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Sample records for networks gill waters

  1. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  2. Determination of zinc and lead in surrounding water and gills of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlighted the issue of heavy metal (ions) in 'Farfazai' pond in Kano city, Nigeria. Samples were collected on weekly basis from the study sites for nine (9) months (July 2015-March 2016). Laboratory analyses were carried out to determine the concentration of Zinc (Zn) and Lead (Pb) ions in pond water and gill ...

  3. Gill monogenean communities on three commercially important sparid fish in Omani waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans on the gills of three commercially important species of sparid caught in Omani coastal waters close to the city port of Muscat were determined and compared. Throughout May 2012 to April 2013, infections on bi-weekly samples of the soldier seabream, Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830, the king soldier seabream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, and, the silver seabream, Rhabdosargus sabra were evaluated. From a total of 200 specimens (standard length of 26–52 cm, caught by line angling or by traps, at least three species of gill monogenean, namely Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina, Heteromicrocotyla sp. and Microcotyle sp., were commonly encountered. Silver bream, which was infected by all three monogeneans, bore the highest infections (100% prevalence; mean intensity of 20.14 ± 0.92 parasites fish-1, whilst the soldier bream, which was infected only by O. heterospina had the lowest levels of infection (of the three sparids with 63.8% prevalence; mean intensity 5.8 ± 0.17 parasites fish-1. Comments on the distribution of monogeneans on each host are provided but to what extent this is influenced by water current speeds passing through the buccal and opercular cavities, gill morphology, parasite size, and / or the morphology and efficiency of the parasite’s attachment apparatus requires establishing and forms the basis of ongoing investigations.

  4. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  5. Expression and water calcium dependence of calcium transporter isoforms in zebrafish gill mitochondrion-rich cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shyh-Chi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater fish absorb Ca2+ predominantly from ambient water, and more than 97% of Ca2+ uptake is achieved by active transport through gill mitochondrion-rich (MR cells. In the current model for Ca2+ uptake in gill MR cells, Ca2+ passively enters the cytosol via the epithelium Ca2+ channel (ECaC, and then is extruded into the plasma through the basolateral Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA. However, no convincing molecular or cellular evidence has been available to support the role of specific PMCA and/or NCX isoforms in this model. Zebrafish (Danio rerio is a good model for analyzing isoforms of a gene because of the plentiful genomic databases and expression sequence tag (EST data. Results Using a strategy of BLAST from the zebrafish genome database (Sanger Institute, 6 isoforms of PMCAs (PMCA1a, PMCA1b, PMCA2, PMCA3a, PMCA3b, and PMCA4 and 7 isoforms of NCXs (NCX1a, NCX1b, NCX2a, NCX2b, NCX3, NCX4a, and NCX4b were identified. In the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis, 5 PMCAs and 2 NCXs were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues including gills. Triple fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed the colocalization of zecac, zpmca2, and zncx1b mRNAs in a portion of gill MR cells (using Na+-K+-ATPase as the marker, implying a subset of ionocytes specifically responsible for the transepithelial Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish gills. The gene expressions in gills of high- or low-Ca2+-acclimated zebrafish by quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that zecac was the only gene regulated in response to environmental Ca2+ levels, while zpmcas and zncxs remained steady. Conclusion The present study provides molecular evidence for the specific isoforms of Ca2+ transporters, zECaC, zPMCA2, and zNCX1b, supporting the current Ca2+ uptake model, in which ECaC may play a role as the major regulatory target for this mechanism during environmental challenge.

  6. Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Epinephelus spp. in Brazilian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C P; Buchmann, K; Gibson, D I

    2000-02-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus n. sp. from the gills of Epinephelus niveatus has a reniform proximal region of the cirrus-bulb which is divided in four chambers and contains a large, round reservoir of the male accessory glands, a partly sclerotised vagina which is enclosed in a muscular funnel cap and squamodiscs with 15-16 open concentric rows of elements. P. beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) is redescribed from E. marginatus with additional morphological data. These are the first reports of Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. in South American Atlantic waters, where the potentiality for the mariculture of Epinephelus spp. is currently being evaluated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hargisi (Oliver & Paperna, 1984) n. comb. is proposed for Diplectanum hargisi.

  7. Plutonium concentrations in waters from the southern Baltic Sea and their distribution in cod (Gadus morhua) skin and gills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska, Dagmara I.; Skwarzec, Bogdan E-mail: bosk@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu in water samples and suspended particulate fractions, as well as in colloidal fraction from the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The {sup 239+240}Pu concentration in surface seawater samples fall within range from 5.2 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -3} for Gdansk Bay to 150 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -3} for Pomeranian Bay, most of which (from 52 to 96%) constituted filterable forms ({<=}0.45 {mu}m). Also the distribution of plutonium in parts of cod gills and skin are presented and discussed. Over 60% of the plutonium in cod gills is accumulated in the gill arch, which suggests its metabolic origin. Most of plutonium associated with skin is in mucus, which suggests its adsorption from water.

  8. Artificial Gill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    u Artificial Gill EG I UJ_2 -va .z- t RE)_Cp.C~ c4aov d t Artificial Gill W. Happer I. Katz November 1986 JSR-86-104 DtwtrW.4lkAn t% ututdlt~d4, WpW...CATALOG NUMBER JSR-86-104 4. TITLE land Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ARTIFICIAL GILL Technical •[ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER JSR...it. 991Y WORDS ICafttMftw ".~ tevo.t Ift Vf *% we-tty " btoeb .wsfb.w Artificial gill, tlertrode surfaces, low pressure distillation and sparging. A

  9. Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Kroeger, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Brain imaging has shown altered corpus callosum (CC) morphology in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Yet it is unclear whether these morphological changes are associated with altered interhemispheric interactions. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with di...

  10. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

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    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h

  11. Effect of twine diameter on fishing power of experimental gill nets used in Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger

    1996-01-01

    The relative fishing powers of experimental gill nets were estimated for shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The results suggested that fishing power was negatively correlated to the ratio between twine diameter and mesh size...

  12. Reduced total hardness of fresh water enhances the efficacy of bathing as a treatment for amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S D; Powell, M D

    2003-10-01

    The current treatment for amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected Atlantic salmon involves bathing sea-caged fish in fresh water, often sourced from local dams, for 3-4 h. In both a small-scale laboratory and an on-farm field experiment, the effects of water hardness on the efficacy of freshwater bathing were assessed. Results showed that soft fresh water (19.3-37.4 mg L(-1) CaCO3), whether it be naturally soft city mains water or artificially softened dam water, was more efficacious at alleviating AGD in affected fish than hard fresh water (173-236.3 mg L(-1) CaCO3). Soft freshwater bathing significantly reduced viable gill amoebae numbers (from 73.9 to 40.9% of total count) and significantly alleviated gill pathology, both gross and histological. Following bathing, gross gill pathological scores of soft freshwater bathed fish lagged 2 weeks behind hard freshwater bathed fish. Significant gill lesion fragmentation, and shedding of lesion-associated hyperplastic tissue, was accompanied by a significant reduction in AGD-affected gill filaments in soft freshwater bathed fish. Furthermore, soft freshwater bathing alleviated the blood plasma electrolyte imbalance seen in control (sea water) and hard freshwater bathed fish. This study showed that the use of soft fresh water for bathing AGD-affected Atlantic salmon could be an improvement to the current method of treatment. Not only does it reduce gill amoeba numbers, but also, it is of a therapeutic advantage with the potential to reduce bathing frequency.

  13. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals.

  14. Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Kroeger, Johan; Jonas, Melanie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm Christoph; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten; Schnitzler, Alfons; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Orth, Michael; Münchau, Alexander

    2010-12-15

    Brain imaging has shown altered corpus callosum (CC) morphology in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Yet it is unclear whether these morphological changes are associated with altered interhemispheric interactions. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to explore functional and structural interhemispheric connections between the left and right motor hand areas. We studied 14 unmedicated GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidity (2 women, mean age 35.5 years) and 15 healthy volunteers (3 women, mean age 35 years). Left-to-right and right-to-left interhemispheric inhibitions (IHIs) were measured in hand muscles with TMS. In 13 GTS patients and all healthy controls, we measured fractional anisotropy (FA) with DTI to examine the relation between functional measures of interhemispheric connectivity as derived by TMS and structural properties of the CC region that carries fibers interconnecting both motor cortices. In GTS patients, left-to-right IHI was weaker than right-to-left IHI. Left-to-right IHI in GTS patients was also reduced compared with healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometric analysis revealed that FA in the motor region of the CC did not differ between groups. However, there was a significant interaction between groups and the relation between regional FA and left-to-right IHI in the motor region of the CC. A negative linear relation between FA and left-to-right IHI was present in control subjects but not in patients. Our combined TMS-DTI approach demonstrates abnormal functional interhemispheric connectivity in GTS accompanied by an altered structure-function relationship in the motor CC. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Changes in the Lipid Fraction of Eel Gills after Ionizing Irradiation in Vivo and a Shift from Fresh to Sea Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

    1975-01-01

    -labeled acetate and 32 P-labeled phosphate added to the water in the aquariums. Lipids from the gills were separated by tlc and the individual fatty acids were assayed by paper chromatography. Results showed an enhanced incorporation of 14 C activity into sterol esters in sea water. This was further intensified...

  16. Transcriptomic response to water accommodated fraction of crude oil exposure in the gill of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Qu, Keming; Xia, Bin; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Bijuan

    2016-05-15

    Illumina-based RNA-seq was used to determine the short-term transcriptomic responses of Paralichthys olivaceus gill to an environmentally relevant level of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil. 213,979 transcripts and 128,482 unigenes were obtained. Differential expression analysis revealed that 1641 and 2142 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated. Enrichment analysis identified a set of GO terms and putative pathways involved in the response of P. olivaceus to WAF exposure. Analysis of the transcripts revealed the effective protective mechanisms of P. olivaceus to reduce the toxic effects of WAF. Moreover, WAF exposure induced the metabolism of energy substrates, and downstream pathway genes were modified to provide protection against toxic damage. Transcripts analysis demonstrated that the genes involved in circadian rhythm signaling were regulated in gills of P. olivaceus exposed to WAF. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of WAF-induced toxicity in fishes and into the WAF-sensitive biomarkers in P. olivaceus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Kinematic and Thermodynamic Study of a Shallow Hailstorm Sampled by the McGill Bistatic Multiple-Doppler Radar Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protat, Alain; Zawadzki, Isztar; Caya, Alain

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of a shallow hailstorm sampled by the McGill bistatic multiple-Doppler radar network on 26 May 1997. This storm consists of two main shallow convective cells (depth less than 5 km) aligned along a SW-NE convective line propagating to the southeast. The authors also analyze the interactions between the two cells during the life cycle of the convective line. In particular it is shown that dynamic interactions play a major role in the intensification of the second cell. This storm is found to evolve in a manner that shares some characteristics with both multicell and supercell storms. A rotating updraft associated with a mesocyclone develops in the mature stage of the storm, which is characteristic of a supercell. However, the lack of a `vault' structure on the precipitation field, the relatively fast evolution of the cells, and other characteristics detailed henceforth seem to indicate that this storm only shares a few of the typical characteristics of supercells. Some morphological and thermodynamic similarities are found between this storm and recent numerical simulations of shallow supercell storms. While the first cell starts dissipating, a cold downward rear inflow is developing, which resembles the `rear-flank' downdraft documented in several numerical and observational studies of tornadic storms. This downdraft acts to intensify the updraft associated with the second cell and produces a precipitation overhang within which hail eventually forms. When this pocket of hail falls to the ground a bit later, it accelerates the low-level rear inflow that progressively cuts off the inflow ahead of the storm, leading to the progressive dissipation of the second cell.The physical processes involved in the evolution of rotation at low levels to midlevels within this storm are evaluated using the vorticity equation. It is shown that the time tendency of the positive and negative vertical

  19. Lead concentration increase in the hepatic and gill soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus)-an indicator of increased Pb exposure from the river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strižak, Zeljka; Raspor, Biserka

    2012-07-01

    To examine if chronic exposure of feral fish to elevated Pb concentrations in the river water (up to 1 μg L(-1)), which are still lower than European recommendations for dissolved Pb in surface waters (7.2 μg L(-1); EPCEU (Official J L 348:84, 2008)), would result in Pb accumulation in selected fish tissues. Lead concentrations were determined by use of HR ICP-MS in the gill and hepatic soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus) caught in the Sutla River (Croatia-Slovenia). At the site with increased dissolved Pb in the river water, soluble gill Pb levels (17.3 μg L(-1)) were approximately 20 times higher compared to uncontaminated sites (0.85 μg L(-1)), whereas the ratio between contaminated (18.1 μg L(-1)) and uncontaminated sites (1.17 μg L(-1)) was lower for liver (15.5). Physiological variability of basal Pb concentrations in soluble gill and hepatic fractions associated to fish size, condition, sex, or age was not observed, excluding the possibility that Pb increase in chub tissues at contaminated site could be the consequence of studied biotic parameters. However, in both tissues of Pb-exposed specimens, females accumulated somewhat more Pb than males, making female chubs potentially more susceptible to possible toxic effects. The fact that Pb increase in gill and hepatic soluble fractions of the European chub was not caused by biotic factors and was spatially restricted to one site with increased dissolved Pb concentration in the river water points to the applicability of this parameter as early indicator of Pb exposure in monitoring of natural waters.

  20. Quantifying structural modifications of gills of two fish species Astyanax altiparanae (Lambari) and Prochilodus lineatus (Curimbatá) after exposure to biodegradable detergents in urban lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelini Pereira, Bruno; Alves, Anderson Luis; Senhorini, José Augusto; Hakime Scalize, Priscilla; Tocchini De Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto; Pitol, Dimítrius Leonardo; Caetano, Flávio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Anthropic actions in rivers and urban lakes are a cause for concern to our ecosystem. The effects on fauna and flora of substances discharged into waterways have become a focus for investigations globally. Biodegradable detergents are widely used in residences and small industries, but little is known regarding the consequences on fish fauna. The objective of the present study was to identify modifications in gill structure in two fish species, Astyanax altiparanae and Prochilodus lineatus, after treatment with water obtained from an urban lake and an exposure to 1 ppm diluted biodegradable detergents (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Data demonstrated exposure to urban lake produced various alterations in gill functions such as lamellar fusions, aneurysms, mucous, and chlorine cell proliferation, which may be attributed to the presence of detergents in the water but may also be a consequence of synergetic actions of detergents with other pollutants. Results showed that the levels of NO(-)2, Na, F(-), Cl(-), and Fe were significantly higher in urban lake water but in the presence of detergents Ni was also detected. Evidence indicates that biodegradable detergents produce damage to gill functions, which subsequently alters the fish physiology and reduces the ability to cope with stress and survival.

  1. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reaction...... μm). In zebrafish gills down-regulation was found for the il8gene (0.2 and 20 μm). The effect of particle exposure is discussed with regard to shape and chemical/biological composition of particles in water and to abiotic parameters including temperature.......Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...

  2. A two-step approach to estimating selectivity and fishing power of research gill nets used in Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger

    1996-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Greenland gill-net surveys were analyzed by a two-step approach. In the initial step the form of the selection curve was identified as binormal, which was caused by fish being gilled or caught by the maxillae. Both capture processes could be described...... by normal distributions and could be related to mesh size in accordance with the principle of geometrical similarity. In the second step the selection parameters were estimated by a nonlinear least squares fit. The model also estimated the relative efficiency of the two capture processes and the fishing...

  3. Adaptive alterations on gill Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity and mitochondrion-rich cells of juvenile Acipenser sinensis acclimated to brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Wu, Beibei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the physiological changes and osmoregulatory strategy is critical for anadromous species to adapt to large changes between freshwater and marine environments. In this study, juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) were acclimated for 2 months to freshwater (FW, c. 0‰) and brackish water (BW, 15‰). Blood was assessed for changes in osmolality and ions. Gill tissue was assayed for Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and immunohistochemical analysis on mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). Serum osmolality and ions concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) examined, except K(+), increased significantly in those specimens adapted to BW. However, the variations were within the range of effective hyperosmotic adaptation. The specific activity of gill NKA of juveniles adapted to BW was significantly higher (c. 1.6 times) than that of fish adapted to FW. MRCs were mainly presented in the interlamellar region of the filament and at the base of the lamella in either FW- or BW-acclimated individuals. In BW, the number and size of MRCs on filaments greatly increased. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of the MRCs at the lamella region. Results show that juvenile Chinese sturgeon keep osmotic homeostasis in hyperosmotic environments by increasing gill NKA activity and MRCs' size and number, which is similar to other sturgeons and euryhaline teleosts.

  4. Synthesis of Industrial Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennati, A.; Quaglia, Alberto; Gani, Rafiqul

    as a MINLP optimization problem, which is solved in GAMS. In order to demonstrate and highlight the features of the tool, a case study dealing with refinery wastewater purification is presented. A superstructure containing technological alternatives for water purification is built, and the optimization......Water is a valuable resource of great relevance for industrial activities. As water will become scarcer, optimization of its use is of key importance. The issue of water allocation and reuse through mathematical optimization has been addressed in various literature works [1, 2]. However most...... of the water networks proposed comprise few contaminants and do not consider critical parameters for wastewater treatment equipment, such as limiting inlet concentrations, flow rates, and other specific design constraints. Thus, these networks are arguably not fit to manage the complexity of a real industrial...

  5. Effects of two water disinfectants (chloramine T and peracetic acid) on the epidermis and gills of Garra rufa used in human ichthyotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, R; Zaccaroni, A; Di Biase, A; Mordenti, O; Stancampiano, L; Sarli, G; Mandrioli, L

    2013-01-01

    Doctor fish (Garra rufa) have recently been used for aesthetic purposes and as a medical treatment in patients with psoriasis (ichthyotherapy). For this particular kind of human therapy it is essential to guarantee adequate hygienic conditions for both people and fish. The aim of this study was to test two concentrations of water disinfectants, chloramine T and peracetic acid, on Garra rufa to ascertain possible exposure damage to the epidermis and gills. Fish were exposed to 2 mg/l and 10 mg/l of chloramine T and to 15 microl/l and 45 microl/l of peracetic acid in a 40-minute static bath up to six times a day for one week. The epidermis and gills were checked for histological changes and the number of epidermal mucous cells, club cells and taste buds were quantified; mucous cells were also characterized histochemically to detect alterations in mucin production. No mortality or severe histological changes were found in treated or control fish. Cell count showed a significant increase (p chloramine T (mean 74.3 +/- 15.6) and with 45 microl/1 of peracetic acid (mean 78.17 +/- 10.5) compared to controls (mean 107.0 +/- 19.2). Histochemical evaluation of mucous cells did not reveal changes in mucin type in fish exposed to the two disinfectants. The results suggest a good tolerability of Garra rufa to the two disinfectants at the concentrations tested.

  6. Effects of copper and cadmium on ion transport and gill metal binding in the Amazonian teleost tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Aline Y.O. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), Av. Andre Araujo, 2936 Aleixo, Manaus, Amazonas 69083-000 (Brazil)]. E-mail: matsuoaline@aol.com; Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada); Val, Adalberto L. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), Av. Andre Araujo, 2936 Aleixo, Manaus, Amazonas 69083-000 (Brazil)

    2005-09-30

    Metal toxicity in fish is expected to be most severe in soft waters because of the low availability of cations (particularly Ca{sup 2+}) to out-compete the metal forms for binding sites on the gills. Natural waters in the Amazon basin are typically soft due to regional geochemistry, but few studies have focused on metal toxicity in fish native to the basin. We assessed the ionoregulatory effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water (10 {mu}mol l{sup -1} Ca{sup 2+}). Tambaqui had a very high tolerance to Cu (50-400 {mu}g l{sup -1}), as indicated by a complete lack of inhibition of Na{sup +} uptake and an ability to gradually recover over 6 h from elevated diffusive Na{sup +} losses caused by Cu. The insensitivity of active Na{sup +} influx to Cu further supports the notion that Amazonian fish may have a unique Na{sup +} transport system. Addition of 5-10 mg C l{sup -1} of dissolved organic matter (DOM) did not prevent initial (0-3 h) negative Na{sup +} balance in tambaqui exposed to Cu. Exposure to 40 mg C l{sup -1} DOM prevented Na{sup +} losses in tambaqui even at 400 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cu, probably because most Cu was complexed to DOM. Tambaqui exposed to waterborne Cd (10-80 {mu}g l{sup -1}) experienced an average of 42% inhibition in whole body Ca{sup 2+} uptake relative to controls within 3 h of exposure to the metal. Inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} uptake increased over time and, at 24 h, Ca{sup 2+} uptake was suppressed by 51% and 91% in fish exposed to 10 and 80 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd, respectively. Previous acclimation of fish to either elevated [Ca{sup 2+}] or elevated [DOM] proved to be very effective in protecting against acute short-term metal accumulation at the gills of tambaqui in soft water (in the absence of the protective agent during metal exposure), suggesting a conditioning effect on gill metal binding physiology.

  7. Drinking Water and Wastewater Laboratory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides the drinking water sector with an integrated nationwide network of laboratories with the analytical capability to respond to intentional and unintentional drinking water incidents.

  8. Differential Regulation of FXYD5, FXYD9 and FXYD11 Expression in Atlantic Salmon Gill During Parr-Smolt Transformation and Sea Water Acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    in the gill of the 3 isoforms was investigated during PST and acclimation of freshwater (FW) salmon to sea water (SW). During the PST, FXYD5 mRNA levels were unaltered, whereas the expression of FXYD9 and FXYD11 peaked in May, coinciding with optimal SW-tolerance and peak levels of Na,K-ATPase of the FW...... dwelling salmon. Abrupt SW-transfer induced an increase in Na,K-ATPase abundance and FXYD5 expression but no overall changes in FXYD9 and FXYD11. The parallel increase in FXYD9 and FXYD11 levels with Na,K-ATPase abundance during PST but not during SW-acclimation suggests that these auxillary proteins play...

  9. Histopathological evaluation of Oreochromis mossambicus gills and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oreochromis mossambicus were sampled from a semi-intensively managed polyculture earthen pond in Bagauda, Nigeria for histopathological changes in the gills and liver as early warning signs of pond water pollution. Pond water was sourced from nearby Bagauda dam through a single 28 inches water pipe.

  10. Histological Structure of Gills of Giant Mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri)

    OpenAIRE

    Yudistira, Danang Bagus; Nurliani, Anni; Santoso, Heri Budi

    2012-01-01

    Giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri) is one of gobiidae members that does air-breathing and lives on intertidal zone with mangrove habitat. The ability of giant mudskipper to adapt with water to land environment is due to its gill histological structure. The objective of the present study was to observe the structure of giant mudskipper’s gill and to identify sort of cells and its distributions descriptively. The gills of three adult giant mudskippers were taken and processed to his...

  11. TS-EUROTRAIN: A European-wide investigation and training network on the aetiology and pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Forde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is characterised by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared aetiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No.316978 is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain.eu that aims to elucidate the complex aetiology of the onset and clinical course of GTS, investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of GTS and related disorders, translate research findings into clinical applications and establish a pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS. This includes the challenges of (i assembling a large genetic database for the evaluation of the genetic architecture with high statistical power; (ii exploring the role of gene-environment interactions including the effects of epigenetic phenomena; (iii employing endophenotype-based approaches to understand the shared aetiology between GTS, OCD and ADHD; (iv establishing a developmental animal model for GTS; (v gaining new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of GTS via cross-sectional and longitudinal neuroimaging studies; and (vi partaking in outreach activities including the dissemination of scientific knowledge about GTS to the public. Fifteen partners from academia and industry and twelve PhD candidates pursue the project. Our ultimate aims are to elucidate the complex aetiology and neurobiological underpinnings of GTS, translate research findings into clinical applications and establish Pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS and associated disorders.

  12. TS-EUROTRAIN: A European-Wide Investigation and Training Network on the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Natalie J.; Kanaan, Ahmad S.; Widomska, Joanna; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S.; Nespoli, Ester; Alexander, John; Rodriguez Arranz, Juan I.; Fan, Siyan; Houssari, Rayan; Nawaz, Muhammad S.; Rizzo, Francesca; Pagliaroli, Luca; Zilhäo, Nuno R.; Aranyi, Tamas; Barta, Csaba; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buisman, Wim R.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cath, Danielle; Dietrich, Andrea; Driessen, Nicole; Drineas, Petros; Dunlap, Michelle; Gerasch, Sarah; Glennon, Jeffrey; Hengerer, Bastian; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Möller, Harald E.; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.; Openneer, Thaïra J. C.; Poelmans, Geert; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tümer, Zeynep; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ludolph, Andrea; Paschou, Peristera

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared etiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No. 316978) is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain.eu) that aims to elucidate the complex etiology of the onset and clinical course of GTS, investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of GTS and related disorders, translate research findings into clinical applications, and establish a pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS. This includes the challenges of (i) assembling a large genetic database for the evaluation of the genetic architecture with high statistical power; (ii) exploring the role of gene-environment interactions including the effects of epigenetic phenomena; (iii) employing endophenotype-based approaches to understand the shared etiology between GTS, OCD, and ADHD; (iv) establishing a developmental animal model for GTS; (v) gaining new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of GTS via cross-sectional and longitudinal neuroimaging studies; and (vi) partaking in outreach activities including the dissemination of scientific knowledge about GTS to the public. Fifteen partners from academia and industry and 12 PhD candidates pursue the project. Here, we aim to share the design of an interdisciplinary project, showcasing the potential of large-scale collaborative efforts in the field of GTS. Our ultimate aims are to elucidate the complex etiology and neurobiological underpinnings of GTS, translate research findings into clinical applications, and establish Pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS and associated disorders. PMID:27601976

  13. Expression of key ion transporters in the gill and esophageal-gastrointestinal tract of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to fresh water, seawater and hypersaline water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Li

    Full Text Available The ability of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia to tolerate extreme environmental salinities makes it an excellent model for investigating iono-regulation. This study aimed to characterize and fill important information gap of the expression levels of key ion transporters for Na(+ and Cl(- in the gill and esophageal-gastrointestinal tract of Mozambique tilapia acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt, seawater (30 ppt and hypersaline (70 ppt environments. Among the seven genes studied, it was found that nkcc2, nkcc1a, cftr, nka-α1 and nka-α3, were more responsive to salinity challenge than nkcc1b and ncc within the investigated tissues. The ncc expression was restricted to gills of freshwater-acclimated fish while nkcc2 expression was restricted to intestinal segments irrespective of salinity challenge. Among the tissues investigated, gill and posterior intestine were found to be highly responsive to salinity changes, followed by anterior and middle intestine. Both esophagus and stomach displayed significant up-regulation of nka-α1 and nka-α3, but not nkcc isoforms and cftr, in hypersaline-acclimated fish suggesting a response to hypersalinity challenge and involvement of other forms of transporters in iono-regulation. Changes in gene expression levels were partly corroborated by immunohistochemical localization of transport proteins. Apical expression of Ncc was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells in freshwater-acclimated gills while Nkcc co-localized with Nka-immunoreactive cells expressing Cftr apically in seawater- and hypersaline-acclimated gills. In the intestine, Nkcc-stained apical brush border was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells at greater levels under hypersaline conditions. These findings provided new insights into the responsiveness of these genes and tissues under hypersalinity challenge, specifically the posterior intestine being vital for salt absorption and iono-osmoregulation in the Mozambique tilapia; its ability to survive in

  14. Histopathology of fish. V. Gill disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    Possibly no single disease accounts for greater annual mortality than gill disease. Apparently endemic in many hatcheries, the disease is characterized by periodic sharp upsurges which are sometimes correlated with rising water temperatures, excessive foreign matter in the water (Wales and Evins 1937), or borderline nutritional conditions.

  15. TS-EUROTRAIN: A European-Wide Investigation and Training Network on the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, N.; Kanaan, A.S.; Widomska, J.; Padmanabhuni, S.S.; Nespoli, E.; Alexander, J.; Rodriguez Arranz, J.J.; Fan, S.; Houssari, R.; Nawaz, M.S.; Rizzo, F.; Pagliaroli, L.; Rodrigues Zilhao Nogueira, N.; Aranyi, T.; Barta, C.; Boeckers, T.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Buisman, W.R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cath, D.C.; Dietrich, A.; Driessen, N.; Drineas, P.; Dunlap, M.; Gerasch, S.; Glennon, J.; Hengerer, B.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Jespersgaard, C.; Möller, H.E.; Müller-Vahl, K.R.; Openneer, T.J.C.; Poelmans, G.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Scharf, J.M.; Stefansson, H.; Tümer, Z.; Veltman, D.J.; van der Werf, Y.D.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Ludolph, A.; Paschou, P.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and

  16. TS-EUROTRAIN : A European-Wide Investigation and Training Network on the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J; Kanaan, Ahmad S; Widomska, Joanna; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S; Nespoli, Ester; Alexander, John; Rodriguez Arranz, Juan I; Fan, Siyan; Houssari, Rayan; Nawaz, Muhammad S; Rizzo, Francesca; Pagliaroli, Luca; Zilhäo, Nuno R; Aranyi, Tamas; Barta, Csaba; Boeckers, Tobias M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buisman, Wim R; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cath, Danielle; Dietrich, Andrea; Driessen, Nicole; Drineas, Petros; Dunlap, Michelle; Gerasch, Sarah; Glennon, Jeffrey; Hengerer, Bastian; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Openneer, Thaïra J C; Poelmans, Geert; Pouwels, Petra J W; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tümer, Zeynep; Veltman, Dick J; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ludolph, Andrea; Paschou, Peristera

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and

  17. A new pathogen, Myxobolus holzerae (Myxosporea: Myxozoa) causing severe gill disease in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita in a cold water wetland, Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-10-01

    The Indian major carp, Labeo rohita Hamilton, 1822 is a tropical freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland waters in Asia. Herein, we describe a novel myxozoan forming plasmodia in the gill lamellae of L. rohita from Ranjit Sagar Wetland in Punjab, India. Myxospores were consistent with the genus Myxobolus, round to elliptical in valvular view, lemon shaped in side view with a characteristic protrusion at the anterior end and a round posterior end; length 7.65 ± 0.07 μm, width 4.62 ± 0.09 μm. There were two polar capsules of equal length, pear shaped, length of polar capsule 2.54 ± 0.05 μm, width 1.60 ± 0.02 μm, with 5-6 turns of the polar filament. The 890 bp 18S rDNA sequence was up to 97% similar to M. catlae from other cyprinid fishes in India. In having, unique myxospore morphology and 18S rDNA sequence, we propose Myxobolus holzerae as new to science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  19. water demand prediction using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... estimate water quantity and to make decisions that can prevent water scarcity. Timely implementation of such decisions lead to the improvement of network reliability and to the reduced occurrence of pipe burst and plant breakdown. On the other hand long- term forecasting helps to know the water demand ...

  20. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  1. Accumulation of 137Cs in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus Labrax (L.) in a salinity gradient : Importance of uptake via gills, diet and ingested water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattink, J.; Celis, N.; De Boeck, G.; Krijger, G.C.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radio-caesium is an important radionuclide released considering food and feed products. In aquatic environments caesium tends to accumulate in fish, both through its diet and its gills. This presentation discusses the caesium accumulation in fish living in estuaries. The aim of this work is to

  2. Gill morphometrics of the thresher sharks (Genus Alopias): Correlation of gill dimensions with aerobic demand and environmental oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Thomas P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2015-05-01

    Gill morphometrics of the three thresher shark species (genus Alopias) were determined to examine how metabolism and habitat correlate with respiratory specialization for increased gas exchange. Thresher sharks have large gill surface areas, short water-blood barrier distances, and thin lamellae. Their large gill areas are derived from long total filament lengths and large lamellae, a morphometric configuration documented for other active elasmobranchs (i.e., lamnid sharks, Lamnidae) that augments respiratory surface area while limiting increases in branchial resistance to ventilatory flow. The bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, which can experience prolonged exposure to hypoxia during diel vertical migrations, has the largest gill surface area documented for any elasmobranch species studied to date. The pelagic thresher shark, A. pelagicus, a warm-water epi-pelagic species, has a gill surface area comparable to that of the common thresher shark, A. vulpinus, despite the latter's expected higher aerobic requirements associated with regional endothermy. In addition, A. vulpinus has a significantly longer water-blood barrier distance than A. pelagicus and A. superciliosus, which likely reflects its cold, well-oxygenated habitat relative to the two other Alopias species. In fast-swimming fishes (such as A. vulpinus and A. pelagicus) cranial streamlining may impose morphological constraints on gill size. However, such constraints may be relaxed in hypoxia-dwelling species (such as A. superciliosus) that are likely less dependent on streamlining and can therefore accommodate larger branchial chambers and gills. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Freshwater treatment of amoebic gill disease and sea-lice in seawater salmon production: considerations of water chemistry and fish welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Mark Darryn; Kristensen, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD) and sea lice are two of the most significant disease issues facing the Norwegian Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. Although both diseases respond to various extents, to freshwater treatment, the chemistry, interactions and efficacy of treatment can be variable. These variations can have significant impacts upon the success and failure of treatment and costs to the production cycle. Although it is known that soft freshwater is most effective in bathing of Atlan...

