed to support partially the hypothesis predicted that the kids could achieve the task in terms of rule use and mental representational flexibilities between length and color at the post switch phase in which situation classification dimensions were referred over a real and constant object (pencil instead of a card. This result drew attention to the conceptual and perceptual mediation roles of language and objects respectively in terms of the cognitive flexibility literature.
Thejll, Peter; Walker, Nicholas; Sandholt, Inge; Brown, Ian; Solberg, Rune; Suwala, Jason; Kelly, Richard; Tangen, Helge; Berglund, Robin; Dean, Andy; Engset, Rune; Siewertsen, Bjarne
Engaging people in environmental studies is an important way to bring across awareness of expected future climate changes, and also a way to measure environmental change in ways that are better or complementary to remote sensing methods. With a hands-on approach, people are more likely to embrace the idea that climate change is occurring, and with modern technologies it is possible to collect quite stunning amounts of relevant data. We suggest several national activities tailored to conditions in each of the participating countries and also to existing national CO-projects. The project focuses on gathering data on biological changes, on weather, and on snow-pack information in Nordic countries as well as Greenland and Canada. Data will be gathered with existing equipment (mobile phones and internet-connected weather stations) and the project provides the means for collation of data into a database for dissemination and quality control. Numerical data collected by small non-professional weather stations or mobile phones with sensors are not directly useful quantitatively for e.g. numerical weather prediction without validation of data quality, but with validation there is a huge untapped potential due to the number of observers. Students are a central part of the project, which also seeks to engage people out and about in nature, and people with their own weather stations or other environmental data-collection activities, as well as passive data collection from mobile phone data sensors in people's bags and pockets. Appropriate software, educational and training materials will be designed with end-users in mind; school-age materials will be produced in the appropriate languages (e.g. Kalaallisut for COs of school age in Greenland).
Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Davies, S. J.; Bennett, A. C.; Gonzales-Akre, E. B.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Wright, S. J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Alonso, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Basset, Y.; Bourg, N. A.; Broadbent, E. N.; Brockelman, W. Y.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Burslem, D. F. R. P.; Butt, N.; Cao, M.; Cardenas, D.; Chuyong, G. B.; Clay, K.; Cordell, S.; Dattaraja, H. S.; Deng, X.; Detto, M.; Du, X.; Duque, A.; Erikson, D. L.; Ewango, C. E. N.; Fischer, G. A.; Fletcher, C.; Foster, R. B.; Giardina, C. P.; Gilbert, G. S.; Gunatilleke, N.; Gunatilleke, S.; Hao, Z.; Hargrove, W. W.; Hart, T. B.; Hau, B. C. H.; He, F.; Hoffman, F. M.; Howe, R. W.; Hubbell, S. P.; Inman-Narahari, F. M.; Jansen, P. A.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, D. J.; Kanzaki, M.; Rahman Kassim, A.; Kenfack, D.; Kibet, S.; Kinnaird, M. F.; Korte, L.; Král, K.; Kumar, J.; Larson, A. J.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Lum, S. K. Y.; Lutz, J. A.; Ma, K.; Maddalena, D. M.; Makana, J.-R.; Malhi, Y.; Marthews, T.; Mat Serudin, R.; Mcmahon, S. M.; McShea, W. J.; Memiaghe, H. R.; Mi, X.; Mizuno, T.; Morecroft, M.; Myers, J. A.; Novotný, Vojtěch; De Oliveira, A. A.; Ong, P. S.; Orwig, D. A.; Ostertag, R.; den Ouden, J.; Parker, G. G.; Phillips, R. P.; Sack, L.; Sainge, M. N.; Sang, W.; Sri-Ngernyuang, K.; Sukumar, R.; Sun, I-F.; Sungpalee, W.; Suresh, H. S.; Tan, S.; Thomas, S. C.; Thomas, D. W.; Thompson, J.; Turner, B. L.; Uriarte, M.; Valencia, R.; Vallejo, M. I.; Vincentini, A.; Vrška, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Weiblen, G.; Wolf, A.; Xu, H.; Yap, S.; Zimmerman, J.
Roč. 51, č. 2 (2015), s. 528-549 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) LH12038 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * CTFS * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12712/abstract
Knox, H. A.; Grubelich, M. C.; Preston, L. A.; Knox, J. M.; King, D. K.
We present results from a SubTER funded series of cross borehole geophysical imaging efforts designed to characterize fracture zones generated with an alternative stimulation method, which is being developed for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). One important characteristic of this stimulation method is that each detonation will produce multiple fractures without damaging the wellbore. To date, we have collected six full data sets with ~30k source-receiver pairs each for the purposes of high-resolution cross borehole seismic tomographic imaging. The first set of data serves as the baseline measurement (i.e. un-stimulated), three sets evaluate material changes after fracture emplacement and/or enhancement, and two sets are used for evaluation of pick error and seismic velocity changes attributable to changing environmental factors (i.e. saturation due to rain/snowfall in the shallow subsurface). Each of the six datasets has been evaluated for data quality and first arrivals have been picked on nearly 200k waveforms in the target area. Each set of data is then inverted using a Vidale-Hole finite-difference 3-D eikonal solver in two ways: 1) allowing for iterative ray tracing and 2) with fixed ray paths determined from the test performed before the fracture stimulation of interest. Utilizing these two methods allows us to compare and contrast the results from two commonly used change detection techniques. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Full Text Available Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients.
Hardy, Mark A.; Parliman, Deborah J.; O'Dell, Ivalou
The Idaho statewide surface-water-quality monitoring network consists of 56 sites that have been monitored from 1989 through 2002 to provide data to document status and changes in the quality of Idaho streams. Sampling at 33 sites has covered a wide range of flows and seasons that describe water-quality variations representing both natural conditions and human influences. Targeting additional high- or low-flow sampling would better describe conditions at 20 sites during hydrologic extremes. At the three spring site types, sampling covered the range of flow conditions from 1989 through 2002 well. However, high flows at these sites since 1989 were lower than historical high flows as a result of declining ground-water levels in the Snake River Plain. Summertime stream temperatures at 45 sites commonly exceeded 19 and 22 degrees Celsius, the Idaho maximum daily mean and daily maximum criteria, respectively, for the protection of coldwater aquatic life. Criteria exceedances in stream basins with minimal development suggest that such high temperatures may occur naturally in many Idaho streams. Suspended-sediment concentrations were generally higher in southern Idaho than in central and northern Idaho, and network data suggest that the turbidity criteria are most likely to be exceeded at sites in southern Idaho and other sections of the Columbia Plateaus geomorphic province. This is probably because this province has more fine-grained soils that are subject to erosion and disturbance by land uses than the Northern Rocky Mountains province of northern and central
Fan, Xiaotong; Shang, Kun; Wang, Xiaocui; Wang, Peipei; Shan, Yongzhi; Lu, Jie
Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients. PMID:28018680
Laranjo, Liliana; Arguel, Amaël; Neves, Ana L; Gallagher, Aideen M; Kaplan, Ruth; Mortimer, Nathan; Mendes, Guilherme A; Lau, Annie Y S
Our aim was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of interventions using social networking sites (SNSs) to change health behaviors. Five databases were scanned using a predefined search strategy. Studies were included if they focused on patients/consumers, involved an SNS intervention, had an outcome related to health behavior change, and were prospective. Studies were screened by independent investigators, and assessed using Cochrane's 'risk of bias' tool. Randomized controlled trials were pooled in a meta-analysis. The database search retrieved 4656 citations; 12 studies (7411 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Facebook was the most utilized SNS, followed by health-specific SNSs, and Twitter. Eight randomized controlled trials were combined in a meta-analysis. A positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior outcomes was found (Hedges' g 0.24; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.43). There was considerable heterogeneity (I(2) = 84.0%; T(2) = 0.058) and no evidence of publication bias. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of SNS interventions in changing health-related behaviors. Most studies evaluated multi-component interventions, posing problems in isolating the specific effect of the SNS. Health behavior change theories were seldom mentioned in the included articles, but two particularly innovative studies used 'network alteration', showing a positive effect. Overall, SNS interventions appeared to be effective in promoting changes in health-related behaviors, and further research regarding the application of these promising tools is warranted. Our study showed a positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior-related outcomes, but there was considerable heterogeneity. Protocol registration The protocol for this systematic review is registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO with the number CRD42013004140. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical
Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Zhaowen; Zhang, Kai; Lei, Xu; Yao, Ye; Becker, Benjamin; Liu, Yicen; Kendrick, Keith M; Lu, Guangming; Feng, Jianfeng
ratio of intra- to inter-community structural connectivity. Application of the mesoscale variability measure to multicentre datasets of three mental disorders and matched controls involving 1180 subjects reveals that those regions demonstrating extreme, i.e. highest/lowest variability in controls are most liable to change in mental disorders. Specifically, we draw attention to the identification of diametrically opposing patterns of variability changes between schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/autism. Regions of the default-mode network demonstrate lower variability in patients with schizophrenia, but high variability in patients with autism/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, compared with respective controls. In contrast, subcortical regions, especially the thalamus, show higher variability in schizophrenia patients, but lower variability in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The changes in variability of these regions are also closely related to symptom scores. Our work provides insights into the dynamic organization of the resting brain and how it changes in brain disorders. The nodal variability measure may also be potentially useful as a predictor for learning and neural rehabilitation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Khodaverdi zahraee, N.; Rastiveis, H.
Earthquake is one of the most divesting natural events that threaten human life during history. After the earthquake, having information about the damaged area, the amount and type of damage can be a great help in the relief and reconstruction for disaster managers. It is very important that these measures should be taken immediately after the earthquake because any negligence could be more criminal losses. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement an automatic approach for mapping destructed buildings after an earthquake using pre- and post-event high resolution satellite images. In the proposed method after preprocessing, segmentation of both images is performed using multi-resolution segmentation technique. Then, the segmentation results are intersected with ArcGIS to obtain equal image objects on both images. After that, appropriate textural features, which make a better difference between changed or unchanged areas, are calculated for all the image objects. Finally, subtracting the extracted textural features from pre- and post-event images, obtained values are applied as an input feature vector in an artificial neural network for classifying the area into two classes of changed and unchanged areas. The proposed method was evaluated using WorldView2 satellite images, acquired before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 93% proved the ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake buildings change detection.
Full Text Available Circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake regulatory processes interact in a fine tuned manner to modulate human cognitive performance. Dampening of the circadian alertness signal and attenuated deterioration of psychomotor vigilance in response to elevated sleep pressure with aging change this interaction pattern. As evidenced by neuroimaging studies, both homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian sleep-wake promotion impact on cognition-related cortical and arousal-promoting subcortical brain regions including the thalamus, the anterior hypothalamus and the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC. However, how age- related changes in circadian and homeostatic processes impact on the cerebral activity subtending waking performance remains largely unexplored. Post-mortem studies point to neuronal degeneration in the SCN and age-related modifications to aging in the arousal-promoting LC. Alongside, cortical frontal brain areas are particularly susceptible both to aging and misalignment between circadian and homeostatic processes. In this perspective, we summarise and discuss here the potential neuroanatomical networks underlying age-related changes in circadian and homeostatic modulation of waking performance, ranging from basic arousal to higher order cognitive behaviours.
Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D; Plow, Ela B
The interhemispheric competition hypothesis attributes the distribution of selective attention to a balance of mutual inhibition between homotopic, interhemispheric connections in parietal cortex (Kinsbourne 1977; Battelli et al., 2009). In support of this hypothesis, repetitive inhibitory TMS over right parietal cortex in healthy individuals rapidly induces interhemispheric imbalance in cortical activity that spreads beyond the site of stimulation (Plow et al., 2014). Behaviorally, the impacts of inhibitory rTMS may be long delayed from the onset of stimulation, as much as 30 minutes (Agosta et al., 2014; Hubl et al., 2008). In this study, we examine the temporal dynamics of inhibitory rTMS on cortical network integrity that supports sustained visual attention. Healthy individuals received 15 min of 1 Hz offline, inhibitory rTMS (or sham) over left parietal cortex, and then immediately engaged in a bilateral visual tracking task while we recorded brain activity with fMRI. We computed functional connectivity (FC) between three nodes of the attention network engaged by visual tracking: the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), frontal eye fields (FEF) and human MT+ (hMT+). FC immediately and significantly decreased between the stimulation site (left IPS) and all other regions, then recovered to normal levels within 30 minutes. rTMS increased FC between left and right FEF at approximately 36 min following stimulation, and between sites in the unstimulated hemisphere approximately 48 min after stimulation. These findings demonstrate large-scale changes in cortical organization following inhibitory rTMS. The immediate impact of rTMS on connectivity to the stimulation site dovetails with the putative role of interhemispheric balance for bilateral visual sustained attention. The delayed, compensatory increases in functional connectivity have implications for models of dynamic reorganization in networks supporting spatial and nonspatial selective attention, and
Jockwitz, Christiane; Caspers, Svenja; Lux, Silke; Jütten, Kerstin; Schleicher, Axel; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl
Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in the functional architecture of the default mode network (DMN), e.g. a posterior to anterior shift (PASA) of activations. The putative structural correlate for this functional reorganization, however, is largely unknown. Changes in gyrification, i.e. decreases of cortical folding were found to be a marker of atrophy of the brain in later decades of life. Therefore, the present study assessed local gyrification indices of the DMN in relation to age and cognitive performance in 749 older adults aged 55-85 years. Age-related decreases in local gyrification indices were found in the anterior part of the DMN [particularly; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)] of the right hemisphere, and the medial posterior parts of the DMN [particularly; posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus] of both hemispheres. Positive correlations between cognitive performance and local gyrification indices were found for (1) selective attention and left PCC/precuneus, (2) visual/visual-spatial working memory and bilateral PCC/precuneus and right angular gyrus (AG), and (3) semantic verbal fluency and right AG and right mPFC. The more pronounced age-related decrease in local gyrification indices of the posterior parts of the DMN supports the functionally motivated PASA theory by correlated structural changes. Surprisingly, the prominent age-related decrease in local gyrification indices in right hemispheric ROIs provides evidence for a structural underpinning of the right hemi-aging hypothesis. Noticeably, the performance-related changes in local gyrification largely involved the same parts of the DMN that were subject to age-related local gyrification decreases. Thus, the present study lends support for a combined structural and functional theory of aging, in that the functional changes in the DMN during aging are accompanied by comparably localized structural alterations.
Törrönen, Jukka; Tigerstedt, Christoffer
The article applies actor network theory (ANT) to autobiographical data on alcohol dependence to explore what ANT can offer to the analysis of 'addiction stories'. By defining 'addiction' as a relational achievement, as the effect of elements acting together as a configuration of human and non-human actors, the article demonstrates how the moving and changing attachments of addiction can be dynamically analyzed with concepts of 'assemblage', 'mediator', 'tendency', 'translation', 'trajectory', 'immutable mobile', 'fluid' and 'bush fire'. The article shows how the reduction of alcohol dependence simply to genetic factors, neurobiological causes, personality disorders and self-medication constitutes an inadequate explanation. As 'meta theories', they illuminate addiction one-sidedly. Instead, as ANT pays attention to multiple heterogeneous mediators, it specifies in what way the causes identified in 'meta theories' may together with other actors participate in addiction assemblages. When following the development of addiction assemblages, we focus on situational sequences of action, in which human and non-human elements are linked to each other, and we trace how the relational shape of addiction changes from one sequence to another as a transforming assemblage of heterogeneous attachments that either maintain healthy subjectivities or destabilize them. The more attachments assemblages of addiction are able to make that are flexible and durable from one event to another, the stronger also the addiction-based subjectivities. Similarly, the fewer attachments that assemblages of addiction are able to keep in their various translations, the weaker the addiction-based subjectivities also become. An ANT-inspired analysis has a number of implications for the prevention and treatment of addiction: it suggests that in the prevention and treatment of addiction, the aim should hardly be to get rid of dependencies. Rather, the ambition should be the identification of attachments
John F Kelly
Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations.Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends, and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking. Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk.High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome.Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit from 12-step MHOs.
Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Greene, M Claire; Slaymaker, Valerie
Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations. Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White) enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends), and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking). Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk. High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome. Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit from 12-step MHOs.
Leng, Mhoira Ef
What make a good doctor is a question posed by the public and profession and is key when designing training programmes. The goal of training is to change practice not simply acquire knowledge yet too often curriculums and assessment focuses on knowledge and skills. Professional practice is underpinned by beliefs and values and therefore training may need to challenge deeply held values in order to result in a change in practice. Palliative care offers an opportunity to challenge values at a deeply personal level as it brings experiences of pain and suffering alongside clinical knowledge and skills. Palliative care is holistic and so real scenarios where physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues are evident can be presented in an interactive, learner centered environment. Training in ethics alongside clinical skills will assist the development of judgment which should also be assessed. Communication skills enable the clinician to hear and understand the needs and wishes of those facing life limiting illness. Training should include aspects of modeling and mentorship to demonstrate and integrate the learning with the realities of clinical practice and include those who lead and influence policy and advocacy.
Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru
To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.
Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne
Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design.
Choudhary, S.; Nayak, R.; Gore, A.
There is an overwhelming international scientific consensus on climate change; however, the global community still lacks the resolve to implement meaningful solutions. No meaningful solutions can be found without educating and engaging non-scientific community in addressing the climate change. With more than 41 percent of world's population falling under 10-34 years age group, the future citizens, inspiring them is a great challenge for the climate scientists. In order to educate the youth and students in India, a model program named 'Climeducate' was created with the help of scientists in Indian Polar Research Network (IPRN), trained climate leaders in ';The Climate Reality Project', and a local organization (Planature Consultancy Services). This model was developed keeping in mind the obstacles that may be faced in reaching out to non-specialist audiences in different parts of India. The identified obstacles were 1- making such a presentation that could reveal the truth about the climate crisis in a way that ignites the moral courage in non-specialist audience 2- lack of funding for travel and boarding expenses of a climate communicator, 3- language barrier in educating local audiences, 4- logistical arrangements at the venue. In this presentation we will share how all the four obstacles were overcome. Audiences were also given short questionnaires before and after the presentation. Remarkable changes in the pattern of answers, data would be shared in the presentation, were observed between the two questionnaires. More importantly, a significant difference in audience engagement was observed comparing a presentation that integrated scientific data with audiovisuals prepared by The Climate Reality Project Chairman, Al Gore (also Former US Vice President) and the other using simple PowerPoint slides. With the success of this program which was implemented among 500 audiences in the eastern India, we aim to replicate this program soon in other parts of India. This
Santos, Rita; Parsons, Daniel; Cowx, Ian
The Mekong River is the 10th largest freshwater river in the world, with the second highest biodiversity wealth, behind the much larger Amazon basin. The fisheries activity in the Lower Mekong countries counts for 2.7 million tons of fish per year, with an estimated value worth up to US 7 billion. For the 60 million people living in the basin, fish represent their primary source of economic income and protein intake, with an average per capita consumption estimated at 45.4 Kg. The proposed hydropower development in the basin is threatening its sustainability and resilience. Such developments affect fish migration patterns, hydrograph flood duration and magnitudes and sediment flux. Climate change is also likely to impact the basin, exacerbating the issues created by development. As a monsoonal system, the Mekong River's pronounced annual flood pulse cycle is important in creating variable habitat for fish productivity. Moreover, the annual flood also triggers fish migration and provides vital nutrients carried by the sediment flux. This paper examines the interactions between both dam development and climate change scenarios on fish habitat and habitat connectivity, with the aim of predicting how these will affect fish species composition and fisheries catch. The project will also employ Environmental DNA (eDNA) to quantify and understand the species composition of this complex and large freshwater system. By applying molecular analysis, it is possible to trace species abundance and migration patterns of fish and evaluate the ecological networks establish between an inland system. The aim of this work is to estimate, using process-informed models, the impacts of the proposed dam development and climate change scenarios on the hydrological and hydraulic conditions of habitat availability for fish. Furthermore, it will evaluate the connectivity along the Mekong and its tributaries, and the importance of maintaining these migration pathways, used by a great diversity
Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Huupponen, Risto; Klaukka, Timo; Hoppu, Kalle
Most western societies are enhancing rational pharmacotherapy to get best value for the constantly increasing expenditure on drugs. Government bodies and the medical profession took joint responsibility for the education programme for rational prescribing, launched in Finland at the end of the 1990s. The goals were to enhance critical thinking, and when appropriate, change prescribing behaviour. Various approaches that included evidence-based continuing medical education (CME), implementing clinical guidelines, delivering information, and providing prescribing feedback were used simultaneously. The commitment of the stakeholders and participants has been strong and the approaches have succeeded even though there is no clear outcome measure. The Government has recently decided to continue and widen the process, which started as a pilot programme, on a tight budget.
Full Text Available In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.
Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Nativi, S.; Sprovieri, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.
In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.
Full Text Available Forecasting is one of the most growing areas in most sciences attracting the attention of many researchers for more extensive study. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop an integrated forecasting methodology based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN, which is a modern and attractive intelligent technique. The final result is to provide short-term and long-term forecasts for point position changing, i.e., the displacement or deformation of the surface they belong to. The motivation was the combination of two thoughts, the insertion of the forecasting concept in Geodesy as in the most scientific disciplines (e.g., Economics, Medicine and the desire to know the future position of any point on a construction or on the earth’s crustal. This methodology was designed to be accurate, stable and general for different kind of geodetic data. The basic procedure consists of the definition of the forecasting problem, the preliminary data analysis (data pre-processing, the definition of the most suitable ANN, its evaluation using the proper criteria and finally the production of forecasts. The methodology gives particular emphasis on the stages of the pre-processing and the evaluation. Additionally, the importance of the prediction intervals (PI is emphasized. A case study, which includes geodetic data from the year 2003 to the year 2016—namely X, Y, Z coordinates—is implemented. The data were acquired by 1000 permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS stations. During this case study, 2016 ANNs—with different hyper-parameters—are trained and tested for short-term forecasting and 2016 for long-term forecasting, for each of the GNSS stations. In addition, other conventional statistical forecasting methods are used for the same purpose using the same data set. Finally the most appropriate Non-linear Autoregressive Recurrent network (NAR or Non-linear Autoregressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX for the forecasting of 3D point
Full Text Available Background. Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs. Results. Five RCTs, including 989 patients combined, have evaluated the changes in prolactin for pediatric patients after 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and paliperidone. In the overall study population, treatment with risperidone was associated with the highest increase in mean prolactin levels compared to other SGAs. Patients treated with risperidone 4–6 mg/day were found to experience the greatest increases (55.06 ng/ml [95% CrI: 40.53–69.58] in prolactin levels, followed by risperidone 1–3 mg/day, paliperidone 3–6 mg/day, and paliperidone 6–12 mg/day. Conclusions. This study shows that there are differences in SGAs ability to cause hyperprolactinemia. Further, there is clear evidence of safety concerns with risperidone and paliperidone treatment in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Registration. PROSPERO CRD42014009506.
Changes in municipal energy supply - revision of franchise agreements and change of ownership of networks. Proceedings. Veraenderungen der kommunalen Energieversorgung - Neugestaltung von Konzessionsvertraegen und Netzuebernahme. Tagungsbericht
Schmidt, H. (ed.)
Currently, there is a demand in many communities for information and advice on future forms of local energy supply. The present discussion was triggered by the expiry of many franchise agreements by 1994 (because of the fourth draft bill to amend the restrictive trade practices act), demands to give local government more scope for action in matters of their own power generation (reference: power-and-heat cogeneration), and endeavours on the part of local government to take over power supply also in their enlarged areas after the territorial revision. Mostly, the immediate concern is to conclude new franchise agreements (either with the former or a new utility, at identical or modified conditions) and to take over responsibility for power supply. As these are fundamental local-policy decisions with far-reaching long-term consequences, a thorough analysis is required that should include technic-economic, legal, and energy- and environment-political aspects. The book contains the lectures given at the 17th meeting of the working group 'advising on energy' in Hessen, which took place in Darmstadt on October 1st, 1990 and dealt with the complex of questions 'change of ownership of networks/franchise agreements'. The contributions demonstrate and discuss the various possibilities for framing the terms of supply in their manifold dimensions and repercussions and from different angles. This is to increase the transparency of facts, arguments and opinions regarding a complex and vital sector of municipal energy policy, and to give hints to energy advisers on difficulties and points for decision that will arise and should be taken heed of in all cases where changes of an order-political nature take place. (orig./UA).
Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.
Van Oostvoorn, F.; Van der Welle, A.
Recently the importance of 'Large scale DER integration' has increased as means to meet the ambitious 2020 EU policy objectives and targets for RES, emissions reductions and energy efficiency. Increasing the role of RES and DG (Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation or DER) in supply is also highly beneficial for reducing EU dependency on gas and oil imports. In this EU context, it is important to review the current barriers, support policies and network regulation for integration of more DG, RES and small scale CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the power systems. Several studies conducted for the EU and led by the ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) reveal that currently, in some, mainly new, Member States, the contribution of RES and DG is still very low. However, in coming decades the share of variable RES-E sources should become much larger in many EU countries. Note that 20% RES in a country in 2020 implies a share of electricity supply by RES of about 30% or more. Currently, countries like Denmark and Spain, already experience such a large contribution of (mostly intermittent type) renewables and this is already negatively impacting power system costs. Now the question arises whether or not we can increase the contribution of RES to the power supply beyond 20-30% without raising system inefficiency and what changes in system conditions and market and network regulation are necessary to efficiently absorb large volumes of so called intermittent RES supply resources. Based on findings from several large EU projects promoting the role of RES and DG in the power supply, the authors discuss and present the different barriers and solutions that should facilitate meeting the ambitious EU policy targets for RES in 2020
Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja
As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.
Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya
Full Text Available Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20–39 years; Group 2: (40–59 years; and Group 3: (60 years and above. PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs within fibrin meshwork. Results: Two types of fibrin network pattern arrangements noticed: Dense and loose types in three age groups. However, there was a noticeable decrease in the dense type of fibrin network with progressing age and increase in the loose type of fibrin arrangement. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and WBCs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: From the current study it can be concluded that age can be considered as one of the influencing factors on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network patterns and hence, platelet and WBCs entrapment within these fibrin networks.
Wu, Xianjun; Di, Qian; Li, Yao; Zhao, Xiaojie
Recently, evidences from fMRI studies have shown that there was decreased activity among the default-mode network in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and DTI researches also demonstrated that demyelinations exist in white matter of AD patients. Therefore, combining these two MRI methods may help to reveal the relationship between white matter damages and alterations of the resting state functional connectivity network. In the present study, we tried to address this issue by means of correlation analysis between DTI and resting state fMRI images. The default-mode networks of AD and normal control groups were compared to find the areas with significantly declined activity firstly. Then, the white matter regions whose fractional anisotropy (FA) value correlated with this decline were located through multiple regressions between the FA values and the BOLD response of the default networks. Among these correlating white matter regions, those whose FA values also declined were found by a group comparison between AD patients and healthy elderly control subjects. Our results showed that the areas with decreased activity among default-mode network included left posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), left medial temporal gyrus et al. And the damaged white matter areas correlated with the default-mode network alterations were located around left sub-gyral temporal lobe. These changes may relate to the decreased connectivity between PCC and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and thus correlate with the deficiency of default-mode network activity.
Full Text Available While it is well established that the composition and organisation of articular cartilage dramatically change during skeletal maturation, relatively little is known about how this impacts the mechanical properties of the tissue. In this study, digital image correlation was first used to quantify spatial deformation within mechanically compressed skeletally immature (4 and 8 week old and mature (1 and 3 year old porcine articular cartilage. The compressive modulus of the immature tissue was relatively homogeneous, while the stiffness of mature articular cartilage dramatically increased with depth from the articular surface. Other, well documented, biomechanical characteristics of the tissue also emerged with skeletal maturity, such as strain-softening and a depth-dependent Poisson’s ratio. The most significant changes that occurred with age were in the deep zone of the tissue, where an order of magnitude increase in compressive modulus (from 0.97 MPa to 9.4 MPa for low applied strains was observed from 4 weeks postnatal to skeletal maturity. These temporal increases in compressive stiffness occurred despite a decrease in tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycan content, but were accompanied by increases in tissue collagen content. Furthermore, helium ion microscopy revealed dramatic changes in collagen fibril alignment through the depth of the tissue with skeletal maturity, as well as a fivefold increase in fibril diameter with age. Finally, computational modelling was used to demonstrate how both collagen network reorganisation and collagen stiffening play a key role in determining the final compressive mechanical properties of the tissue. Together these findings provide a unique insight into evolving structure-function relations in articular cartilage.
Abidin, Anas Z.; Chockanathan, Udaysankar; DSouza, Adora M.; Inglese, Matilde; Wismüller, Axel
Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) is often considered to be the first neurological episode associated with Multiple sclerosis (MS). At an early stage the inflammatory demyelination occurring in the CNS can manifest as a change in neuronal metabolism, with multiple asymptomatic white matter lesions detected in clinical MRI. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain networks, which can be captured by advanced functional MRI (fMRI) analysis techniques. We test this hypothesis by capturing the effective relationships of 90 brain regions, defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas, using a large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) framework. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We study for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 18 subjects (10 male and 8 female, 9 with CIS and 9 healthy controls). Global network properties captured trending differences with modularity and clustering coefficient (pdifferences in some regions of the inferior frontal and parietal lobe. We conclude that multivariate analysis of fMRI time-series can reveal interesting information about changes occurring in the brain in early stages of MS.
DeSart, Kenneth M; Butler, Khayree; O'Malley, Kerri A; Jiang, Zhihua; Berceli, Scott A
Although clinical studies have identified that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the p27(kip1) gene is associated with success or failure after vein bypass grafting, the underlying mechanisms for this difference are not well defined. Using a high-throughput approach in a flow-dependent vein graft model, we explored the differences in p27(kip1)-related genes that drive the enhanced hyperplastic response under low-flow conditions. Bilateral rabbit carotid artery interposition grafts with jugular vein were placed with a unilateral distal outflow branch ligation to create differential flow states. Grafts were harvested at 2 hours and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after implantation, measured for neointimal area, and assayed for cell proliferation. Whole-vessel messenger RNA was isolated and analyzed using an Affymetrix (Santa Clara, Calif) gene array platform. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity, Redwood City, Calif) was used to identify the gene networks surrounding p27(kip1). This gene set was then analyzed for temporal expression changes after graft placement and for differential expression in the alternate flow conditions. Outflow branch ligation resulted in an eightfold difference in mean flow rates throughout the 28-day perfusion period (P Flow reduction led to a robust hyperplastic response, resulting in a significant increase in intimal area by 7 days (0.13 ± 0.04 mm(2) vs 0.014 ± 0.006 mm(2); P flow grafts demonstrated a burst of actively dividing intimal cells (36.4 ± 9.4 cells/mm(2) vs 11.5 ± 1.9 cells/mm(2); P = .04). Sixty-five unique genes within the microarray were identified as components of the p27(kip1) network. At a false discovery rate of 0.05, 26 genes demonstrated significant temporal changes, and two dominant patterns of expression were identified. Class comparison analysis identified differential expression of 11 genes at 2 hours and seven genes and 14 days between the high-flow and low-flow grafts (P flow and shear stress result in
Huang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junjing; Seger, Carol; Lu, Min; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Yuan; Niu, Chen; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang
Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs' brain associated with long-term motor skill training.
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Participació en el Simposi Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que va tenir lloc a la Universitat de Florència els dies 5 i 6 d'octubre de 2007.
Steinbrecht, W; Claude, H; Schönenborn, F; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Godin, S; Song, T; Swart, D P J; Meijer, Y J; Bodeker, G E; Connor, B J; Kämpfer, N; Hocke, K; Calisesi, Y; Schneider, N; Noë, J de la; Parrish, A D; Boyd, I S; Brühl, C; Steil, B; Giorgetta, M A; Manzini, E; Thomason, L W; Zawodny, J M; McCormick, M P; Russell, J M; Bhartia, P K; Stolarski, R S; Hollandsworth-Frith, S M
The long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone has been recorded by lidars and microwave radiometers within the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), and by the space-borne Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet instruments (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas
Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.
Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.
This study engaged local community stakeholders in Alaska's Arctic Slope Region to develop a web-based shoreline change risk geographic information system (WebGIS) in collaboration with the North Slope Borough and its residents. The value of the effort includes rich spatial documentation of local risks across the vast, remote, and rapidly changing shoreline, and identification of local manager information needs to direct WebGIS development. The study advances our understanding of shoreline change problems from the perspective of local Arctic communities beyond municipal impacts while building decision support. Over fifty local residents in three communities with collective coastal knowledge that extends across the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge shared their perspectives on hard copy maps. Sixteen managers provided usability perceptions of a beta WebGIS with shoreline change susceptibility information summarized at relevant asset locations such as subsistence camps. The hard copy maps with 300 "problem places" were digitized for analysis, which revealed problems across the coastline, especially challenges to boating for subsistence hunting such as shoaling cutting off access and creating hazards. The usability workshop revealed specific information needs including the need to monitor impacts at decommissioned national defense radar sites repurposed by locals to centralize oil and gas activity. These results were analyzed using an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework consisting of front-end and formative WebGIS evaluation phases. The front-end evaluation is the local input on hard copy maps, which provided local verification of coastal risks. The formative evaluation is the usability workshop with managers, which informed WebGIS development while promoting user buy-in. In terms of product and process, the local knowledge and information needs collected are significant because they establish local engagement with the
Kimura, Yuji; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi
Clay-alcohol-water ternary dispersions were compared with alcohol-water binary mixtures in terms of viscosity and optical absorbance. Aqueous clay dispersions to which lower alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol) were added exhibited significant viscosity anomalies (maxima) when the alcohol content was 30-55 wt %, as well as optical absorbance anomalies (maxima). The maximum viscosity (η max ) depended strongly on the clay content and varied between 300 and 8000 mPa·s, making it remarkably high compared with the viscosity anomalies (2 mPa·s) observed in alcohol-water binary mixtures. The alcohol content at η max decreased as the hydrophobicity of the alcohol increased. The ternary dispersions with viscosity anomalies exhibited thixotropic behaviors. The effects of other hydrophilic solvents (glycols) and other kinds of clays were also clarified. Based on these findings and the average particle size changes, the viscosity anomalies in the ternary dispersions were explained by alcohol-clustering-induced network formation of the clay nanosheets. It was estimated that 0.9, 1.7, and 2.5 H 2 O molecules per alcohol molecule were required to stabilize the ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol, respectively, in the clay-alcohol-water dispersions.
Cueno, Marni E; Imai, Kenichi
Cellular stress is mainly comprised of oxidative, nitrosative, and endoplasmic reticulum stresses and has long been correlated to the ageing process. Surprisingly, the age-related difference among the various components in each independent stress pathway and the possible significance of these components in relation to the overall cellular stress network remain to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we obtained blood from ageing rats upon reaching 20-, 40-, and 72-wk.-old. Subsequently, we measured representative cellular stress-linked biomolecules (H 2 O 2 , glutathione reductase, heme, NADPH, NADP, nitric oxide, GADD153) and cell signals [substance P (SP), free fatty acid, calcium, NF-κB] in either or both blood serum and cytosol. Subsequently, network analysis of the overall cellular stress network was performed. Our results show that there are changes affecting stress-linked biomolecules and cell signals as the rat ages. Additionally, based on our network analysis data, we postulate that NADPH, H 2 O 2 , GADD153, and SP are the key components and the interactions between these components are central to the overall age-related cellular stress network in the rat blood. Thus, we propose that the main pathway affecting the overall age-related cellular stress network in the rat blood would entail NADPH-related oxidative stress (involving H 2 O 2 ) triggering GADD153 activation leading to SP induction which in-turn affects other cell signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
André, Karin; Baird, Julia; Gerger Swartling, Åsa; Vulturius, Gregor; Plummer, Ryan
To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.
An, Jee Hyun; Ohn, Jung Hun; Song, Jung Ah; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hyojung; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Park, Woog-Yang; Shin, Chan Soo
Growing evidence shows the possibility of a role of microRNAs (miRNA) in regulating bone mass. We investigated the change of miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in bone tissue in an ovariectomized mice model and evaluated the regulatory mechanism of bone mass mediated by miRNAs in an estrogen-deficiency state. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeJ mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham-op), and their femur and tibia were harvested to extract total bone RNAs after 4 weeks for microarray analysis. Eight miRNAs (miR-127, -133a, -133a*, -133b, -136, -206, -378, -378*) were identified to be upregulated after OVX, whereas one miRNA (miR-204) was downregulated. Concomitant analysis of mRNA microarray revealed that 658 genes were differentially expressed between OVX and Sham-op mice. Target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs identified potential targets, and integrative analysis using the mRNA microarray results showed that PPARγ and CREB pathways are activated in skeletal tissues after ovariectomy. Among the potential candidates of miRNA, we further studied the role of miR-127 in vitro, which exhibited the greatest changes after OVX. We also studied the effects of miR-136, which has not been studied in the context of bone mass regulation. Transfection of miR-127 inhibitor has enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in UAMS-32 cells as measured by alkaline phosphatase activities and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific genes, whereas miR-136 precursor has inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, transfection of both miR-127 and miR-136 inhibitors enhanced the osteocyte-like morphological changes and survival in MLO-Y4 cells, whereas precursors of miR-127 and -136 have aggravated dexamethasone-induced cell death. Both of the precursors enhanced osteoclastic differentiation in bone marrow macrophages, indicating that both miR-127 and -136 are negatively regulating bone mass. Taken together, these results suggest a novel insight into the
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.
The relative gravimeter is the primary terrestrial instrument for measuring spatially and temporally varying gravitational fields. The background noise of the instrument—that is, non-linear drift and random tares—typically requires some form of least-squares network adjustment to integrate data collected during a campaign that may take several days to weeks. Here, we present an approach to remove the change in the observed relative-gravity differences caused by hydrologic or other transient processes during a single campaign, so that the adjusted gravity values can be referenced to a single epoch. The conceptual approach is an example of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion, by which a hydrologic model is used to inform and constrain the geophysical forward model. The hydrologic model simulates the spatial variation of the rate of change of gravity as either a linear function of distance from an infiltration source, or using a 3-D numerical groundwater model. The linear function can be included in and solved for as part of the network adjustment. Alternatively, the groundwater model is used to predict the change of gravity at each station through time, from which the accumulated gravity change is calculated and removed from the data prior to the network adjustment. Data from a field experiment conducted at an artificial-recharge facility are used to verify our approach. Maximum gravity change due to hydrology (observed using a superconducting gravimeter) during the relative-gravity field campaigns was up to 2.6 μGal d−1, each campaign was between 4 and 6 d and one month elapsed between campaigns. The maximum absolute difference in the estimated gravity change between two campaigns, two months apart, using the standard network adjustment method and the new approach, was 5.5 μGal. The maximum gravity change between the same two campaigns was 148 μGal, and spatial variation in gravity change revealed zones of preferential infiltration and areas of relatively
Taxis, Tasia M.; Wolff, Sara; Gregg, Sarah J.; Minton, Nicholas O.; Zhang, Chiqian; Dai, Jingjing; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Kerley, Monty S.; Pires, J. Chris; Lamberson, William R.; Conant, Gavin C.