  4. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Patrícia Is; Matsumura, Hideo; Thorne, Michael As; Power, Deborah M; Terauchi, Ryohei; Reinhardt, Richard; Canário, Adelino Vm

    2010-08-17

    Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome

  5. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Patrícia IS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ and low (0.01 mM Ca2+ calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers in gills. Of these 869 tags (65% were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57% were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation

  6. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  7. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arrighi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood, 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  8. The effect of hydraulic flowback and produced water on gill morphology, oxidative stress and antioxidant response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A.; Weinrauch, Alyssa M.; Delompré, Perrine L. M.; Goss, Greg G.

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing fluid are complex mixtures containing high concentrations of salts (up to 330,000 ppm), organic, and metal contaminants. However, little data exist on the potential mechanisms of toxicity of these flowback and produced wastewaters (FPW) on aquatic biota. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to either control, FPW (2.5 or 7.5%), FPW that had been treated with activated charcoal (AC), or a custom salt-matched control (SW; replicating only the salt content of FPW) for 48 hours. Gill histology revealed decreases in interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) and mean lamellar length in all treatments (FPW, AC and SW) compared to control, indicative of hyperosmotic stress. Liver CYP1A1 activity was significantly elevated by 7.5-fold in the FPW 7.5% treatment only, indicative of Phase I metabolism. Superoxide dismutase activity significantly decreased in the gills to all treatments with the lowest activity occurring in the 7.5% FPW group. Catalase activity increased in liver with the highest values noted in fish exposed to 7.5% FPW. No changes were observed with respect to glutathione-S-transferase, while increased lipid peroxidation was only observed in both FPW treatments (2.5, 7.5%). These data suggest a characteristic signature of FPW impact which may help in risk assessment and biomonitoring of FPW spills.

  9. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  10. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' sim- plification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients.

  11. Gill Structure of Pangasius Polyuranodon From Up and Down Stream of Siak River

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Riska Puspita; Putra, Ridwan Manda; ', Windarti

    2016-01-01

    Siak River is the most polluted river in Riau, however, many types of fish, including Pangasius polyuranodon living in that river. As the water is polluted the health of the fish in general, including its gill structure might be harmed. A study aims to understand the histological structure of the gill of fish from upstream and downstream of the Siak River has been conducted in May 2015. Abnormality in the gill was noted and the abnormality level was identified using a Histopathological Altera...

  12. Stochastic water demand modelling for a better understanding of hydraulics in water distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the water distribution network water quality process take place influenced by de flow velocity and residence time of the water in the network. In order to understand how the water quality changes in the water distribution network, a good understanding of hydraulics is required. Specifically in

  13. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  14. Resilience Simulation for Water, Power & Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. S.; Seager, T. P.; Chester, M.; Eisenberg, D. A.; Sweet, D.; Linkov, I.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing frequency, scale, and damages associated with recent catastrophic events has called for a shift in focus from evading losses through risk analysis to improving threat preparation, planning, absorption, recovery, and adaptation through resilience. However, neither underlying theory nor analytic tools have kept pace with resilience rhetoric. As a consequence, current approaches to engineering resilience analysis often conflate resilience and robustness or collapse into a deeper commitment to the risk analytic paradigm proven problematic in the first place. This research seeks a generalizable understanding of resilience that is applicable in multiple disciplinary contexts. We adopt a unique investigative perspective by coupling social and technical analysis with human subjects research to discover the adaptive actions, ideas and decisions that contribute to resilience in three socio-technical infrastructure systems: electric power, water, and roadways. Our research integrates physical models representing network objects with examination of the knowledge systems and social interactions revealed by human subjects making decisions in a simulated crisis environment. To ensure a diversity of contexts, we model electric power, water, roadway and knowledge networks for Phoenix AZ and Indianapolis IN. We synthesize this in a new computer-based Resilient Infrastructure Simulation Environment (RISE) to allow individuals, groups (including students) and experts to test different network design configurations and crisis response approaches. By observing simulated failures and best performances, we expect a generalizable understanding of resilience may emerge that yields a measureable understanding of the sensing, anticipating, adapting, and learning processes that are essential to resilient organizations.

  15. Gilles Trachez (1969-2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    We are deeply saddened to announce the death of our friend and colleague Gilles Trachez. A senior technician in electro-mechanics, and at CERN since 1992, Gilles was a unique example of vibrant energy, with a broad smile and a hearty laugh even when facing utmost difficulties.   Gilles put vigour, flexibility and creativity at the service of the development of the superconducting magnets for the LHC, and in practice all main LHC magnets contain a part of his work. He followed critical contracts for the supply of magnet shells and laminations, and we have fond memories of the visits to a supplier in the Basque region of Spain, ending, after long working days, in happy evenings spent in the local ‘sidreria’. Similarly, we recall long nights spent designing and assembling a polymerization oven to provide an urgent solution for the insulation of the LHC dipole cold bores. Gilles always had a smile on his face, and never hesitated to help a colleague. In the same spirit, he ...

  16. Reliability based rehabilitation of water distribution networks by means of Bayesian networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lakehal Abdelaziz; Laouacheria Fares

    2017-01-01

    Water plays an essential role in the everyday lives of the people. To supply subscribers with good quality of water and to ensure continuity of service, the operators use water distribution networks (WDN). The main elements of water distribution network (WDN) are: pipes and valves. The work developed in this paper focuses on a water distribution network rehabilitation in the short and long term. Priorities for rehabilitation actions were defined and the information system consolidated, as wel...

  17. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. ... WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands' ...

  18. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary zinc supplementation may help to promote growth, boost the immune system, protect against diabetes, and aid recovery from diarrhoea. We exploited the zebrafish (Danio rerio gill as a unique vertebrate ion transporting epithelium model to study the time-dependent regulatory networks of gene-expression leading to homeostatic control during zinc supplementation. This organ forms a conduit for zinc uptake whilst exhibiting conservation of zinc trafficking components. Results Fish were maintained with either zinc supplemented water (4.0 μM and diet (2023 mg zinc kg-1 or water and diet containing Zn2+ at 0.25 μM and 233 mg zinc kg-1, respectively. Gill tissues were harvested at five time points (8 hours to 14 days and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16 K microarray with results anchored to gill Zn2+ influx and whole body nutrient composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, elements. The number of regulated genes increased up to day 7 but declined as the fish acclimated. In total 525 genes were regulated (having a fold-change more than 1.8 fold change and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1 which is controlling a 10% False discovery rate, FDR by zinc supplementation, but little overlap was observed between genes regulated at successive time-points. Many genes displayed cyclic expression, typical for homeostatic control mechanisms. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed strong overrepresentation of "transcription factors", with specific association evident with "steroid hormone receptors". A suite of genes linked to "development" were also statistically overrepresented. More specifically, early regulation of genes was linked to a few key transcription factors (e.g. Mtf1, Jun, Stat1, Ppara, Gata3 and was followed by hedgehog and bone morphogenic protein signalling. Conclusions The results suggest that zinc supplementation reactivated developmental pathways in the gill and stimulated stem cell

  19. Histopathological biomarkers and genotoxicity in gill and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the degree of DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. To indicate the severity of water pollution at the two sites, physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were investigated. Gill damage, including lamellar cell hyperplasia and aneurysm, was observed in the fish samples from the ...

  20. Fenthion induced toxicity and histopathological changes in gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersoo

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... different fenthion concentrations showed clinical signs such as erratic swimming, attempt to jump out of water, increased opercula frequencies, air gasping, mucus secretion followed by exhaustion and death. To evaluate the histopathological changes in the gill tissue, fish were exposed to 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0.

  1. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. S. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site.

  2. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Débora M. S.; Melo, Mércia Regina S.; Mendes, Denise Carla S.; Rocha, Iolanda Karoline B. S.; Silva, Jakeline Priscila L.; Cantanhêde, Sildiane M.; Meletti, Paulo C.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI) average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site. PMID:25514148

  3. Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Artificial neural network; Leakage detection technique; Water distribution; Leakages ... techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs), genetic algorithms (GA), and probabilistic and evidential reasoning. ANNs are mimicry of ..... Implementation of an online artificial intelligence district meter area flow meter data.

  4. Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) User Manual -

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new Python package designed to simulate and analyze resilience of water distribution networks to a variety of disaster scenarios. WNTR can help water utilities to explore the capacity of their systems to handle disasters and gui...

  5. Reliability based rehabilitation of water distribution networks by means of Bayesian networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdelaziz Lakehal; Fares Laouacheria

    2017-01-01

    Water plays an essential role in the everyday lives of the people. To supply subscribers with good quality of water and to ensure continuity of service, the operators use water distribution networks (WDN...

  6. Reliability based rehabilitation of water distribution networks by means of Bayesian networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakehal Abdelaziz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water plays an essential role in the everyday lives of the people. To supply subscribers with good quality of water and to ensure continuity of service, the operators use water distribution networks (WDN. The main elements of water distribution network (WDN are: pipes and valves. The work developed in this paper focuses on a water distribution network rehabilitation in the short and long term. Priorities for rehabilitation actions were defined and the information system consolidated, as well as decision-making. The reliability data were conjugated in decision making tools on water distribution network rehabilitation in a forecasting context. As the pipes are static elements and the valves are dynamic elements, a Bayesian network (static-dynamic has been developed, which can help to predict the failure scenario regarding water distribution. A relationship between reliability and prioritization of rehabilitation actions has been investigated. Modelling based on a Static Bayesian Network (SBN is implemented to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the availability of water in the different segments of the network. Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN are then used to assess the valves reliability as function of time, which allows management of water distribution based on water availability assessment in different segments. Before finishing the paper by giving some conclusions, a case study of a network supplying a city was presented. The results show the importance and effectiveness of the proposed Bayesian approach in the anticipatory management and for prioritizing rehabilitation of water distribution networks.

  7. Gilles Sauvage (1939-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Gilles Sauvage, a physicist from LAPP-Annecy working with ATLAS, passed away on 21 April 2010.   We will always remember Gilles’ smile. Gilles Sauvage was deeply involved in many generations of experiments at CERN as he followed the evolution of the field at the energy forefront. He started with the LAL-Orsay group in the WA2 Hyperon experiment at the SPS West Area, where he worked from 1976 to 1979. With the same group he was then a founding member of the UA2 Collaboration at the SPS p-pbar Collider, in which he was active throughout the duration of the experiment. He then moved to LAPP-Annecy in 1986 and joined first the L3 group at LEP, making important contributions to the construction, calibration, installation and commissioning of the BGO crystal calorimeter. Later, in the mid-1990s, Gilles joined ATLAS and led the LAPP-Annecy group through the intense period of the construction of one third of the ATLAS LAr barrel electromagnetic calorimeter modules at LAPP, and followed hands-o...

  8. Surface ultrastructure of gills in relation to the feeding ecology of an angler catfish Chaca chaca (Siluriformes, Chacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistri, Arup; Verma, Neeraj; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Surface ultrastructure of the gills of the angler catfish Chaca chaca was investigated to unravel the adaptive modifications associated with the feeding ecology of the fish. The fish is often found in mud or in soft substrates where they remain buried both for protection and to feed. Gill rakers present on the gill arch in most fish species are absent in this fish. The absence of gill rakers are associated with the feeding habit of the fish and is considered to facilitate the swallowing of captured prey smoothly without any hindrance. Highly corrugated surface of the gill arch and gill filaments could be associated to retain water/mucus to prevent dessicassion of the fish. Papillae like epithelial protuberances each bearing a taste bud at its summit toward the pharyngeal side of the gill arch is associated with the sorting of the food. Large number of mucous goblet cells on the gill arch epithelium are considered to secret copious mucus to lubricate the prey for easy swallowing. In C. chaca the gill septa between gill filaments are reduced. This could enhance the flexibility and permit the free movement of the gill filaments. Extensive secondary lamellae and infrequent mucous goblet cells on secondary lamellae are associated to increase the surface area to enhance efficiency of gaseous exchange. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Cascade-Based Emergency Model for Water Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution network is important in the critical physical infrastructure systems. The paper studies the emergency resource strategies on water distribution network with the approach of complex network and cascading failures. The model of cascade-based emergency for water distribution network is built. The cascade-based model considers the network topology analysis and hydraulic analysis to provide a more realistic result. A load redistribution function with emergency recovery mechanisms is established. From the aspects of uniform distribution, node betweenness, and node pressure, six recovery strategies are given to reflect the network topology and the failure information, respectively. The recovery strategies are evaluated with the complex network indicators to describe the failure scale and failure velocity. The proposed method is applied by an illustrative example. The results showed that the recovery strategy considering the node pressure can enhance the network robustness effectively. Besides, this strategy can reduce the failure nodes and generate the least failure nodes per time.

  10. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts,

  11. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  12. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  13. Networks and Water Policy: Conclusions and Implications for Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1994-01-01

    Network models for analysing public policy have become widely used in recent years. This symposium assesses the network idea by applying a common perspective on network analysis to the constellations involved in water policy formation and implementation in several countries and the European Union.

  14. Synthesis and Design of Integrated Process and Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handani, Zainatul B.; Quaglia, Alberto; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    possible options with respect to the topology of the process and water networks, leading to Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem. A solution strategy to solve the multi-network problem accounts explicitly the interactions between the networks by selecting suitable technologies in order...... to transform raw materials into products and produce clean water to be reused in the process at the early stage of design. Since the connection between the process network and the wastewater treatment network is not a straight forward connection, a new converter interval is introduced in order to convert......This work presents the development of a systematic framework for a simultaneous synthesis and design of process and water networks using the superstructure-based optimization approach. In this framework, a new superstructure combining both networks is developed by attempting to consider all...

  15. Water distribution network modelling of a small community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a network model was constructed for the hydraulic analysis and design of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using WaterCAD simulator. The analysis included a review of pressures, velocities and head loss gradients under steady state average ...

  16. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  17. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to these input parameters, in the neural networks model, the percentage of water absorption of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the neural networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens.

  18. Image značky Gill

    OpenAIRE

    Preibischová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Title: Brand image of Gill Summary: The purpose of this thesis is to identify the brand image of Gill in the Czech Republic. The aforementioned brand produces marine clothing and sports equipment. Marketing research has been executed using written questionnaires among the Czech sailors. Based on the results of marketing research, possible solutions to improve the brand image will be proposed. Keywords: image, brand, Gill, marketing research, sailing

  19. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  20. Structure and Controls of the Global Virtual Water Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages are a crucial global challenge, in particular because of their impacts on food production. The global character of this challenge is reflected in the trade among nations of virtual water, i.e. the amount of water used to produce a given commodity. We build, analyze and model the network describing the transfer of virtual water between world nations for staple food products. We find that all the key features of the network are well described by a model, the fitness model, that reproduces both the topological and weighted properties of the global virtual water trade network, by assuming as sole controls each country's gross domestic product and yearly rainfall on agricultural areas. We capture and quantitatively describe the high degree of globalization of water trade and show that a small group of nations play a key role in the connectivity of the network and in the global redistribution of virtual water. Finally, we illustrate examples of prediction of the structure of the network under future political, economic and climatic scenarios, suggesting that the crucial importance of the countries that trade large volumes of water will be strengthened. Our results show the importance of incorporating a network framework in the study of virtual water trades and provide a model to study the structure and resilience of the GVWTN under future scenarios for social, economic and climate change.

  1. Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae from the gills of Kyphosus incisor in Brazilian waters Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae de las branquias de Kyphosus incisor en aguas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P. Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A diplectanid monogenean, Acleotrema lamothei n. sp., is described from the gills of the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 in Brazilian waters off Rio de Janeiro State. This species is distinguished by the facts that the male copulatory organ is armed with spines throughout most of its length, the ventral hamuli have a very long, stout outer root, which is slightly notched proximally, an inner root less than half the length of the outer root and a fine blade and point. It also differs from most species of the genus by the greater size of the haptor and its hard parts. This is the first record of a species of Acleotrema Johnston and Tiegs, 1922 from South American waters.Se describe Acleotrema lamothei n. sp. de las branquias del pez Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831 recolectado en las costas del estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La nueva especie se distingue por la armadura del órgano copulador con espinas en casi toda su longitud, por la presencia de una raíz externa larga y robusta en el hámuli ventral, provista de una pequeña muesca proximal, por la raíz interna que mide menos de la mitad de la longitud de la externa y por tener la hoja y la punta finas. Asimismo, difiere de muchas de las especies del género por el gran tamaño del haptor y de sus partes esclerozadas. El presente constituye el primer registro de una especie de Acleotrema Johnston y Tiegs, 1922 en aguas sudamericanas.

  2. Simultaneous optimization of water and heat exchange networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiyou; Hou, Yanlong; Li, Xiaoduan; Wang, Jingtao [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-15

    This paper focuses on the simultaneous optimization of the heat-integrated water allocation networks. A mathematic model is established to illustrate the modified state-space representation of this problem. An easy logical method is employed to help identify the streams of hot or cold ones. In this model, the water exchange networks (WEN), heat exchange networks (HEN), and the interactions between the WEN and HEN combine together as one unity. Thus, the whole network can be solved at one time, which enhances the possibility to get a global optimal result. Examples from the literature and a PVC plant are analyzed to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of this method.

  3. Gilles Dupuis | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gilles Dupuis is Director of Information Management and Technology. Before joining IDRC, Gilles was the General Manager of Information Technology for the City of Guelph. He has also held senior IT leadership positions within the English and French-language school board systems in Southern Ontario. Still active with the ...

  4. Gilles Jobin Collide@CERN - Strangels Intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregory Batardon

    2012-01-01

    STRANGELS Cie Gilles Jobin. Site specific choreographic intervention inside the CERN's library. Three strangels on a migration to another dimension rest at the CERN's library. Strangels need food for thoughts. Do not pay attention to them they are only strangels. Dancers : Ruth Childs, Susana Panadès Diaz, Gilles Jobin

  5. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  6. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  7. Water distribution network modelling of a small community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water distribution network modelling of a small community using watercad simulator. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research ... Pipes P-6, P-12, P-15 and P-19 expectedly have relatively low flow velocities due to the low average day ...

  8. Maryland Ground-Water Observation Well Network, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MDNET is a point coverage that represents the locations and names of a network of observation wells for the State of Maryland. Additional information on water...

  9. Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computational approaches can be used to detect leakages in water distribution networks. One such approach is the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The advantage of ANNs is that they are robust and can be used to model complex linear and non-linear systems without making implicit assumptions. ANNs can ...

  10. Water Pipeline Network Analysis Using Simultaneous Loop Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... solving for the unknown in water network analysis. It is based on a loop iterative computation. Newton-Raphson method is a better technique for solving the network problems; however, the method adopted here computes simultaneous flow corrections for all loops, hence, the best since the computational.

  11. Water Distribution Network Modelling of a Small Community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Distribution Network Modelling of a Small Community using Watercad Simulator. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research ... with respect to pressure or available fire flow for the proposed service area and also that flow velocities are not excessive while head loss gradients in the network are within acceptable limits.

  12. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunović, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  13. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Anna M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic bo...

  14. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  15. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-04-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  16. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

  17. Impact of environmental DDT concentrations on gill adaptation to increased salinity in the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Virginie; Ndiaye, Awa; Budzinski, Hélène; Dugué, Rémi; Le Ménach, Karyn; Combes, Yan; Bossus, Maryline; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries of tropical developing countries suffering from severe droughts induced by climate change are habitats to fish, which face drastic salinity variations and the contact with pollutants. The Western Africa tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is highly resistant to hypersalinity, but the effect of human-released xenobiotics on its adaptation is barely known. Controlled experiments were conducted to observe S. melanotheron gill adaptation to abrupt salinity variations in the presence of waterborne DDT, at concentrations detected in their natural habitat. The gills appeared as an important site of DDT conversion to DDD and/or depuration. A 12-days DDT exposure resulted in decreased gill epithelium thickness at all salinities (from fresh- to hypersaline-water), and the structure of gills from freshwater fish was particularly altered, relative to controls. No unbalance in tilapia blood osmolality was observed following DDT exposure, which however caused a decrease in branchial Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity. Gill cellular NKA expression was reduced in salt-water, together with the expression of the CFTR chloride channel in hypersaline water. Although S. melanotheron seems very resistant (especially in seawater) to short-term waterborne DDT contamination, the resulting alterations of the gill tissue, cells and enzymes might affect longer term respiration, toxicant depuration and/or osmoregulation in highly fluctuating salinities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  19. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  20. Dynamics of the global virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few

  1. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  2. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor electricity generation in Nigeria is a very serious problem. Accurate prediction of water levels in dams is very important in power planning. Effective power planning helps in ensuring steady supply of electric power to consumers. The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water ...

  3. The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Jetoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974 and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972, respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions.

  4. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-16

    Jun 16, 2011 ... 1 Department of Technology, Centre of Agreste Region, Federal University of Pernambuco, ... consumption of water and electricity, as well as to reduce the maintenance costs. ... the energy cost of pumping surpasses the investment costs ... consumption of water distribution network pumping systems is.

  5. DISCRETE VOLUME-ELEMENT METHOD FOR NETWORK WATER- QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An explicit dynamic water-quality modeling algorithm is developed for tracking dissolved substances in water-distribution networks. The algorithm is based on a mass-balance relation within pipes that considers both advective transport and reaction kinetics. Complete mixing of m...

  6. The effect of the earthquake on the water distribution network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and in some areas they pass necessarily from areas with fault lines. Thus studying the pipelines in earthquake-prone areas is of utmost importance. In this paper, the effect of the earthquake on the water distribution network has been discussed. Keywords: Water Foundations, Earthquake, Vibrations, Connections, Pipes ...

  7. An Optimal Design Model for New Water Distribution Networks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with the problem of optimizing the distribution of water in Kigali City at a minimum cost. The mathematical formulation is a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) which involves the design of a new network of water distribution considering the cost in the form of unit price of pipes, the hydraulic gradient ...

  8. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Eapen, Valsamma; Singer, Harvey S; Martino, Davide; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Paschou, Peristera; Roessner, Veit; Woods, Douglas W; Hariz, Marwan; Mathews, Carol A; Črnčec, Rudi; Leckman, James F

    2017-02-02

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder. The aetiology is complex and multifactorial. GTS is considered to be polygenic, involving multiple common risk variants combined with rare, inherited or de novo mutations. These as well as non-genetic factors (such as perinatal events and immunological factors) are likely to contribute to the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype, the structural and functional brain anomalies and the neural circuitry involvement. Management usually includes psychoeducation and reassurance, behavioural methods, pharmacotherapy and, rarely, functional neurosurgery. Future research that integrates clinical and neurobiological data, including neuroimaging and genetics, is expected to reveal the pathogenesis of GTS at the neural circuit level, which may lead to targeted interventions.

  9. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  10. Stability of drinking water distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of Rn. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  11. drinking water treatment using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ogwueleka

    synaptic weights are used to store the knowledge.” The neural network approach is a branch of artificial intelligence. The ANN is based on a model of the human neurological system that consists of basic computing elements (called neurons) interconnected together (Figure 1). The model used for all classification attempts.

  12. Heavy metals concentrations in the offal, gill, muscle and liver of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same metals were also determined in the water of the river. The results revealed that the concentrations of all the metals in the tissues (offal, gills, muscle and liver) were higher than the concentrations of the metals in water and indicated bioaccumulation. The concentrations of all the metals in water were below WHO ...

  13. Development of Pseudo Autonomous Wireless Sensor Monitoring System for Water Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratjevs, K; Zabašta, A; Kuņicina, N; Ribickis, L

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution networks require long term autonomous monitoring solutions, integrated, reliable and cost effective data transfer methods. This paper investigates the data delivery infrastructure of water distribution network sensor equipment used for network monitoring and billing of the subscribers. Water distribution network usually apply sensors to measure water flow, pressure and temperature. The main goal is to offer a wireless sensor system architecture comprisi...

  14. A multiobjective optimization framework for multicontaminant industrial water network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Marianne; Montastruc, Ludovic; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge

    2011-07-01

    The optimal design of multicontaminant industrial water networks according to several objectives is carried out in this paper. The general formulation of the water allocation problem (WAP) is given as a set of nonlinear equations with binary variables representing the presence of interconnections in the network. For optimization purposes, three antagonist objectives are considered: F(1), the freshwater flow-rate at the network entrance, F(2), the water flow-rate at inlet of regeneration units, and F(3), the number of interconnections in the network. The multiobjective problem is solved via a lexicographic strategy, where a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) procedure is used at each step. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example taken from the literature involving five processes, one regeneration unit and three contaminants. The set of potential network solutions is provided in the form of a Pareto front. Finally, the strategy for choosing the best network solution among those given by Pareto fronts is presented. This Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem is tackled by means of two approaches: a classical TOPSIS analysis is first implemented and then an innovative strategy based on the global equivalent cost (GEC) in freshwater that turns out to be more efficient for choosing a good network according to a practical point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Operant conditioning of gill withdrawal in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D; Clark, Gregory A; Kandel, Eric R

    2006-03-01

    A basic question in neuroscience is how different forms of learning are related. To further address that question, we examined whether gill withdrawal in Aplysia, which has already been studied extensively for neuronal mechanisms contributing to habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning, also undergoes operant conditioning. Animals were run in pairs. During the initial training period, the contingent (experimental) animal received a siphon shock each time its gill relaxed below a criterion level, and the yoked control animal received a shock whenever the experimental animal did, regardless of its own gill position. This was followed by an extinction period when there was no shock, a retraining period when both animals were contingent, and another extinction period. The experimental animals spent more time with their gills contracted above the criterion level than did the control animals during each period, demonstrating operant conditioning. The type of gill behavior modified by learning shifted over time: the experimental animals had a larger increase in the frequency and duration of spontaneous contractions than did the control animals during the first but not the last extinction period and a larger increase in the level of tonic contraction during the last but not the first extinction period. Because many of the neurons controlling spontaneous and tonic gill withdrawal have already been identified, it should now be possible to examine the cellular locus and mechanism of operant conditioning and compare them with those for other forms of learning of the same behavior.

  16. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc deficiency is detrimental to organisms, highlighting its role as an essential micronutrient contributing to numerous biological processes. To investigate the underlying molecular events invoked by zinc depletion we performed a temporal analysis of transcriptome changes observed within the zebrafish gill. This tissue represents a model system for studying ion absorption across polarised epithelial cells as it provides a major pathway for fish to acquire zinc directly from water whilst sharing a conserved zinc transporting system with mammals. Results Zebrafish were treated with either zinc-depleted (water = 2.61 μg L-1; diet = 26 mg kg-1 or zinc-adequate (water = 16.3 μg L-1; diet = 233 mg kg-1 conditions for two weeks. Gill samples were collected at five time points and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16K oligonucleotide array. Of the genes represented the expression of a total of 333 transcripts showed differential regulation by zinc depletion (having a fold-change greater than 1.8 and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1, controlling for a 10% False Discovery Rate. Down-regulation was dominant at most time points and distinct sets of genes were regulated at different stages. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed that 'Developmental Process' was the most significantly overrepresented Biological Process GO term (P = 0.0006, involving 26% of all regulated genes. There was also significant bias for annotations relating to development, cell cycle, cell differentiation, gene regulation, butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, protein tyrosin phosphatases, nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, and cellular metabolic processes. Within these groupings genes associated with diabetes, bone/cartilage development, and ionocyte proliferation were especially notable. Network analysis of the temporal expression profile indicated that transcription factors foxl1, wt1, nr5a1, nr6a1, and especially

  17. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  18. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks -journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  19. Operational predictive optimal control of Barcelona water transport network

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, J.; Romera, J.; Puig, V.; Cembrano, G.; Creus, R.; Minoves, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the application of model-based predictive control (MPC) techniques to the supervisory flow management in large-scale drinking water networks including a telemetry/telecontrol system. MPC is used to generate flow control strategies (set-points for the regulatory controllers) from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands, optimizing performance indexes associated to operational goals such as economic cost, safety storage volumes in the network and smoothness...

  20. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ediriweera, D. D.; Marshall, I. W.

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a l...

  1. A Review of the Topologies Used in Smart Water Meter Networks: A Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Marais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several proposed and existing smart utility meter systems as well as their communication networks to identify the challenges of creating scalable smart water meter networks. Network simulations are performed on 3 network topologies (star, tree, and mesh to determine their suitability for smart water meter networks. The simulations found that once a number of nodes threshold is exceeded the network’s delay increases dramatically regardless of implemented topology. This threshold is at a relatively low number of nodes (50 and the use of network topologies such as tree or mesh helps alleviate this problem and results in lower network delays. Further simulations found that the successful transmission of application layer packets in a 70-end node tree network can be improved by 212% when end nodes only transmit data to their nearest router node. The relationship between packet success rate and different packet sizes was also investigated and reducing the packet size with a factor of 16 resulted in either 156% or 300% increases in the amount of successfully received packets depending on the network setup.

  2. The Texas Water Education Network Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Water Development Board, Austin.

    The resource persons and program descriptions in this directory came from answers supplied in a 1988 survey mailed to 135 entities having some relationship to or interest in promoting the distribution of water education materials suitable for use in Texas elementary or secondary schools. This directory includes an update on the programs submitted…

  3. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dave; Brilly, Mitja; Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark; Houser, Paul

    2008-11-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate remotely sensed and in

  4. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Dave [Hydromet DSS, LLC, Silverthorne, CO 80498-1848 (United States); Brilly, Mitja [FGG University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Houser, Paul [Center for Research on Environment and Water and George Mason University, Calverton, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: hydrometdss@comcast.net

    2008-11-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an 'actionable database' that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate

  5. Impact of New Water Sources on the Overall Water Network: An Optimisation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagwiza, Godfrey; Jones, Brian C; Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical programming problem is formulated for a water network with new water sources included. Salinity and water hardness are considered in the model, which is later solved using the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) to assess the impact of new water sources on the total cost of the existing network. It is efficient to include new water sources if the distances to them are short or if there is a high penalty associated with failure to meet demand. Desalination unit costs also significantly affect the decision whether to install new water sources into the existing network while softening costs are generally negligible in making such decisions. Experimental results show that, in the example considered, it is efficient to reduce number of desalination plants to remain with one central plant. The Max-Min Ant System algorithm seems to be an effective method as shown by least computational time as compared to the commercial solver Cplex.

  6. Applications and potential uses of fish gill cell lines: examples with RTgill-W1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L E J; Dayeh, V R; Schirmer, K; Bols, N C

    2009-01-01

    Gills are unique structures involved in respiration and osmoregulation in piscinids as well as in many aquatic invertebrates. The availability of the trout-derived gill cell line, RTgill-W1, is beginning to make impacts in fish health and toxicology. These cells are available from the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC CRL 2523. The cells have an epithelioid morphology and form tight monolayer sheets that can be used for testing epithelial resistance. The cells can be grown in regular tissue culture surfaces or in transwell membranes in direct contact with water on their apical surfaces. The ability of RTgill-W1 to withstand hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions and their optimal growth capacity at room temperature, make these cells ideal sentinel models for in vitro aquatic toxicology as well as model systems to study fish gill function and gill diseases. RTgill-W1 support growth of paramyxoviruses and orthomyxoviruses like salmon anemia virus. RTgill-W1 also support growth of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, the causative agent of amoebic gill disease. The cells have been used to understand mechanisms of toxicity, ranking the potencies of toxicants, and evaluating the toxicity of environmental samples. These cells are also valuable for high throughput toxicogenomic and toxicoproteomic studies which are easier to achieve with cell lines than with whole organisms. RTgill-W1 cell line could become a valuable complement to whole animal studies and in some cases as gill replacements in aquatic toxicology.

  7. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Brandt, Ingvar, E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-31

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 {mu}M the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 {mu}M. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 {mu}M. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  8. A complex network theory approach for optimizing contamination warning sensor location in water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nazempour, Rezvan; Monfared, Mohammad Ali Saniee; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water for human health and well-being is crucial. Accidental and intentional water contamination can pose great danger to consumers. Optimal design of a system that can quickly detect the presence of contamination in a water distribution network is very challenging for technical and operational reasons. However, on the one hand improvement in chemical and biological sensor technology has created the possibility of designing efficient contamination detection systems. On the other hand...

  9. Diversification of the resources of the Parisian water network : contribution to sustainable management of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Bich-Thuy

    2017-01-01

    At the scale of a city, a sustainable water management raises questions about the links between uses and resources: what water quality is needed for what purpose? The Parisian context is a favourable ground for conducting such type of reflection thanks to the existence of a non-potable water network (RENP) dating from the late nineteenth century. The network is currently supplied by summarily filtrated water from the Seine river (20%) and the canal de l’Ourcql (80%). It is mainly used for mun...

  10. Alteration of Gills and Liver Histological Structure of Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewi Kusumaningrum Pribadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the waste management in Indonesia is the treatment of leachate, which mostly dumped to the river This research is aimed to obtain information of histological alteration in gills and liver of C. carpio L. exposed to leachate. Measurements on the water quality parameters comprised water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO. This research was conducted by exposing leachate to C. carpio for 96 hours. The concentration of leachate were 0 ppm, 80 ppm, and 100 ppm. Histological preparation were made on the gills and liver using 10% fixative Neutral Buffered Formalin and Ehrlich Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with qualitative observation descriptive analyses for discussion. The result showed that increasing water temperature is directly proportional to the leachate concentration in the aquaria, while the value of pH and DO inversely proportional to the leachate concentration. Damages on the gills with 80 ppm leachate concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments and hyperplasia of epithelial cell, along with karyorrhexis and hydropic degeneration on the liver. Damages on the gills of fishes exposed to leachate with 100 ppm concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments, hyperplasia of epithelial cell, congestion, and edema along with karyorrhexis, hydropic degeneration and melanomacrophage centre (MMC found on the liver. The results of this study can be used as an overview of the impact of an environmental pollution by leachate as indicated from histological damage to the gills and liver of C. carpio, thus contribute significan information to aquaculture sector and endorse better waste management

  11. Using ELECTRE TRI to support maintenance of water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Trojan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems encountered in the context of the maintenance management of water supply are evidenced by the lack of decision support models which gives a manager overview of the system. This paper, therefore, develops a model that uses, in its framework, the multicriteria outranking method ELECTRE TRI. The objective is to sort the areas of water flow measurement of a water distribution network, by priority of maintenance, with data collected from an automated system of abnormalities detection. This sorting is designed to support maintenance decisions in terms of the measure more appropriate to be applied per region. To illustrate the proposed model, an application was performed in a city with 100 thousand water connections. With this model it becomes possible to improve the allocation of maintenance measures for regions and mainly to improve the operation of the distribution network.

  12. Wireless sensor networks: A survey on monitoring water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mompoloki Pule

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases related to poor water and sanitation conditions have over 200 million cases reported annually, causing 5–10 million deaths world-wide. Water quality monitoring has thus become essential to the supply of clean and safe water. Conventional monitoring processes involve manual collection of samples from various points in the distribution network, followed by laboratory testing and analysis. This process has proved to be ineffective since it is laborious, time consuming and lacks real-time results to promote proactive response to water contamination. Wireless sensor networks (WSN have since been considered a promising alternative to complement conventional monitoring processes. These networks are relatively affordable and allow measurements to be taken remotely, in real-time and with minimal human intervention. This work surveys the application of WSN in environmental monitoring, with particular emphasis on water quality. Various WSN based water quality monitoring methods suggested by other authors are studied and analyzed, taking into account their coverage, energy and security concerns. The work also compares and evaluates sensor node architectures proposed the various authors in terms of monitored parameters, microcontroller/microprocessor units (MCU and wireless communication standards adopted, localization, data security implementation, power supply architectures, autonomy and potential application scenarios.

  13. Hydraulic Analysis of Water Distribution Network Using Shuffled Complex Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Moosavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks is an important problem in civil engineering. A widely used approach in steady-state analysis of water distribution networks is the global gradient algorithm (GGA. However, when the GGA is applied to solve these networks, zero flows cause a computation failure. On the other hand, there are different mathematical formulations for hydraulic analysis under pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation. This paper introduces an optimization model for the hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks using a metaheuristic method called shuffled complex evolution (SCE algorithm. In this method, applying if-then rules in the optimization model is a simple way in handling pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation, and there is no need for an initial solution vector which must be chosen carefully in many other procedures if numerical convergence is to be achieved. The overall results indicate that the proposed method has the capability of handling various pipe networks problems without changing in model or mathematical formulation. Application of SCE in optimization model can lead to accurate solutions in pipes with zero flows. Finally, it can be concluded that the proposed method is a suitable alternative optimizer challenging other methods especially in terms of accuracy.

  14. Optimal operation of water distribution networks by predictive control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an approach for the operational optimisation of potable water distribution networks. The maximisation of the use of low-cost power (e.g. overnight pumping) and the maintenance of a target chlorine concentration at final delivery points were defined as important optimisation objectives. The first objective ...

  15. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a fuzzy system to control the pressure in a water distribution network, by using valves and controlling the rotor speed of the pumping systems. The variable frequency drive tracks the minimum head of the pumping system, while the control valves have the function of eliminating the excess pressure at ...

  16. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    A hydraulic analysis of a water distribution network is required to determine the pressure contours and flow pattern of the system (Sincero and Sincero, ... sum of the head loss of all the elements along any route between the points and the total head loss is the same by all routes. The energy or loop equations are of the form.

  17. Optimum reliable operation of water distribution networks by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to optimal operation of water distribution networks (WDNs). In this regard, the system operation costs, including energy and disinfection chemicals, as well as system reliability should be simultaneously considered in system performance optimisation, to provide the minimum ...

  18. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mater. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 6, November 2012, pp. 1019–1029. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water absorption of geopolymers produced by waste ashes. ALI NAZARI. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

  19. Stochastic approach to observability analysis in water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an alternative technique to the existing methods for observability analysis (OA in water networks, which is a prior essential step for the implementation of state estimation (SE techniques within such systems. The methodology presented here starts from a known hydraulic state and assumes random gaussian distributions for the uncertainty of some hydraulic variables, which is then propagated to the rest of the system. This process is repeated again to analyze the change in the network uncertainty when metering devices considered as error-free are included, based on which the network observability can be evaluated. The method’s potential is presented in an illustrative example, which shows the additional information that this methodology provides with respect to traditional OA approaches. This proposal allows a better understanding of the network and constitutes a practical tool to prioritize the location of additional meters, thus enhancing the transformation of large urban areas into actual smart cities.

  20. Joint physical and numerical modeling of water distribution networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Adam; O' Hern, Timothy John; Orear, Leslie Jr.; Kajder, Karen C.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Wright, Jerome L.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Chwirka, J. Benjamin; Hartenberger, Joel David; McKenna, Sean Andrew; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and modeling effort undertaken to understand solute mixing in a water distribution network conducted during the last year of a 3-year project. The experimental effort involves measurement of extent of mixing within different configurations of pipe networks, measurement of dynamic mixing in a single mixing tank, and measurement of dynamic solute mixing in a combined network-tank configuration. High resolution analysis of turbulence mixing is carried out via high speed photography as well as 3D finite-volume based Large Eddy Simulation turbulence models. Macroscopic mixing rules based on flow momentum balance are also explored, and in some cases, implemented in EPANET. A new version EPANET code was developed to yield better mixing predictions. The impact of a storage tank on pipe mixing in a combined pipe-tank network during diurnal fill-and-drain cycles is assessed. Preliminary comparison between dynamic pilot data and EPANET-BAM is also reported.

  1. Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL−1 to 4.66×105 cells mL−1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL−1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL−1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

  2. Network structure classification and features of water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolisi, Orazio; Simone, Antonietta; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The network connectivity structure of water distribution systems (WDSs) represents the domain where hydraulic processes occur, driving the emerging behavior of such systems, for example with respect to robustness and vulnerability. In complex network theory (CNT), a common way of classifying the network structure and connectivity is the association of the nodal degree distribution to specific probability distribution models, and during the last decades, researchers classified many real networks using the Poisson or Pareto distributions. In spite of the fact that degree-based network classification could play a crucial role to assess WDS vulnerability, this task is not easy because the network structure of WDSs is strongly constrained by spatial characteristics of the environment where they are constructed. The consequence of these spatial constraints is that the nodal degree spans very small ranges in WDSs hindering a reliable classification by the standard approach based on the nodal degree distribution. This work investigates the classification of the network structure of 22 real WDSs, built in different environments, demonstrating that the Poisson distribution generally models the degree distributions very well. In order to overcome the problem of the reliable classification based on the standard nodal degree, we define the "neighborhood" degree, equal to the sum of the nodal degrees of the nearest topological neighbors (i.e., the adjacent nodes). This definition of "neighborhood" degree is consistent with the fact that the degree of a single node is not significant for analysis of WDSs.

  3. Community of Practice Applications from WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.; Gregoric, G.; Polajnar, J.; Houser, P.; Rodell, M.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. It addresses a means for enhancing the social and economic developments of nations by increased use of practical research products from the terrestrial water cycle for making informed decisions. This paper provides a summary of the Water Cycle Community of Practice (CoP) plans and examples of Land Surface Model (LSM) applications for extreme events - floods, droughts, and heavy snowstorms in Europe. It discusses the concept of NASA's solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites EGU teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team is developing WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base. Recognizing the many existing highly valuable water-related science and application networks in the US and EU, we focus the balance of our efforts on enabling their interoperability - facilitating access and communications among decision-makers and scientists. We present results of our initial focus on identification, collection, and analysis of the two end points, these being the NWRs and EWRs and water related DSTs. We

  4. [Effect of a water-pipe network on the sensory quality of drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatarska, Anna; Smoczyński, Stefan; Wypyska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Object of studies was aimed at determining the effect of a water-pipe system on the sensory quality of drinking water originating from various intakes. The aim was to be achieved through analyses of the sensory quality (odor and flavor) of drinking water originating from various reception points within the water-pipe system. Based on the analyses carried out in the research, it may be stated that, transport of water through the water-pipe system in Olsztyn in the winter season does not affect deterioration of odor or flavor of water supplied to consumers. Besides worse sensory quality of drinking water at consumers' reception points may be determined by its worse quality immediately after treatment. As a result of water transport through a water-pipe network, it is possible to reduce the intensity of some odor and flavor attributes to an undetectable level.

  5. Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-08-15

    Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint.

  6. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  7. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  8. Influence of Bulk PDMS Network Properties on Water Wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Matthew; Walker, Edwin; Klein, Zoe; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from sealants and marine antifouling coatings to absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use of another application - medical devices. We have systematically studied the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of tetra-functional crosslinker, and end-group chemical functionality on the mechanical and surface properties of end-linked PDMS networks. Wettability was investigated through the sessile drop technique, wherein a DI water droplet was placed on the bulk network surface and droplet volume, shape, surface area, and contact angle were monitored as a function of time. Various silicone substrates ranging from incredibly soft and flexible materials (E' 50 kPa) to highly rigid networks (E' 5 MPa) were tested. The dynamic behavior of the droplet on the surfaces demonstrated equilibration times between the droplet and surface on the order of 5 minutes. Similar trends were observed for the commercial PDMS material, Sylgard-184. Our results have provided new evidence for the strong influence that substrate modulus and molecular network structure have on the wettability of PDMS elastomers. These findings will aid in the design and implementation of efficient, accurate, and safe PDMS-based medical devices and microfluidic materials that involve aqueous media.

  9. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the

  10. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...... particular sensitive towards water quality deterioration. The analysis revealed sampling locations within steady clusters, which increased samples' comparability over time. Furthermore, the method provided a simplified overview of water movement in complex distribution networks, and could assist...

  12. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...... but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken...

  13. Improving mine-mill water network design by reducing water and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunson, A.J.; Klein, B.; Veiga, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining is an energy-intensive industry, and most processing mills use wet processes to separate minerals from ore. This paper discussed water reduction, reuse and recycling options for a mining and mill operation network. A mine water network design was then proposed in order to identify and reduce water and system energy requirements. This included (1) a description of site water balance, (2) a description of potential water sources, (3) a description of water consumers, (4) the construction of energy requirement matrices, and (5) the use of linear programming to reduce energy requirements. The design was used to determine a site water balance as well as to specify major water consumers during mining and mill processes. Potential water supply combinations, water metering technologies, and recycling options were evaluated in order to identify the most efficient energy and water use combinations. The method was used to highlight potential energy savings from the integration of heating and cooling systems with plant water systems. 43 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. IDRC and McGill University

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban food from edible landscapes. Led by Vikram Bhatt at the Minimum Cost Housing Group of McGill's School of Architecture, researchers explored how urban agriculture could help upgrade low-income housing settlements and generate development in the cities of Kampala, Uganda, Rosario, Argentina, and Colombo,.

  15. Alterations in gill structure in tropical reef fishes as a result of elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, A J; Gardiner, N M; Couturier, C S; Stecyk, J A W; Nilsson, G E; Munday, P L; Rummer, J L

    2014-09-01

    Tropical regions are expected to be some of the most affected by rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) because seasonal temperature variations are minimal. As temperatures rise, less oxygen dissolves in water, but metabolic requirements of fish and thus, the demand for effective oxygen uptake, increase. Gill remodelling is an acclimation strategy well documented in freshwater cyprinids experiencing large seasonal variations in temperature and oxygen as well as an amphibious killifish upon air exposure. However, no study has investigated whether tropical reef fishes remodel their gills to allow for increased oxygen demands at elevated temperatures. We tested for gill remodelling in five coral reef species (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Chromis atripectoralis, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) from populations in northern Papua New Guinea (2° 35.765' S; 150° 46.193' E). Fishes were acclimated for 12-14 days to 29 and 31°C (representing their seasonal range) and 33 and 34°C to account for end-of-century predicted temperatures. We measured lamellar perimeter, cross-sectional area, base thickness, and length for five filaments on the 2nd gill arches and qualitatively assessed 3rd gill arches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All species exhibited significant differences in the quantitative measurements made on the lamellae, but no consistent trends with temperature were observed. SEM only revealed alterations in gill morphology in P. moluccensis. The overall lack of changes in gill morphology with increasing temperature suggests that these near-equatorial reef fishes may fail to maintain adequate O2 uptake under future climate scenarios unless other adaptive mechanisms are employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Molecular Phenotyping of Gill Remodeling in a Cichlid Fish Responding to Salinity Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kültz, Dietmar; Li, Johnathon; Gardell, Alison; Sacchi, Romina

    2013-01-01

    A two-tiered label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics workflow was used to elucidate how salinity affects the molecular phenotype, i.e. proteome, of gills from a cichlid fish, the euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). The workflow consists of initial global profiling of relative tryptic peptide abundances in treated versus control samples followed by targeted identification (by MS/MS) and quantitation (by chromatographic peak area integration) of validated peptides for each protein of interest. Fresh water acclimated tilapia were independently exposed in separate experiments to acute short-term (34 ppt) and gradual long-term (70 ppt, 90 ppt) salinity stress followed by molecular phenotyping of the gill proteome. The severity of salinity stress can be deduced with high technical reproducibility from the initial global label-free quantitative profiling step alone at both peptide and protein levels. However, an accurate regulation ratio can only be determined by targeted label-free quantitative profiling because not all peptides used for protein identification are also valid for quantitation. Of the three salinity challenges, gradual acclimation to 90 ppt has the most pronounced effect on gill molecular phenotype. Known salinity effects on tilapia gills, including an increase in the size and number of mitochondria-rich ionocytes, activities of specific ion transporters, and induction of specific molecular chaperones are reflected in the regulation of abundances of the corresponding proteins. Moreover, specific protein isoforms that are responsive to environmental salinity change are resolved and it is revealed that salinity effects on the mitochondrial proteome are nonuniform. Furthermore, protein NDRG1 has been identified as a novel key component of molecular phenotype restructuring during salinity-induced gill remodeling. In conclusion, besides confirming known effects of salinity on gills of euryhaline fish, molecular phenotyping reveals novel insight into

  17. Quantitative molecular phenotyping of gill remodeling in a cichlid fish responding to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kültz, Dietmar; Li, Johnathon; Gardell, Alison; Sacchi, Romina

    2013-12-01

    A two-tiered label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics workflow was used to elucidate how salinity affects the molecular phenotype, i.e. proteome, of gills from a cichlid fish, the euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). The workflow consists of initial global profiling of relative tryptic peptide abundances in treated versus control samples followed by targeted identification (by MS/MS) and quantitation (by chromatographic peak area integration) of validated peptides for each protein of interest. Fresh water acclimated tilapia were independently exposed in separate experiments to acute short-term (34 ppt) and gradual long-term (70 ppt, 90 ppt) salinity stress followed by molecular phenotyping of the gill proteome. The severity of salinity stress can be deduced with high technical reproducibility from the initial global label-free quantitative profiling step alone at both peptide and protein levels. However, an accurate regulation ratio can only be determined by targeted label-free quantitative profiling because not all peptides used for protein identification are also valid for quantitation. Of the three salinity challenges, gradual acclimation to 90 ppt has the most pronounced effect on gill molecular phenotype. Known salinity effects on tilapia gills, including an increase in the size and number of mitochondria-rich ionocytes, activities of specific ion transporters, and induction of specific molecular chaperones are reflected in the regulation of abundances of the corresponding proteins. Moreover, specific protein isoforms that are responsive to environmental salinity change are resolved and it is revealed that salinity effects on the mitochondrial proteome are nonuniform. Furthermore, protein NDRG1 has been identified as a novel key component of molecular phenotype restructuring during salinity-induced gill remodeling. In conclusion, besides confirming known effects of salinity on gills of euryhaline fish, molecular phenotyping reveals novel insight into

  18. Book Review: Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    All nations have built their economies around water that is naturally available. Almost all sectors of the economy depend on water. Yet there is conflict among various users for the finite amount of water that is available. Managers and practitioners have long held the notion that competition rather than collaboration is the solution when there is conflict. Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks, by Shafiqul Islam and Lawrence Susskind, provides a refreshingly compelling alternative to overcoming water conflicts. The book argues that the dynamic sociopolitical and socioeconomic constraints of water resources are best addressed in a "diplomacy" framework. The book rebuts, using several case studies, the technically rigid competition approach of today's water sharing practice.

  19. Water Rights Arenas in the Andes: Upscaling Networks to Strengthen Local Water Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutgerd Boelens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threats that Andean water user collectives face are ever-growing in a globalising society. Water is power and engenders social struggle. In the Andean region, water rights struggles involve not only disputes over the access to water, infrastructure and related resources, but also over the contents of water rules and rights, the recognition of legitimate authority, and the discourses that are mobilised to sustain water governance structures and rights orders. While open and large-scale water battles such as Bolivia’s 'Water Wars' or nationwide mobilisations in Ecuador get the most public attention, low-profile and more localised water rights encounters, ingrained in local territories, are far more widespread and have an enormous impact on the Andean waterscapes. This paper highlights both water arenas and the ways they operate between the legal and the extralegal. It shows how local collectives build on their own water rights foundations to manage internal water affairs but which simultaneously offer an important home-base for strategising wider water defence manoeuvres. Hand-in-hand with inwardly reinforcing their rights bases, water user groups aim for horizontal and vertical linkages thereby creating strategic alliances. Sheltering an internal school for rights and identity development, reflection and organisation, these local community foundations, through open and subsurface linkages and fluxes, provide the groundwork for upscaling their water rights defence networks to national and transnational arenas.

  20. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  1. Gill cell culture systems as models for aquatic environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Nic R; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer

    2014-03-01

    A vast number of chemicals require environmental safety assessments for market authorisation. To ensure acceptable water quality, effluents and natural waters are monitored for their potential harmful effects. Tests for market authorisation and environmental monitoring usually involve the use of large numbers of organisms and, for ethical, cost and logistic reasons, there is a drive to develop alternative methods that can predict toxicity to fish without the need to expose any animals. There is therefore a great interest in the potential to use cultured fish cells in chemical toxicity testing. This review summarises the advances made in the area and focuses in particular on a system of cultured fish gill cells grown into an epithelium that permits direct treatment with water samples.

  2. Replacement predictions for drinking water networks through historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Annika; Ljunggren, Olle; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Morrison, Gregory M

    2012-05-01

    Lifetime distribution functions and current network age data can be combined to provide an assessment of the future replacement needs for drinking water distribution networks. Reliable lifetime predictions are limited by a lack of understanding of deterioration processes for different pipe materials under varied conditions. An alternative approach is the use of real historical data for replacement over an extended time series. In this paper, future replacement needs are predicted through historical data representing more than one hundred years of drinking water pipe replacement in Gothenburg, Sweden. The verified data fits well with commonly used lifetime distribution curves. Predictions for the future are discussed in the context of path dependence theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling water quality in drinking water distribution networks from real-time direction data

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarovs, S.; Dejus, S.; Juhna, T.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling of contamination spread and location of a contamination source in a water distribution network is an important task. There are several simulation tools developed, however the significant part of them is based on hydraulic models that need node demands as input data that sometimes may result in false negative results and put users at risk. The paper considers applicability of a real-time flow direction data based model for contaminant transport in a distribution network of a city and...

  4. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florica, Camelia; Preda, Nicoleta; Enculescu, Monica; Zgura, Irina; Socol, Marcela; Enculescu, Ionut

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling reactants' concentration and reaction time. Optical spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that all the samples display bandgap values and emission bands typical for ZnO. The electrical measurements reveal percolating networks which are highly sensitive when the samples are exposed to ammonia vapors, a variation in their resistance with the exposure time being evidenced. Other important characteristics are that the ZnO rod networks exhibit superhydrophobicity, with water contact angles exceeding 150° and a high water droplet adhesion. Reproducible, easily scalable, and low-cost chemical bath deposition and photolithography techniques could provide a facile approach to fabricate such ZnO networks and devices based on them for a wide range of applications where multifunctionality, i.e., sensing and superhydrophobicity, properties are required. 81.07.-b; 81.05.Dz; 68.08.Bc.

  5. Wireless Sensor Networks Buoy For Coastal Waters Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Rizqi Rizaldi; Jaya, Indra; Hestirianoto, Totok

    2016-01-01

    The availability of data in real time and continuous is important to monitor in environmental change as early as possible. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer a new paradigm in the field of oceanography that can measure the parameters of complex marine environment using a moored buoy. This paper described design of a data transmission system with a moored buoy and tested the performance of WSN instrument based on ZigBee protocol radio module for monitoring coastal water environment in real t...

  6. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwi Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal meter placement model that maximizes the detection probability, minimizes false alarms, and maximizes the robustness of a meter network given a predefined number of meters. A meter network’s robustness is defined as its ability to consistently provide quality data in the event of meter failure. Based on a single-meter failure simulation, a robustness indicator for the meter network is introduced and maximized as the third objective of the proposed model. The proposed model was applied to the Austin network to determine the independent placement of pipe flow and pressure meters with three or five available meters. The results showed that the proposed model is a useful tool for determining meter locations to secure high detectability and robustness.

  7. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  8. Study on hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanlong; Jiang, Zhongan; Han, Shuo; Fu, Enqi

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network and obtain the change rule of water consumption and water pressure, according to the similarity principle and the fluid continuity equation and energy equation, the similarity criterion of mine dust-proof water supply network is deduced, and a similar model of dust-proof water supply network is established based on the prototype of Kailuan Group, the characteristics of hydraulic parameters in water supply network are studied experimentally. The results show that water pressure at each point is a dynamic process, and there is a negative correlation between water pressure and water consumption. With the increase of water consumption, the pressure of water points show a decreasing trend. According to the structure of the pipe network and the location of the water point, the influence degree on the pressure of each point is different.

  9. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  10. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, Perna perna. MA Gregory' and R.C, George. Electron Microscope Unit' and Department of Zoology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000,. South Africa. TP. McClurg. CSIR, Division of Water, Environment and Forestry ...

  11. The mussel filter–pump – present understanding, with a re-examination of gill preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Funch, Peter; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2015-01-01

    Filter feeding in mussels is a secondary adaptation where the gills have become W-shaped and greatly enlarged, acting as the mussel filter–pump. Water pumping and particle capture in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been studied over many years. Here, we give a short status of the present un...

  12. Coordinating standards and applications for optical water quality sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.; Pellerin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Joint USGS-CUAHSI Workshop: In Situ Optical Water Quality Sensor Networks; Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 8-10 June 2011; Advanced in situ optical water quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for advancing scientific understanding of aquatic systems through measurements of important biogeochemical parameters at the time scales over which they vary. High-frequency and real-time water quality data also provide the opportunity for early warning of water quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), convened a 3-day workshop to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, as well as handling, storage, and analysis of the continuous data they produce.

  13. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (Iorg) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  15. [Rezension zu:] Gilles Menegaldo...: H. P. Lovecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Rezension zu Centre culturel international Cerisy-la-Salle/Manche: H. P. Lovecraft. Fantastique, mythe et modernité. Actes du Colloque "Lovecraft et ses contemporains" (3.-10.8.1995), Paris (Editions Dervy) 2002. 464 Seiten. Jüngstes Ergebnis der regen französischen Lovecraft-Forschung ist ein in doppeltem Sinne gewichtiger Sammelband: Hervorgegangen aus einem internationalen, von Jean Marigny und Gilles Menegaldo im August 1995 in Cerisy La Salle veranstalteten Kolloquium, versammelt der...

  16. Nonlinear analysis of gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of multi-phase flows has been a challenge in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. This chapter reviews our work on two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. We systematically carried out gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals which is studied in terms of the mapping from time series to complex networks. Three network mapping methods were proposed for the analysis and identification of flow patterns, i.e. Flow Pattern Complex Network (FPCN), Fluid Dynamic Complex Network (FDCN) and Fluid Structure Complex Network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN based on K-means clustering, distinct flow patterns can be successfully distinguished and identified. A number of FDCN’s under different flow conditions were constructed in order to reveal the dynamical characteristics of two-phase flows. The FDCNs exhibit universal power-law degree distributions. The power-law exponent ...

  17. A neural network approach to smarter sensor networks for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Edel; Smeaton, Alan F; O'Connor, Noel E; Regan, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is evolving towards large-scale and low-cost sensor networks operating reliability and autonomously over extended periods of time. Sophisticated analytical instrumentation such as chemo-bio sensors present inherent limitations because of the number of samples that they can take. In order to maximize their deployment lifetime, we propose the coordination of multiple heterogeneous information sources. We use rainfall radar images and information from a water depth sensor as input to a neural network (NN) to dictate the sampling frequency of a phosphate analyzer at the River Lee in Cork, Ireland. This approach shows varied performance for different times of the year but overall produces output that is very satisfactory for the application context in question. Our study demonstrates that even with limited training data, a system for controlling the sampling rate of the nutrient sensor can be set up and can improve the efficiency of the more sophisticated nodes of the sensor network.

  18. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  19. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  20. Gill lipid metabolism and unidirectional Na+ flux in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after transfer to dilute media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Grosell, M.; Rosenkilde, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanism involved when fish tighten their gill membrane after transfer to dilute media. Ten individually assayed eels adapted to fresh water (EW) and labelled with radioactive Na-22 in the plasma showed mean exchange rates in equilibrium with ambient radioactive......% of the total C-14-activity incorporated into gill lipids as (C-14) wax alcohols (WA; octadecanol and eicosanol). This percentage went up to 50% shortly after transfer to DW and came down again to about 20% after 2 weeks in DW. Single eels labelled with Na-22 in the plasma showed a statistically significant...... positive linear correlation of percentage (14C) wax alcohols with log [22Na efflux]. Based on the observed parallel between Naf flux and gill lipid metabolism, it is suggested that the eel reacts at first to a loss of Na+ by synthesizing wax alcohols that can tighten the gill membrane. (C) 1999 Elsevier...

  1. Water Relationships in the U.S. Southwest: Characterizing Water Management Networks Using Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Murphy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and named entity recognition (NER techniques are applied to collections of newspaper articles from four cities in the U.S. Southwest. The results are used to generate a network of water management institutions that reflect public perceptions of water management and the structure of water management in these areas. This structure can be highly centralized or fragmented; in the latter case, multiple peer institutions exist that may cooperate or be in conflict. This is reflected in the public discourse of the water consumers in these areas and can, we contend, impact the potential responses of management agencies to challenges of water supply and quality and, in some cases, limit their effectiveness. Flagstaff, AZ, Tucson, AZ, Las Vegas, NV, and the Grand Valley, CO, are examined, including more than 110,000 articles from 2004–2012. Documents are scored by association with water topics, and phrases likely to be institutions are extracted via custom NLP and NER algorithms; those institutions associated with water-related documents are used to form networks via document co-location. The Grand Valley is shown to have a markedly different structure, which we contend reflects the different historical trajectory of its development and its current state, which includes multiple institutions of roughly equal scope and size. These results demonstrate the utility of using NLP and NER methods to understanding the structure and variation of water management systems.

  2. Recurrent neural network-based modeling of gene regulatory network using elephant swarm water search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudip; Saha, Goutam; Pal, Rajat Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Correct inference of genetic regulations inside a cell from the biological database like time series microarray data is one of the greatest challenges in post genomic era for biologists and researchers. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is one of the most popular and simple approach to model the dynamics as well as to infer correct dependencies among genes. Inspired by the behavior of social elephants, we propose a new metaheuristic namely Elephant Swarm Water Search Algorithm (ESWSA) to infer Gene Regulatory Network (GRN). This algorithm is mainly based on the water search strategy of intelligent and social elephants during drought, utilizing the different types of communication techniques. Initially, the algorithm is tested against benchmark small and medium scale artificial genetic networks without and with presence of different noise levels and the efficiency was observed in term of parametric error, minimum fitness value, execution time, accuracy of prediction of true regulation, etc. Next, the proposed algorithm is tested against the real time gene expression data of Escherichia Coli SOS Network and results were also compared with others state of the art optimization methods. The experimental results suggest that ESWSA is very efficient for GRN inference problem and performs better than other methods in many ways.

  3. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  4. Gill paracellular permeability and the osmorespiratory compromise during exercise in the hypoxia-tolerant Amazonian oscar (Astronotus ocellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lisa M; Kochhann, Daiani; Bianchini, Adalto; Matey, Victoria; Almeida-Val, Vera F; Val, Adalberto Luis; Wood, Chris M

    2015-10-01

    In the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, fish increase their effective gill permeability to O2 during exercise or hypoxia, and in consequence suffer unfavorable ionic and osmotic fluxes. However oscars, which live in the frequently hypoxic ion-poor waters of the Amazon, actually decrease ionic fluxes across the gills during acute hypoxia without changing gill paracellular permeability, and exhibit rapid paving over of the mitochondrial-rich cells (MRCs). But what happens during prolonged exercise? Gill paracellular permeability, ionic fluxes, and gill morphology were examined in juvenile oscars at rest and during aerobic swimming. Initial validation tests with urinary catheterized fish quantified drinking, glomerular filtration, and urinary flow rates, and confirmed that measurements of gill paracellular permeability as [(3)H]PEG-4000 clearances were the same in efflux and influx directions, but far lower than previously measured in comparably sized trout. Although the oscars achieved a very similar proportional increase (90%) in oxygen consumption (MO2) to trout during steady-state swimming at 1.2 body lengths sec(-1), there was no increase in gill paracellular permeability, in contrast to trout. However, oscars did exhibit increased unidirectional Na(+) efflux and net K(+) rates during exercise, but no change in drinking rate. There were no changes in MRC numbers or exposure, or other alterations in gill morphology during exercise. A substantial interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) that covered the lamellae to a depth of 30% was unchanged by 4 h of swimming activity. We conclude that a low branchial paracellular permeability which can be dissociated from changes in O2 flux, as well as the presence of the ILCM, may be adaptive in limiting ionoregulatory costs for a species endemic to ion-poor, frequently hypoxic waters.