By mapping translated metagenomic reads to a microbial metabolic network, we show that ruminal ecosystems that are rather dissimilar in their taxonomy can be considerably more similar at the metabolic network level. Using a new network bi-partition approach for linking the microbial network to a bovine metabolic network, we observe that these ruminal metabolic networks exhibit properties consistent with distinct metabolic communities producing similar outputs from common inputs. For instance, the closer in network space that a microbial reaction is to a reaction found in the host, the lower will be the variability of its enzyme copy number across hosts. Similarly, these microbial enzymes that are nearby to host nodes are also higher in copy number than are more distant enzymes. Collectively, these results demonstrate a widely expected pattern that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly demonstrated in microbial communities: namely that there can exist different community metabolic networks that have the same metabolic inputs and outputs but differ in their internal structure. PMID:26420832
Boonen, Harrie C. M.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Birck, Malene M.
animals mainly for known physical traits. On the other hand, functional network analysis revealed new co-segregations, particularly in the domain of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the obese animals that were not present in the lean. Functional networks of lean or obese minipigs could......The Göttingen minipig model of obesity is used in pre-clinical research to predict clinical outcome of new treatments for metabolic diseases. However, treatment effects often remain unnoticed when using single parameter statistical comparisons due to the small numbers of animals giving rise...... to large variation and insufficient statistical power. The purpose of this study was to perform a correlation matrix analysis of multiple multi-scale parameters describing co-segregation of traits in order to identify differences between lean and obese minipigs. More than 40 parameters, ranging from...
Makkeasorn, A.; Chang, N. B.; Zhou, X.
SummarySustainable water resources management is a critically important priority across the globe. While water scarcity limits the uses of water in many ways, floods may also result in property damages and the loss of life. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water under the changing world or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the issues have led us to seek advanced techniques for improving streamflow forecasting on a short-term basis. This study emphasizes the inclusion of sea surface temperature (SST) in addition to the spatio-temporal rainfall distribution via the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), meteorological data via local weather stations, and historical stream data via USGS gage stations to collectively forecast discharges in a semi-arid watershed in south Texas. Two types of artificial intelligence models, including genetic programming (GP) and neural network (NN) models, were employed comparatively. Four numerical evaluators were used to evaluate the validity of a suite of forecasting models. Research findings indicate that GP-derived streamflow forecasting models were generally favored in the assessment in which both SST and meteorological data significantly improve the accuracy of forecasting. Among several scenarios, NEXRAD rainfall data were proven its most effectiveness for a 3-day forecast, and SST Gulf-to-Atlantic index shows larger impacts than the SST Gulf-to-Pacific index on the streamflow forecasts. The most forward looking GP-derived models can even perform a 30-day streamflow forecast ahead of time with an r-square of 0.84 and RMS error 5.4 in our study.
Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.
Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami
Karl S. Zimmerer
Full Text Available I examined agrobiodiversity in smallholder cultural landscapes with the goal of offering new insights into management and policy options for the resilience-based in situ conservation and social-ecological sustainability of local, food-producing crop types, i.e., landraces. I built a general, integrative approach to focus on both land use and livelihood functions of crop landraces in the context of nontraditional, migration-related livelihoods amid global change. The research involved a multimethod, case-study design focused on a cultural landscape of maize, i.e., corn, growing in the Andes of central Bolivia, which is a global hot spot for this crop's agrobiodiversity. Central questions included the following: (1 What are major agroecological functions and food-related services of the agrobiodiversity of Andean maize landraces, and how are they related to cultural landscapes and associated knowledge systems? (2 What are new migration-related livelihood groups, and how are their dynamic livelihoods propelled through global change, in particular international and national migration, linked to the use and cultural landscapes of agrobiodiversity? (3 What are management and policy options derived from the previous questions? Combined social-ecological services as both cultivation and food resources are found to function in relation to the cultural landscape. Results demonstrated major variations of maturation-based, phenologic traits and food-use properties that are cornerstones of the landrace-level agrobiodiversity of Andean maize. Knowledge of these parameters is widespread. Linkage of these production and consumption functions yields a major insight into dynamics of Andean maize agrobiodiversity. Concurrently, this smallholder cultural landscape has become increasingly dependent on new rural conditions, especially increased livelihood diversification and migration amid growing peri-urban influences. Viability of landrace-level maize
Tallinnas Balti jaama kõrval Toompuiesteel hakkab paiknema seitsmekorruseline Eesti Raudtee peakontor. UNESCO Eesti komisjoni kuuluv muinsuskaitse seltsi esindaja Jaan Tamm nii kõrget hoonet ei lubaks
Žürii hääletustulemused ja hinnangud. I preemia - "Art Plaza", taani arhitektid Uffe Leth Laursen, Tue Hesselberg Foged, Karsten Gori, Sinus Lynge, Greta Tedje, Simon Sorensen, Lawrence Aeberhard, Lyndal Brown, Morgan Jacobsen (AB Sea + Effekt). II - "TLN 247", Hollandi AB NAT Architecten bv, M. van Zijl, V. van der Klei, F. A. van Manen, B. de Graaf, T. M. van Dijkhuizen, S. van der Meer, D. Awe, N. Limburg, J. Kuilman. III - "Arts Factory", Portugali AB Neralp-Arquitectura Engenharia e Construcoes Lda, Paulo Sergio Goncalves Teixeira de Sousa. Ergutuspreemia - "Publicsection", Hollandi AB BOARD, Bernd Upmeyer, kaastöö: Claudia Hess ja "Sashimi", jaapani arhitekt Francois Blanciak
Žürii liige eskiisprojekti võistlusest ja võistlustöödest. Tulemused: II koht - töö "Arava", autor Toomas Mägi, III koht - töö "Vilgatus", autorid Kätlin Saks, Harry Klaar, ergutuspreemia - töö "Maru", autorid Heidi Urb, Siiri Vallner, Toomas Paaver
Endise Vene Riigipanga ja Aadlipanga maja ühendamisest.1997. a. ideekavandite võistlusest. Lõpliku projekti koostas Toomas Rein. Sisearhitekt Taevo Gans. Peaprojekteerija: ETP Grupp. Ehitaja: Koger & Sumberg (hiljem FKSM). Klaaskupliga vahehoone valmis 1998. a. Ill.: vahehoone läbilõige, 2 sise- ja 2 välisvaadet
Hallas-Murula, Karin, 1957-
2003. a. korraldatud arhitektuurivõistlusest Eesti Panga hoonekompleksi erinevaid osi ühendava galerii lahenduse saamiseks. Panga juhatus palus esialgse eskiisi kallal edasi töötada arhitektuuribüroodel Schults ja Partnerid ning Urban Mark. Teostamiseks valiti Urban Marki töö. Hoovigalerii valmis 2004. a. 3 ill. konkursitöödest, 2 vaadet valminud galeriist
Paimets, Villy, 1972-
Tallinna linnavalitsus ostab toimetulekuraskustes linlastele üürieluasemete rajamiseks OÜ-lt Rustikal Tuulemaa 6 asuva ühiselamu. OÜ Rustikal omanikud on endised riigi kinnisvara haldajad Tiit Griffel ja Urmas Kivisalu. Vt. samas intervjuud OÜ Rustikal juhatuse liikme Tiit Griffeliga. Lisa: Endiste riigifirmajuhtidega seotud hulk firmasid
Hindamiskomisjon (osalejad loetletud) andis I preemia Tomomi Hayashi ja Hanno Grossschmidti (HG Arhitektuur) võistlustööle "Heinamaa", II - Andres Lemberi (Male Arhitektid) võistlustöö "Talgud", III - Liina Jaanuse võistlustöö "Pärand", ergutuspreemia - Indrek Järve (Schults ja Partnerid) võistlustöö "Part"
Mutso, Margit, 1966-
Läti Rahvusliku Kunstimuuseumi (saksa arhitekt Wilhelm Neumann) rekonstrueerimise ja laienduse rahvusvahelisest avalikust arhitektuurivõistlusest. 1. koha pälvinud Leedu arhitektuuribüroo Processoffice ja 2. koha saanud Eesti arhitektuuribüroo Salto lahendustest
Molecular networks act as the backbone of molecular activities within cells, offering a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanism of diseases. While network data usually constitute only static network maps, integrating them with time course gene expression information can provide clues to the dynamic features of these networks and unravel the mechanistic driver genes characterizing cellular responses. Time course gene expression data allow us to broadly "watch" the dynamics of the system. However, one challenge in the analysis of such data is to establish and characterize the interplay among genes that are altered at different time points in the context of a biological process or functional category. Integrative analysis of these data sources will lead us a more complete understanding of how biological entities (e.g., genes and proteins) coordinately perform their biological functions in biological systems. In this paper, we introduced a novel network-based approach to extract functional knowledge from time-dependent biological processes at a system level using time course mRNA sequencing data in zebrafish embryo development. The proposed method was applied to investigate 1α, 25(OH)2D3-altered mechanisms in zebrafish embryo development. We applied the proposed method to a public zebrafish time course mRNA-Seq dataset, containing two different treatments along four time points. We constructed networks between gene ontology biological process categories, which were enriched in differential expressed genes between consecutive time points and different conditions. The temporal propagation of 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-altered transcriptional changes started from a few genes that were altered initially at earlier stage, to large groups of biological coherent genes at later stages. The most notable biological processes included neuronal and retinal development and generalized stress response. In addition, we also investigated the relationship among
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids (GC represent the core treatment modality for many inflammatory diseases. Its mode of action is difficult to grasp, not least because it includes direct modulation of many components of the extracellular matrix as well as complex anti-inflammatory effects. Protein expression profile of skin proteins is being changed with topical application of GC, however, the knowledge about singular markers in this regard is only patchy and collaboration is ill defined. Material/Methods Scar formation was observed under different doses of GC, which were locally applied on the back skin of mice (1 to 3 weeks. After euthanasia we analyzed protein expression of collagen I and III (picrosirius in scar tissue together with 16 additional protein markers, which are involved in wound healing, with immunhistochemistry. For assessing GC's effect on co-expression we compared our results with a model of random figures to estimate how many significant correlations should be expected by chance. Results GC altered collagen and protein expression with distinct results in different areas of investigation. Most often we observed a reduced expression after application of low dose GC. In the scar infiltrate a multivariate analysis confirmed the significant impact of both GC concentrations. Calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficient similarly resulted in a significant impact of GC, and furthermore, offered the possibility to grasp the entire interactive profile in between all variables studied. The biological markers, which were connected by significant correlations could be arranged in a highly cross-linked network that involved most of the markers measured. A marker highly cross-linked with more than 3 significant correlations was indicated by a higher variation of all its correlations to the other variables, resulting in a standard deviation of > 0.2. Conclusion In addition to immunohistochemical analysis of single protein markers
Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.
Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...
Brendan P Kelaher
Full Text Available Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site. Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection.
The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…
Kuenneke, R.W.; Bouwmans, I.; Kling, W.L.; Slootweg, J.G.; Stout, H.D.; De Vries, L.J.; Van Poelje, H.; Wolters, M.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the development a view on the future of the energy infrastructure for the next 10-15 years, including the related regulation, focusing on the strategic options for development of networks. Attention is paid to (1) planning concepts (to what extent should existing planning concepts be revised as a result of liberalization and technical innovation); and (2) positioning of networks (what are the consequences of the separation of energy markets in commercial and regulated sectors for the development of the energy sector) [nl
Full Text Available Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ, it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs, 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive, and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA and investigated group differences in INs. We found that when compared to HCs, both CHR and ESZ groups showed significant differences, primarily in default mode, salience, auditory-related, visuospatial, sensory-motor, and parietal INs. Our findings suggest that widespread INs were diversely impacted. More than 25% of voxels in the identified significant discriminative regions (obtained using all 19 possible changing patterns excepting the no-difference pattern from six of the 15 interrogated INs exhibited monotonically decreasing Z-scores (in INs from the HC to CHR to ESZ, and the related regions included the left lingual gyrus of two vision-related networks, the right postcentral cortex of the visuospatial network, the left thalamus region of the salience network, the left calcarine region of the fronto-occipital network and fronto-parieto-occipital network. Compared to HCs and CHR individuals, ESZ patients showed both increasing and decreasing connectivity, mainly hypo-connectivity involving 15% of the altered voxels from four INs. The left supplementary motor area from the sensory-motor network and the right inferior occipital gyrus in the vision-related network showed a
Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning
The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....
Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...
Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.; Jacobs, Joshua S.; Pertuze, Julio A.; Newman, Dava J.; Roos, Daniel T.
Higher education systems around the globe are experimenting with different strategies to foster internationalization and networking, achieve critical research mass, and strengthen innovation and labour market integration. This paper discusses how Portugal, since 2006, has pursued a distinctive international collaborative strategy to induce…
Amidi, Ali; Hosseini, S. M.Hadi; Leemans, Alexander; Kesler, Shelli R.; Agerbæk, Mads; Wu, Lisa M.; Zachariae, Robert
Background: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy may have neurotoxic effects within the central nervous system. The aims of this study were 1) to longitudinally investigate the impact of cisplatin-based chemotherapy on whole-brain networks in testicular cancer patients undergoing treatment and 2) to explore
Penuel, William R.; Bell, Philip; Bevan, Bronwyn; Buffington, Pam; Falk, Joni
This paper explores practical ways to engage two areas of educational scholarship--research on science learning and research on social networks--to inform efforts to plan and support implementation of new standards. The standards, the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS; NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: For…
Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Ježek, Petr
Roč. 46, č. 6 (2015), s. 2409-2418 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dichloroacetate * mitochondria * mitophagy * neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells * mitochondrial network Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.018, year: 2015
Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju
Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…
The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies
Benito de Celis Alonso
Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort. Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the "hubs" in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD.
Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki
Yang, Z; Okayama, T; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)
In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.
Thomas, P; While, A
A number of primary care research networks were set up throughout England in 1998 in order to (1) improve the quality of primary care research (2) increase the research capacity of primary care, and (3) change the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice (NHSE, 2000b). It is not clear how best to operate a network to achieve these diverse aims. This paper describes the first 30 months of a network that adopted a whole system approach in the belief that this would offer the best chance of simultaneously achieving the three aims. A cycle of activity was designed to facilitate the formation of multidisciplinary coalitions of interest for research with complementary 'top down' and 'bottom up' programmes of work co-existing. At least 330 people participated in the generation of research questions of whom one third (33%) were general practitioners, 16% community nurses, 6% practice managers and other primary care practitioners. Over two fifths (43%) were 'key allies'--academics, health authority staff, community workers and project workers. One fifth (110) of all practices (500) in the WeLReN area have collaborated in at least one research project. The ratio of doctor:nurse participation in the 24 research project teams was markedly different in the supported coalitions (2:1) compared to projects devised and led by more experienced researchers (6:1). The evidence suggests that it is possible to operate a primary care research network in a way that develops coalitions of interest from different parts of the health care system as well as both 'top down' and 'bottom up' led projects. It is too early to tell if the approach will be able to achieve its aims in the long-term but the activity data are encouraging. There is a need for more research on the theoretical basis of network operation.
Full Text Available The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae. The cows received diets with forage:concentrate ratio either 35:65 (diet H or 65:35 (L, supplemented or not with sunflower oil (SO (0 or 50 g/kg diet dry matter, supplied in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four 35-day periods. Digesta samples were collected on days 22 and 24 and combined. QPCR provided a broad picture in which a large fall in the abundance of fungi was seen with SO in the H but not the L diet. Amplicon sequencing showed higher community diversity indices in L as compared to H diets and revealed diet specific taxa abundance changes, highlighting large differences in protozoal and fungal composition. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Mbb. gottschalkii dominated archaeal communities, and their abundance correlated negatively with each other. Co-occurrence network analysis provided evidence that no microbial domain played a more central role in network formation, that some minor-abundance taxa were at nodes of highest centrality, and that microbial interactions were diet specific. Networks added new dimensions to our understanding of the diet effect on rumen microbial community interactions.
Kent, G. M.; Smith, K. D.; Williams, M. C.; Slater, D. E.; Plank, G.; McCarthy, M.; Rojas-Gonzalez, R.; Vernon, F.; Driscoll, N. W.; Hidley, G.
The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at UNR has recently embarked on a bold technical initiative, installing a high-speed (up to 190 Mb/sec) mountaintop-based Internet Protocol (IP) microwave network, enabling a myriad of sensor systems for Multi-Hazard Early Warning detection and response. In the Tahoe Basin, this system is known as AlertTahoe; a similar network has been deployed in north-central Nevada as part of a 5-year-long grant with BLM. The UNR network mirrors the successful HPWREN multi-hazard network run through UCSD; the UNR "Alert" program (Access to Leverage Emergency information in Real Time) has expanded on the original concept by providing a framework for early fire detection and discovery. Both systems do not rely on open-access public Internet services such as those provided by cellular service providers. Instead, they utilize private wireless communication networks to collect data 24/7 in real-time from multiple sensors throughout the system. Utilizing this restricted-access private communication platform enhances system reliability, capability, capacity and versatility for staff and its community of certified users. Both UNR and UCSD fire camera systems are presently being confederated under a common framework to provide end users (e.g., BLM, USFS, CalFire) a unified interface. Earthquake response has been both organizations' primary mission for decades; high-speed IP microwave fundamentally changes the playing field allowing for rapid early detection of wildfires, earthquakes and other natural disasters, greatly improving local and regional disaster response/recovery. For example, networked cameras can be optimally placed for wildfire detection and are significantly less vulnerable due infrastructure hardening and the ability to avoid extreme demands by the public on cellular and other public networks during a crisis. These systems also provide a backup for emergency responders to use when public access communications become overwhelmed or
We have extended reactive flow simulation in pore-network models to include geometric changes in the medium from dissolution effects. These effects include changes in pore volume and reactive surface area, as well as topological changes that open new connections. The computed changes were based upon a mineral map from an X-ray computed tomography image of a sandstone core. We studied the effect of these changes on upscaled (pore-scale to core-scale) reaction rates and compared against the predictions of a continuum model. Specifically, we modeled anorthite and kaolinite reactions under acidic flow conditions during which the anorthite reactions remain far from equilibrium (dissolution only), while the kaolinite reactions can be near-equilibrium. Under dissolution changes, core-scale reaction rates continuously and nonlinearly evolved in time. At higher injection rates, agreement with predictions of the continuum model degraded significantly. For the far-from-equilibrium reaction, our results indicate that the ability to correctly capture the heterogeneity in dissolution changes in the reactive mineral surface area is critical to accurately predict upscaled reaction rates. For the near-equilibrium reaction, the ability to correctly capture the heterogeneity in the saturation state remains critical. Inclusion of a Nernst-Planck term to ensure neutral ionic currents under differential diffusion resulted in at most a 9% correction in upscaled rates.
Cirtwill, Alyssa R.; Roslin, Tomas; Rasmussen, Claus
Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects...... in species’ roles between networks. Variation in the roles of plants and pollinators tended to increase with the amount of community turnover, although a negative interaction between turnover in the plant and pollinator assemblages complicated this trend for the roles of pollinators. This suggests...... species’ roles – as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions – in a series of temporally replicated plant–pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and pollinator assemblages, combined with significant variation...
Mariana M. Vale
Full Text Available Background A key strategy in biodiversity conservation is the establishment of protected areas. In the future, however, the redistribution of species in response to ongoing climate change is likely to affect species’ representativeness in those areas. Here we quantify the effectiveness of planning protected areas network to represent 151 birds endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot, under current and future climate change conditions for 2050. Methods We combined environmental niche modeling and systematic conservation planning using both a county and a regional level planning strategy. We recognized the conflict between biodiversity conservation and economic development, including socio-economic targets (as opposed to biological only and using planning units that are meaningful for policy-makers. Results We estimated an average contraction of 29,500 km2 in environmentally suitable areas for birds, representing 52% of currently suitable areas. Still, the most cost-effective solution represented almost all target species, requiring only ca. 10% of the Atlantic Forest counties to achieve that representativeness, independent of strategy. More than 50% of these counties were selected both in the current and future planned networks, representing >83% of the species. Discussion Our results indicate that: (i planning protected areas network currently can be useful to represent species under climate change; (ii the overlapped planning units in the best solution for both current and future conditions can be considered as “no regret” areas; (iii priority counties are spread throughout the biome, providing specific guidance wherever the possibility of creating protected area arises; and (iv decisions can occur at different administrative spheres (Federal, State or County as we found quite similar numerical solutions using either county or regional level strategies.
Kelly A. Hopping
Full Text Available Changing climate, social institutions, and natural resource management policies are reshaping the dynamics of social-ecological systems globally, with subsistence-based communities likely to be among the most vulnerable to the impacts of global change. These communities' local ecological knowledge is increasingly recognized as a source of adaptive capacity for them as well as a crucial source of information to be incorporated into scientific understanding and policy making. We interviewed Tibetan pastoralists about their observations of environmental changes, their interpretations of the causes of these changes, and the ways in which they acquire and transmit this knowledge. We found that community members tended to agree that changing climate is driving undesirable trends in grassland and livestock health, and some also viewed changing management practices as compounding the impacts of climate change. However, those nominated by their peers as experts on traditional, pastoral knowledge observed fewer changes than did a more heterogeneous group of people who reported more ways in which the environment is changing. Herders mostly discussed these changes among themselves and particularly with village leaders, yet people who discussed environmental changes together did not necessarily hold the same knowledge of them. These results indicate that members of the community are transferring knowledge of environmental change primarily as a means for seeking adaptive solutions to it, rather than for learning from others, and that local leaders can serve as critical brokers of knowledge transfer within and beyond their communities. This highlights not only the interconnectedness of knowledge, practice, and power, but also points toward the important role that local governance can have in helping communities cope with the impacts of global change.
Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya; Anirban Chatterjee; Chaitanya Nischay Babu; Deepika Karunanithi
Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20?39 years); Group 2: (40?59 years); and Group 3: (60 years and above). PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i) fibrin...
Huchzermeyer, Christine; Albus, Klaus; Gabriel, Hans-Jürgen; Otáhal, Jakub; Taubenberger, Nando; Heinemann, Uwe; Kovács, Richard; Kann, Oliver
Gamma oscillations have been implicated in higher cognitive processes and might critically depend on proper mitochondrial function. Using electrophysiology, oxygen sensor microelectrode, and imaging techniques, we investigated the interactions of neuronal activity, interstitial pO2, and mitochondrial redox state [NAD(P)H and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) fluorescence] in the CA3 subfield of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. We find that gamma oscillations and spontaneous network activity decrease significantly at pO2 levels that do not affect neuronal population responses as elicited by moderate electrical stimuli. Moreover, pO2 and mitochondrial redox states are tightly coupled, and electrical stimuli reveal transient alterations of redox responses when pO2 decreases within the normoxic range. Finally, evoked redox responses are distinct in somatic and synaptic neuronal compartments and show different sensitivity to changes in pO2. We conclude that the threshold of interstitial pO2 for robust CA3 network activities and required mitochondrial function is clearly above the "critical" value, which causes spreading depression as a result of generalized energy failure. Our study highlights the importance of a functional understanding of mitochondria and their implications on activities of individual neurons and neuronal networks.
Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the site of the master circadian clock in mammals. The SCN neural network plays a critical role in expressing the tissue-level circadian rhythm. Previously, we demonstrated postnatal changes in the SCN network in mice, in which the clock gene products CRYPTOCHROMES (CRYs) are involved. Here, we show that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling is essential for the tissue-level circadian PER2::LUC rhythm in the neonatal SCN of CRY double-deficient mice (Cry1,2−/−). VIP and arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling showed redundancy in expressing the tissue-level circadian rhythm in the SCN. AVP synthesis was significantly attenuated in the Cry1,2−/− SCN, which contributes to aperiodicity in the adult mice together with an attenuation of VIP signaling as a natural process of ontogeny. The SCN network consists of multiple clusters of cellular circadian rhythms that are differentially integrated by AVP and VIP signaling, depending on the postnatal period. PMID:27626074
Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...
Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate School of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Jinsong, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Qu, Xiaogang [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)
Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications.
Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications
Hallam, Glyn P; Thompson, Hannah E; Hymers, Mark; Millman, Rebecca E; Rodd, Jennifer M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network. We examined neural activity while participants listened to spoken sentences that varied in their levels of lexical ambiguity and during rest. We found group differences in two regions thought to be good candidates for functional compensation: ventral anterior temporal lobe (vATL), which is strongly implicated in comprehension, and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which is hypothesized to work together with left inferior prefrontal cortex to support controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. The patients recruited both of these sites more than controls in response to meaningful sentences. Subsequent analysis identified that, in control participants, the recruitment of pMTG to ambiguous sentences was inversely related to functional coupling between pMTG and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) at rest, while the patients showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, stronger connectivity between pMTG and aSTG in patients was associated with better performance on a test of verbal semantic association, suggesting that this temporal lobe connection supports comprehension in the face of damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex. These results characterize network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits and converge with studies of healthy participants in providing evidence for a distributed system underpinning semantic control that
A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization." (summary in FRE, GER) excerpt
Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo
This paper considers stock prices in the Korean stock market during the 2008 global financial crisis by focusing on three time periods: before, during, and after the crisis. Complex networks are extracted from cross-correlation coefficients between the normalized logarithmic return of the stock price time series of firms. The minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and the hierarchical network (HN) are generated from cross-correlation coefficients. Before and after the crisis, securities firms are located at the center of the MST. During the crisis, however, the center of the MST changes to a firm in heavy industry and construction. During the crisis, the MST shrinks in comparison to that before and that after the crisis. This topological change in the MST during the crisis reflects a distinct effect of the global financial crisis. The cophenetic correlation coefficient increases during the crisis, indicating an increase in the hierarchical structure during in this period. When crisis hits the market, firms behave synchronously, and their correlations are higher than those during a normal period.
Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....
Maurer, Douglas K.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Watkins, Sharon A.
Domestic wells tapping shallow ground water are an important source of potable water for rural residents of Lahontan Valley. For this reason, the public has expressed concern over the acquisition of water rights directed by Public Law 101-618. The acquisition has resulted in removal of land from irrigation, which could cause shallow domestic wells to go dry and adversely affect shallow ground-water quality. Periodic water-level measurements and water-quality sampling at a monitoring-well network developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided data to evaluate the potential effects of changes in water use. The USGS, in cooperation with Churchill County, analyzed these data and the monitoring-well network to determine if the network provides an adequate means to measure the response of the shallow aquifer to changes in water use, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place. To evaluate the USGS monitoring-well network, wells were characterized by their distance from active canals or ditches, and from currently (2003) or formerly irrigated land. An analysis of historical data showed that about 9,800 acres of land have been removed from irrigation, generally from the late 1990's to 2003. Twenty-five wells in the network are within about 1 mile of fields removed from irrigation. Of the 25 wells, 13 are within 300 feet of canals or ditches where seepage maintains stable water levels. The 13 wells likely are not useful for detecting changes caused by reductions in irrigation. The remaining 12 wells range from about 400 to 3,800 feet from the nearest canal and are useful for detecting continued changes from current reductions in irrigation. The evaluation showed that of the 75 wells in the network, only 8 wells are likely to be useful for detecting the effects of future (after 2003) reductions in irrigation. Water levels at most of the monitoring wells near irrigated land have declined from 1998 to 2003 because of drought conditions and below normal
Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.
To date, multiple authors have examined media representations of and public attitudes towards climate change, as well as how these representations and attitudes differ from scientific knowledge on the issue of climate change. Content analysis of newspaper publications, TV news, and, recently, Internet blogs has allowed for identification of major discussion themes within the climate change domain (e.g., newspaper trends, comparison of climate change discourse in different countries, contrasting liberal vs. conservative press). The majority of these studies, however, have processed texts manually, limiting textual population size, restricting the analysis to a relatively small number of themes, and using time-expensive coding procedures. The use of computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) software is important because the difficulties with manual processing become more severe with an increased volume of data. We developed a CATA approach that allows a large body of text materials to be surveyed in a quantifiable, objective, transparent, and time-efficient manner. While staying within the quantitative tradition of content analysis, the approach allows for an interpretation of the public discourse closer to one of more qualitatively oriented methods. The methodology used in this study contains several steps: (1) sample selection; (2) data preparation for computer processing and obtaining a matrix of keyword frequencies; (3) identification of themes in the texts using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); (4) combining identified themes into higher order themes using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA); (5) interpretation of obtained public discourse themes using factor scores; and (6) tracking the development of the main themes of the climate change discourse through time. In the report, we concentrate on two examples of CATA applied to study public perception of climate change. First example is an analysis of temporal change in public discourse on climate change. Applying
Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Mehrotra, S.; Dhakal, S.; Bowman, T.; Ibrahim, S. Ali
ARC3.2 presents a broad synthesis of the latest scientific research on climate change and cities. Mitigation and adaptation climate actions of 100 cities are documented throughout the 16 chapters, as well as online through the ARC3.2 Case Study Docking Station. Pathways to Urban Transformation, Major Findings, and Key Messages are highlighted here in the ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders. These sections lay out what cities need to do achieve their potential as leaders of climate change solutions. UCCRN Regional Hubs in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Australia and Asia will share ARC3.2 findings with local city leaders and researchers. The ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders synthesizes Major Findings and Key Messages on urban climate science, disasters and risks, urban planning and design, mitigation and adaptation, equity and environmental justice, economics and finance, the private sector, urban ecosystems, urban coastal zones, public health, housing and informal settlements, energy, water, transportation, solid waste, and governance. These were based on climate trends and future projections for 100 cities around the world.
This paper discusses and proposes the architectural framework, which is for data center networks. The data center networks require new technical challenges, and it would be good opportunity to change the functions, which are not need in current and future networks. Based on the observation and consideration on data center networks, this paper proposes; (i) Broadcast-free layer 2 network (i.e., emulation of broadcast at the end-node), (ii) Full-mesh point-to-point pipes, and (iii) IRIDES (Invitation Routing aDvertisement for path Engineering System).
Full Text Available A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 2002 on running and standing waters in a high elevation cirque landscape (Macun in the Swiss National Park. The region comprises contrasting basins with different water sources, a glacier-fed basin and two precipitation-fed basins. Sampling of 26 permanent and temporary ponds (or small lakes and of interconnecting streams (10 sites was conducted from 2002 to 2010. Pond macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by chironomids with 42 taxa. The Orthocladiinae were the dominant subfamily in richness and abundance with 22 taxa. The greatest diversity was found in ponds located in the south and outlet basins. The inter-year variability for the same pond is high, but no clear temporal trend was noticed in ponds frequently monitored ponds. The Orthocladiinae subfamily was also the richest in the stream sites where 33 taxa were collected. The north and south basins were separated on the basis of chironomid assemblages. The chironomid assemblages in the stream network shows a temporal trend from 2002 but it cannot be linked to any clear change at the community structure level. The higher richness and abundance in stream sites and ponds of the south basin could be related to a greater heterogeneity in water physico-chemistry and substrata, and by the presence of Bryophyta. The understanding of the environmental factors that influence faunal assemblages is crucial for the protection of this sensitive alpine pond network where a relatively high overall regional diversity (49 taxa is detected. From the literature, temperature is recognized as the driving force on changes in chironomid assemblages in alpine systems. Our results support the use of chironomids as flagship indicators in the assessment of climatic change in alpine landscapes.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1361.Published online: 17 October 2012.
Jean Dedam; Rodney Zwick
Patterns of land ownership and economics are changing in the Northern Forest Region of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The percentage of people living in the region who work in the resource extraction industry has become much smaller. Tourism and outdoor recreation are promoted as economic substitutes that will provide an alternate use of the natural...
Willis, Stephen; Hole, Dave; Collingham, Yvonne
Global climate change, along with continued habitat loss and fragmentation, is now recognized as being a major threat to future biodiversity. There is a very real threat to species, arising from the need to shift their ranges in the future to track regions of suitable climate. The Important Bird ...
Booker, David; Clarke, Peter J.; Lavallée, David A.
The changing distribution of surface mass (oceans, atmospheric pressure, continental water storage, groundwater, lakes, snow and ice) causes detectable changes in the shape of the solid Earth, on time scales ranging from hours to millennia. Transient changes in the Earth's shape can, regardless of cause, be readily separated from steady secular variation in surface mass loading, but other secular changes due to plate tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) cannot. We estimate secular station velocities from almost 11 years of high quality combined GPS position solutions (GPS weeks 1,000-1,570) submitted as part of the first international global navigation satellite system service reprocessing campaign. Individual station velocities are estimated as a linear fit, paying careful attention to outliers and offsets. We remove a suite of a priori GIA models, each with an associated set of plate tectonic Euler vectors estimated by us; the latter are shown to be insensitive to the a priori GIA model. From the coordinate time series residuals after removing the GIA models and corresponding plate tectonic velocities, we use mass-conserving continental basis functions to estimate surface mass loading including the secular term. The different GIA models lead to significant differences in the estimates of loading in selected regions. Although our loading estimates are broadly comparable with independent estimates from other satellite missions, their range highlights the need for better, more robust GIA models that incorporate 3D Earth structure and accurately represent 3D surface displacements.
Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.
Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers
Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja
Using theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concept and experimental evidence on the brain default mode network (DMN) that constitutes the neural signature of self-referential processes, we hypothesized that the anterior and posterior subnets comprising the DMN should show differences in their integrity as a function of meditation training. Functional connectivity within DMN and its subnets (measured by operational synchrony) has been measured in ten novice meditators using an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a pre-/post-meditation intervention design. We have found that while the whole DMN was clearly suppressed, different subnets of DMN responded differently after 4 months of meditation training: The strength of EEG operational synchrony in the right and left posterior modules of the DMN decreased in resting post-meditation condition compared to a pre-meditation condition, whereas the frontal DMN module on the contrary exhibited an increase in the strength of EEG operational synchrony. These findings combined with published data on functional-anatomic heterogeneity within the DMN and on trait subjective experiences commonly found following meditation allow us to propose that the first-person perspective and the sense of agency (the witnessing observer) are presented by the frontal DMN module, while the posterior modules of the DMN are generally responsible for the experience of the continuity of 'I' as embodied and localized within bodily space. Significance of these findings is discussed.
Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s
Roberto F Galán
Full Text Available We have combined neurophysiologic recording, statistical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the dynamics of the respiratory network in the brainstem. Using a multielectrode array, we recorded ensembles of respiratory neurons in perfused in situ rat preparations that produce spontaneous breathing patterns, focusing on inspiratory pre-motor neurons. We compared firing rates and neuronal synchronization among these neurons before and after a brief hypoxic stimulus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of spikes after stimulation, in part due to a transient slowing of the respiratory pattern. However, the median interspike interval did not change, suggesting that the firing threshold of the neurons was not affected but rather the synaptic input was. A bootstrap analysis of synchrony between spike trains revealed that, both before and after brief hypoxia, up to 45 % (but typically less than 5 % of coincident spikes across neuronal pairs was not explained by chance. Most likely, this synchrony resulted from common synaptic input to the pre-motor population, an example of stochastic synchronization. After brief hypoxia most pairs were less synchronized, although some were more, suggesting that the respiratory network was “rewired” transiently after the stimulus. To investigate this hypothesis, we created a simple computational model with feed-forward divergent connections along the inspiratory pathway. Assuming that 1 the number of divergent projections was not the same for all presynaptic cells, but rather spanned a wide range and 2 that the stimulus increased inhibition at the top of the network; this model reproduced the reduction in firing rate and bootstrap-corrected synchrony subsequent to hypoxic stimulation observed in our experimental data.
Hori, Y.; Cheng, V. Y. S.; Gough, W. A.
A network of winter roads in northern Canada connects a number of remote First Nations communities to all-season roads and rails. The extent of the winter road networks depends on the geographic features, socio-economic activities, and the numbers of remote First Nations so that it differs among the provinces. The most extensive winter road networks below the 60th parallel south are located in Ontario and Manitoba, serving 32 and 18 communities respectively. In recent years, a warmer climate has resulted in a shorter winter road season and an increase in unreliable road conditions; thus, limiting access among remote communities. This study focused on examining the future freezing degree-days (FDDs) accumulations during the winter road season at selected locations throughout Ontario's Far North and northern Manitoba using recent climate model projections from the multi-model ensembles of General Circulation Models (GCMs) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. First, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall correlation test and the Theil-Sen method were used to identify any statistically significant trends between FDDs and time for the base period (1981-2010). Second, future climate scenarios are developed for the study areas using statistical downscaling methods. This study also examined the lowest threshold of FDDs during the winter road construction in a future period. Our previous study established the lowest threshold of 380 FDDs, which derived from the relationship between the FDDs and the opening dates of James Bay Winter Road near the Hudson-James Bay coast. Thus, this study applied the threshold measure as a conservative estimate of the minimum threshold of FDDs to examine the effects of climate change on the winter road construction period.