  5. Comparison of molecular and histological changes in zebrafish gills exposed to metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Robert J; Hyndman, Kelly; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, Davis S

    2009-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles produce toxicity in aquatic organisms that is due largely to effects of particulates as opposed to release of dissolved ions. The present research examined the interplay of nanoparticle composition and dissolution on response of the zebrafish gill following exposure to toxic (nanocopper or nanosilver) or nontoxic (nano-TiO2) nanometals. Female zebrafish were exposed to 48-h no observable effects concentration of nanocopper and nanosilver or to soluble Cu and Ag that matched the concentration of dissolved metals released during nanoparticle exposure. Both nanocopper and nanosilver exposures increased metal content associated with gill tissue, though silver concentrations were much higher following nanosilver exposures suggesting that intact silver nanoparticles are associated with the gill. Morphological and transcriptional responses of the gills differed among various nanomaterials and between nanoparticulate and soluble species. Nanocopper increased mean gill filament width by three to fourfold between 24 and 48 h, whereas nanosilver did not alter gill filament width at either time point. Global gene expression analysis demonstrates that the exposure to each nanometal or soluble metal produces a distinct gene expression profile at both 24 and 48 h, suggesting that each exposure is producing biological response by a different mechanism. The differences in responses among the exposures indicates that each particle is having a distinct biological effect that does not appear to be driven solely by release of soluble metal ions into the water column. Based on these results, care should be taken when inferring toxicity of nanomaterials from data on a different material.

  6. Ecology of ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area in a freshwater crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S; Paul, David A

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented ecological effects on intraspecific and interspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate. However, little is known about how various ecological factors may affect the scaling of respiratory structures supporting oxygen uptake for metabolism. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide evidence for ecological effects on the scaling of a respiratory structure among conspecific populations of any animal. We compared the body-mass scaling of gill surface area (SA) among eight spring-dwelling populations of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus minus Although gill SA scaling was not related to water temperature, conductivity or G. minus population density, it was significantly related to predation regime (and secondarily to pH). Body-mass scaling slopes for gill SA were significantly lower in four populations inhabiting springs with fish predators than for four populations in springs without fish (based on comparing means of the population slopes, or slopes calculated from pooled raw data for each comparison group). As a result, gill SA was proportionately smaller in adult amphipods from springs with versus without fish. This scaling difference paralleled similar differences in the scaling exponents for the rates of growth and resting metabolic rate. We hypothesized that gill SA scaling is shallower in fish-containing versus fishless spring populations of G. minus because of effects of size-selective predation on size-specific growth and activity that in turn affect the scaling of oxygen demand and concomitantly the gill capacity (SA) for oxygen uptake. Although influential theory claims that metabolic scaling is constrained by internal body design, our study builds on previous work to show that the scaling of both metabolism and the respiratory structures supporting it may be ecologically sensitive and evolutionarily malleable. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Microbiological water quality and gill histopathology of fish from fish farming in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State=Qualidade microbiológica da água e histopatologia de brânquias de peixes provenientes de pisciculturas do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbiological water quality and tissue lesions in gills from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum female x Piaractus mesopotamicus male. For this, water and gills were collected from fish farming at six locations in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State. Microbiological water analyses revealed contamination by total coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria. In the gills, we observed a diversity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The tissue lesions were: lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema and telangiectasia. Inflammatory lesions were not observed. Significant statistical difference (p > 0.05 was not detected when comparing different gills lesions during rainy and dry season. The correlation between lesion and pond type was statistically different (p Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água e as alterações teciduais em brânquias de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e do híbrido tambacu (Colossoma macropomum fêmea x Piaractus mesopotamicus macho, coletou-se água de pisciculturas e brânquias de peixes de seis localidades do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão. O exame microbiológico da água revelou poluição por coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e bactérias heterotróficas. Nas brânquias, observou-se uma variedade de bactérias Gram-positivas e negativas. As alterações teciduais observadas foram fusão de lamelas, hiperplasia interlamelar, edema subepitelial e telangiectasia, não sendo observadas lesões inflamatórias. Não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05 quando se comparou diferentes tipos de lesões branquiais com os períodos de chuva ou de seca. A correlação de lesões e tipos de tanque demonstrou diferença estatística (p < 0,05 para fusão de lamelas e hiperplasia interlamelar que ocorreram com maior frequência em viveiro de terra. Quanto

  8. MILP model for energy optimization in EIP water networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Sadegh [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); Tan, Raymond R. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Chiu, Anthony S.F. [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The eco-industrial park (EIP) concept provides a framework in which several plants can cooperate with each other and exchange their wastewater to minimize total freshwater consumption. Energy analysis is a methodology that considers the total, cumulative energy which has been consumed within a system; thus, by minimizing energy, an environmentally optimal EIP can be designed. This article presents a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for minimizing energy of an interplant water network in an EIP. The methodology accounts for the environmental impacts of water use, energy consumption, and capital goods within the EIP in a balanced manner. The proposed technique is then demonstrated by solving a case study from literature. (orig.)

  9. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-02-01

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  10. Duality, Polite Water-filling, and Optimization for MIMO B-MAC Interference Networks and iTree Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, An; Liu,; Xiang, Haige; Luo, Wu

    2010-01-01

    The general MIMO interference network is considered and is named the B-MAC Network, for it is a combination of multiple interfering broadcast channels employing dirty paper coding and multiaccess channels employing successive interference cancellation. Included as special cases are interference channels, X channels, and most practical wireless networks. The optimization of this important class of networks has been hindered by that beyond the single antenna multiaccess channels, little is known about the optimal input structure, which is found here to be the polite water-filling, satisfied by all Pareto optimal input. This network version of water-filling is polite because it optimally balances between reducing interference to others and maximizing a link's own rate, offering a method to decompose a network into multiple equivalent single-user channels and thus, paving the way for designing/improving low-complexity centralized/distributed/game-theoretic algorithms for most network optimization problems. Deeply...

  11. Predicting Deficient Condition Performance of Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A water distribution network is subjected to various abnormal conditions such as pipe breaks, pump failures, excessive demands etc. in the design period. Under such conditions, the network may not be able to meet required demands at desired pressures, and becomes deficient. Traditional network analysis assumes nodal demands to be satisfied and available nodal pressures are calculated. However, assumption that demands are satisfied at all nodes is not true under deficient conditions. Therefore, under deficient conditions nodal demands and pressures are considered simultaneously through head-flow relationships to calculate available nodal flows. This type of analysis that determines available flows is termed as node flow analysis or pressure-driven or dependent wherein, outflows are considered as function of available pressure. Various node head-flow relationships (NHFR have been suggested by researchers to correlate available flow and available pressure based on required flow and required pressure. Methods using these NHFRs have been classified herein as direct and indirect approaches. Applications of these approaches have been shown with two illustrative examples and results are compared.

  12. Histopathological changes in gill and liver of Capoeta capoeta living in the Karasu River, Erzurum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Hatice; Şişman, Turgay

    2015-07-08

    The contamination of surface waters by different pollutants is an important problem worldwide. In this study, the histopathological effects of water pollution were investigated on freshwater fish species Capoeta capoeta caught from the Karasu River. Fish were caught at three different sites in the Karasu River, namely, Aşkale, Dumlu, and Serçeme. The histological changes in gill and liver of fish were detected microscopically and evaluated with quantitative analyses. In addition, heavy metals have also been determined in surface water samples from these sites. Results showed that the Aşkale site was polluted by different kinds of heavy metals. In Aşkale site, some heavy metals such as Cd, Al, As, Pb, and Mn levels were mostly detected at concentrations above than the accepted values by the Turkish Standards Institute. The presence of gill and liver histological alterations were assessed by the degree of tissue change (DTC). In gill filaments, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the gill epithelium, lamellar epithelial lifting, lamellae shortening, vasodilatation, lamellar disorganization, blood congestion, fusion, and aneurysm were observed. In the liver, the changes included an increase in the number and size of melanomacrophage aggregates, nonhomogenous parenchyma, proliferation of the hepatopancreas, sinusoidal dilatation, vacuolization, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, congestion and degeneration of central vein, blood congestion, pyknotic nucleus, focal necrosis, and hepatic granuloma. The histological lesions were comparatively most severe in liver. The DTC means were varied from slight to moderate of gill and moderate to severe of liver tissue in the Aşkale site, thus the site is considered to be of low quality. Some pathological alterations were observed in the Serçeme site, although their distribution was lower than sites Dumlu and especially Aşkale. The least DTC means of the Serçeme site demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results

  13. CLIPS based decision support system for water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandeep

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in knowledge representation of a water distribution network (WDN problem has contributed to the limited use of artificial intelligence (AI based expert systems (ES in the management of these networks. This paper presents a design of a Decision Support System (DSS that facilitates "on-demand'' knowledge generation by utilizing results of simulation runs of a suitably calibrated and validated hydraulic model of an existing aged WDN corresponding to emergent or even hypothetical but likely scenarios. The DSS augments the capability of a conventional expert system by integrating together the hydraulic modelling features with heuristics based knowledge of experts under a common, rules based, expert shell named CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System. In contrast to previous ES, the knowledge base of the DSS has been designed to be dynamic by superimposing CLIPS on Structured Query Language (SQL. The proposed ES has an inbuilt calibration module that enables calibration of an existing (aged WDN for the unknown, and unobservable, Hazen-Williams C-values. In addition, the daily run and simulation modules of the proposed ES further enable the CLIPS inference engine to evaluate the network performance for any emergent or suggested test scenarios. An additional feature of the proposed design is that the DSS integrates computational platforms such as MATLAB, open source Geographical Information System (GIS, and a relational database management system (RDBMS working under the umbrella of the Microsoft Visual Studio based common user interface. The paper also discusses implementation of the proposed framework on a case study and clearly demonstrates the utility of the application as an able aide for effective management of the study network.

  14. Gill asymmetry in Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ayoade

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, often used as indicator of environmental stress, was evaluated in gill rakers and filaments of Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria. Mean length and weight of 13.68+1.28 cm and 59.40+17.48 g were respectively recorded. The gill rakers (t = -0.919 and filaments (t = -1.150 from both sides were not significantly different. The gill filaments recorded (0.31+2.42 higher incidence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA compared with the gill rakers (0.21+1.58, signifying developmental interference in the population. Fish size and sex were observed to exert minimal influence on FA

  15. Gill alterations as biomarkers of chronic exposure to endosulfan in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Sperone, Emilio; Tripepi, Sandro

    2010-12-01

    Endosulfan sprayed on agricultural fields accumulates in temporary pools due to surface runoff or sediment transport and may result in high water concentrations in spring and summer, coinciding with breeding and crucial stages of amphibian larval development. In the present study, Bufo bufo tadpoles were exposed to three different concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) until they reached complete metamorphosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endosulfan, at environmentally relevant concentrations on gill morphology and ultrastructure. Modifications in ultrastructure and cell composition were observed at all concentrations after 96 h. The main gill effects recorded in treated animals were: mucous secretion, the appearance of tubular vesicles cells (TVC) and a degeneration phenomenon. Comparing these results with our previous findings in which we used growth, developmental rate and behaviour as endpoints, we also demonstrated that the first effect of endosulfan on Bufo bufo was gill alteration, thus supporting the role of a morphological approach in toxicological studies. This study provides additional information on the role of morphological studies in demonstrating the effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. In this context, the use of amphibian gills, as effective biomarkers, is a valuable approach in evaluating exposure to agrochemicals.

  16. Nutrient and pesticide data collected from the USGS National Water Quality Network and previous networks, 1980-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Casey; Norman, Julia E.; Reutter, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project. The NWQN includes 19 large river coastal sites, 44 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Water Program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides streamflow, nutrient, pesticide and sediment data collected and analyzed by NWQN and other historical water-quality networks from 1980-2015. Data from this release are presented at the USGS Tracking Water Quality page: http://cida.usgs.gov/quality/rivers/home.

  17. A three-dimensional carbon nanotube network for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, L.; Pisani, C.; Gautron, E.; Scarselli, M.; Castrucci, P.; D'Orazio, F.; Passacantando, M.; Moscone, D.; De Crescenzi, M.

    2014-02-01

    The bulk synthesis of freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT) frameworks is developed through a sulfur-addition strategy during an ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition process, with ferrocene used as the catalyst precursor. This approach enhances the CNTs’ length and contorted morphology, which are the key features leading to the formation of the synthesized porous networks. We demonstrate that such a three-dimensional structure selectively uptakes from water a mass of toxic organic solvent (i.e. o-dichlorobenzene) about 3.5 times higher than that absorbed by individual CNTs. In addition, owing to the presence of highly defective nanostructures constituting them, our samples exhibit an oil-absorption capacity higher than that reported in the literature for similar CNT sponges.

  18. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  19. McGill algorithm for precipitation nowcasting by lagrangian extrapolation (MAPLE) applied to the South Korean radar network. Part I: Sensitivity studies of the Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Aldo; Zawadzki, Isztar; Kilambi, Alamelu; Lee, Hee Choon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Gyuwon

    2010-08-01

    A Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique has been applied to four months of archived data from the South Korean radar network in order to examine the influence of the various user-selectable parameters on the skill of the resulting 20-min to 4-h nowcasts. The latter are computed over a (512 × 512) array at 2-km resolution. After correcting the original algorithm to take into account the motion of precipitation across the boundaries of such a smaller radar network, we concluded that the set of default input parameters initially assumed is very close to the optimum combination. Decreasing to (5 sx 5) or increasing to (50 × 50) the default vector density of (25 × 25), using two or three maps for velocity determination, varying the relative weights for the constraints of conservation of reflectivity and of the smoothing of the velocity vectors, and finally the application of temporal smoothing all had only marginal effects on the skill of the forecasts. The relatively small sensitivity to significant variations of the VET default parameters is a direct consequence of the fact that the major source of the loss in forecast skill cannot be attributed to errors in the forecast motion, but to the unpredictable nature of the storm growth and decay. Changing the time interval between maps, from 20 to 10 minutes, and significantly increasing the reflectivity threshold from 15 to 30 dBZ had a more noticeable reduction on the forecast skill. Comparisons with the Eulerian "zero velocity" forecast and with a "single" vector forecast have also been performed in order to determine the accrued skill of the VET algorithm. Because of the extensive stratiform nature of the precipitation areas affecting the Korean peninsula, the increased skill is not as large as may have been anticipated. This can be explained by the greater extent of the precipitation systems relative to the size of the radar coverage domain.

  20. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Buchberger, S.G.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological) contaminant propagation; for particulate

  1. [Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of drinking water of two networks supplied by surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, Claudia; Branchi, Elisa; Buschini, Annamaria; Furlini, Mariangela; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic load of drinking water in relationship to the source of supplies, the disinfection process, and the piping system. Two treatment/distribution networks of drinking water, the first (#1) located near the source, the second (#2) located near the mouth of a river supplying the plants. Water samples were collected before (F) and after (A) the disinfection process and in two points (R1 and R2) of the piping system. The samples, concentrated on C18, were tested for DNA damage in human leukocytes by the Comet assay and for gene conversion, reversion and mitochondrial mutability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. The approach used in this study is able to identify genotoxic compounds at low concentration and evaluate their antagonism/synergism in complex mixtures. Comet assay results show that the raw water quality depends on the sampling point, suggesting that a high input of environmental pollutants occurred during river flowing; they also show that the disinfection process can both detoxify or enhance biological activity of raw water according to its quality and that the piping systems do not affect tap water cytotoxic/genotoxic load. The yeast tests indicate the presence of some disinfection by-products effective on mitochondrial DNA. The biological assays used in this study are proven to be able to detect the presence of low concentrations of toxic/genotoxic compounds and assess the sources of their origin/production.

  2. Histopathology of gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological studies in organs like gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio communis were made to assess tissue damage due to sublethal concentration of heavy metals lead and cadmium after 28 days of exposure. In lead treated gill, disintegration and fusion of primary lamellae, extensive vacuolization with ...

  3. Histological changes in the gills of Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the gills of Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) from a polluted South African urban aquatic system. ... A semi-quantitative histological assessment was used to investigate histological changes in the gills of Clarias gariepinus from Marais Dam and Rietvlei Dam near Pretoria, which receive ...

  4. Learning Science Through Guided Discovery: Liquid Water and Molecular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essmann, U.; Glotzer, S.; Gyure, M.; Ostrovsky, B.; Poole, P. H.; Sastry, S.; Schwarzer, S.; Selinger, R.; Shann, M. H.; Shore, L. S.; Stanley, H. E.; Taylor, E. F.; Trunfio, P.

    In every drop of water, down at the scale of atoms and molecules, there is a world that can fascinate anyone—ranging from a non-verbal young science student to an ardent science-phobe. The objective of Learning Science through Guided Discovery: Liquid Water and Molecular Networks is to use advanced technology to provide a window into this submicroscopic world, and thereby allow students to discover by themselves a new world. We have developed a coordinated two-fold approach in which a cycle of hands-on activities, games, and experimentation is followed by a cycle of advanced computer simulations employing the full power of computer animation to "ZOOM" into the depths of his or her newly-discovered world, an interactive experience surpassing that of an OMNIMAX theater. Pairing of laboratory experiments with corresponding simulations challenges students to understand multiple representations of concepts. Answers to student questions, resolution of student misconceptions, and eventual personalized student discoveries are all guided by a clear set of "cues" which we build into the computer display. We thereby provide students with the opportunity to work in a fashion analogous to that in which practicing scientists work—e.g., by using advanced technology to "build up" to general principles from specific experiences. Moreover, the ability to visualize "real-time" dynamic motions allows for student-controlled animated graphic simulations on the molecular scale and interactive guided lessons superior to those afforded by even the most artful of existing texts.

  5. Monitoring contaminants from oil production at sea by measuring gill EROD activity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, Alexandra [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: alexandra.abrahamson@ebc.uu.se; Brandt, Ingvar [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bjorn.brunstrom@ebc.uu.se; Sundt, Rolf C. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), Akvamiljo, P.O. Box 8046, N-4068 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: rolf.sundt@irisresearch.no; Jorgensen, Even H. [Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)], E-mail: even.jorgensen@nfh.uit.no

    2008-05-15

    An ex vivo gill EROD assay was applied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a biomarker for waterborne CYP1A-inducing compounds derived from oil production at sea. Exposure to nominal concentrations of 1 ppm or 10 ppm North Sea crude oil in a static water system for 24 h caused a concentration-dependent gill EROD induction. Further, exposure of cod for 14 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of produced water (PW, diluted 1:200 or 1:1000) from a platform in the North Sea using a flow-through system resulted in a concentration-dependent induction of gill EROD. Crude oil (0.2 ppm) from the same oil field also proved to induce EROD. Finally, gill EROD activity in cod caged for 6 weeks at 500-10 000 m from two platforms outside Norway was measured. The activities in these fish were very low and did not differ from those in fish caged at reference sites. - Gill EROD activity is a sensitive biomarker for CYP1A-inducing pollutants in cod.

  6. Towards WaterLab: A Test Facility for New Cyber-Physical Technologies in Water Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada, Arturo; Horváth, Klaudia; Shiromoto, Humberto Stein; Bosman, Hedde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the initial steps in the development of WaterLab, an ambitious experimental facility for the testing of new cyber-physical technologies in drinking water distribution networks (DWDN). WaterLab's initial focus is on wireless control networks and on data-based, distributed anomaly detection over wireless sensor networks. The former can be used to control the hydraulic properties of a DWDN, while the latter can be used for in-situ detection and isolation of contamination and h...

  7. Gilles Deleuze and the contemporary biopolitical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a research on Gilles Deleuze’s contribution to the contemporary biopolitical debate. To begin with, we analyze his interpretation of Foucault’s conception of biopolitics, especially the vitalist matrix of his reading, and we examine its impact on the distinction between “biopower” and “biopolitics” according to certain authors (Lazzarato, Negri, Revel. We then reveal the presence of deleuzian notions in other perspectives (the “impersonal” in Esposito, the “society of control” in Negri. Finally, we propose renewing the fundamental tensions of the debate on Life, Politics, Language and the Condition of Man, based on concepts elaborated by Deleuze

  8. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  10. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  11. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  12. Generic patterns in the evolution of urban water networks: Evidence from a large Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Urich, Christian; Zhan, Xianyuan; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-03-01

    We examine high-resolution urban infrastructure data using every pipe for the water distribution network (WDN) and sanitary sewer network (SSN) in a large Asian city (≈4 million residents) to explore the structure as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of these infrastructure networks. Network data were spatially disaggregated into multiple subnets to examine intracity topological differences for functional zones of the WDN and SSN, and time-stamped SSN data were examined to understand network evolution over several decades as the city expanded. Graphs were generated using a dual-mapping technique (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation), which emphasizes the functional attributes of these networks. Network graphs for WDNs and SSNs are characterized by several network topological metrics, and a double Pareto (power-law) model approximates the node-degree distributions of both water infrastructure networks (WDN and SSN), across spatial and hierarchical scales relevant to urban settings, and throughout their temporal evolution over several decades. These results indicate that generic mechanisms govern the networks' evolution, similar to those of scale-free networks found in nature. Deviations from the general topological patterns are indicative of (1) incomplete establishment of network hierarchies and functional network evolution, (2) capacity for growth (expansion) or densification (e.g., in-fill), and (3) likely network vulnerabilities. We discuss the implications of our findings for the (re-)design of urban infrastructure networks to enhance their resilience to external and internal threats.

  13. Generic patterns in the evolution of urban water networks: Evidence from a large Asian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Urich, Christian; Zhan, Xianyuan; Rao, P Suresh C

    2017-03-01

    We examine high-resolution urban infrastructure data using every pipe for the water distribution network (WDN) and sanitary sewer network (SSN) in a large Asian city (≈4 million residents) to explore the structure as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of these infrastructure networks. Network data were spatially disaggregated into multiple subnets to examine intracity topological differences for functional zones of the WDN and SSN, and time-stamped SSN data were examined to understand network evolution over several decades as the city expanded. Graphs were generated using a dual-mapping technique (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation), which emphasizes the functional attributes of these networks. Network graphs for WDNs and SSNs are characterized by several network topological metrics, and a double Pareto (power-law) model approximates the node-degree distributions of both water infrastructure networks (WDN and SSN), across spatial and hierarchical scales relevant to urban settings, and throughout their temporal evolution over several decades. These results indicate that generic mechanisms govern the networks' evolution, similar to those of scale-free networks found in nature. Deviations from the general topological patterns are indicative of (1) incomplete establishment of network hierarchies and functional network evolution, (2) capacity for growth (expansion) or densification (e.g., in-fill), and (3) likely network vulnerabilities. We discuss the implications of our findings for the (re-)design of urban infrastructure networks to enhance their resilience to external and internal threats.

  14. Evaluating the electricity intensity of evolving water supply mixes: the case of California’s water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, Jennifer; Taptich, Michael; Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is making water supply less predictable, even unreliable, in parts of the world. Urban water providers, especially in already arid areas, will need to diversify their water resources by switching to alternative sources and negotiating trading agreements to create more resilient and interdependent networks. The increasing complexity of these networks will likely require more operational electricity. The ability to document, visualize, and analyze water–energy relationships will be critical to future water planning, especially as data needed to conduct the analyses become increasingly available. We have developed a network model and decision-support tool, WESTNet, to perform these tasks. Herein, WESTNet was used to analyze a model of California’s 2010 urban water network as well as the projected system for 2020 and 2030. Results for California’s ten hydrologic regions show that the average number of water sources per utility and total electricity consumption for supplying water will increase in spite of decreasing per-capita water consumption. Electricity intensity (kWh m‑3) will increase in arid regions of the state due to shifts to alternative water sources such as indirect potable water reuse, desalination, and water transfers. In wetter, typically less populated, regions, reduced water demand for electricity-intensive supplies will decrease the electricity intensity of the water supply mix, though total electricity consumption will increase due to urban population growth. The results of this study provide a baseline for comparing current and potential innovations to California’s water system. The WESTNet tool can be applied to diverse water systems in any geographic region at a variety of scales to evaluate an array of network-dependent water–energy parameters.

  15. Modeling past and future structure of the global virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Suweis, S.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development place an increasing pressure on essential natural resources, such as arable land and freshwater. The international food trade can save water globally by redistributing commodities produced relatively more water-efficiently. We focus on the global virtual water trade network associated with international staple food trade from 1986-2008. This study aims to determine which variables control the network's structure and temporal evolution, and to estimate changes in the network under future scenarios. Our fitness model reproduces both the topological and weighted characteristics of the network for the whole period. Undirected and directed network properties are well reproduced in each year, assuming as sole controls each nation's GDP, mean annual rainfall, agricultural area and population. The future structure of the network is estimated using climate and socio-economic projections, showing that volumes of virtual water traded will become increasingly heterogeneous and the importance of dominant importing nations will further strengthen.

  16. Coordination in urban water supply networks using distributed model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leirens, S.; Zamora, C.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2010-01-01

    Urban water supply networks are large-scale systems that transport potable water over vast geographical areas to millions of consumers. A safe and efficient operation of these networks is crucial, as without it living in today’s cities would be impossible. To achieve an adequate operation, these

  17. Designing of Hydraulically Balanced Water Distribution Network Based on GIS and EPANET

    OpenAIRE

    RASOOLI Ahmadullah; Kang, Dongshik

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are, designing and balancing of Water Distribution Network (WDN) based on loops hydraulically balanced method as well as using Geographical Information System (GIS) methodology with the contribution of EPANET. GIS methodology is used to ensure WDN’s integrity and skeletonized a proper and functional WDN by using Network Analyst utilizing the geometric network and topology network by hierarchical geo-databases. The problem is to make WDN hydraulically balanced...

  18. Creating legitimacy in water governance networks through complexity sensitive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractNetwork management is of major importance for the functioning and the performance of governance networks, including their democratic legitimacy (see for example Koppenjan and Klijn, 2004; Edelenbos & Klijn, 2006; Klijn et al., 2010; Meier & O’Toole, 2001, 2007). Network management is

  19. Interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Rashpal S; Yao, Lili; Matey, Victoria; Chen, Bo-Jian; Zhang, An-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Brauner, Colin J; Wang, Yuxiang S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    The gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (O2), temperature, and exercise. In this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of Cyprinus carpio). There was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the O2 tension (P(O2)) at which fish lost equilibrium (LOEcrit), among the 10 groups of carp. In normoxia, there was a significant, phylogenetically independent relationship between mass-specific gill surface area and LOEcrit, with the more hypoxia-tolerant carp having smaller gills than their less hypoxia-tolerant relatives. All groups of carp, except the Chinese bream (Megalobrama pellegrini), increased mass-specific gill surface area in response to 48 h of exposure to hypoxia (0.7 kPa) through reductions in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) volume. The magnitude of the hypoxia-induced reduction in the ILCM was negatively correlated with LOEcrit (and thus positively correlated with hypoxia tolerance), independent of phylogeny. The hypoxia-induced changes in gill morphology resulted in reduced variation in mass-specific gill surface area among species and eliminated the relationship between LOEcrit and mass-specific gill surface area. While behavioral responses to hypoxia differed among the carp groups, there were no significant relationships between hypoxia tolerance and the Po2 at which aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was initiated or the total number of ASR events observed during progressive hypoxia. Our results are the first to show that the extent of gill remodeling in cyprinids is associated with hypoxia tolerance in a phylogenetically independent fashion.

  20. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Franzkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1 before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported. The present study aimed at investigating, whether this activation pattern is due to altered functional interaction between motor cortical areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 10 GTS-patients and 10 control subjects performed a self-paced finger movement task while neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Cerebro-cerebral coherence as a measure of functional interaction was calculated. During movement preparation and execution coherence between contralateral M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA was significantly increased at beta-frequency in GTS-patients. After movement termination no significant differences between groups were evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data suggest that increased M1 activation in GTS-patients might be due to increased functional interaction between SMA and M1 most likely reflecting a pathophysiological marker of GTS. The data extend previous findings of motor-cortical alterations in GTS by showing that local activation changes are associated with alterations of functional networks between premotor and primary motor areas. Interestingly enough, alterations were evident during preparation and execution of voluntary movements, which implies a general theme of increased motor-cortical interaction in GTS.

  1. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; M'Rabet, Charaf; Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

  2. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of water-level gages, interpolation models that generate daily water-level and water-depth data, and applications that compute derived hydrologic data across the freshwater part of the greater Everglades landscape. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN in order for EDEN to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  3. Development of a iron pipe corrosion simulation model for a water supply network

    OpenAIRE

    Bernats, M.; Osterhus, S. W.; Dzelzitis, K.; Juhna, T.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion in water supply networks is unwanted process that causes pipe material loss and subsequent pipe failures. Nowadays pipe replacing strategy most often is based on pipe age, which is not always the most important factor in pipe burst rate. In this study a methodology for developing a mathematical model to predict the decrease of pipe thickness in a large cast iron networks is presented. The quality of water, the temperature and the water flow regime were the main factors taken into ac...

  4. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Abhijith

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that gill is the most sensitive organ to MP toxicity. The alterations of the enzymatic parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers for monitoring of the organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environment. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms.

  5. Prediction of annual water consumption in Guangdong Province based on Bayesian neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Xue, Huifeng

    2017-06-01

    In the context of the implementation of the most stringent water resources management system, the role of water demand forecasting for regional water resources management is becoming increasingly significant. Based on the analysis of the influencing factors of water consumption in Guangdong Province, we made the forecast index system of annual water consumption, and constructed the forecast model of annual water consumption of BP neural network, then optimized the regularization BP neural network in utilization rate of water. The results showed that the average absolute percentage error of Bayesian neural network prediction model and BP neural network prediction model is 0.70% and 0.46% respectively. BP neural network model by Bayesian regularization is more ability to improve the accuracy of about 0.24%, more in line with the regional annual water demand forecast high precision requirements. Take the planning index value of Guangdong Province’s thirteen five plan into Bayesian neural network forecasting model, and its forecast value is 45.432 billion cubic meters, which will reach 456.04 billion cubic meters of red water in Guangdong Province in 2020.

  6. Characterization of the Virtual Water Commodity Network of Major U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Ahams, I. C.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mejia, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities, through their socioeconomic power and consumption patterns, drive an intricate web of commodity flows that gives rise to an underlying network of indirect transfers of energy and water. The virtual water content of a commodity represents the water embedded in its production. It can serve as a measure of city water consumption that, along with direct, metabolic consumption, exposes the dependence of cities on distant regions and the potential vulnerabilities of the network to shocks and stresses. Using the U.S. network of commodities flows, together with their associated virtual water content, we use network theory to analyze first-order and higher-order topological properties of virtual water flows for major U.S. cities, defined by their metropolitan boundaries. They are represented as nodes and weighted directed links, symbolizing the volume and direction of the virtual water flows associated with the transfer of agricultural, livestock and industrial commodities. We find that network properties, generally, vary across commodities and reveal complex structures such as the appearance of hubs like Chicago, Houston, and New Orleans for industrial commodities and the formation of communities (megaregions). Additionally, using scaling arguments, we find that increasing city size makes larger cities more water efficient and hydroeconomically productive than smaller ones. This work represents an initial step towards understanding the role played by cities in the U.S. commodity network and food-energy-water (FEW) nexus.

  7. Colonization by Legionella spp. of water networks in residential buildings of the Province of Pisa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggiani, A; Casini, B; Totaro, M; Aquino, F; Valentini, P; Bruni, B; Porretta, A; Casalini, F; Miccoli, M; Privitera, G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increase of community acquired cases of legionellosis in Italy over the last years, the Italian guidelines do not give indications for prevention and control of Legionella in the hot water networks (or centralized conditioning systems) of residential buildings. We performed a survey on eight medium sized apartment buildings in the Pisa district to assess the prevalence of Legionella spp. in the water network and the respondance to drinking water requisites at the point of use, according to the Italian norms. For each building two hot water and three cold water samples (located at water entrance from the aqueduct network into the building pipework, at the exit from pressure autoclave, and at a remote tap) were collected. Legionella was detected in 20% of residential buildings, mostly in those with a central hot water production system. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible population subgroups and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.

  8. Environmental effects on the gills and blood of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to rivers of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, André Luis; Prado, Thiago Matos; Maciel, Letícia Aguilar da Silva; Couto, Ricardo David

    2015-01-01

    Through the integration of chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on environmental biomarkers, such as gill histopathological changes and hematological and biochemical parameters, in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to four sites in the Jacuipe and Subaé rivers over seven days. Sediment analyses identified Sapelba as the most contaminated site, followed by Oliveira de Campinhos, Santo Amaro and Jacuípe. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and manganese at all sites. Aluminum and other metal were also detected in the gills of fishes. Fish exposed to the Sapelba site exhibited significant necrosis formation, as well as higher hematological parameters and trend to increase of cortisol levels. However, filament epithelium proliferation was higher at the Oliveira de Campinhos and Santo Amaro sites, at which the lowest levels of the hematological variables were observed. Multivariate analysis grouped some gill histopathological changes together, such as epithelial detachment with edema and lamellar epithelial proliferation with the lamellar fusion of adjacent filaments, revealing relationships among them. Positive associations were identified between sediment contamination and necrosis and cortisol, while water contamination was related with filament epithelium proliferation, aneurism, lamellar fusion and several hematological parameters. Furthermore, relationships between blood parameters and gill histopathological changes demonstrated a joint physiological response that may have resulted from environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen. The results exhibited the direct influence of xenobiotics on these biomarkers but also highlighted the need to consider the complexity of environmental factors to optimize the adoption of these environmental predictive tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral Graph Analyses of Water Hydrogen-Bonding Network and Osmolyte Aggregate Structures in Osmolyte-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hochan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-11-12

    Recently, it was shown that the spectral graph theory is exceptionally useful for understanding not only morphological structural differences in ion aggregates but also similarities between an ion network and a water H-bonding network in highly concentrated salt solutions. Here, we present spectral graph analysis results on osmolyte aggregates and water H-bonding network structures in aqueous renal osmolyte solutions. The quantitative analyses of the adjacency matrices that are graph-theoretical representations of aggregates of osmolyte molecules and water H-bond structures provide the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra and degree distribution. We show that urea molecules form quite different morphological structures compared to other protecting renal osmolyte molecules in water, particularly sorbitol and trimethylglycine, which are well-known protecting osmolytes, and at high concentrations exhibit a strong propensity to form morphological structures that are graph-theoretically similar to that of the water H-bond network. Conversely, urea molecules, even at similarly high concentrations, form separated clusters instead of extended osmolyte-osmolyte networks. This difference in morphological structure of osmolyte-osmolyte aggregates between protecting and destabilizing osmolytes is considered to be an important observation that led us to propose a hypothesis on the osmolyte aggregate growth mechanism via either osmolyte network formation or segregated osmolyte cluster formation. We anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of osmolyte aggregate structures and their interplay with the water H-bond network structure in highly concentrated renal osmolyte solutions could provide important information on the osmolyte effects of not only water structures but also protein stability in biologically relevant osmolyte solutions.

  10. Using System Dynamic Model and Neural Network Model to Analyse Water Scarcity in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Xu, L.; Ye, S.

    2017-07-01

    Many parts of the world are facing the problem of Water Scarcity. Analysing Water Scarcity quantitatively is an important step to solve the problem. Water scarcity in a region is gauged by WSI (water scarcity index), which incorporate water supply and water demand. To get the WSI, Neural Network Model and SDM (System Dynamic Model) that depict how environmental and social factors affect water supply and demand are developed to depict how environmental and social factors affect water supply and demand. The uneven distribution of water resource and water demand across a region leads to an uneven distribution of WSI within this region. To predict WSI for the future, logistic model, Grey Prediction, and statistics are applied in predicting variables. Sudan suffers from severe water scarcity problem with WSI of 1 in 2014, water resource unevenly distributed. According to the result of modified model, after the intervention, Sudan’s water situation will become better.

  11. What is the most efficient respiratory organ for the loricariid air-breathing fish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, gills or stomach? A quantitative morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, André Luis; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach. Taken together, the surface area, the surface-to-volume ratio and the diffusion distance for O2 transfer from the respiratory medium to blood yield a greater diffusing capacity for gills than for the stomach, suggesting greater importance of aquatic respiration in this species. On the other hand, water breathing is energetically more expensive than breathing air. Under severe hypoxic conditions, O2 uptake by the stomach is more efficient than by the gills, although the stomach has a much lower diffusing capacity. Thus, P. anisitsi uses gills under normoxic conditions but the stomach may also support aerobic metabolism depending on environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen Bond Network of Water around Protein Investigated with Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Ogawa, Yuichi; Kondo, Naoshi

    2016-12-20

    The dynamical and structural properties of water at protein interfaces were characterized on the basis of the broadband complex dielectric constant (0.25 to 400 THz) of albumin aqueous solutions. Our analysis of the dielectric responses between 0.25 and 12 THz first revealed hydration water with retarded reorientational dynamics extending ∼8.5 Å (corresponding to three to four layers) out from the albumin surface. Second, the number of nonhydrogen-bonded water was decreased in the presence of the albumin solute, indicating protein inhibits the fragmentation of the water hydrogen-bond network. Finally, water molecules at the albumin interface were found to form a distorted hydrogen-bond structure due to topological and energetic disorder of the protein surface. In addition, the intramolecular O-H stretching vibration of water (∼100 THz), which is sensitive to hydrogen-bond environment, pointed to a trend that hydration water has a larger population of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules compared with that of bulk water. From these experimental results, we concluded that the "strengthened" water hydrogen bonds at the protein interface dynamically slow down the reorientational motion of water and form the less-defective hydrogen-bond network by inhibiting the fragmentation of water-water hydrogen bonds. Nevertheless, such a strengthened water hydrogen-bond network is composed of heterogeneous hydrogen-bond distances and angles, and thus characterized as structurally "distorted." Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the future evolution of the virtual water trade network: A combination of network and gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano; Fracasso, Andrea; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates how the topological features of the virtual water (VW) network and the size of the associated VW flows are likely to change over time, under different socio-economic and climate scenarios. We combine two alternative models of network formation -a stochastic and a fitness model, used to describe the structure of VW flows- with a gravity model of trade to predict the intensity of each bilateral flow. This combined approach is superior to existing methodologies in its ability to replicate the observed features of VW trade. The insights from the models are used to forecast future VW flows in 2020 and 2050, under different climatic scenarios, and compare them with future water availability. Results suggest that the current trend of VW exports is not sustainable for all countries. Moreover, our approach highlights that some VW importers might be exposed to "imported water stress" as they rely heavily on imports from countries whose water use is unsustainable.

  14. Water Organization and Dynamics on Mineral Surfaces Interrogated by Graph Theoretical Analyses of Intermolecular Chemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ozkanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular chemical networks defined by the hydrogen bonds formed at the α-quartz|water interface have been data-mined using graph theoretical methods so as to identify and quantify structural patterns and dynamic behavior. Using molecular-dynamics simulations data, the hydrogen bond (H-bond distributions for the water-water and water-silanol H-bond networks have been determined followed by the calculation of the persistence of the H-bond, the dipole-angle oscillations that water makes with the surface silanol groups over time, and the contiguous H-bonded chains formed at the interface. Changes in these properties have been monitored as a function of surface coverage. Using the H-bond distribution between water and the surface silanol groups, the actual number of waters adsorbed to the surface is found to be 0.6 H2O/10 Å2, irrespective of the total concentration of waters within the system. The unbroken H-bond network of interfacial waters extends farther than in the bulk liquid; however, it is more fluxional at low surface coverages (i.e., the H-bond persistence in a monolayer of water is shorter than in the bulk Concentrations of H2O at previously determined water adsorption sites have also been quantified. This work demonstrates the complementary information that can be obtained through graph theoretical analysis of the intermolecular H-bond networks relative to standard analyses of molecular simulation data.

  15. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs, thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy. The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position.

  16. Gilles Coignet. A migrant painter from Antwerp and his Hamburg career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Uppenkamp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The painter Gilles Coignet was born in Antwerp c. 1542 to a family of artists and scientists. He spent some time in Italy and, as a Lutheran Protestant, fled from Antwerp to Amsterdam in 1585. He lived in Hamburg since 1595, where he died in December 1599. Here he had contact with other Netherlandish artists. Van Mander reports that it was Coignet who advised Vredeman de Vries to move from Hamburg to Amsterdam in 1598. This contribution focuses on Coignet’s last years and sheds new light on the professional and social networks of exiled Netherlandish artists in Hamburg.

  17. A holistic framework for design of cost-effective minimum water utilization network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Alwi, S R; Manan, Z A; Samingin, M H; Misran, N

    2008-07-01

    Water pinch analysis (WPA) is a well-established tool for the design of a maximum water recovery (MWR) network. MWR, which is primarily concerned with water recovery and regeneration, only partly addresses water minimization problem. Strictly speaking, WPA can only lead to maximum water recovery targets as opposed to the minimum water targets as widely claimed by researchers over the years. The minimum water targets can be achieved when all water minimization options including elimination, reduction, reuse/recycling, outsourcing and regeneration have been holistically applied. Even though WPA has been well established for synthesis of MWR network, research towards holistic water minimization has lagged behind. This paper describes a new holistic framework for designing a cost-effective minimum water network (CEMWN) for industry and urban systems. The framework consists of five key steps, i.e. (1) Specify the limiting water data, (2) Determine MWR targets, (3) Screen process changes using water management hierarchy (WMH), (4) Apply Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process Screening (SHARPS) strategy, and (5) Design water network. Three key contributions have emerged from this work. First is a hierarchical approach for systematic screening of process changes guided by the WMH. Second is a set of four new heuristics for implementing process changes that considers the interactions among process changes options as well as among equipment and the implications of applying each process change on utility targets. Third is the SHARPS cost-screening technique to customize process changes and ultimately generate a minimum water utilization network that is cost-effective and affordable. The CEMWN holistic framework has been successfully implemented on semiconductor and mosque case studies and yielded results within the designer payback period criterion.

  18. Location of diversions from the surface-water network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  19. Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate...

  20. Monthly Diversions from the Surface-Water Network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  1. Grid cells used for Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the segment and reaches for the surface-water network by model cell for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  2. Viscosity Prediction of Different Ethylene Glycol/Water Based Nanofluids Using a RBF Neural Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ningbo Zhao; Zhiming Li

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network with three-layer feed forward architecture was developed to effectively predict the viscosity ratio of different ethylene glycol/water based nanofluids...

  3. Monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  4. Water Volume Required to Carve the Martian Valley Networks: Updated Sediment Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, E. N.; Head, J. W.; Cassanelli, J.; Palumbo, A.; Weiss, D.

    2017-10-01

    In order to gain insights into the climate of early Mars, we estimate the volume of water that was required to erode the valley networks (VNs). We update previous results with a new VN cavity volume measurement.

  5. IDENTIFYING TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK NEEDS TO SUPPORT THE DEPLOYMENT OF SMART METERS IN A WATER UTILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuel de Barros Moraes; Celi Langhi; Marcos Crivelaro

    2015-01-01

      This case study, based on interviews and technical analysis of a Brazilian water utility with more than 10 million clients, aims to understand what kind of adjusts on a telecommunications network...

  6. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s of the network and the exact leaking pipelines connected to this segment(s where higher background leakage outflow occurs is a challenging task. Background leakage concerns the outflow from small cracks or deteriorated joints. In addition, because they are diffuse flow, they are not characterised by quick pressure drop and are not detectable by measuring instruments. Consequently, they go unreported for a long period of time posing a threat to water loss volume. Most of the existing research focuses on the detection and localisation of burst type leakages which are characterised by a sudden pressure drop. In this work, an algorithm for detecting and estimating background leakage in water distribution networks is presented. The algorithm integrates a leakage model into a classical WDN hydraulic model for solving the network leakage flows. The applicability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated on two different water networks. The results of the tested networks are discussed and the solutions obtained show the benefits of the proposed algorithm. A noteworthy evidence is that the algorithm permits the detection of critical segments or pipes of the network experiencing higher leakage outflow and indicates the probable pipes of the network where pressure control can be performed. However, the possible position of pressure control elements along such critical pipes will be addressed in future work.

  7. Temperature effects on hatching and viability of Juvenile Gill Lice, Salmincola californiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, E M; Christianson, K R; Lepak, J M; Williams, P J

    2016-07-01

    Salmonids of the genus Oncorhynchus, distributed throughout the Pacific Rim, can be infected by the gill lice species Salmincola californiensis (Dana, 1852), which makes them one of the most broadly distributed gill lice species. Despite their broad distribution and valuable obligate salmonid hosts, relatively little is known about S. californiensis. We evaluated effects of temperature on timing of S. californiensis hatching and survival of copepodids, and provide information on brood size and variability. Our results suggest that temperature was a primary driver of timing of S. californiensis hatching and post-hatching survival. Prior to this study, the free-swimming stage of S. californiensis was reported to survive approximately 2 days without a suitable host. We observed active copepodids 13 days after hatch with some individuals from most (>90%) viable egg sacs at all temperature treatments surviving ≥5 days. Our findings indicate that warmer temperatures could increase development rates of gill lice at certain life stages, potentially increasing fecundity. This information coupled with predictions that warmer water temperatures could intensify crowding of coldwater fishes, stress, and parasite transmission suggests that climate change could exacerbate negative effects of S. californiensis on ecologically and economically important salmonids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Histological Effects of Cadmium on Hepatopancreas and Gill in Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Ghiasi*

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological studies in organs like hepatopancreas and gill of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, were made to assess tissue damage due to sub-lethal concentration of cadmium after a long exposure period. Methods: This study was conducted in University of Tehran, in 2013. The fish were divided into two groups in 1000 litre fiberglass tanks supplied with dechlorinated water [hardness 302.6 mg CaCo3/l, pH 7, O2 7.8 mg/L and temperature 15 ± 2 ºC] and continuous aeration. Group 1 was without any cadmium considered as control group. Group 2 was exposed to 30 ppb CdCl2 (Merck containing 7.8 ppb cadmium. The tissue samples from: hepatopancreas, gill were collected 30 days post exposure and processed by histological procedures. Results: The main lesions in cadmium exposed groups were: (a pancreatitis necrosis in endocrine part of pancreas (b cholangitis and necrosis in liver parenchyma (c hypertrophy, fusion and telangiectasia in secondary lamellae Conclusion: Cadmium chloride at low concentration can induce pathological alterations in hepatopancreas and gill of common carp.

  9. Developed hydraulic simulation model for water pipeline networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ayad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that uses linear graph theory is presented for both steady state, and extended period simulation in a pipe network including its hydraulic components (pumps, valves, junctions, etc.. The developed model is based on the Extended Linear Graph Theory (ELGT technique. This technique is modified to include new network components such as flow control valves and tanks. The technique also expanded for extended period simulation (EPS. A newly modified method for the calculation of updated flows improving the convergence rate is being introduced. Both benchmarks, ad Actual networks are analyzed to check the reliability of the proposed method. The results reveal the finer performance of the proposed method.

  10. Informal Network Utilisation and Water Distribution in Two Districts in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses informal networks and their utilisation during a period of water scarcity in an upstream and a downstream district in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan. The evaluation is based on an organisational theory approach on informal networks. Communication patterns between farm managers,

  11. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  12. Adapting water management to climate change: Institutional involvement, inter-institutional networks and barriers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian P.; Jude, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of a nation to address the hydrological impacts of climate change depends on the institutions through which water is governed. Inter-institutional networks that enable institutions to adapt and the factors that hinder smooth coordination are poorly understood. Using water governance in India as an example of a complex top-down bureaucratic system that requires effective networks between all key institutions, this research unravels the barriers to adaptation by combining quantitat...

  13. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  14. Simulated Annealing in Optimization of Energy Production in a Water Supply Network

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Samora, Irene; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton; Helena M. Ramos

    2016-01-01

    In water supply systems, the potential exists for micro-hydropower that uses the pressure excess in the networks to produce electricity. However, because urban drinking water networks are complex systems in which flows and pressure vary constantly, identification of the ideal locations for turbines is not straightforward, and assessment implies the need for simulation. In this paper, an optimization algorithm is proposed to provide a selection of optimal locations for the installation of a gi...

  15. Prioritising alternatives for maintenance of water distribution networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficulties related to the group decision-making process in the water supply sector, such as physical and economic losses, irrational use of water and maintenance costs, highlight the need to develop procedures to support decisions, reducing unnecessary water use and wastage. This study focused on the rational use of ...

  16. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-09-01

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  17. Importance of demand modelling in network water quality models: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is a growing interest in network water quality modelling. The water quality issues of interest relate to both dissolved and particulate substances. For dissolved substances the main interest is in residual chlorine and (microbiological contaminant propagation; for particulate substances it is in sediment leading to discolouration. There is a strong influence of flows and velocities on transport, mixing, production and decay of these substances in the network. This imposes a different approach to demand modelling which is reviewed in this article.

    For the large diameter lines that comprise the transport portion of a typical municipal pipe system, a skeletonised network model with a top-down approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 h, and a pure advection-reaction water quality model will usually suffice. For the smaller diameter lines that comprise the distribution portion of a municipal pipe system, an all-pipes network model with a bottom-up approach of demand pattern allocation, a hydraulic time step of 1 min or less, and a water quality model that considers dispersion and transients may be needed.

    Demand models that provide stochastic residential demands per individual home and on a one-second time scale are available. A stochastic demands based network water quality model needs to be developed and validated with field measurements. Such a model will be probabilistic in nature and will offer a new perspective for assessing water quality in the drinking water distribution system.

  18. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Delu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Siyi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kong [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chunxiang, E-mail: deluzh@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yongding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish

  19. Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hart, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bynum, Michael Lee [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Murray, Regan [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Burkhardt, Jonathan [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Haxton, Terra [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water systems face multiple challenges, including aging infrastructure, water quality concerns, uncertainty in supply and demand, natural disasters, environmental emergencies, and cyber and terrorist attacks. All of these have the potential to disrupt a large portion of a water system causing damage to infrastructure and outages to customers. Increasing resilience to these types of hazards is essential to improving water security. As one of the United States (US) sixteen critical infrastructure sectors, drinking water is a national priority. The National Infrastructure Advisory Council defined infrastructure resilience as “the ability to reduce the magnitude and/or duration of disruptive events. The effectiveness of a resilient infrastructure or enterprise depends upon its ability to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly recover from a potentially disruptive event”. Being able to predict how drinking water systems will perform during disruptive incidents and understanding how to best absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to such incidents can help enhance resilience.

  20. The nephridial hypothesis of the gill slit origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhova, Olga V; Malakhov, Vladimir V

    2015-12-01

    Metameric gill slits are mysterious structures, unique for Chordata and Hemichordata, and also, perhaps, for the extinct Cambrian Calcichordata. There is a discussed hypothesis of the gill slits origin from the metameric nephridia. According to the hypothesis, the hypothetical metameric deuterostome ancestor had in each segment a pair of coelomoducts and a pair of intestinal pockets. In the anterior segments, the coelomoducts have fused with the intestinal pockets. As a result, each nephridium opened both into the gut and into the environment. Then the dissepiments and funnels reduced in all segments except the collar one. Thus, in recent enteropneusts, only the first pair of gill slits keeps the ancestral arrangement communicating at the same time with the gut, with the environment, and with the coelom of the preceding (collar) segment. In the anterior part of the branchio-genital trunk region of enteropneusts, the metameric intestinal pockets remained, as well as the metameric coelomoducts functioning as the ducts of the metameric gonads, i.e., as the gonoducts. The consequence of the hypothesis is that the metameric gill pores originate from the metameric excreting pores, and the metameric branchial sacs originate from the metameric endodermal pockets of the gut fused with the coelomoducts. The metameric gill slits by themselves correspond with metameric openings connecting the gut with metameric intestinal pockets. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 647-652, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Towards a unified description of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water: a dynamics based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Zhou, Tiecheng; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-12-07

    The definition of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) is intimately related to the topological and dynamic properties of the hydrogen bond network within liquid water. The development of a universal H-bond definition for water is an active area of research as it would remove many ambiguities in the network properties that derive from the fixed definition employed to assign whether a water dimer is hydrogen bonded. This work investigates the impact that an electronic-structure based definition, an energetic, and a geometric definition of the H-bond has upon both topological and dynamic network behavior of simulated water. In each definition, the use of a cutoff (either geometric or energetic) to assign the presence of a H-bond leads to the formation of transiently bonded or broken dimers, which have been quantified within the simulation data. The relative concentration of transient species, and their duration, results in two of the three definitions sharing similarities in either topological or dynamic features (H-bond distribution, H-bond lifetime, etc.), however no two definitions exhibit similar behavior for both classes of network properties. In fact, two networks with similar local network topology (as indicated by similar average H-bonds) can have dramatically different global network topology (as indicated by the defect state distributions) and altered H-bond lifetimes. A dynamics based correction scheme is then used to remove artificially transient H-bonds and to repair artificially broken bonds within the network such that the corrected network exhibits the same structural and dynamic properties for two H-bond definitions (the properties of the third definition being significantly improved). The algorithm described represents a significant step forward in the development of a unified hydrogen bond network whose properties are independent of the original hydrogen bond definition that is employed.

  2. Survivability of chilled water networks on board ships when using dincs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fast reaction is required when a chilled water distribution network on board a naval ship is damaged. Without immediate isolation of the leakage area, all water supply is lost soon, with immense consequences for the ship’s operational state. The only solution for that is using an automated recovery

  3. Super square carbon nanotube network: a new promising water desalination membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ligang; He, Xiaoqiao; Lu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Super square (SS) carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, acting as a new kind of nanoporous membrane, manifest excellent water desalination performance. Nanopores in SS CNT network can efficiently filter NaCl from water. The water desalination ability of such nanoporous membranes critically depends on the pore diameter, permitting water molecule permeatration while salt ion obstruction. On the basis of the systematical analysis on the interaction among water permeability, salt concentration limit and pressure on the membranes, an empirical formula is developed to describe the relationship between pressure and concentration limit. In the meantime, the nonlinear relationship between pressure and water permeability is examined. Hence, by controlling pressure, optimal plan can be easily made to efficiently filter the saltwater. Moreover, steered molecular dynamics (MD) method uncovers bending and local buckling of SS CNT network that leads to salt ions passing through membranes. These important mechanical behaviours are neglected in most MD simulations, which may overestimate the filtration ability. Overall, water permeability of such material is several orders of magnitude higher than the conventional reverse osmosis membranes and several times higher than nanoporous graphene membranes. SS CNT networks may act as a new kind of membrane developed for water desalination with excellent filtration ability.

  4. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  5. Optimization of turbine positioning in water distribution networks. A Sicilian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Barbara; Messineo, Simona; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The potential energy of water in Water Distribution Networks (WDNs), is usually dissipated by Pressure Reduction Valves (PRVs), thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs), to produce energy in a small network with the aim to avoid dissipation in favour of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN located in a town close to Palermo (Sicily), where users often install private tanks, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions. As expected, the economic benefit of PATs installation in WDNs is affected by the presence of private tanks, whose presence deeply modifies the network from designed condition. The analysis is carried out by means of a mathematical model, which is able to simulate dynamically water distribution networks with private tanks and PATs. As expected, the advantage of PATs' installation in terms of renewable energy recovery is strictly conditioned by their placement in the WDN.

  6. Changes of Water Hydrogen Bond Network with Different Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to uncover the mystery of water cluster and structural motif to have an insight into the abundant anomalies bound to water. In this context, the analysis of influence factors is an alternative way to shed light on the nature of water clusters. Water structure has been tentatively explained within different frameworks of structural models. Based on comprehensive analysis and summary of the studies on the response of water to four externalities (i.e., temperature, pressure, solutes and external fields, the changing trends of water structure and a deduced intrinsic structural motif are put forward in this work. The variations in physicochemical and biological effects of water induced by each externality are also discussed to emphasize the role of water in our daily life. On this basis, the underlying problems that need to be further studied are formulated by pointing out the limitations attached to current study techniques and to outline prominent studies that have come up recently.

  7. Addressing water incidents by using pipe network models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yoyo, Sonwabiso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available NETWORK MODELS Sonwabiso YOYO, Philip R. PAGE, S’Bonelo ZULU, Frances A’BEAR 1 1 Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 11 Jan Cilliers Road, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 7600. Tel: +27 (21) 888 2478. Email: syoyo...

  8. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  9. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  10. An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for Multi-Period Water Distribution Network Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies De Corte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution networks consist of different components, such as reservoirs and pipes, and exist to provide users (households, agriculture, industry with high-quality water at adequate pressure and flow. Water distribution network design optimization aims to find optimal diameters for every pipe, chosen from a limited set of commercially available diameters. This combinatorial optimization problem has received a lot of attention over the past forty years. In this paper, the well-studied single-period problem is extended to a multi-period setting in which time varying demand patterns occur. Moreover, an additional constraint—which sets a maximum water velocity—is imposed. A metaheuristic technique called iterated local search is applied to tackle this challenging optimization problem. A full-factorial experiment is conducted to validate the added value of the algorithm components and to configure optimal parameter settings. The algorithm is tested on a broad range of 150 different (freely available test networks.

  11. Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra (Nuevo Gulf, Northern Patagonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed in gills of native ribbed mussels Aulacomya atra atra from three sites within Nuevo Gulf (Northern Patagonia) several biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid radicals (LR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and metallothionein (MT). Furthermore, concentrations of main trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were quantified in mussel tissue. Results showed significant induction of SOD, GST, MT and MDA, as well as, higher concentration of Fe, Al and Cd in winter than in summer. The high MDA content measured in mussels from Folías Wreck seemed to be caused by the very high levels of Fe that would come from the corrosion of the vessel. Mussels from the control site Punta Cuevas presented the lowest levels of Cd and the highest of Al in winter. Despite positive correlations were found between Al and GST and MT, no spatial differentiation was detected in those biomarkers. On the other hand, MT was only related to Al been most likely influenced by environmental variables than by the trace metals. It has to be highlighted that the relationship detected among water temperature, nutrients and antioxidant responses in gills is probably related to the fact that this tissue is in direct contact with water and it is sensitive to its fluctuations. Taking into account that mussel gill is a tissue actively proliferating and the first target of contaminants present in water, so that changes in its antioxidant system can provide an earlier warning signal than in other tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of gill pathological responses in the tropical fish yellowfin seabream of Persian Gulf under mercury exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassaninezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.

  13. Hydration and hydrogen bond network of water around hydrophobic surface investigated by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, K; Suzuki, T; Kondo, N; Ogawa, Y

    2014-12-21

    Water conformation around hydrophobic side chains of four amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-aminobutyric acid, and L-norvaline) was investigated via changes in complex dielectric constant in the terahertz (THz) region. Each of these amino acids has the same hydrophilic backbone, with successive additions of hydrophobic straight methylene groups (-CH2-) to the side chain. Changes in the degree of hydration (number of dynamically retarded water molecules relative to bulk water) and the structural conformation of the water hydrogen bond (HB) network related to the number of methylene groups were quantitatively measured. Since dielectric responses in the THz region represent water relaxations and water HB vibrations at a sub-picosecond and picosecond timescale, these measurements characterized the water relaxations and HB vibrations perturbed by the methylene apolar groups. We found each successive straight -CH2- group on the side chain restrained approximately two hydrophobic hydration water molecules. Additionally, the number of non-hydrogen-bonded (NHB) water molecules increased slightly around these hydrophobic side chains. The latter result seems to contradict the iceberg model proposed by Frank and Evans, where water molecules are said to be more ordered around apolar surfaces. Furthermore, we compared the water-hydrophilic interactions of the hydrophilic amino acid backbone with those with the water-hydrophobic interactions around the side chains. As the hydrophobicity of the side chain increased, the ordering of the surrounding water HB network was altered from that surrounding the hydrophilic amino acid backbone, thereby diminishing the fraction of NHB water and ordering the surrounding tetrahedral water HB network.

  14. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  15. MODELING NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATER USING REGRESSION AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Nacha; Krishnan, Palaniappa; Bernard, John C.; Ritter, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in ground water is a major problem in specific agricultural areas. Using regression and neural networks, this study models nitrate concentration in ground water as a function of iron concentration in ground water, season and distance of the well from a poultry house. Results from both techniques are comparable and show that the distance of the well from a poultry house has a significant effect on nitrate concentration in groundwater.

  16. Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Daudi S. Simbeye; Shi Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and presented a wireless sensor network monitoring and control system for aquaculture. The system can detect and control water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen content, pH value, and water level in real-time. The sensor nodes collect the water quality parameters and transmit them to the base station host computer through ZigBee wireless communication standard. The host computer is used for data analysis, processing and presentation using LabVIEW software pl...

  17. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: evidence for passive and facilitated transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Lucy C; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F; Bury, Nic R

    2015-02-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NASA Water-Cycle Solutions Networks and Community of Practice Approaches to enhance Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, W.; Ward, J.; Cox, E. L.; Lawford, R. G.; Matthews, D.; Houser, P.; Doherty, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has created the Asian Water Cycle Initiative regional network for South Asia and NASA has launched two networks to enhance the rapid transitioning of scientific achievements and NASA technology into operational use. All three networks meet a new type of scientific challenge by providing strong linkage among the scientific communities, the space agencies, and decision makers. We focus here on the two NASA-sponsored networks that carry out complementary approaches: WaterNet focused on large-scale national/international collaborations; North Olympic Peninsula Solution Network developed a local proof of concept project first, then began integration and collaboration at progressively larger scales, culminating with a national-level discourse via the National Association of Resource, Conservation and Development councils (NARC&DC). The ultimate goals of both groups were to bring NASA Science and Technology products to organizations/groups to improve decision making and to create collaborations and networks that would extend beyond the parent groups and expand and continue to be sustainable, after the original projects were completed. This paper provides a summary of lessons learned. The primary objective of the NOPSN is to bring NASA science and technology tools to watershed managers to improve the scientific basis of decision making in NASA national application areas of water management, agricultural efficiency, and ecological forecasting. To achieve this objective, the NOPSN team first developed and implemented a local proof-of-concept project for the Dungeness River, Washington, to improve water forecasting. The team then developed local and regional collaborations with water resource managers, stakeholder groups, and local, state, and federal agencies to identify environmental issues, challenges, and needs that could be addressed with NASA technology. Finally,through its partnership with NARC&D, it provided the NOPSN

  19. Gill ultrastructure of the Pacific hagfish Eptatretus stouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallatt, J; Paulsen, C

    1986-10-01

    At the gross anatomical level, hagfish gills show unusual features not seen in any other fish gills. Our study was undertaken to determine if peculiarities also characterize the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of hagfish gills. To the contrary, branchial respiratory lamellae of Pacific hagfish were found to resemble the lamellae of lampreys, elasmobranchs, and teleosts, often down to the finest subcellular details. As in other fish, hagfish lamellae are lined by epithelium containing pavement cells with organelles indicative of a secretory function, basal cells showing undifferentiated cell features, and branchial ionocytes. The ionocytes are identical to chloride cells of teleosts in cytostructure, distribution, and abundance. There are pillar and marginal capillaries in hagfish gill lamellae. Pillar cells contain bundles of 5-nm microfilaments, and they associate with collagen columns as in other fish. Hagfish pillar cells do exhibit odd features, however: They cluster (groups of up to nine were seen), and their extracellular collagen columns are rarer than in other fish gills (averaging only two columns per three pillar cells). Other special features of hagfish gills are the following: lipid droplets and smooth endoplasmic reticulum are well developed in all cell types; pavement cells secrete a lipomucous product (stains with periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue, and Sudan black B); and goblet cells are absent. The presence of "chloride cells" in hagfish is puzzling, as hagfish body fluids are iso-osmotic to seawater and there is no need to osmoregulate for sodium chloride; the ionocytes contain carbonic anhydrase, suggesting a function in acid/base regulation.