Boulanger, Jean-Philippe [LODYC, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Tour 45-55/Etage 4/Case 100, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, Fernando; Segura, Enrique C. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Evaluating the response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing is a major objective of the climate community, and the use of large ensemble of simulations is considered as a significant step toward that goal. The present paper thus discusses a new methodology based on neural network to mix ensemble of climate model simulations. Our analysis consists of one simulation of seven Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models, which participated in the IPCC Project and provided at least one simulation for the twentieth century (20c3m) and one simulation for each of three SRES scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. Our statistical method based on neural networks and Bayesian statistics computes a transfer function between models and observations. Such a transfer function was then used to project future conditions and to derive what we would call the optimal ensemble combination for twenty-first century climate change projections. Our approach is therefore based on one statement and one hypothesis. The statement is that an optimal ensemble projection should be built by giving larger weights to models, which have more skill in representing present climate conditions. The hypothesis is that our method based on neural network is actually weighting the models that way. While the statement is actually an open question, which answer may vary according to the region or climate signal under study, our results demonstrate that the neural network approach indeed allows to weighting models according to their skills. As such, our method is an improvement of existing Bayesian methods developed to mix ensembles of simulations. However, the general low skill of climate models in simulating precipitation mean climatology implies that the final projection maps (whatever the method used to compute them) may significantly change in the future as models improve. Therefore, the projection results for late twenty-first century conditions are presented as possible projections based on the &apos
Changes in biodiversity and trade-offs among ecosystem services, stakeholders, and components of well-being: the contribution of the International Long-Term Ecological Research network (ILTER to Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS
Full Text Available The International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER network comprises > 600 scientific groups conducting site-based research within 40 countries. Its mission includes improving the understanding of global ecosystems and informs solutions to current and future environmental problems at the global scales. The ILTER network covers a wide range of social-ecological conditions and is aligned with the Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS goals and approach. Our aim is to examine and develop the conceptual basis for proposed collaboration between ILTER and PECS. We describe how a coordinated effort of several contrasting LTER site-based research groups contributes to the understanding of how policies and technologies drive either toward or away from the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services. This effort is based on three tenets: transdisciplinary research; cross-scale interactions and subsequent dynamics; and an ecological stewardship orientation. The overarching goal is to design management practices taking into account trade-offs between using and conserving ecosystems toward more sustainable solutions. To that end, we propose a conceptual approach linking ecosystem integrity, ecosystem services, and stakeholder well-being, and as a way to analyze trade-offs among ecosystem services inherent in diverse management options. We also outline our methodological approach that includes: (i monitoring and synthesis activities following spatial and temporal trends and changes on each site and by documenting cross-scale interactions; (ii developing analytical tools for integration; (iii promoting trans-site comparison; and (iv developing conceptual tools to design adequate policies and management interventions to deal with trade-offs. Finally, we highlight the heterogeneity in the social-ecological setting encountered in a subset of 15 ILTER sites. These study cases are diverse enough to provide a broad cross-section of contrasting
Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana
Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05
Piemontese, Marilina; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Han, Li; Thostenson, Jeff D; Almeida, Maria; O'Brien, Charles A
Autophagy maintains cell function and homeostasis by recycling intracellular components. This process is also required for morphological changes associated with maturation of some cell types. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells some of which become embedded in bone and differentiate into osteocytes. This transformation includes development of long cellular projections and a reduction in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. We examined the role of autophagy in osteoblasts by deleting Atg7 using an Osterix1-Cre transgene, which causes recombination in osteoblast progenitors and their descendants. Mice lacking Atg7 in the entire osteoblast lineage had low bone mass and fractures associated with reduced numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Suppression of autophagy also reduced the amount of osteocyte cellular projections and led to retention of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that autophagy in osteoblasts contributes to skeletal homeostasis and to the morphological changes associated with osteocyte formation.
Stewart, Ian; Arendt, Dustin; Bell, Eric; Volkova, Svitlana
Language in social media is extremely dynamic: new words emerge, trend and disappear, while the meaning of existing words can fluctuate over time. Such dynamics are especially notable during a period of crisis. This work addresses several important tasks of measuring, visualizing and predicting short term text representation shift, i.e. the change in a word's contextual semantics, and contrasting such shift with surface level word dynamics, or concept drift, observed in social media streams. ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extrapolations from previous cross-sectional fMRI studies suggest cerebral functional changes with progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, but longitudinal studies are scarce. We assessed brain activation changes over time in MS patients using a cognitive fMRI paradigm and examined correlations with clinical and cognitive status and brain morphology. METHODS: 13 MS patients and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent MRI including fMRI (go/no-go task, neurological and neuropsychological exams at baseline (BL and follow-up (FU; minimum 12, median 20 months. We assessed estimates of and changes in fMRI activation, total brain and subcortical grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, and T2-lesion load. Bland-Altman (BA plots served to assess fMRI signal variability. RESULTS: Cognitive and disability levels remained largely stable in the patients. With the fMRI task, both at BL and FU, patients compared to HC showed increased activation in the insular cortex, precuneus, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, and occipital cortex. At BL, patients vs. HC also had lower caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen volumes. Over time, patients (but not HC demonstrated fMRI activity increments in the left inferior parietal lobule. These correlated with worse single-digit-modality test (SDMT performance. BA-plots attested to reproducibility of the fMRI task. In the patients, the right caudate nucleus decreased in volume which again correlated with worsening SDMT performance. CONCLUSIONS: Given preserved cognitive performance, the increased activation at BL in the patients may be viewed as largely adaptive. In contrast, the negative correlation with SDMT performance suggests increasing parietal activation over time to be maladaptive. Several areas with purported relevance for cognition showed decreased volumes at BL and right caudate nucleus volume decline correlated with decreasing SDMT performance. This highlights the dynamics of functional changes and
Loitfelder, Marisa; Fazekas, Franz; Koschutnig, Karl; Fuchs, Siegrid; Petrovic, Katja; Ropele, Stefan; Pichler, Alexander; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Neuper, Christa; Enzinger, Christian
Extrapolations from previous cross-sectional fMRI studies suggest cerebral functional changes with progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but longitudinal studies are scarce. We assessed brain activation changes over time in MS patients using a cognitive fMRI paradigm and examined correlations with clinical and cognitive status and brain morphology. 13 MS patients and 15 healthy controls (HC) underwent MRI including fMRI (go/no-go task), neurological and neuropsychological exams at baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU; minimum 12, median 20 months). We assessed estimates of and changes in fMRI activation, total brain and subcortical grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, and T2-lesion load. Bland-Altman (BA) plots served to assess fMRI signal variability. Cognitive and disability levels remained largely stable in the patients. With the fMRI task, both at BL and FU, patients compared to HC showed increased activation in the insular cortex, precuneus, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, and occipital cortex. At BL, patients vs. HC also had lower caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen volumes. Over time, patients (but not HC) demonstrated fMRI activity increments in the left inferior parietal lobule. These correlated with worse single-digit-modality test (SDMT) performance. BA-plots attested to reproducibility of the fMRI task. In the patients, the right caudate nucleus decreased in volume which again correlated with worsening SDMT performance. Given preserved cognitive performance, the increased activation at BL in the patients may be viewed as largely adaptive. In contrast, the negative correlation with SDMT performance suggests increasing parietal activation over time to be maladaptive. Several areas with purported relevance for cognition showed decreased volumes at BL and right caudate nucleus volume decline correlated with decreasing SDMT performance. This highlights the dynamics of functional changes and the strategic importance of specific brain areas for
Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek
B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.
Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid-base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chein, Jason M; Schneider, Walter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies were used to characterize cortical changes resulting from extensive practice and to evaluate a dual-processing account of the neural mechanisms underlying human learning. Three core predictions of the dual processing theory are evaluated: 1) that practice elicits generalized reductions in regional activity by reducing the load on the cognitive control mechanisms that scaffold early learning; 2) that these control mechanisms are domain-general; and 3) that no separate processing pathway emerges as skill develops. To evaluate these predictions, a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies and a within-subjects fMRI experiment contrasting unpracticed to practiced performance in a paired-associate task were conducted. The principal effect of practice was found to be a reduction in the extent and magnitude of activity in a cortical network spanning bilateral dorsal prefrontal, left ventral prefrontal, medial frontal (anterior cingulate), left insular, bilateral parietal, and occipito-temporal (fusiform) areas. These activity reductions are shown to occur in common regions across prior neuroimaging studies and for both verbal and nonverbal paired-associate learning in the present fMRI experiment. The implicated network of brain regions is interpreted as a domain-general system engaged specifically to support novice, but not practiced, performance.
Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M
Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.
Agha, Sohail; Gage, Anastasia; Balal, Asma
With declining levels of international donor funding for financing reproductive health programmes, developing country governments and international donors are looking towards private sector strategies to expand the supply of quality reproductive health services. One of the challenges of a health franchise is to improve the quality of services provided by independent private practitioners. Private providers are more likely to abide by the quality standards set by a franchiser if they see a financial benefit resulting from franchise participation. This study was conducted to measure whether (a) there were improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to health facilities once these facilities became part of a franchise and (b) improvements in perceived quality and perceived access were associated with increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Franchisees were given basic reproductive health training for seven days and services marketing training for two days. Exit interviews were conducted with male and female clients at health facilities. A pre-test measurement was taken in April 2001, prior to the start of project activities. A post-test measurement was taken in February/March 2002, about 9 months after the pre-test. Multilevel regression analysis, which takes the hierarchical structure of the data into account, was used for the analysis. After taking provider-level variation into account and controlling for client characteristics, the analyses showed significant improvements in perceived quality of care and perceived access to services. Private provider participation in a franchise network helps improve client perceptions of quality of, and access to, services. Improvements in client perceptions of quality and access contribute to increased client loyalty to franchised clinics. Once increased client loyalty translates into higher client volumes, providers are likely to see the benefits of franchise participation. In turn, this should lead to
Khan, Aftab A; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah M; Säilynoja, Eija; Vallittu, Pekka K
This laboratory study was aimed to characterize semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) prepregs that had been stored for up to two years before curing. Resin impregnated prepregs of everStick C&B (StickTech-GC, Turku, Finland) glass FRC were stored at 4°C for various lengths of time, i.e., two-weeks, 6-months and 2-years. Five samples from each time group were prepared with a light initiated free radical polymerization method, which were embedded to its long axis in self-curing acrylic. The nanoindentation readings on the top surface toward the core of the sample were made for five test groups, which were named as "stage 1-5". To evaluate the nanohardness and modulus of elasticity of the polymer matrix, a total of 4 slices (100µm each) were cut from stage 1 to stage 5. Differences in nanohardness values were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression model was used to develop contributing effect of the material's different stages to the total variability in the nanomechanical properties. Additional chemical and thermal characterization of the polymer matrix structure of FRC was carried out. It was hypothesized that time of storage may have an influence on the semi-IPN polymer structure of the cured FRC. The two-way ANOVA test revealed that the storage time had no significant effect on the nanohardness of FRC (p = 0.374). However, a highly significant difference in nanohardness values was observed between the different stages of FRC (Pprepregs might be due to phase-segregation of components of semi-IPN structure of FRC prepregs before their use. This may have an influence to the surface bonding properties of the cured FRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, M. Meghan
Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our
Stewart, Ian B.; Arendt, Dustin L.; Bell, Eric B.; Volkova, Svitlana
Language in social media is extremely dynamic: new words emerge, trend and disappear, while the meaning of existing words can fluctuate over time. This work addresses several important tasks of visualizing and predicting short term text representation shift, i.e. the change in a word’s contextual semantics. We study the relationship between short-term concept drift and representation shift on a large social media corpus – VKontakte collected during the Russia-Ukraine crisis in 2014 – 2015. We visualize short-term representation shift for example keywords and build predictive models to forecast short-term shifts in meaning from previous meaning as well as from concept drift. We show that short-term representation shift can be accurately predicted up to several weeks in advance and that visualization provides insight into meaning change. Our approach can be used to explore and characterize specific aspects of the streaming corpus during crisis events and potentially improve other downstream classification tasks including real-time event forecasting in social media.
Bouschet, Tristan; Martin, Stéphane; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Mundell, Stuart; Henley, Jeremy M
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the binding of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signalling cascades that can lead to morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR that promotes chemotaxis by detecting increases in extracellular calcium, triggers plasma membrane (PM) ruffling via a pathway that involves beta-arrestin 1, Arf nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO), ADP-ribosylating factor 6 (ARF6) and engulfment and cell motility protein (ELMO). Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin 1 or its knockdown with siRNA impaired the CaSR-induced PM ruffling response. Expression of a catalytically inactive ARNO also reduced CaSR-induced PM ruffling. Furthermore, beta-arrestin 1 co-immunoprecipitated with the CaSR and ARNO under resting conditions. Agonist treatment did not markedly alter beta-arrestin 1 binding to the CaSR or to ARNO but it did elicit the translocation and colocalisation of the CaSR, beta-arrestin 1 and ARNO to membrane protrusions. Furthermore, ARF6 and ELMO, two proteins known to couple ARNO to the cytoskeleton, were required for CaSR-dependent morphological changes and translocated to the PM ruffles. These data suggest that cells ruffle upon CaSR stimulation via a mechanism that involves translocation of beta-arrestin 1 pre-assembled with the CaSR or ARNO, and that ELMO plays an essential role in this CaSR-signalling-induced cytoskeletal reorganisation.