  20. Application of DVC-FISH method in tracking Escherichia coli in drinking water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mezule

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic detection of live (viable Escherichia coli in drinking water and biofilm with molecular methods but not with standard plate counts has raised concerns about the reliability of this indicator in the surveillance of drinking water safety. The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution of different viability forms of E. coli in a drinking water distribution system which complies with European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC. For two years coupons (two week old and pre-concentrated (100 times with ultrafilters water samples were collected after treatment plants and from four sites in the distribution network at several distances. The samples were analyzed for total, viable (able to divide as DVC-FISH positive and cultivable E. coli. The results showed that low numbers of E. coli enters the distribution sytem from the treatment plants and tend to accumulate in the biofilm of water distribution system. Almost all of the samples contained metabolically active E. coli in the range of 1 to 50 cells per litre or cm2 which represented approximately 53% of all E. coli detected. The amount of viable E. coli significantly increased into the network irrespective of the season. The study has shown that DVC-FISH method in combination with water pre-concentration and biofilm sampling allows to better understand the behaviour of E. coli in water distribution networks, thus, it provides new evidences for water safety control.

  1. [The genetics of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led to the di......Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  2. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, L.; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led to the di......Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  3. Prioritising alternatives for maintenance of water distribution networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-26

    . In addition, when multiple decision mak- ers are involved in water resource .... ranking. FIRST PHASE. Organising the individual rankings generated by the ELECTRE II. New matrix of alternatives. Criteria = Decision-makers.

  4. Morphology of the pharyngeal cavity, especially the surface ultrastructure of gill arches and gill rakers in relation to the feeding ecology of the catfish Rita rita (Siluriformes, Bagridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Usha; Yashpal, Madhu; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2005-08-01

    Gill arches and the gill rakers of a sluggish, carnivorous catfish, Rita rita, show significant differences of their surface ultrastructure, which are recognized adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of fish. Gill rakers on the first and second pairs of gill arches are borne on the oral side and are long and stout at the epi-ceratobranchial union. Gill rakers on the third and fourth pairs of gill arches, in contrast, are borne on the oral and aboral sides and are relatively delicate and short. Long and stout gill rakers on the first and second pairs of gill arches are considered primarily to prevent entry of undesirably large food items into the pharynx. Two types of taste buds, Type I and Type II, occur on the gill arches and the gill rakers. The raised taste buds, located at the apical ends of the gill rakers on the third, fourth, and the fifth pairs of gill arches could increase gustatory efficiency in the pharynx. Differences in the distribution of taste buds on the pharyngeal sides of different gill arches indicate that the posterior part of the pharynx plays a more crucial role in gustation than does the anterior part. Co-occurrence of teeth and taste buds on the epi- and hypopharyngeal bones denotes that food processing and gustation occur simultaneously in the pharynx. Villiform and caniform teeth on the epi- and hypopharyngeal bones are associated with a complex food-processing cycle. Mucous secretions, oozing through mucous cell openings, provide lubrication facilitating smooth passage of food through the pharynx. The angle of curvature at the epi-ceratobranchial union of the first to fourth pairs of gill arches could assist the ventral drag of ceratobranchials in lowering of the pharyngeal floor, thus resulting in a great expansion of the pharynx, as needed to accommodate the large quantities of food captured. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Improvement of water distribution networks analysis by topological similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper a methodology based on topological similarity is used to obtain starting point of iteration for solving reservoir and pipe network problems. As of now initial starting point for iteration is based on pure guess work which may be supported by experience. Topological similarity concept comes from the Principle of Quasi Work (PQW. In PQW the solution of any one problem of a class is used to solve other complex problems of the same class. This paves way for arriving at a unique concept of reference system the solution of which is used to obtain the starting point for starting the iteration process in reservoir and pipe network problems.

  6. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Florica, Camelia; Preda, Nicoleta; Enculescu, Monica; Zgura, Irina; Socol, Marcela; Enculescu, Ionut

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling ...

  7. Improved Cost-Base Design of Water Distribution Networks using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh Azar, Foad; Abghari, Hirad; Taghi Alami, Mohammad; Weijs, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Population growth and progressive extension of urbanization in different places of Iran cause an increasing demand for primary needs. The water, this vital liquid is the most important natural need for human life. Providing this natural need is requires the design and construction of water distribution networks, that incur enormous costs on the country's budget. Any reduction in these costs enable more people from society to access extreme profit least cost. Therefore, investment of Municipal councils need to maximize benefits or minimize expenditures. To achieve this purpose, the engineering design depends on the cost optimization techniques. This paper, presents optimization models based on genetic algorithm(GA) to find out the minimum design cost Mahabad City's (North West, Iran) water distribution network. By designing two models and comparing the resulting costs, the abilities of GA were determined. the GA based model could find optimum pipe diameters to reduce the design costs of network. Results show that the water distribution network design using Genetic Algorithm could lead to reduction of at least 7% in project costs in comparison to the classic model. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design of Water Distribution Network, Mahabad City, Iran.

  8. Networked water citizen organizations in Spain: Potential for transformation of existing power structures in water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuria Hernández-Mora; Violeta Cabello; Lucia De Stefano; Leandro Del Moral

    2015-01-01

    ... water has traditionally been limited to a closed water policy community, made up of economic water users, primarily irrigator associations and hydropower generators, civil engineering corps and large public works companies...

  9. Reactor vessel water level estimation during severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Back, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Global concern and interest in the safety of nuclear power plants have increased considerably since the Fukushima accident. In the event of a severe accident, the reactor vessel water level cannot be measured. The reactor vessel water level has a direct impact on confirming the safety of reactor core cooling. However, in the event of a severe accident, it may be possible to estimate the reactor vessel water level by employing other information. The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model can be used to estimate the reactor vessel water level through the process of repeatedly adding fuzzy neural networks. The developed CFNN model was found to be sufficiently accurate for estimating the reactor vessel water level when the sensor performance had deteriorated. Therefore, the developed CFNN model can help provide effective information to operators in the event of a severe accident.

  10. Development of mathematical models for forecasting hydraulic loads of water and wastewater networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studzinki, Jan [Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Systems Research Institute; Bartkiewicz, Lidia [Technical Univ. Kielce (Poland); Stachura, Marcin [Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    In municipal waterworks the operation of water and wastewater networks decides about the functioning of the sewage treatment plant that is the last element of the whole water and sewage system. The both networks are connected each other and the work of the water net affects the operation of the wastewater one. The parameters which are important for right leading of all waterworks objects are their hydraulic loads that have to be not exceeded. Too large loads can cause accidents in the wastewater net or the treatment plant and an early knowledge of them is of importance for undertaking some counteractions. In the paper different algorithms to model hydraulic loads of municipal water and wastewater nets are described and compared regarding their computation velocity and accuracy. Some exemplary computations have been done with some real data received from a Polish water company. (orig.)

  11. Abnormal quality detection and isolation in water distribution networks using simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nejjari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model based detection and localisation method to deal with abnormal quality levels based on the chlorine measurements and chlorine sensitivity analysis in a water distribution network. A fault isolation algorithm which correlates on line the residuals (generated by comparing the available chlorine measurements with their estimations using a model with the fault sensitivity matrix is used. The proposed methodology has been applied to a District Metered Area (DMA in the Barcelona network.

  12. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  13. The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Deborah

    This project examines the politics of water provision in low-income areas of large, developing cities. In the last two decades, water privatization has become a global paradigm, emerging as a potential means for addressing the urban water crisis. In Manila, the site of the world's largest water privatization project, service to low-income areas has improved significantly in the post-privatization era. But whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. Based on an ethnography of the private utilities and community-based providers, I use the persistence of small water networks as a lens for exploring the limits of water privatization in Manila. I focus on what I call micro-networks---community-built infrastructure that extends the formal, private utilities into low-income neighborhoods that the utilities do not wish to serve directly. In such a setup, the utility provides water only as far as the community boundary; beyond that, the micro-network operator constructs internal infrastructure, monitors for leakage and theft, and collects bills. But while these communities may gain access to safer water, they are also subject to higher costs and heightened disciplinary measures. By tracing the ways in which the utilities selectively use micro-networks to manage sub-populations, I show how the utilities make low-income spaces more governable. Delegating localized water management to micro-network operators depoliticizes the utilities' roles, shifting the sociopolitical difficulties of water provision to community organizations, while allowing the utilities to claim that these areas are served. This research leads to three related arguments. First, the persistence of small water networks highlights lingering inequities in access to water, for micro-network

  14. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test the different techniques for accuracy, specificity, false positive rate, and false negative rate. The tests examined different parameters including measurement error, modeling error, injection characteristics, time horizon, network size, and sensor placement. The water distribution system network models that were used in the study are also included in the dataset. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Seth, A., K. Klise, J. Siirola, T. Haxton , and C. Laird. Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks. Journal of Environmental Division, Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA, ., (2016).

  15. Bayesian Network Modeling to Improve Water Pricing Practices in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuyunjiang Mamitimin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water pricing is regarded as the most important and simplest economic instrument to encourage more efficient use of irrigation water in crop production. In the extremely water-scarce Tarim River basin in northwest China, improving water use efficiency has high relevance for research and policy. A Bayesian network modeling approach was applied, which is especially suitable under data-scarce conditions and the complex geo-hydrological, socioeconomic, and institutional settings of the study region, as it allows the integration of data from various types of sources. The transdisciplinary approach aimed at understanding the actual water pricing practices, the shortcomings of the current system, and possible ways of improvement. In an iterative procedure of expert interviews and group workshops, the key factors related to water pricing and water use efficiency were identified. The interactions among specific factors were defined by the respective experts, generating a causal network, which describes all relevant aspects of the investigated system. This network was finally populated with probabilistic relationships through a second round of expert interviews and group discussions. The Bayesian modeling exercise was then conducted using Netica software. The modeling results show that the mere increase of water price does not lead to significant increases in water use efficiency in crop production. Additionally, the model suggests a shift to volumetric water pricing, subsidization of water saving irrigation technology, and advancing agricultural extension to enable the farmer to efficiently react to increased costs for water. The applied participatory modeling approach helped to stimulate communication among relevant stakeholders from different domains in the region, which is necessary to create mutual understanding and joint targeted action. Finally, the challenges related to the applied transdisciplinary Bayesian modeling approach are discussed in the

  16. Does Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exhibit a gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform switch during salinity change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Rebecca J; Madsen, Steffen S; Bossus, Maryline C; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2016-05-01

    Some euryhaline teleosts exhibit a switch in gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka) α isoform when moving between fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW). The present study tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in Japanese medaka and whether salinity affects ouabain, Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+) affinity of the gill enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis classified six separate medaka Nka α isoforms (α1a, α1b, α1c, α2, α3a and α3b). Medaka acclimated long-term (>30 days) to either FW or SW had similar gill expression of α1c, α2, α3a and α3b, while both α1a and α1b were elevated in SW. Since a potential isoform shift may rely on early changes in transcript abundance, we conducted two short-term (1-3 days) salinity transfer experiments. FW to SW acclimation induced an elevation of α1b and α1a after 1 and 3 days. SW to FW acclimation reduced α1b after 3 days with no other α isoforms affected. To verify that the responses were typical, additional transport proteins were examined. Gill ncc and nhe3 expression were elevated in FW, while cftr and nkcc1a were up-regulated in SW. This is in accordance with putative roles in ion-uptake and secretion. SW-acclimated medaka had higher gill Nka V max and lower apparent K m for Na(+) compared to FW fish, while apparent affinities for K(+), Mg(2+) and ouabain were unchanged. The present study showed that the Japanese medaka does not exhibit a salinity-induced α isoform switch and therefore suggests that Na(+) affinity changes involve altered posttranslational modification or intermolecular interactions.

  17. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  18. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disinfection with chlorine is a common practice to ensure secured drinking water, but results in potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs), when excess chlorination is done. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has established Stage 1 and Stage 2 disinfection by-product Rules (DBP rules) to control ...

  19. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... method, which identifies the regions with relatively poor water quality and highlights the potential locations for re-chlorination points. .... *USEPA (2009a) states 1 NTU when the system uses conventional or direct filtration and 5NTU when the system uses filtration other than the conven- tional or direct ...

  20. Supramolecular coordination polymers in water: rings, chains and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermonden, T.

    2005-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers are polymers in which the monomers are held together by non-covalent interactions. In solution these polymers can break and recombine reversibly yielding polymers with an average degree of polymerization. This thesis is devoted to water-soluble coordination polymers, in which

  1. Epithelial remodeling and claudin mRNA abundance in the gill and kidney of puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) acclimated to altered environmental ion levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Nicole M; Bui, Phuong; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Kelly, Scott P

    2011-02-01

    In water of varying ion content, the gills and kidney of fishes contribute significantly to the maintenance of salt and water balance. However, little is known about the molecular architecture of the tight junction (TJ) complex and the regulation of paracellular permeability characteristics in these tissues. In the current studies, puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), seawater (SW) or ion-poor freshwater (IPW) conditions. Following acclimation, alterations in systemic endpoints of hydromineral status were examined in conjunction with changes in gill and kidney epithelia morphology/morphometrics, as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. T. biocellatus were able to maintain endpoints of hydromineral status within relatively tight limits across the broad range of water ion content examined. Both gill and kidney tissue exhibited substantial alterations in morphology as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. These responses were particularly pronounced when comparing fish acclimated to SW versus those acclimated to IPW. TEM observations of IPW-acclimated fish gills revealed the presence of cells that exhibited the typical characteristics of gill mitochondria-rich cells (e.g. voluminous, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive, exposed to the external environment at the apical surface), but were not mitochondria-rich. To our knowledge, this type of cell has not previously been described in hyperosmoregulating fish gills. Furthermore, modifications in the morphometrics and claudin mRNA abundance of kidney tissue support the notion that spatial alterations in claudin TJ proteins along the nephron of fishes will likely play an important role in the regulation of salt and water balance in these organisms.

  2. Calibration of parameters of water supply network model using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczar Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation models of water supply networks are commonly applied in the water industry. As part of the research works, results of which are presented in the paper, OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration of water supply network model parameters using two methods was carried out and compared. The network skeleton was developed in the Epanet software. For optimization two types of dependent variables were subjected: the pressure on the node and volume flow in the network section. The first calibration method regards to application of the genetic algorithm, which is a build in plugin - “Epanet Calibrator”. The second method was related to the use of function ga, which is implemented in the MATLAB toolbox Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search. The possibilities of application of these algorithms to solve the issue of optimizing the parameters of the created model of water supply network in both cases: OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration was examined. An analysis of the effectiveness of the considered algorithms for different values of configuration parameters was performed. Based on the achieved results it was stated that application of the ga algorithm gives higher correlation of the calibrated values to the empirical data.

  3. Calibration of parameters of water supply network model using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczar, Tomasz; Adamikiewicz, Norbert; Stanisławski, Włodzimierz

    2017-10-01

    Computer simulation models of water supply networks are commonly applied in the water industry. As part of the research works, results of which are presented in the paper, OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration of water supply network model parameters using two methods was carried out and compared. The network skeleton was developed in the Epanet software. For optimization two types of dependent variables were subjected: the pressure on the node and volume flow in the network section. The first calibration method regards to application of the genetic algorithm, which is a build in plugin - "Epanet Calibrator". The second method was related to the use of function ga, which is implemented in the MATLAB toolbox Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search. The possibilities of application of these algorithms to solve the issue of optimizing the parameters of the created model of water supply network in both cases: OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration was examined. An analysis of the effectiveness of the considered algorithms for different values of configuration parameters was performed. Based on the achieved results it was stated that application of the ga algorithm gives higher correlation of the calibrated values to the empirical data.

  4. Prevalence and intensity of gill monogenean parasites of Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the gills of 361 Tilapia guineensis was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 to determine the effect of seasonal changes, host size and sex on the incidence of monogenean parasites infection. Standard methods of parasitological examination were used for identification of monogenean species. Eleven.

  5. Matter in Motion: The Educational Materialism of Gilles Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In "Difference and Repetition", he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in "Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II" that were co-written with Felix Guattari (1984, 1988)…

  6. Bioaccumulation of selected metals in the gill, liver and muscle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal concentrations in the gill, muscle and liver tissues of Labeo rosae from two impoundments, Loskop and Flag Boshielo dams on the Olifants River, were evaluated in 2011 to detect patterns in metal associations between tissues and impoundments. Elevated concentrations of Ba, Zn, B, Al, Si and Fe, relative to a pristine ...

  7. Montigny Gilles, Maurice Halbwachs. Vie, œuvres, concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilles Ferréol

    2011-01-01

    Maurice Halbwachs, rappelle d’emblée Gilles Montigny, a été l’une des figures les plus marquantes de la sociologie française de la première moitié du XXe siècle. Durkhei­mien hétérodoxe, il a laissé...

  8. The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome : a psychiatrisch - genetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.M. van de Wetering (Ben)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset and characterized by motor, vocal, sensory and cognitive tics that may vary from relatively mild to very severe. The tics are often accompanied by echo- and coprophenomena, all in a

  9. Histopathological changes in the gill and liver of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amygdalina is a tropical African woody shrub with diverse phytochemical constituents recently linked with insecticidal properties that could replace the harmful agrochemical pesticide usage around aquatic environment. This study investigates the histopathological changes in the liver and gills of Clarias gariepinus ...

  10. Histopathological changes in the gills of naturallyinfected Capoeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected with parasites were studied. The specimens (15.5 to 22.8 cm) were collected from Choghakhor lagoon in West Iran. 35 (11%) of the total 318 studied fishes were infected with gill parasites. Overall, six protozoan and metazoan parasite ...

  11. GILLES DE LA TOURETTE'S SYNDROME- A CASE REPORT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    multidisciplinary monograph about the condition and thereafter Gilles ... neurology team of University of Benin. Teaching Hospital to the ... phosphorus were normal. This was done because their derangement could cause abnormal movement. Urinalysis was also normal. Individual psychotherapy and behavioural therapy ...

  12. Third intervention of Gilles Jobin and Collide@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Everything you wanted to know about contemporary dance but were afraid to ask. - 4 September 2012 at 4 p.m. in the Council Chamber -   A subjective and personal presentation of the recent history of contemporary dance by Gilles Jobin, Collide@CERN choreographer in residence.

  13. Long-Term Outcome of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Videotapes recorded 1978 through 1991 of 56 children (ages 8 to 14 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS were reviewed and 31 of the patients (28 men and 3 women, age>20 years were recruited for a second videotape and in-person assessment at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Movement Disorder Center, Chicago, IL.

  14. Structural Connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Centre de Reference National Maladie Rare ‘Syndrome Gilles de la Tourette’ and Sorbonne University report white matter abnormalities in the pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus in a group of 49 adults with Tourette syndrome (TS.

  15. Infection dynamics of four gill Monogenean species from Tilapia zillii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the gills of 359 Tilapia zillii, which were caught between August 2004 and July 2005, have been investigated in the Ayame man-made lake (Côte d'Ivoire), so as to collect first data on the population dynamics of the Monogeneans parasites in a wild population. Standard methods of parasitological examination ...

  16. Prevalence and intensity of gill monogenean parasites of Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the gills of 361 Tilapia guineensis was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 to determine the effect of seasonal changes, host size and sex on the incidence of monogenean parasites infection. Standard methods of parasitological examination were used for identification of monogenean species. Eleven ...

  17. Comparative Study of Different Gill Net Mesh Sizes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    indiv). The coefficient of variation between the size classes was high (93.9%) and showed slight positive skewness (0.58)and kurtosis of -0.43 (Table 1). The comparison of mean within the gill net mesh sizes using student t-test (t -test=145 > 0.890.5) showed significance variation between the size classes caught (Table 1).

  18. Unified pipe network method for simulation of water flow in fractured porous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Ma, Guowei; Wang, Yang; Li, Tuo; Zhu, Hehua

    2017-04-01

    Rock masses are often conceptualized as dual-permeability media containing fractures or fracture networks with high permeability and porous matrix that is less permeable. In order to overcome the difficulties in simulating fluid flow in a highly discontinuous dual-permeability medium, an effective unified pipe network method is developed, which discretizes the dual-permeability rock mass into a virtual pipe network system. It includes fracture pipe networks and matrix pipe networks. They are constructed separately based on equivalent flow models in a representative area or volume by taking the advantage of the orthogonality of the mesh partition. Numerical examples of fluid flow in 2-D and 3-D domain including porous media and fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and effectiveness of the proposed unified pipe network method. Results show that the developed method has good performance even with highly distorted mesh. Water recharge into the fractured rock mass with complex fracture network is studied. It has been found in this case that the effect of aperture change on the water recharge rate is more significant in the early stage compared to the fracture density change.

  19. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  20. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  1. First evidence of amoebae-mycobacteria association in drinking water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafont, Vincent; Mougari, Faïza; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Joyeux, Michel; Bouchon, Didier; Héchard, Yann; Moulin, Laurent

    2014-10-21

    Free-living amoebae are protozoa ubiquitously found in water systems. They mainly feed on bacteria by phagocytosis, but some bacterial species are able to resist or even escape this lethal process. Among these amoeba resistant bacteria are numerous members of the genus Mycobacterium. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share the same ecological niches as amoebae. While several studies have demonstrated the ability of these bacteria to colonise and persist within drinking water networks, there is also strong suspicion that mycobacteria could use amoebae as a vehicle for protection and even replication. We investigated here the presence of NTM and FLA on a drinking water network during an all year round sampling campaign. We observed that 87.6% of recovered amoebal cultures carried high numbers of NTM. Identification of these amoeba and mycobacteria strains indicated that the main genera found in drinking water networks, that is, Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Echinamoeba, and Protacanthamoeba are able to carry and likely to allow replication of several environmental and potentially pathogenic mycobacteria including M. llatzerense and M. chelonae. Direct Sanger sequencing as well as pyrosequencing of environmental isolates demonstrated the frequent association of mycobacteria and FLA, as they are part of the most represented genera composing amoebae's microbiome. This is the first time that an association between FLA and NTM is observed in water networks, highlighting the importance of FLA in the ecology of NTM.

  2. PLIO: a generic tool for real-time operational predictive optimal control of water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrano, G; Quevedo, J; Puig, V; Pérez, R; Figueras, J; Verdejo, J M; Escaler, I; Ramón, G; Barnet, G; Rodríguez, P; Casas, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a generic tool, named PLIO, that allows to implement the real-time operational control of water networks. Control strategies are generated using predictive optimal control techniques. This tool allows the flow management in a large water supply and distribution system including reservoirs, open-flow channels for water transport, water treatment plants, pressurized water pipe networks, tanks, flow/pressure control elements and a telemetry/telecontrol system. Predictive optimal control is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands with appropriate pressure levels, optimizing operational goals such as network safety volumes and flow control stability. PLIO allows to build the network model graphically and then to automatically generate the model equations used by the predictive optimal controller. Additionally, PLIO can work off-line (in simulation) and on-line (in real-time mode). The case study of Santiago-Chile is presented to exemplify the control results obtained using PLIO off-line (in simulation).

  3. SmartPipes: Smart Wireless Sensor Networks for Leak Detection in Water Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Sadeghioon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asset monitoring, specifically infrastructure monitoring such as water distribution pipelines, is becoming increasingly critical for utility owners who face new challenges due to an aging network. In the UK alone, during the period of 2009–2010, approximately 3281 mega litres (106 of water were wasted due to failure or leaks in water pipelines. Various techniques can be used for the monitoring of water distribution networks. This paper presents the design, development and testing of a smart wireless sensor network for leak detection in water pipelines, based on the measurement of relative indirect pressure changes in plastic pipes. Power consumption of the sensor nodes is minimised to 2.2 mW based on one measurement every 6 h in order to prolong the lifetime of the network and increase the sensor nodes’ compatibility with current levels of power available by energy harvesting methods and long life batteries. A novel pressure sensing method is investigated for its performance and capabilities by both laboratory and field trials. The sensors were capable of measuring pressure changes due to leaks. These pressure profiles can also be used to locate the leaks.

  4. CONCENTRATION OF TRIHALOMETHANES (THM AND PRECURSORS IN DRINKING WATER WITHIN DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA ROMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of trihalomethanes (THM and precursors in drinking water within distribution networks. Water chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, having however the disadvantage of producing trihalomethanes (THM as secondary compounds, which are included in the list of priority hazardous substances in water. THM formation is influenced by the raw water composition and chlorine from the disinfection process. This paper intends to highlight the individual values of the chemical compounds precursors of THM in the water network in order to correlate them with the evolution of THM concentration. The cities of Targu Mures and Zalau were chosen as the study area having surface waters with different degrees of contamination as the water source. Pre-treatment with potassium permanganate is used at the water treatment plant in Targu Mures, while pre-chlorination is used at the water treatment plant in Zalau. Water sampling was performed weekly between March-May, 2011 in three sampling points of each city, maintained during the period of study. Total THM and their compounds as well as THM precursors (oxidability, ammonium content, nitrites and nitrates were measured. The water supplied in the distribution network corresponded integrally to the quality standards in terms of the analyzed indicators, including THM concentrations. The higher average THM concentrations in Zalau (52.01±14 μg/L compared to Targu Mures (36.43±9.14 μg/L were expected as a result of precursors concentration. In terms of THM compounds, they had similar proportions in the two localities, chloroform being clearly predominant, followed by dichlorobromoform and dibromochloroform, while bromoform was not identified. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of THM precursors is correlated with the THM levels but not sufficient for their generation, even if they can be considered in general the basis of a valid prediction.

  5. Simplification of Water Distribution Network Simulation by Topological Clustering – Investigation of its Potential Use in Copenhagen's Water Supply Monitoring and Contamination Contingency Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Topological clustering was investigated to simplify a complex water distribution network of Copenhagen, Denmark, into recogniz- able water movement patterns. This made it possible to assess the general transport of the water and to suggest strategic sampling locations. Through a topological...... the samples’ comparability over time, and locations, where samples represent the distributed and consumed water in the Nørrebro district....

  6. Contamination potential of drinking water distribution network biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingender, J; Flemming, H C

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water distribution system biofilms were investigated for the presence of hygienically relevant microorganisms. Early biofilm formation was evaluated in biofilm reactors on stainless steel, copper, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene coupons exposed to unchlorinated drinking water. After 12 to 18 months, a plateau phase of biofilm development was reached. Surface colonization on the materials ranged between 4 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(7) cells/cm2, with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria between 9 x 10(3) and 7 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/cm2. Established biofilms were investigated in 18 pipe sections (2 to 99 years old) cut out from distribution pipelines. Materials included cast iron, galvanized steel, cement and PVC. Colonization ranged from 4 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(8) cells/cm2, HPC levels varied between 1 and 2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2. No correlation was found between extent of colonization and age of the pipes. Using cultural detection methods, coliform bacteria were rarely found, while Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp. were not detected in the biofilms. In regular operation, distribution system biofilms do not seem to be common habitats for pathogens. However, nutrient-leaching materials like rubber-coated valves were observed with massive biofilms which harboured coliform bacteria contaminating drinking water.

  7. Physical gills prevent drowning of many wetland insects, spiders and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-03-01

    Insects, spiders and plants risk drowning in their wetland habitats. The slow diffusion of O(2) can cause asphyxiation when underwater, as O(2) supply cannot meet respiratory demands. Some animals and plants have found a common solution to the major challenge: how to breathe underwater with respiratory systems evolved for use in air? Hydrophobic surfaces on their bodies possess gas films that act as a 'physical gill' to collect O(2) when underwater and thus sustain respiration. In aquatic insects, this feature/process has been termed 'plastron respiration'. Here, we demonstrate the similarities in function between underwater respiration of insect (Aphelocheirus aestivalis) plastrons and gas films on leaves of wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea) and also show the importance of these physical gills by the resulting changes upon their removal. The gas films provide an enlarged gas-water interface to enhance O(2) uptake underwater that is above that if only spiracles (insects) or stomata (plants) provided the gas-phase contact with the water. Body-surface gas films contribute to the survival of many insects, spiders and plants in aquatic and flood-prone environments.

  8. Energy efficient cooperation in underlay RFID cognitive networks for a water smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-09-30

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model's (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  9. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  10. Screening for contaminants of emerging concern in Northern Colorado Plateau Network waters: 2015 surface-water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissinger, R; Battaglin, William A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, as part of an on-going screening program for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8, surface waters at 18 locations in or near seven national park units within the Northern Colorado Plateau Network (NCPN) were sampled for pesticides and pesticide degradation products, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones, organic-wastewater-indictor chemicals, and nutrients. Most sites were sampled in spring (May or June) and fall (September).

  11. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  12. Dynamic hydraulic models to study sedimentation in drinking water networks in detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. M. Pothof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in drinking water networks can lead to discolouration complaints. A sufficient criterion to prevent sedimentation in the Dutch drinking water networks is a daily maximum velocity of 0.25 m s−1. Flushing experiments have shown that this criterion is a sufficient condition for a clean network, but not a necessary condition. Drinking water networks include many locations with a maximum velocity well below 0.25 m s−1 without accumulated sediments. Other criteria need to be developed to predict which locations are susceptible to sedimentation and to prevent sedimentation in future networks. More distinctive criteria are helpful to prioritise flushing operations and to prevent water quality complaints.

    The authors use three different numerical modelling approaches – quasi-steady, rigid column and water hammer – with a temporal discretisation of 1 s in order to assess the influence of unsteady flows on the wall shear stress, causing resuspension of sediment particles. The model predictions are combined with results from flushing experiments in the drinking water distribution system of Purmerend, the Netherlands. The waterhammer model does not result in essentially different flow distribution patterns, compared to the rigid column and quasi-steady modelling approach. The extra information from the waterhammer model is a velocity oscillation of approximately 0.02 m s−1 around the quasi-steady solution. The presence of stagnation zones and multiple flow direction reversals seem to be interesting new parameters to predict sediment accumulation, which are consistent with the observed turbidity data and theoretical considerations on critical shear stresses.

  13. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  14. Histopathological changes in the skins and gills of some marine fishes due to parasitic isopod infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the histopathological symptoms owing to cymothoid isopod that were categorised as gross lesions. Methods: Nature of damage fish tissues and gills were taken from the parasite attachment area of infested and uninfested fishes which were cut out in fresh condition fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Fresh and recently preserved tissues and gills were washed in tap water and dehydrated using alcohol series. The tissues gills were then cleaned in methylbenzoate and benzene and embedded in paraffin wax. The serial sections cutting 4 to 5 m thickness, were stained with Erlich’s haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological analysis. Results: In normal muscle tissue, the tensile strength of muscle fibers with extra cellular matrix collagen was extensively tight associated. This gave a rigid musculature pattern to the tissues. Infested fish exhibited histopathological anomalies such as tissue reactions, primarily associated with the formation of granulomas consisted of macrophages and epitheleioid cells, which were occasionally surrounded by a thin rim of fibroblasts. The infestations such as lipofibrosis, hyperaemia, haemorhagic lesions and penetration of dactylus usually pressure atrophy often accompanied by the presence of parasites. Lesions had well developed granulomas that underlined in the muscle or overlying subcutaneous tissue, form these spread to underlying organs. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the infection studies of parasite that attaches or settles on the host body, at first, causes localized inflammatory changes, but with time, assuring a different or diffused character. The changes always begin with hyperaemia in the angles between adjacent sides at the site of attachment and then move towards deeply situated area.

  15. Model development of a participatory Bayesian network for coupling ecosystem services into integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Fanjiang; Mao, Donglei; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing consensus on the importance of coupling ecosystem services (ES) into integrated water resource management (IWRM), due to a wide range of benefits to human from the ES. This paper proposes an ES-based IWRM framework within which a participatory Bayesian network (BN) model is developed to assist with the coupling between ES and IWRM. The framework includes three steps: identifying water-related services of ecosystems; analysis of the tradeoff and synergy among users of water; and ES-based IWRM implementation using the participatory BN model. We present the development, evaluation and application of the participatory BN model with the involvement of four participant groups (stakeholders, water manager, water management experts, and research team) in Qira oasis area, Northwest China. As a typical catchment-scale region, the Qira oasis area is facing severe water competition between the demands of human activities and natural ecosystems. Results demonstrate that the BN model developed provides effective integration of ES into a quantitative IWMR framework via public negotiation and feedback. The network results, sensitivity evaluation, and management scenarios are broadly accepted by the participant groups. The intervention scenarios from the model conclude that any water management measure remains unable to sustain the ecosystem health in water-related ES. Greater cooperation among the stakeholders is highly necessary for dealing with such water conflicts. In particular, a proportion of the agricultural water saved through improving water-use efficiency should be transferred to natural ecosystems via water trade. The BN model developed is appropriate for areas throughout the world in which there is intense competition for water between human activities and ecosystems.