Full Text Available The Wieprz-Krzna Canal, built in 1961, is one of the longest in Poland (142 km. Although the drainage construction was intended to revitalize the region of wetlands and peat-bogs of the West Polesie, it caused large hydrological changes. Research on catchments of three natural lakes and three retention reservoirs involved cartographic analysis using photointerpretation, as well as the Braun-Blanquet method. In the studied area, between 1939 and 2016 the length of rivers and ditches increased more than three times. Macrophytes covered about 20-27% of the natural lakes water surface, whereas in retention reservoirs the coverage was 12-15.5%. Also a greater diversity of macrophytes occurred in natural lakes. In retention reservoirs it was restricted to only emerged macrophytes.
Marco A. Janssen
Full Text Available In Janssen et al. (2006, we presented a bibliometric analysis of the resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation knowledge domains within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We have updated the analysis because 2 years have gone by since the original analysis, and 1113 more publications can now be added to the database. We analyzed how the resulting 3399 publications between 1967 and 2007 are related in terms of co-authorship and citations. The rapid increase in the number of publications in the three knowledge domains continued over the last 2 years, and we still see an overlap between the knowledge domains. We were also able to identify the "hot" publications of the last 2 years.
Mohsen, Kalantar; Mehdi, Rashidi; Mehdi, Rashidi; Tabatabaei, Naser M.
Full text : The primary knowledge of human being from electrical energy was in the form of statistic electricity and the first transmission line was DC. But because of primary problems in transmitting electrical power in DC form with average and low voltage levels and because of the higher efficiency of AC machines in comparison with DC machines and presence of AC transistors in different capacitance, have caused the electrical power to be transmitted in AC form. But with the avancement of electrical engineering technology in the 20th century, the transition systems were used in HVDC form, and from that time the HDVC technology passed its improvement process so fast. In this paper in addition to discussing the advantage of HDVC systems and back to back instruction, the fault and change effect in a back to back system is discussed
Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A; Pakpahan, Ratna; Bradley, Catherine S; Goodman, Melody S; Andriole, Gerald L; Lai, H Henry
To provide the first description and quantification of symptom changes during interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom exacerbations ("flares"). Participants at one site of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the study of chronic Pelvic Pain Epidemiology and Phenotyping Study completed two 10-day diaries over the 1-year study follow-up period, one at baseline and one during their first flare (if not at baseline). On each day of the diary, participants reported whether they were currently experiencing a flare, defined as "symptoms that are much worse than usual" for at least 1 day, and their levels of urination-related pain, pelvic pain, urgency, and frequency on a scale of 0-10. Linear mixed models were used to calculate mean changes in symptoms between non-flare and flare days from the same participant. Eighteen of 27 women and 9 of 29 men reported at least one flare during follow-up, for a total of 281 non-flare and 210 flare days. Of these participants, 44.4% reported one flare, 29.6% reported two flares, and 25.9% reported ≥ 3 flares over the combined 20-day diary observation period, with reported flares ranging in duration from 1 day to >2 weeks. During these flares, each of the main symptoms worsened significantly by a mean of at least two points and total symptoms worsened by a mean of 11 points for both sexes (all P ≤ 0.01). Flares are common and correspond to a global worsening of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tremblay, Christopher W.
Network leadership is an emerging approach that can have an impact on change in education and in society. According to Merriam-Webster (2011), a network is "an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system." Intentional interconnectedness is what separates network leadership from other leadership theories. Network leadership has the…
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...
Bank, M. S.
The Minamata Convention on Mercury was recently ratified and will go into effect on August 16, 2017. As noted in the convention text, fish are an important source of nutrition to consumers worldwide and several marine and freshwater species represent important links in the global source-receptor dynamics of methylmercury. However, despite its importance, a coordinated global program for marine and freshwater fish species using accredited laboratories, reproducible data and reliable models is still lacking. In recent years fish mercury science has evolved significantly with its use of advanced technologies and computational models to address this complex and ubiquitous environmental and public health issue. These advances in the field have made it essential that transparency be enhanced to ensure that fish mercury studies used in support of the convention are truly reproducible and scientifically sound. One primary goal of this presentation is to evaluate fish bioinformatics and methods, results and inferential reproducibility as it relates to aggregated uncertainty in mercury fish research models, science, and biomonitoring. I use models, environmental intelligence networks and simulations of the effects of a changing climate on methylmercury in marine and freshwater fish to examine how climate change and the convention itself may create further uncertainties for policymakers to consider. Lastly, I will also present an environmental intelligence framework for fish mercury bioaccumulation models and biomonitoring in support of the evaluation of the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.
Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholamreza; Skåra, Torstein; Skipnes, Dagbjørn; Kiani, Hossein
Vacuum-packed broccoli stems and florets were subjected to heat treatment (60-99 °C) for various time intervals. The activity of peroxidase was measured after processing. Thermally processed samples were then stored at 4 °C for 35 days, and the color of the samples was measured every 7 days. Effects of parameters (heating temperature and duration, storage time) on the color of broccoli were modeled and simulated by an artificial neural network (ANN). Simulations confirmed that stems were predicted to be more prone to changes than florets. More color loss was observed with longer processing or storage combinations. The simulations also confirmed that higher temperatures during heat processing could retard color changes during storage. For stems treated at 80 °C for short durations, color loss was more predominant than both 65 and 99 °C, probably due to the incomplete inactivation of enzymes besides more tissue damage, with increased enzyme access to the substrate. The greenness of both stems and florets during storage can be better preserved at higher temperatures (99 °C) and short times. The simulation results revealed that the ANN method could be used as an effective tool for predicting and analyzing the color values of heat-treated broccoli. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong
To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23
This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.
... Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Morocco - have pulled together in loose networks for peer support. ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.
Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John
Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...
Full Text Available Age-related changes in autobiographical memory (AM recall are characterized by a decline in episodic details, while semantic aspects are spared. This deleterious effect is supposed to be mediated by an inefficient recruitment of executive processes during AM retrieval. To date, contrasting evidence has been reported on the neural underpinning of this decline, and none of the previous studies has directly compared the episodic and semantic aspects of AM in elderly. We asked 20 young and 17 older participants to recall specific and general autobiographical events (i.e., episodic and semantic AM elicited by personalized cues while recording their brain activity by means of fMRI. At the behavioral level, we confirmed that the richness of episodic AM retrieval is specifically impoverished in aging and that this decline is related to the reduction of executive functions. At the neural level, in both age groups, we showed the recruitment of a large network during episodic AM retrieval encompassing prefrontal, cortical midline and posterior regions, and medial temporal structures, including the hippocampus. This network was very similar, but less extended, during semantic AM retrieval. Nevertheless, a greater activity was evidenced in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC during episodic, compared to semantic AM retrieval in young participants, and a reversed pattern in the elderly. Moreover, activity in dACC during episodic AM retrieval was correlated with inhibition and richness of memories in both groups. Our findings shed light on the direct link between episodic AM retrieval, executive control, and their decline in aging, proposing a possible neuronal signature. They also suggest that increased activity in dACC during semantic AM retrieval in the elderly could be seen as a compensatory mechanism underpinning successful AM performance observed in aging. These results are discussed in the framework of recently proposed models of neural
Fu, Yan; Browne, John A.; Killick, Kate; Mulcahy, Grace
The Trematode Fasciola hepatica is an important cause of disease in livestock and in man. Modulation of immunity is a critical strategy used by this parasite to facilitate its long-term survival in the host. Understanding the underlying mechanisms at a system level is important for the development of novel control strategies, such as vaccination, as well as for increasing general understanding of helminth-mediated immunoregulation and its consequences. Our previous RNA sequencing work identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEG) from ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at acute and chronic stages of F. hepatica infection, and yielded important information on host–parasite interaction, with particular reference to the immune response. To extend our understanding of the immunoregulatory effects of this parasite, we employed InnateDB to further analyze the DEG dataset and identified 2,458 and 224 molecular interactions in the context of innate immunity from the acute and chronic stages of infection, respectively. Notably, 458 interactions at the acute stage of infection were manually curated from studies involving PBMC-related cell-types, which guaranteed confident hypothesis generation. NetworkAnalyst was subsequently used to construct and visualize molecular networks. Two complementary strategies (function-first and connection-first) were conducted to interpret the networks. The function-first approach highlighted subnetworks implicated in regulation of Toll-like receptor 3/4 signaling in both acute and chronic infections. The connection-first approach highlighted regulation of intrinsic apoptosis and B-cell receptor-signaling during acute and chronic infections, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first system level analysis of the regulation of host innate immunity during F. hepatica infection. It provides insights into the profound changes induced by F. hepatica infection that not only favors parasite
Wolff, Marcelo; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cortés, Claudia; Rebeiro, Peter; Cesar, Carina; Wagner Cardoso, Sandra; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Echevarria, Juan; McGowan, Catherine C
HIV-infected persons in resource-limited settings may experience high rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) change, particularly because of toxicity or other nonfailure reasons. Few reports address patient outcomes after these modifications. HIV-infected adults from the 7 Caribbean, Central and South America network clinical cohorts who modified >1 drug from the first ART regimen (ART-1) for any reason thereby starting a second regimen (ART-2) were included. We assessed cumulative incidence of, and factors associated with, death, virologic failure (VF), and regimen change after starting ART-2. Five thousand five hundred sixty-five ART-naive highly active ART initiators started ART-2 after a median of 9.8 months on ART-1; 39% changed to ART-2 because of toxicity and 11% because of failure. Median follow-up after starting ART-2 was 2.9 years; 45% subsequently modified ART-2. Cumulative incidences of death at 1, 3, and 5 years after starting ART-2 were 5.1%, 8.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, death was associated with older age, clinical AIDS, lower CD4 at ART-2 start, earlier calendar year, and starting ART-2 because of toxicity (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.5 vs. failure, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 2.1). Cumulative incidences of VF after 1, 3, and 5 years were 9%, 19%, and 25%. In adjusted analyses, VF was associated with younger age, earlier calendar year, lower CD4 at the start of ART-2, and starting ART-2 because of failure (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.1 vs. toxicity, 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8). Among patients modifying the first ART regimen, risks of subsequent modifications, mortality, and virologic failure were high. Access to improved antiretrovirals in the region is needed to improve initial treatment success.
Staffaroni, Adam M; Brown, Jesse A; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Elahi, Fanny M; Deng, Jersey; Neuhaus, John; Cobigo, Yann; Mumford, Paige S; Walters, Samantha; Saloner, Rowan; Karydas, Anna; Coppola, Giovanni; Rosen, Howie J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Kramer, Joel H
The default mode network (DMN) supports memory functioning and may be sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's pathology. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal trajectory of this network's intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). In this study, we evaluated longitudinal FC in 111 cognitively normal older human adults (ages 49-87, 46 women/65 men), 92 of whom had at least three task-free fMRI scans ( n = 353 total scans). Whole-brain FC and three DMN subnetworks were assessed: (1) within-DMN, (2) between anterior and posterior DMN, and (3) between medial temporal lobe network and posterior DMN. Linear mixed-effects models demonstrated significant baseline age × time interactions, indicating a nonlinear trajectory. There was a trend toward increasing FC between ages 50-66 and significantly accelerating declines after age 74. A similar interaction was observed for whole-brain FC. APOE status did not predict baseline connectivity or change in connectivity. After adjusting for network volume, changes in within-DMN connectivity were specifically associated with changes in episodic memory and processing speed but not working memory or executive functions. The relationship with processing speed was attenuated after covarying for white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and whole-brain FC, whereas within-DMN connectivity remained associated with memory above and beyond WMH and whole-brain FC. Whole-brain and DMN FC exhibit a nonlinear trajectory, with more rapid declines in older age and possibly increases in connectivity early in the aging process. Within-DMN connectivity is a marker of episodic memory performance even among cognitively healthy older adults. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Default mode network and whole-brain connectivity, measured using task-free fMRI, changed nonlinearly as a function of age, with some suggestion of early increases in connectivity. For the first time, longitudinal changes in DMN connectivity were shown to correlate with changes in episodic
Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide
Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.
Peng, Chi Han; Yang, Yong Liang; Bao, Fan; Fink, Daniel; Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.
of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications
Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang
The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.
Inaba, Nao; Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Uto, Yusuke; Sasaki, Muneteru; Sawase, Takashi
Osteocytes play important roles in controlling bone quality as well as preferential alignment of biological apatite c -axis/collagen fibers. However, the relationship between osteocytes and mechanical stress remains unclear due to the difficulty of three-dimensional (3D) culture of osteocytes in vitro . The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch on 3D-cultured osteocyte-like cells. Osteocyte-like cells were established using rat calvarial osteoblasts cultured in a 3D culture system. Cyclic mechanical stretch (8% amplitude at a rate of 2 cycles min -1 ) was applied for 24, 48 and 96 consecutive hours. Morphology, cell number and preferential cell alignment were evaluated. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related gene expression levels were measured using quantitative PCR. 3D-cultured osteoblasts became osteocyte-like cells that expressed osteocyte-specific genes such as Dmp1 , Cx43 , Sost , Fgf23 and RANKL , with morphological changes similar to osteocytes. Cell number was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner under non-loaded conditions, whereas cyclic mechanical stretch significantly prevented decreased cell numbers with increased expression o