  16. Functionalized Cellulose Networks for Efficient Oil Removal from Oil–Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam C. Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of oil from water in emulsions is a great environmental challenge, since oily wastewater is industrially produced. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient method to separate oil from water in non-stabilized emulsions, using functionalized cellulose fiber networks. This is achieved by the modification of the wetting properties of the fibers, transforming them from oil- and water-absorbing to water-absorbing and oil-proof. In particular, two diverse layers of polymeric coatings, paraffin wax and poly(dimethylsiloxane-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PDMS-b-PEO diblock copolymer, are applied on the surface of each individual fiber by a two-step dip adsorption process. The resulting cellulose networks exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity and they are mechanically reinforced. Therefore, the described treatment makes cellulose fiber networks excellent candidates for the filtration and subsequent removal of oil from oil-in-water non-stabilized emulsions with oil separation efficiency up to 99%. The good selectivity, reproducibility, and cost effectiveness of the preparation process leads to the production of low cost filters that can be used in oil–water separation applications.

  17. Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2014-03-25

    Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.

  18. Hydro power potentials of water distribution networks in public universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adebola KOYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Universities in Southwestern Nigeria are densely populated student-resident campuses, so that provision of regular potable water and electricity are important, but power supply is not optimally available for all the necessary activities. This study assesses the hydropower potential of the water distribution networks in the Universities, with the view to augmenting the inadequate power supplies. The institutions with water distribution configuration capable of accommodating in-pipe turbine are identified; the hydropower parameters, such as the flow characteristics and the pipe geometry are determined to estimate the water power. Global positioning device is used in estimating the elevations of the distribution reservoirs and the nodal points. The hydropower potential of each location is computed incorporating Lucid® Lift-based spherical turbine in the pipeline. From the analysis, the lean and the peak water power are between 1.92 – 3.30 kW and 3.95 – 7.24 kW, respectively, for reservoir-fed distribution networks; while, a minimum of 0.72 kW is got for pipelines associated with borehole-fed overhead tanks. Possible applications of electricity generation from the water distribution networks of the public universities are recommended.

  19. Aquaporin-3 expressed in the basolateral membrane of gill chloride cells in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Aida, Katsumi

    2005-07-01

    We have cloned a homologue of mammalian aquaporin-3 (AQP3) from gills of Mozambique tilapia using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The deduced amino acid sequence shared 64-75% homology with other vertebrate AQP3 homologues. RT-PCR revealed that tilapia AQP3 was expressed in the brain, pituitary, kidney, spleen, intestine, skin, eye and gill in tilapia adapted to freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW). We also examined functional characteristics of tilapia AQP3 using Xenopus oocytes as an in vitro transcribed cRNA expression system. Osmotic water permeability (Pf) of Xenopus oocytes expressing tilapia AQP3 was about 30-fold higher than that of control oocytes, and was 80% inhibited by treatment with 0.3 mmol l(-1) HgCl2. Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry of branchial epithelia revealed that tilapia AQP3 was expressed in gill chloride cells of FW- and SW-adapted tilapia. Electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry further demonstrated that tilapia AQP3 was localized in the basolateral membrane of gill chloride cells. Basolateral localization of AQP3 in gill chloride cells suggests that AQP3 is involved in regulatory volume changes and osmoreception, which could trigger functional differentiation of chloride cells.

  20. Where to Find Water Pipes and Sewers?—On the Correlation of Infrastructure Networks in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban water infrastructure, i.e., water supply and sewer networks, are underground structures, implying that detailed information on their location and features is not directly accessible, frequently erroneous, or missing. For public use, data is also not made available due to security concerns. This lack of quality data, especially for research purposes, requires substantial effort when such data is sought for both statistical and model‐based analyses. An alternative to gathering data from archives and observations is to extract the information from surrogate data sources (e.g., the street network. The key for such an undertaking is to identify the common characteristics of all urban infrastructure network types and to quantify them. In this work, the network correlations of the street, water supply, and sewer networks are systematically analyzed. The results showed a strong correlation between the street networks and urban water infrastructure networks, in general. For the investigated cases, on average, 50% of the street network length correlates with 80%-85% of the total water supply/sewer network. A correlation between street types and water infrastructure properties (e.g., pipe diameter cannot be found. All analyses are quantified in the form of different geometric‐ and graph‐based indicators. The obtained results improve the understanding of urban network infrastructure from an integrated point of view. Moreover, the method can be fundamental for different research purposes, such as data verification, data completion, or even the entire generation of feasible datasets.

  1. Lipid carbonyl groups terminate the hydrogen bond network of membrane-bound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Backus, Ellen H G; Hsieh, Cho-Shuen; Sulpizi, Marialore; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki

    2015-11-19

    We present a combined experimental sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations study to clarify the structure and orientation of water at zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid and amine N-oxide (AO) surfactant monolayers. Simulated O-H stretch SFG spectra of water show good agreement with the experimental data. The SFG response at the PC interface exhibits positive peaks, whereas both negative and positive bands are present for the similar zwitterionic AO interface. The positive peaks at the water/PC interface are attributed to water interacting with the lipid carbonyl groups, which act as efficient hydrogen bond acceptors. This allows the water hydrogen bond network to reach, with its (up-oriented) O-H groups, into the headgroup of the lipid, a mechanism not available for water underneath the AO surfactant. This highlights the role of the lipid carbonyl group in the interfacial water structure at the membrane interface, namely, stabilizing the water hydrogen bond network.

  2. Robustness of the Drinking Water Distribution Network under Changing Future Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Bongard, T.; Hillegers, S.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    A methodology to determine the robustness of the drinking water distribution system is proposed. The performance of three networks under ten future demand scenarios was tested, using head loss and residence time as indicators. The scenarios consider technological and demographic changes. Daily

  3. Unified Framework for Deriving Simultaneous Equation Algorithms for Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The known formulations for steady state hydraulics within looped water distribution networks are re-derived in terms of linear and non-linear transformations of the original set of partly linear and partly non-linear equations that express conservation of mass and energy. All of ...

  4. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for water distribution networks: steady state modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, Mohammad S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available steady state hydraulic model that will be used within a real-time dynamic hydraulic model (DHM). The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) water distribution network (WDN) is used as a pilot study for this purpose. A hydraulic analysis...

  5. Comparing risk of failure models in water supply networks using ROC curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debon, A., E-mail: andeau@eio.upv.e [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Carrion, A. [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabrera, E. [Dpto. De Ingenieria Hidraulica Y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Tecnologico del Agua, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Solano, H. [Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of predicting the failure of water mains has been considered from different perspectives and using several methodologies in engineering literature. Nowadays, it is important to be able to accurately calculate the failure probabilities of pipes over time, since water company profits and service quality for citizens depend on pipe survival; forecasting pipe failures could have important economic and social implications. Quantitative tools (such as managerial or statistical indicators and reliable databases) are required in order to assess the current and future state of networks. Companies managing these networks are trying to establish models for evaluating the risk of failure in order to develop a proactive approach to the renewal process, instead of using traditional reactive pipe substitution schemes. The main objective of this paper is to compare models for evaluating the risk of failure in water supply networks. Using real data from a water supply company, this study has identified which network characteristics affect the risk of failure and which models better fit data to predict service breakdown. The comparison using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) graph leads us to the conclusion that the best model is a generalized linear model. Also, we propose a procedure that can be applied to a pipe failure database, allowing the most appropriate decision rule to be chosen.

  6. Water demand prediction using artificial neural networks and support vector regression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available comparison are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). In this study it was observed that ANNs perform significantly better than SVMs. This performance is measured against the generalization ability of the two techniques in water...

  7. Pipe replacement in a water supply network: coordinated versus uncoordinated replacement and budget effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Operators of underground water supply networks are challenged with pipe replacement
    decisions, because pipes are subject to increased failure rates as they age and financial resources
    are often limited.We study the optimal replacement time and optimal number of pipe replacements
    such

  8. A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, Coen J.; Kuipers, Henk; Kleiboer, L.; Kleiboer, Leon; van den Elsen, Erik; Oostindie, Klaas; Wesseling, Jan G.; Wolthuis, Jan-Willem; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new stand-alone wireless embedded network system has been developed recently for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths. This paper presents information on the technical aspects of the system, including the applied sensor technology, the wireless communication protocols,

  9. Real-Time Water Vapor Maps from a GPS Surface Network: Construction, Validation, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.; Holleman, I.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the construction of real-time integrated water vapor (IWV) maps from a surface network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is presented. The IWV maps are constructed using a twodimensional variational technique with a persistence background that is 15 min old. The background

  10. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA Water Resources PI Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records.

  11. Balancing of hot water distribution networks; Equilibrage des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridmann, P. [Societe Comap SA (France)

    1998-10-01

    The hydraulic balancing of hot water distribution networks is of prime importance for the optimum exploitation of air-conditioning installations. In the case of a non-correct balancing, heat exchangers, hot or cold batteries, water heaters or convection heaters are supplied by an insufficient or excessive water flow rate which disturbs the thermal equilibrium of the system and its correct regulation. The result is a degradation of the thermal comfort and a loss of energy. The aim of this technical paper is to precise the conditions of a good hydraulic (and thermal) balancing and the main rules to apply in order to avoid difficulties and counter-performances in space heating installations. The examples are restricted to closed and ramified hot or cold water networks and to a qualitative description of the phenomena: 1 - generalities (terminology, pressure drops, Z coefficients, network-pump coupling, thermosiphon effect, flow rate adjustment, flow and/or differential pressure regulation); 2 - application to the balancing of new installations (networks calculation principles, determination and adjustment of balancing equipments, follow up of hydraulic characteristics and prevention of disturbances); 3 - application to the balancing of existing installations; 4 - perspectives of evolution. (J.S.) 21 refs.

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-01

    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  13. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-21

    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  14. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  15. Evaluation of exposure scenarios on intentional microbiological contamination in a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Forêt, Jean Marie; Chardon, Jurgen; Teunis, Peter; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Tangena, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are vulnerable to accidental or intentional contamination events. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seeding duration and concentration, exposure pathway (ingestion via drinking of water and tooth brushing and inhalation by taking a shower) and pathogen infectivity on exposure and infection risk in the case of an intentional pathogenic contamination in a drinking water distribution network. Seeding of a pathogen for 10 min and 120 min, and subsequent spreading through a drinking water distribution network were simulated. For exposure via drinking, actual data on drinking events and volumes were used. Ingestion of a small volume of water by tooth brushing twice a day by every person in the network was assumed. Inhalation of contaminated aerosol droplets took place when taking a shower. Infection risks were estimated for pathogens with low (r = 0.0001) and high (r = 0.1) infectivity. In the served population (48 000 persons) and within 24 h, about 1400 persons were exposed to the pathogen by ingestion of water in the 10-min seeding scenario and about 3400 persons in the 120-min scenario. The numbers of exposed persons via tooth brushing were about the same as via drinking of water. Showering caused (inhalation) exposure in about 450 persons in the 10-min scenario and about 1500 in the 120-min scenario. Regardless of pathogen infectivity, if the seeding concentration is 10(6) pathogens per litre or more, infection risks are close to one. Exposure by taking a shower is of relevance if the pathogen is highly infectious via inhalation. A longer duration of the seeding of a pathogen increases the probability of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa

    2010-12-15

    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  17. Effects Comparison of Different Resilience Enhancing Strategies for Municipal Water Distribution Network: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution network (WDN is critical to the city service, economic rehabilitation, public health, and safety. Reconstructing the WDN to improve its resilience in seismic disaster is an important and ongoing issue. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of different reconstruction strategies on seismic resistance, it is still hard for decision-makers to choose optimal resilience enhancing strategy. Taking the pipeline ductile retrofitting and network meshed expansion as demonstration, we proposed a feasible framework to contrast the resilience enhancing effects of two reconstruction strategies—units retrofitting strategy and network optimization strategy—in technical and organizational dimension. We also developed a new performance response function (PRF which is based on network equilibrium theory to conduct the effects comparison in integrated technical and organizational dimension. Through the case study of municipal WDN in Lianyungang, China, the comparison results were thoroughly shown and the holistic decision-making support was provided.

  18. Network Analysis for a Better Water Use Configuration in the Baiyangdian Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an increasing shortage of water resources intensifies the contradiction among different water-using sectors in the social-economic-ecological complex system. To adjust water used configuration in a holistic framework, a water use system (WUS model was constructed with inclusive five water-using sectors including aquatic systems, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry and resident consumption. The Baiyangdian Basin in Northern China was used as a case area. Six years data from 2008 to 2013 were used to quantify the model. By introducing the ecological network analysis (EAN, we holistically assessed the WUS under different water use configuration. System organization, activities and development degree, etc. were used to character the prosperities of the water use system. Results indicate that the WUS encountered a lasting degradation in system organization (AMI index decreased in an annual rate of 0.6% and development degree though with an ascending system activities in the studies periods (with an annual growth rate of 11.3%. Scenario analysis results suggest several potential ways to achieve a better water use configuration in this basin, such as environmental and ecological restoration, water-saving technology and water recycling rate, etc. The current study may provide ways to optimize water use structure to balance the interests of different sectors both ecologically and economically.

  19. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  20. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr; Niemierka, Elżbieta

    2017-11-01

    The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP) installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  1. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  2. Physical Properties and Hydrogen-Bonding Network of Water-Ethanol Mixtures from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoufi, A; Artzner, F; Malfreyt, P

    2016-02-04

    While many numerical and experimental works were focused on water-ethanol mixtures at low ethanol concentration, this work reports predictions of a few physical properties (thermodynamical, interfacial, dynamical, and dielectrical properties) of water-ethanol mixture at high alcohol concentrations by means of molecular dynamics simulations. By using a standard force field a good agreement was found between experiment and molecular simulation. This was allowed us to explore the dynamics, structure, and interplay between both hydrogen-bonding networks of water and ethanol.

  3. Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, A; Gutner, S; Rosenberg, A; Scolnicov, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, e.g. by means of a SCADA system and sensors measuring flow, pressure, and other data. We discuss how an algorithmic statistical solution analyses this wealth of raw data, flexibly using many types of input and picking out and reporting significant events and failures in the network. Of particular interest to most water utilities is the early detection capability for invisible leaks, also a means for preventing large visible bursts. The system also detects sensor and SCADA failures, various water quality issues, DMA boundary breaches, unrecorded or unintended network changes (like a valve or pump state change), and other events, including types unforeseen during system design. We discuss results from use at HaGihon, showing clear operational value.

  4. Experiment and Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity for Alumina-Water Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningbo; Li, Zhiming

    2017-05-19

    To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al₂O₃)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al₂O₃-water nanofluids were prepared respectively by dispersing different volume fractions (1.31%, 2.72%, 4.25%, and 5.92%) of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30 nm. On this basis, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the above nanofluids were analyzed experimentally under various temperatures ranging from 296 to 313 K. Then a radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The experimental results showed that both nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature could enhance the thermal conductivity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids. However, the viscosity only depended strongly on Al₂O₃ nanoparticle volume fraction and was increased slightly by changing temperature. In addition, the comparative analysis revealed that the RBF neural network had an excellent ability to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids with the mean absolute percent errors of 0.5177% and 0.5618%, respectively. This demonstrated that the ANN provided an effective way to predict the thermophysical properties of nanofluids with limited experimental data.

  5. TRADING-OFF CONSTRAINTS IN THE PUMP SCHEDULING OPTIMIZATION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genço\\u011Flu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the essential components of water supply systems. Depending of the topography, a water supply system may completely rely on pumping. They may consume non-negligible amount of water authorities' budgets during operation. Besides their energy costs, maintaining the healthiness of pumping systems is another concern for authorities. This study represents a multi-objective optimization method for pump scheduling problem. The optimization objective contains hydraulic and operational constraints. Switching of pumps and usage of electricity tariff are assumed to be key factors for operational reliability and energy consumption and costs of pumping systems. The local optimals for systems operational reliability, energy consumptions and energy costs are investigated resulting from trading-off pump switch and electricity tariff constraints within given set of boundary conditions. In the study, a custom made program is employed that combines genetic algorithm based optimization module with hydraulic network simulation software -EPANET. Developed method is applied on the case study network; N8-3 pressure zone of the Northern Supply of Ankara (Turkey Water Distribution Network. This work offers an efficient method for water authorities aiming to optimize pumping schedules considering expenditures and operational reliability mutually.

  6. Water molecule network and active site flexibility of apo protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Peters, Günther H.J.; Møller, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role as a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signalling and is therefore considered to be an important molecular target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Detailed structural information about the structure of PTP1B, including...... the conformation and flexibility of active-site residues as well as the water-molecule network, is a key issue in understanding ligand binding and enzyme kinetics and in structure-based drug design. A 1.95 Angstrom apo PTP1B structure has been obtained, showing four highly coordinated water molecules in the active......-site pocket of the enzyme; hence, the active site is highly solvated in the apo state. Three of the water molecules are located at positions that approximately correspond to the positions of the phosphate O atoms of the natural substrate phosphotyrosine and form a similar network of hydrogen bonds. The active...

  7. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The histological alterations in gills and liver of Tilapia guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the histological changes on gill and liver of fry, fingerling and post-fingerlings of Tilapia guineensis exposed to sublethal concentrations of drilling fluid for 12 weeks. The concentrations used were 0.32%, 0.63%, 1.25% and 2.5% vol/vol (Note 1% = 1000ml/L). The results revealed that little or no ...

  10. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  11. Sensor & Model Enabled Water Quality & Security Assessment System for Situational Awareness of Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Distribution Networks NDIA Environment , Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium & Exhibition June 14-17,2010 Denver, Colorado Mark Ginsberg...for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the NDIA Environment , Energy Security & Sustainability (E2S2...Chlorfenvinphos, Formetanate Hydrochloride, Acrolein, Chloropicrin, Sodium chloroacetate, Thyoglycolate medium, Crotoxyphos, Glyphosate , Jimsonweed, Methanol

  12. Evaluation of water resources monitoring networks: study applied to surface waters in the Macaé River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cloris Lopes Benassuly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrological phenomena is required in water resources monitoring, in order to structure the water management, focusing on ensuring its multiple uses while allowing that resource´s control and conservation. The effectiveness of monitoring depends on adequate information systems design and proper operation conditions. Data acquisition, treatment and analysis are vital for establishing management strategies, thus monitoring systems and networks shall be conceived according to their main objectives, and be optimized in terms of location of data stations. The generated data shall also model hydrological behavior of the studied basin, so that data interpolation can be applied to the whole basin. The present work aimed to join concepts and methods that guide the structuring of hydrologic monitoring networks of surface waters. For evaluating historical series characteristics as well as work stations redundancy, the entropy method was used. The Macaé River Basin’s importance is related to the public and industrial uses of water in the region that is responsible for more than 80% of Brazilian oil and gas production, what justifies the relevance of the research made. This study concluded that despite of its relatively short extension, the Macaé River Basin should have higher monitoring network density, in order to provide more reliable management data. It also depicted the high relevancy of stations located in its upper course.

  13. Artificial neural networks for defining the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction in coastal aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallahem, S.; Hani, A.

    2017-02-01

    Water sustainability in the lower Seybouse River basin, eastern Algeria, must take into account the importance of water quantity and quality integration. So, there is a need for a better knowledge and understanding of the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction to meet the municipal and agricultural uses. In this paper, the artificial neural network (ANN) models were used to model and predict the relationship between groundwater abstraction and water quality determinants in the lower Seybouse River basin. The study area chosen is the lower Seybouse River basin and real data were collected from forty five wells for reference year 2006. Results indicate that the feed-forward multilayer perceptron models with back-propagation are useful tools to define and prioritize the important water quality parameters of groundwater abstraction and use. The model evaluation shows that the correlation coefficients are more than 95% for training, verification and testing data. The model aims to link the water quantity and quality with the objective to strengthen the Integrated Water Resources Management approach. It assists water planners and managers to better assess the water quality parameters and progress towards the provision of appropriate quantities of water of suitable quality.

  14. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emission Control in River Network System of the Taihu Basin for Water Quality Assurance of Water Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As pollution incidents frequently occurred in the functional water areas of the Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta, effective emission control to guarantee water quality in the Taihu Basin became the priority for environmental management. In this study, a new total emission control (TEC method was proposed with an emphasis on the concept of water environmentally sensitive areas (WESAs. This method was verified in Wujiang District and the techniques can be concluded in three steps: (1 a 1-D mathematical model for the study area was established and the model was calibrated using field measurement data; (2 based on an analysis of administrative planning and regulations, WESAs were identified as the main controlling objectives for emission control calculations. The weighting coefficient of local pollution sources was investigated to discuss the effectiveness of TEC on water quality improvement at WESAs; and (3 applying the river network mathematical model, water quality along the river segments was simulated under different pollution control plans. The results proved the effectiveness of TEC in the study area and indicated that a 14.6% reduction in the total amount of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, as well as a 31.1% reduction in the total amount of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr, was essential in order to meet the water quality standard in the WESAs.

  16. STUDY OF SENSITIVITY OF THE PARAMETERS OF A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Iglesias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Genetic Algorithms (GAs are a technique of optimization used for water distribution networks design. This work has been made with a modified pseudo genetic algorithm (PGA, whose main variation with a classical GA is a change in the codification of the chromosomes, which is made of numerical form instead of the binary codification. This variation entails a series of special characteristics in the codification and in the definition of the operations of mutation and crossover. Initially, the work displays the results of the PGA on a water network studied in the literature. The results show the kindness of the method. Also is made a statistical analysis of the obtained solutions. This analysis allows verifying the values of mutation and crossing probability more suitable for the proposed method. Finally, in the study of the analyzed water supply networks the concept of reliability in introduced. This concept is essential to understand the validity of the obtained results. The second part, starting with values optimized for the probability of crossing and mutation, the influence of the population size is analyzed in the final solutions on the network of Hanoi, widely studied in the bibliography. The aim is to find the most suitable configuration of the problem, so that good solutions are obtained in the less time.

  17. River networks as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of water-borne disease (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Suweis, S.; Ceola, S.; Carrara, F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2010-12-01

    Recent works at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology under an integrated framework of analysis will be reviewed with a view to a general theory for reactive transport on networks. A number of related topics will be reviewed, linked by the characters of stochastic transport, and the networked environmental matrix (including biodiversity of freshwater fish in river networks and vegetation along riparian systems, how river networks affected historic spreading of human populations, and how they influence the spreading of water-borne disease). The unique, coherent ecohydrological thread and similar mathematical methods will be exposed. Metacommunity and individual-based models will be described in the contexts of hydrochory, population and species migrations, and the spreading of infections of water-borne disease along the ecological corridors generated by the river basin. A general effect is shown to emerge on the effects of dendritic geometries on the ecological processes and dynamics operating on river basins. Insights provided by such a theory will lend themselves to issues of practical importance such as integration of riparian systems into large-scale resource management, spatial strategies to minimize loss of freshwater biodiversity, and effective prevention/vaccination campaigns against water-borne diseases.

  18. Intracellular Oceanospirillales bacteria inhabit gills of Acesta bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigmund; Duperron, Sébastien; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Hovland, Martin

    2010-12-01

    A novel bacterium was discovered in the gills of the large bivalve Acesta excavata (Limidae) from coral reefs on the northeast Atlantic margin near the shelf break of the fishing ground Haltenbanken of Norway, and confirmed present in A. excavata from a rock-wall in the Trondheimsfjord. Purified gill DNA contained one dominant bacterial rRNA operon as indicated from analysis of broad range bacterial PCR amplicons in denaturant gradient gels, in clone libraries and by direct sequencing. The sequences originated from an unknown member of the order Oceanospirillales and its 16S rRNA gene fell within a clade of strictly marine invertebrate-associated Gammaproteobacteria. Visual inspection by fluorescent in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy indicated a pleomorphic bacterium with no visible cell wall, located in aggregates inside vacuoles scattered within the gill cells cytoplasm. Intracellular Oceanospirillales exist in bathymodiolin mussels (parasites), Osedax worms and whiteflies (symbionts). This bacterium apparently lives in a specific association with the Acesta. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gilles Jobin Final residency lecture - Collision between dance and physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Doser, Michael; Dimou, Maria; Jobin, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    CERN, the Republic and Canton of Geneva, and the City of Geneva are delighted to invite you to the final public lecture about collisions between dance and physics by the first winner of Collide@CERN Geneva, the choreographer Gilles Jobin. The event marks the end of his residency and will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 6th November at 1800. Doors open at 17.30 Programme 18.00 - Opening address by Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director General, Ariane Koek, CERN Cultural Specialist, Sami Kanaan, Administrative Councilor in charge of the Department of Culture and Sport of the City of Geneva, and Charles Beer, Vice President of the State Council in charge of the Department of Education, Culture and Sport. 18.30 - Presentation by Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) of his residency experience at CERN with live demonstrations with his dancers 19.15 - Discussion on CERN as a Place of Collisions and Interventions between Dance and Physics with Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) and CERN scientists Maria Dimo...

  20. Famous people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Francesco; Servo, Serena; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    Virtually no neurologist nor psychiatrist today can be unaware of the diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Although the eponymous description by Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette was published in 1885, familiarity with this syndrome has been achieved only recently. In this article, the two most renown accounts of exceptional individuals retrospectively diagnosed with GTS are critically analyzed: British lexicographer Samuel Johnson and Austrian musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In both cases, clinical descriptions have been retrieved from written documents predating Gilles de la Tourette's original publication. The case for Samuel Johnson having GTS is strong, mainly based on Boswell's extensive biographical account. Johnson was reported to have a great range of tics and compulsions, including involuntary utterances, repetitive ejaculations, and echo-phenomena. On the other hand, there is circumstantial evidence that Mozart may have had hyperactivity, restlessness, sudden impulses, odd motor behaviors, echo/palilalia, love of nonsense words, and scatology, the latter being documented in autograph letters ("coprographia"). However, the evidence supporting the core features of GTS, i.e., motor and vocal tics, is rather inconsistent. Thus, GTS seems to be an implausible diagnosis in Mozart's medical history and completely unrelated to his undisputed musical genius.

  1. Overview of analogue science activities at the McGill Arctic Research Station, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Wayne; Haltigin, Tim; Whyte, Lyle; Niederberger, Thomas; Andersen, Dale; Omelon, Christopher; Nadeau, Jay; Ecclestone, Miles; Lebeuf, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The Canadian High Arctic contains several of the highest fidelity Mars analogue sites in the world. Situated at nearly 80° north, Expedition Fjord on Axel Heiberg Island is located within a polar desert climate, with the surrounding landscape and conditions providing an invaluable opportunity to examine terrestrial processes in a cold, dry environment. Through the Canadian Space Agency's Analogue Research Network program, scientific activities based out of the McGill Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) are extremely broad in scope, representing physical, biological, and technological investigations. Some of the most unique hydrogeologic features under investigation near M.A.R.S. are a series of cold saline springs that maintain liquid-state flow year round regardless of air temperature. Previous studies have examined their geomorphic relation to discharge-related formations, water chemistry, temperature monitoring, discharge rates, and combined flow/thermal modeling. Recent investigations have identified microbial communities and characterized biological activity within the springs and within permafrost sections, having direct relevance to astrobiological analogue research goals. Another main thrust of research activities based at M.A.R.S. pertains to the detection, mapping, and quantification of subsurface ice deposits. A long-term study is presently underway examining polygonal terrain, comparing surficial patterns found in the region with those identified on Mars, and using surface morphology to estimate ice wedge volumes through a combination of aerial photography interpretation and ground-based geophysical techniques. Other technological developments include the use of in situ microscopy for the detection of biomarkers and improved permafrost drilling techniques. This paper presents an overview of previous studies undertaken at M.A.R.S. over the past decades and will describe in detail both present and upcoming work.

  2. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom Summary The challenge of improving water quality (WQ) is a growing global concern [1]. Poor WQ is mainly attributed to poor water management and outdated agricultural activities. We propose that collaborative sensor networks spread across an entire catchment can allow cooperation among individual activities for integrated WQ monitoring and management. We show that sharing information on critical parameters among networks of water bodies and farms can enable identification and quantification of the contaminant sources, enabling better decision making for agricultural practices and thereby reducing contaminants fluxes. Motivation and results Nutrient losses from land to water have accelerated due to agricultural and urban pursuits [2]. In many cases, the application of fertiliser can be reduced by 30-50% without any loss of yield [3]. Thus information about nutrient levels and trends around the farm can improve agricultural practices and thereby reduce water contamination. The use of sensor networks for monitoring WQ in a catchment is in its infancy, but more applications are being tested [4]. However, these are focussed on local requirements and are mostly limited to water bodies. They have yet to explore the use of this technology for catchment-scale monitoring and management decisions, in an autonomous and dynamic manner. For effective and integrated WQ management, we propose a system that utilises local monitoring networks across a catchment, with provision for collaborative information sharing. This system of networks shares information about critical events, such as rain or flooding. Higher-level applications make use of this information to inform decisions about nutrient management, improving the quality of monitoring through the provision of richer datasets of catchment information to local networks. In the full paper, we present example scenarios and analyse how the benefits of

  3. Quantitative neutron imaging of water distribution, venation network and sap flow in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Aregawi, Wondwosen; Cantré, Dennis; Hartmann, Stefan; Lehmann, Eberhard; Carmeliet, Jan; Voisard, Frédéric; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative neutron imaging is a promising technique to investigate leaf water flow and transpiration in real time and has perspectives towards studies of plant response to environmental conditions and plant water stress. The leaf hydraulic architecture is a key determinant of plant sap transport and plant-atmosphere exchange processes. Non-destructive imaging with neutrons shows large potential for unveiling the complex internal features of the venation network and the transport therein. However, it was only used for two-dimensional imaging without addressing flow dynamics and was still unsuccessful in accurate quantification of the amount of water. Quantitative neutron imaging was used to investigate, for the first time, the water distribution in veins and lamina, the three-dimensional venation architecture and sap flow dynamics in leaves. The latter was visualised using D2O as a contrast liquid. A high dynamic resolution was obtained by using cold neutrons and imaging relied on radiography (2D) as well as tomography (3D). The principle of the technique was shown for detached leaves, but can be applied to in vivo leaves as well. The venation network architecture and the water distribution in the veins and lamina unveiled clear differences between plant species. The leaf water content could be successfully quantified, though still included the contribution of the leaf dry matter. The flow measurements exposed the hierarchical structure of the water transport pathways, and an accurate quantification of the absolute amount of water uptake in the leaf was possible. Particular advantages of neutron imaging, as compared to X-ray imaging, were identified. Quantitative neutron imaging is a promising technique to investigate leaf water flow and transpiration in real time and has perspectives towards studies of plant response to environmental conditions and plant water stress.

  4. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM and scorpion book lungs (TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous

  5. Assessment of the water quality monitoring network of the Piabanha River experimental watersheds in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using autoassociative neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Mariana D; Olivera, Francisco; de Azevedo, Jose Paulo S

    2017-09-01

    Water quality monitoring is a complex issue that requires support tools in order to provide information for water resource management. Budget constraints as well as an inadequate water quality network design call for the development of evaluation tools to provide efficient water quality monitoring. For this purpose, a nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) based on an autoassociative neural network was performed to assess the redundancy of the parameters and monitoring locations of the water quality network in the Piabanha River watershed. Oftentimes, a small number of variables contain the most relevant information, while the others add little or no interpretation to the variability of water quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for this purpose. However, conventional PCA is not able to capture the nonlinearities of water quality data, while neural networks can represent those nonlinear relationships. The results presented in this work demonstrate that NLPCA performs better than PCA in the reconstruction of the water quality data of Piabanha watershed, explaining most of data variance. From the results of NLPCA, the most relevant water quality parameter is fecal coliforms (FCs) and the least relevant is chemical oxygen demand (COD). Regarding the monitoring locations, the most relevant is Poço Tarzan (PT) and the least is Parque Petrópolis (PP).

  6. Water Absorption Rate Prediction of PMMA and Its Composites Using BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Referring to water absorption rate of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA and its composites is hard to obtain under some working conditions, BP neural network prediction model was constructed. Regarding water absorption rate predictions of exfoliated PMMA/MMT nanocomposites in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4 solution, 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution and deionized water respectively as examples, the applicability of model established in water absorption rate prediction of PMMA and its composites was researched. The results show that the relative errors between prediction value obtained from model established and actual value of water absorption rate of composites soaking 63min in three kinds of mediums are 1.50%, 0.47% and 1.04% respectively, prediction accuracy is higher than that (relative errors are 3.89%, 3.40% and 4.43% respectively obtained from GM (1, 1 model obviously. BP neural network can be used to predict water absorption rate of PMMA and its composites.

  7. Identification of dichloroacetic acid degrading Cupriavidus bacteria in a drinking water distribution network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, C; Gilbert, Y; Fournier-Larente, J; Pluchon, C; Filion, G; Jubinville, E; Sérodes, J-B; Rodriguez, M; Duchaine, C; Charette, S J

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community structure and composition of a drinking water network were assessed to better understand this ecosystem in relation to haloacetic acid (HAA) degradation and to identify new bacterial species having HAA degradation capacities. Biofilm samples were collected from a model system, simulating the end of the drinking water distribution network and supplied with different concentrations of dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acids at different periods over the course of a year. The samples were analysed by culturing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. Pipe diameter and HAA ratios did not impact the bacterial community profiles, but the season had a clear influence. Based on DGGE profiles, it appeared that a particular biomass has developed during the summer compared with the other seasons. Among the bacteria isolated in this study, those from genus Cupriavidus were able to degrade dichloroacetic acid. Moreover, these bacteria degrade dichloroacetic acid at 18°C but not at 10°C. The microbial diversity evolved throughout the experiment, but the bacterial community was distinct during the summer. Results obtained on the capacity of Cupriavidus to degrade DCAA only at 18°C but not at 10°C indicate that water temperature is a major element affecting DCAA degradation and confirming observations made regarding season influence on HAA degradation in the drinking water distribution network. This is the first demonstration of the HAA biodegradation capacity of the genus Cupriavidus. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Negotiated agreements between water suppliers and farmers in the context of changing water networks in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Kuks, Stefanus M.M.; Schrama, Geerten

    1999-01-01

    Paper presented at the Workshop of the Concerted Action SAGA (FAIR-CT97-3673): Sustainable Agricultural Use of Aquifers in Southern Europe: Integration between Agricultural and Water Management Policies, Milan, 17-18 December 1999

  9. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hooda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  10. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Nikhil; Damani, Om

    2017-06-01

    The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  11. Global network of embodied water flow by systems input-output simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanming; Chen, Guoqian; Xia, Xiaohua; Xu, Shiyun

    2012-09-01

    The global water resources network is simulated in the present work for the latest target year with statistical data available and with the most detailed data disaggregation. A top-down approach of systems inputoutput simulation is employed to track the embodied water flows associated with economic flows for the globalized economy in 2004. The numerical simulation provides a database of embodied water intensities for all economic commodities from 4928 producers, based on which the differences between direct and indirect water using efficiencies at the global scale are discussed. The direct and embodied water uses are analyzed at continental level. Besides, the commodity demand in terms of monetary expenditure and the water demand in terms of embodied water use are compared for the world as well as for three major water using regions, i.e., India, China, and the United States. Results show that food product contributes to a significant fraction for water demand, despite the value varies significantly with respect to the economic status of region.

  12. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  13. Main features of the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Pisces, Atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuca, M E; Malanga, G; Aguilar Hurtado, C; Pérez, A F; Calvo, J; Puntarulo, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study comparatively the oxidative metabolism in gills and liver of a silverside, Odontesthes nigricans, in their natural environment, the Beagle Channel. Oxidative damage to lipids was evaluated by assessing TBARS and lipid radical content, in gills and liver. Gills showed a significantly higher degree of damage than liver. The content of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and catalase activity showed significantly higher values in the liver than in the gills. The ascorbyl radical (A(*)) content showed no significant differences between gills and liver. The ascorbate (AH(-)) content was 12+/-2 and 159+/-28 nmol/mg FW in gills and liver, respectively. Oxidative metabolism at the hydrophilic level was assessed as the ratio A(*)/AH(-). The ratio A(*)/AH(-) was significantly different between organs, (6+/-2)10(-5) and (5+/-2)10(-6), for the gills and the liver, respectively. Both, lipid radical content/alpha-tocopherol content and lipid radical content/beta-carotene content ratios were significantly higher in gills as compared to the values recorded for the liver, suggesting an increased situation of oxidative stress condition in the lipid phase of the gills. Taken as a whole, the O. nigricans liver exhibited a better control of oxidative damage than the gills, allowing minimization of intracellular damage when exposed to environmental stressing conditions.

  14. The Alaska Water Isotope Network (AKWIN): Precipitation, lake, river and stream dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J. M.; Toohey, R.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle is central to the structure and function of northern landscapes. The movement of water creates interactions between terrestrial, aquatic, marine and atmospheric processes. Understanding the processes and the spatial patterns that govern the isotopic (δ18O & δD) characteristics of the hydrologic cycle is especially important today as: a) modern climate/weather-isotope relations allow for more accurate interpretation of climate proxies and the calibration of atmospheric models, b) water isotopes facilitate understanding the role of storm tracks in regulating precipitation isotopic variability, c) water isotopes allow for estimates of glacial melt water inputs into aquatic systems, d) water isotopes allow for quantification of surface and groundwater interactions, e) water isotopes allow for quantification of permafrost meltwater use by plant communities, f) water isotopes aid in migratory bird forensics, g) water isotopes are critical to estimating field metabolic rates, h) water isotopes allow for crop and diet forensics and i) water isotopes can provide insight into evaporation and transpiration processes. As part of a new NSF MRI project at the Environment and Natural Resources Institute (ENRI) at the University of Alaska Anchorage and as an extension of the US Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (USNIP); we are forming AKWIN. The network will utilize long-term weekly sampling at Denali National Park and Caribou Poker Creek Watershed (USNIP sites-1989 to present), regular sampling across Alaska involving land management agencies (USGS, NPS, USFWS, EPA), educators, volunteers and citizen scientists, UA extended campuses, individual research projects, opportunistic sampling and published data to construct isoscapes and time series databases and information packages. We will be using a suite of spatial and temporal analysis methods to characterize water isotopes across Alaska and will provide web portals for data products. Our network is

  15. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Induced Apoptosis and Antioxidant Gene Expression in the Gills, Liver, and Intestine of Oryzias latipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wuk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have many attractive properties with potential applications in various fields. Despite their usefulness, however, the associated waste can be hazardous to the environment. To examine adverse effects in aquatic environments, Oryzias latipes were exposed to MWCNTs dispersed in water for 14 days and apoptosis and antioxidant gene expression were observed. This work showed that in gills exposed to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 4 days, there was significant p53, caspase-3 (Cas3, caspase-8 (Cas8, and caspase-9 (Cas9 gene expression relative to the controls, while catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST expression were reduced. At 14 days, CAT, GST, and metallothionein (MT were induced significantly in the gills and Cas3, Cas8, and Cas9 were induced in the liver. No significant gene induction was seen in intestine. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were increased significantly only at 14 days. Histologically, no apoptosis was observed with exposure to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 21 days. The gills were more sensitive to MWCNT toxicity than the other organs. Males had higher apoptosis gene induction than females. These results demonstrated that MWCNTs could cause apoptosis in a manner influenced by tissue and gender in aqueous environments.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoci Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Chen, Shaoli; Zhu, Xiaomin

    2015-11-19

    Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  18. A jazz-based approach for optimal setting of pressure reducing valves in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Francesco; Galdiero, Enzo; Giugni, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a model for valve setting in water distribution networks (WDNs), with the aim of reducing the level of leakage. The approach is based on the harmony search (HS) optimization algorithm. The HS mimics a jazz improvisation process able to find the best solutions, in this case corresponding to valve settings in a WDN. The model also interfaces with the improved version of a popular hydraulic simulator, EPANET 2.0, to check the hydraulic constraints and to evaluate the performances of the solutions. Penalties are introduced in the objective function in case of violation of the hydraulic constraints. The model is applied to two case studies, and the obtained results in terms of pressure reductions are comparable with those of competitive metaheuristic algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms). The results demonstrate the suitability of the HS algorithm for water network management and optimization.

  19. Social Networks and the Management of Water Resources for Agriculture in Rio Caia Catchment (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lourenço

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of local people in the management of scarce resources, such as water available for agriculture, is a desirable approach to address some of the difficulties in the decision-making processes. This paper reports the experience of a research team of sociologists and geographers involved in the MULINO project (Multi-sectoral, Integrated and Operational decision support system for sustainable use of water resources at the catchment scale. In the framework of this international and interdisciplinary project, a social network analysis was developed in a catchment of south Portugal. This analysis was structured in five fundamental steps: Stakeholder Identification; Data Collection; Data Treatment; Network Visualisation; and Local Network Analysis. The information was gathered mainly through a questionnaire, bibliographic references, statistical inputs and field observations. In order to obtain a typology of stakeholders and their interactions, a factorial analysis of multiple correspondences and a cluster analysis were applied. The social network analysis, which is the measuring and visualisation of relationships and flows between people, groups, organisations or other information/knowledge processing entities, supported the description of two types of patterns that link different sets of actors: social groups (sets of actors closely linked together and social positions (sets of actors who are linked into the overall social system in similar ways. The analysis of the Caia Catchment network shows that this type of analysis is important not only as a means to characterising certain parameters about the network’s characteristics, but also as a significant tool to help improve the communication within the social network.

  20. Social Networks and the Management of Water Resources for Agriculture in Rio Caia Catchment (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lourenço

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of local people in the management of scarce resources, such as water available for agriculture, is a desirable approach to address some of the difficulties in the decision-making processes. This paper reports the experience of a research team of sociologists and geographers involved in the MULINO project (Multi-sectoral, Integrated and Operational decision support system for sustainable use of water resources at the catchment scale. In the framework of this international and interdisciplinary project, a social network analysis was developed in a catchment of south Portugal. This analysis was structured in five fundamental steps: Stakeholder Identification; Data Collection; Data Treatment; Network Visualisation; and Local Network Analysis. The information was gathered mainly through a questionnaire, bibliographic references, statistical inputs and field observations. In order to obtain a typology of stakeholders and their interactions, a factorial analysis of multiple correspondences and a cluster analysis were applied. The social network analysis, which is the measuring and visualisation of relationships and flows between people, groups, organisations or other information/knowledge processing entities, supported the description of two types of patterns that link different sets of actors: social groups (sets of actors closely linked together and social positions (sets of actors who are linked into the overall social system in similar ways. The analysis of the Caia Catchment network shows that this type of analysis is important not only as a means to characterising certain parameters about the network’s characteristics, but also as a significant tool to help improve the communication within the social network.

  1. Coastal meteorological and water temperature data from National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) stations of the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) is a network of long-term water level stations operated and maintained by CO-OPS. NWLON stations are located on...

  2. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  3. Energy Efficient Cooperation in Underlay RFID Cognitive Networks for a Water Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nasir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking water  resources all over the world and increasing  costs of water consumption  have prompted  water users  and distribution companies  to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient  smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment,  there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones,  Bluetooth  devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices.  In order to reduce the interference  from our proposed RFID network for these primary  devices, we have proposed a cooperating  underlay  RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water.  These underlay  RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2].  This work is an extension of our previous  ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing  a new system model and RFIDs.  Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary  network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation,  this scheme performs  better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model’s (HMM multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed.  This approach has been applied  to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  4. Fluorescent diagnostics of organic pollution in natural waters: A neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, Y.V.; Persiantsev, I.G.; Rebrik, S.P. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Rapid diagnosis of pollution is one of the key tasks in the field of ecological monitoring of natural and technogeneous environment. One of the promising methods of fluorescent diagnosis of organic pollution of water environment is the registration and analysis of two-dimensional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The neural networks - based system suggested in this paper is intended for solving the problem of detection, identification, and concentration measurement of water environmental pollution. The suggested system uses SFS as input pattern and allows one to build a rapid diagnosis system for ecological monitoring.

  5. Sublethal effects of copper nanoparticles on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of the Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Aghamirkarimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study has determined the toxicity effects of copper nanoparticles on the some vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of Caspian Roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus. For this purpose, 120 fishes were used as experimental samples and exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of Cu nanoparticles for 21 days, and 30 fishes assumed as the experiment control. The mean water temperature of the aquaria was 22±2 ºC, dissolved oxygen 5.2 mg/L, pH at 7±0.004 and the concentration of calcium carbonate was 270 ppm. On 7, 14 and 21 days after exposing the fishes to copper nanoparticles, three fishes were randomly selected from each aquaria, sacrificed and samples from their gill, liver and kidney were taken and fixed in cold 10 % buffered formalin. Then microscopic sections were prepared and examined by light microscope which showed histological alternations in the gill, liver and kidney tissues. Evaluation of these changes could be useful in estimating the harmful effects of copper nanoparticles. Histological alternation in gills included: hyperplasia, fusion and detachment of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in vascular axis of primary filaments, reduced secondary lamellae length and cellular degeneration. Histological changes in liver included blood congestion in the central veins, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, cellular degeneration and congestion in the blood sinusoids and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Histological changes in kidneys included glomerular shrinkage, severe degeneration in the tubules cells, interstitial tissue and glomerulus, increase in interstitial tissue cells and macrophages aggregation. The degree of damages was more intensive at higher copper nanoparticles concentrations. The result of the study showed that copper nanoparticles could cause severe damages in the vital tissues of Caspian roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus and have lethal effects for fish.

  6. Optimization of water network in petroleum refinery; Otimizacao de redes de agua em refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Debora C.; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Souza, Antonio A. Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum refineries have shown high water's consuming that creates high costs and damages the hydric resources. However, the industrial sector, especially the petroleum industry, has been looking for alternatives that minimizing the impact caused by to use these natural resources. Currently, methodologies of controlling the pollution on the source have been appearing how a strong tendency and the reuse and/or recycle of wastewater can be emphasized. The optimization by mathematical programming, together with engineering know-how, is one of the great tendency in process integration technology developed. The present work presents one optimization mathematical model that objectifies to reduce the water's consuming and/or operational costs. The model is based in chemical species and mass conservation equation. This work presents the solution of one case found in literature that broach one petroleum refinery's network of water. This network is composed of six operations and three regenerative processes, and there are four keys contaminants. The water's consuming was minimized first and next the minimum cost in the minimum consume was broached. The results found were enough satisfactory and presented reductions up to 76% in the water consume and approximately 65% in the operational costs. (author)

  7. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  8. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  9. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  10. Optimal Sensor Placement for Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig, Vicenc; Garza-Castanon, Luis E.; Rosich, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results ...

  11. Optimal pressure sensor placement in water distribution networks minimizing leak location uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjari, Fatiha; Sarrate, Ramon; Blesa, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an optimal sensor placement strategy based on pressure sensitivity matrix analysis and an exhaustive search strategy that maximizes some diagnosis specifications for a water distribution network is presented. An average worst leak expansion distance as a new leak location performance measure has been proposed. This metric is later used to assess the leak location uncertainty provided by a sensor configuration. The method is combined with a clustering technique in order to reduce...

  12. Design and Development of Water Quality Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingfei; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Lianzhi; Ma, Daokun; Ding, Qisheng

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a system framework taking the advantages of the WSN for the real-time monitoring on the water quality in aquaculture. We design the structure of the wireless sensor network to collect and continuously transmit data to the monitoring software. Then we accomplish the configuration model in the software that enhances the reuse and facility of the monitoring project. Moreover, the monitoring software developed to represent the monitoring hardware and da...

  13. Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell : Dynamic Pore-Network Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The pore-scale modeling is a powerful tool for increasing our understanding of water transport in the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). In this work, a new dynamic pore-network model for air-water flow in the GDL is developed. It incorporates water vapor

  14. Solar radiation and precipitable water modeling for Turkey using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenkal, Ozan

    2015-08-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) method was applied for modeling and prediction of mean precipitable water and solar radiation in a given location and given date (month), given altitude, temperature, pressure and humidity in Turkey (26-45ºE and 36-42ºN) during the period of 2000-2002. Resilient Propagation (RP) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. To train the network, meteorological measurements taken by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) and Wyoming University for the period from 2000 to 2002 from five stations distributed in Turkey were used as training data. Data from years (2000 and 2001) were used for training, while the year 2002 was used for testing and validating the model. The RP algorithm were first used for determination of the precipitable water and subsequently, computation of the solar radiation, in these stations Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the estimated and measured values for monthly mean daily sum for precipitable water and solar radiation values have been found as 0.0062 gr/cm2 and 0.0603 MJ/m2 (training cities), 0.5652 gr/cm2 and 3.2810 MJ/m2 (testing cities), respectively.

  15. Energy Production by Means of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Venturini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different characteristics are investigated to estimate the producible yearly electric energy. The performance curves of Pumps As Turbines (PATs, which relate head, power, and efficiency to the volume flow rate over the entire PAT operation range, were derived by using published experimental data. The four considered water distribution networks, for which experimental data taken during one year were available, are characterized by significantly different hydraulic features (average flow rate in the range 10–116 L/s; average pressure reduction in the range 12–53 m. Therefore, energy production accounts for actual flow rate and head variability over the year. The conversion efficiency is also estimated, for both the whole water distribution network and the PAT alone.

  16. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  17. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. System Reliability Evaluation in Water Distribution Networks with the Impact of Valves Experiencing Cascading Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution networks (WDNs represent a class of critical infrastructure networks. When a disaster occurs, component failures in a WDN may trigger system failures that result in larger-scale reactions. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the evolution of system reliability and failure propagation time for a WDN experiencing cascading failures, and find the critical pipes which may reduce system reliability dramatically. Multiple factors are considered in the method such as network topology, the balance of water supply and demand, demand multiplier, and pipe break isolation. The pipe-based attack with multiple failure scenarios is simulated in the paper. A case WDN is used to illustrate the method. The results show that the lowest capacity gets stronger when a WDN is short of supply, becoming the dominant factor that decides the evolution of system reliability and failure propagation time. The valve ratio (VR and system reliability present a flattened S curve relationship, and there are two turning points in VR. The critical pipes can be identified. With the fixed 5% valves, a WDN can improve system reliability and resist cascading failures effectively. The findings provide insights into the system reliability and failure propagation time for WDNs experiencing cascading failures. It is proven to be useful in future studies focused on the operation and management of water services.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of gill tissue in regionally bred and globally farmed rainbow trout strains reveals different strategies for coping with thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebl, Alexander; Verleih, Marieke; Köbis, Judith M; Kühn, Carsten; Wimmers, Klaus; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom

    2013-08-01

    Thermal stress can pose a major challenge to salmonid fish. A 4x44K oligonucleotide microarray approach was used to screen for genetically determined variations of a temperature stress response during acclimation in fish gills, a highly specialized and complex organ responsible for gas and electrolyte exchange as well as excretion. The comparison addressed transcriptional changes in the local breeding strain BORN and imported (TCO) rainbow trout after graded 2-week acclimation to 8 and 23 °C. Besides well-characterized mediators of thermoregulation such as genes encoding cold-inducible RNA-binding protein and heat shock proteins, the present microarray study suggests several new candidate genes commonly regulated in gills of the two trout lines. Having identified the differential expression of thermoregulated genes as duplicated paralogues, they were subsequently validated in a gill cell model. Moreover, the comparison of transcriptome profiles provides evidence for distinctively employed expression patterns. The induction of genes encoding factors of the early innate immunity in BORN trout upon warming contrasts with the increased expression of adaptive immune genes in import trout. Cold acclimation induced genes assigned to the functional categories "cell death" and "ion channel activity" in import trout, but repressed "lipid metabolism." This manuscript provides an overview of the genes of the multifunctional gills in rainbow trout that are mandated after temperature change, suggesting links between the different temperature-dependent pathways and gene networks.

  20. KNT-artificial neural network model for flux prediction of ultrafiltration membrane producing drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H K; Yu, M J; Gwon, E M; Koo, J Y; Kim, S G; Koizumi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the prediction of flux behavior in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system using a Kalman neuro training (KNT) network model. The experimental data was obtained from operating a pilot plant of hollow fiber UF membrane with groundwater for 7 months. The network was trained using operating conditions such as inlet pressure, filtration duration, and feed water quality parameters including turbidity, temperature and UV254. Pre-processing of raw data allowed the normalized input data to be used in sigmoid activation functions. A neural network architecture was structured by modifying the number of hidden layers, neurons and learning iterations. The structure of KNT-neural network with 3 layers and 5 neurons allowed a good prediction of permeate flux by 0.997 of correlation coefficient during the learning phase. Also the validity of the designed model was evaluated with other experimental data not used during the training phase and nonlinear flux behavior was accurately estimated with 0.999 of correlation coefficient and a lower error of prediction in the testing phase. This good flux prediction can provide preliminary criteria in membrane design and set up the proper cleaning cycle in membrane operation. The KNT-artificial neural network is also expected to predict the variation of transmembrane pressure during filtration cycles and can be applied to automation and control of full scale treatment plants.

  1. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S. [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.cy [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n = 37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L{sup −1}. The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 – 0.848 μg L{sup −1}). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L{sup −1} and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. - Highlights: • Iodinated trihalomethanes were studied in two water distribution systems. • Low levels of iodinated trihalomethanes in tap water • Large variability of iodinated trihalomethanes within the water distribution system.

  2. Modeling and Optimization Technique of a Chilled Water AHU Using Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Rand Issa

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The chilled water system is one Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The design of these systems constitutes a large impact on the energy usage and operating cost of buildings they serve. The ability to accurately predict the performance of these systems is integral to designing more energy efficient and sustainable building systems. In this thesis the modeling of a chilled water air handling units using Artificial Neural Networks model is proposed. The Artificial neural network model was built using four inputs (1) Chilled water temperature (CHWT), (2) Chilled water valve position (CWVLV), (3) Mixed air temperature (MAT), and (4) Supply air flow (SAF). The output of the model is to predict supply air temperature. Moreover, another model was constructed to predict the fan power as a function of the fan air flow and fan speed. The data that were collected from a real building in a span of three months were processed. The ANN model was trained using the measured data and different model structure were then tested with various time delay, feedback time, and number of neurons to determine the best structure. In addition, an optimization method is developed to automate the process of finding the best model structure that can produce the best accurate prediction against the actual data. The Coefficient of variances which was used to determine the error value was recorded to be as low as 1.22 for the best model structure. The obtained results validate the Artificial neural network model created as an accurate tool for predicting the performance of a chilled water air handling unit.

  3. Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks following Various Disinfection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Isabella; Ferranti, Greta; Mansi, Antonella; Marcelloni, Anna M; Proietto, Anna R; Saini, Navneet; Borella, Paola; Bargellini, Annalisa

    2016-05-15

    Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed. In order to study the possible effects on the water pipes, we verified the extent of corrosion on experimental coupons after applying each method for 6 months. The percentage of positive points was at its lowest after treatment with monochloramine, followed by chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hyperthermia. Different selections of Legionella spp. were observed, as networks treated with chlorine-based disinfectants were contaminated mainly by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, hyperthermia was associated with serogroups 2 to 14, and hydrogen peroxide treatment was associated mainly with non-pneumophila species. NC cells were detected only in heat-treated waters, and also when the temperature was approximately 60°C. The corrosion rates of the coupons were within a satisfactory limit for water networks, but the morphologies differed. We confirm here that chemical disinfection controls Legionella colonization more effectively than hyperthermia does. Monochloramine was the most effective treatment, while hydrogen peroxide may be a promising alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants due to its ability to select for other, less virulent or nonpathogenic species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. In vitro effects of some metal ions on glutathione reductase in the gills and liver of Capoeta trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kirici

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic environmental problems have arisen in consequence of contamination of water by toxic metals and organic pollutants in the present age of technology. Metals play vital roles in enzyme activities and other metabolic events due to their bioaccumulative and nonbiodegradable properties among aquatic pollutants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of some metal ions (Ag+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ on Capoeta trutta gill and liver glutathione reductase (EC: 1.8.1.7; GR. For this purpose, initially, GR was purified from C. trutta gill and liver. Purification procedure consisted of three steps; preparation of hemolysate, ammonium sulphate precipitation and 2’, 5’-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Using this procedure, C. turtta gill GR, having the specific activity of 19.111 EU/mg proteins, was purified with a yield of 38.8% and 910.05-fold; C. trutta liver GR, having the specific activity of 16.167 EU/mg proteins, was purified with a yield of 21.1% and 734.86-fold. The purity of the enzymes was checked on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and each purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel. In addition, inhibitory effects of some metal ions (Ag+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ on GR from gill and liver were investigated in vitro. Ki constants and IC50 values for metal ions which showed inhibition effects were determined by Lineweaver-Burk graps and plotting activity % vs. [I]. In conclusion, IC50 values for fish gill GR were 0.000625, 0.153, 0.220, 0.247 and 0.216 mM and Ki constants for fish gill GR were 0.00045 ± 0.00008, 0.128 ± 0.036, 0.182 ± 0.138, 0.482 ± 0.219 and 0.112 ± 0.047 mM for Ag+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+, respectively. IC50 values for fish liver GR were 0.000437, 0.217, 0.185, 0.355 and 0.349 mM and Ki constants for fish liver GR were 0.00025 ± 0.00013, 0.532 ± 0.146, 0.123 ± 0.066, 0.093 ± 0.020 and 0.151 ± 0.084 mM for Ag

  5. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Schmidt, Éder C. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco [Centre for Bionano Interactions, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo [Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Campus Garopaba, Laboratory of Histological Markers, 88495-000 Garopaba, SC (Brazil); Bouzon, Zenilda L. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Fisher, Andrew S. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sheehan, David [Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Dafre, Alcir L., E-mail: alcir.dafre@ufsc.br [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnONP exposure causes an initial accumulation of zinc in gills and later in digestive gland. • Zinc burden occurs by ZnONP endocytosis or uptake of ionic zinc after dissociation. • ZnONP exposure disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure in both tissues. • Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are major features of ZnONP acute toxicity. - Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC{sub 50} (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total

  6. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  7. Design of a water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Xia, Hongbo; He, Zhiye; Wang, Zheming

    2009-01-01

    A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and shallow or deep groundwaters. This paper is devoted to the explanation and illustration for our new water environment monitoring system design. The system had successfully accomplished the online auto-monitoring of the water temperature and pH value environment of an artificial lake. The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 °C for water temperature, with an accuracy of ±0.5 °C; from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of ±0.05 pH units. Sensors applicable to different water quality scenarios should be installed at the nodes to meet the monitoring demands for a variety of water environments and to obtain different parameters. The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability prospects.

  8. Management of a water distribution network by coupling GIS and hydraulic modeling: a case study of Chetouane in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaki, Chérifa; Benchaib, Mohamed Mouâd; Benziada, Salim; Mahmoudi, Hacène; Goosen, Mattheus

    2017-06-01

    For more effective management of water distribution network in an arid region, Mapinfo GIS (8.0) software was coupled with a hydraulic model (EPANET 2.0) and applied to a case study region, Chetouane, situated in the north-west of Algeria. The area is characterized not only by water scarcity but also by poor water management practices. The results showed that a combination of GIS and modeling permits network operators to better analyze malfunctions with a resulting more rapid response as well as facilitating in an improved understanding of the work performed on the network. The grouping of GIS and modeling as an operating tool allows managers to diagnosis a network, to study solutions of problems and to predict future situations. The later can assist them in making informed decisions to ensure an acceptable performance level for optimal network operation.

  9. Histopathological analysis of tilapia gills (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J E; Christofoletti, C A; Marcato, A C C; Marinho, J F U; Fontanetti, C S

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) in two bioassays. The gills were collected, fixed and analyzed using ultra morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. After exposure to the vinasse, a statistically significant reduction of the ridges present on the surface of pavimentous cells was observed in one of the bioassays; such structures are responsible for mucus retention, which helps to protect the tissue. In addition, an intumescence of the cells was observed in the treatments with vinasse as well as an increase in the amount of chloridric cells. Some striking tissue changes detected in the treatments were epithelial detachment and loss of integrity of secondary lamellae, causing their rupture and consequent hemorrhage. In the first bioassay, the amount of these changes was statistically significant at the 5% dilution, and the focus of hemorrhage was significant at all dilution ratios. In the second bioassay, the epithelial disorganization was statistically significant only at the 2.5% dilution of vinasse. Moreover, for both bioassays performed, a significant increase in mucous cells was observed when compared with the control. Our results demonstrate the toxic action of sugarcane vinasse, which caused histopathological changes in the exposed animals at all four dilution tested. This highlights the need for caution in the disposal of sugarcane vinasse on the soil, especially due to its capacity for being

  10. Flow cytometry for immediate follow-up of drinking water networks after maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, Sam; Buysschaert, Benjamin; De Roy, Karen; De Gusseme, Bart; Clement, Lieven; Boon, Nico

    2017-03-15

    Drinking water networks need maintenance every once in a while, either planned interventions or emergency repairs. When this involves opening of the water pipes, precautionary measures need to be taken to avoid contamination of the drinking water at all time. Drinking water suppliers routinely apply plating for faecal indicator organisms as quality control in such a situation. However, this takes at least 21 h of waiting time, which can be crucial when dealing with major supply pipes. A combination of flow cytometric (FCM) bacterial cell counts with FCM fingerprinting techniques is proposed in this study as a fast and sensitive additional technique. In three full scale situations, major supply pipes with 400-1050 mm diameter were emptied for maintenance, shock-chlorinated and flushed with large amounts of clean drinking water before taking back in operation. FCM measurements of the discharged flushing water revealed fast lowering and stabilizing bacterial concentrations once flushing is initiated. Immediate comparison with clean reference drinking water used for flushing was done, and the moment when both waters had similar bacterial concentrations was considered as the endpoint of the necessary flushing works. This was usually after 2-4 h of flushing. FCM fingerprinting, based on both bacteria and FCM background, was used as additional method to verify how similar flushing and reference samples were and yielded similar results. The FCM approved samples were several hours later approved as well by the drinking water supplier after plating and incubation for total Coliforms and Enterococci. These were used as decisive control to set the pipes back in operation. FCM proved to be a more conservative test than plating, yet it yielded immediate results. Application of these FCM methods can therefore avoid long unnecessary waiting times and large drinking water losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Putting Man in the Machine: Exploiting Expertise to Enhance Multiobjective Design of Water Supply Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F.; Nowak, W.; Reed, P. M.; Reuschen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Drinking-water well catchments need effective early-warning monitoring networks. Groundwater water supply wells in complex urban environments are in close proximity to a myriad of potential industrial pollutant sources that could irreversibly damage their source aquifers. These urban environments pose fiscal and physical challenges to designing monitoring networks. Ideal early-warning monitoring networks would satisfy three objectives: to detect (1) all potential contaminations within the catchment (2) as early as possible before they reach the pumping wells, (3) while minimizing costs. Obviously, the ideal case is nonexistent, so we search for tradeoffs using multiobjective optimization. The challenge of this optimization problem is the high number of potential monitoring-well positions (the search space) and the non-linearity of the underlying groundwater flow-and-transport problem. This study evaluates (1) different ways to effectively restrict the search space in an efficient way, with and without expert knowledge, (2) different methods to represent the search space during the optimization and (3) the influence of incremental increases in uncertainty in the system. Conductivity, regional flow direction and potential source locations are explored as key uncertainties. We show the need and the benefit of our methods by comparing optimized monitoring networks for different uncertainty levels with networks that seek to effectively exploit expert knowledge. The study's main contributions are the different approaches restricting and representing the search space. The restriction algorithms are based on a point-wise comparison of decision elements of the search space. The representation of the search space can be either binary or continuous. For both cases, the search space must be adjusted properly. Our results show the benefits and drawbacks of binary versus continuous search space representations and the high potential of automated search space restriction

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-01

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  13. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-14

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  14. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia

    2017-11-07

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  16. Pressure of drinking water network on the Meyrin site to be boosted

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the refurbishment of CERN's drinking water supply system, the final part of the network on the Meyrin site is to be connected to the pumping station operated by Services Industriels de Genève, bringing about a significant increase in the network pressure of up to 5 bar. This means that from January 2005 onwards, the water pressure in buildings will be increased from 2 - 4 bar to 7 - 9 bar. The TS Department will be checking and upgrading the drinking water supply equipment in toilets and washrooms. All users with devices connected to the water supply system are kindly requested to check that these are compatible with the new pressure levels. More information on the buildings affected, the new pressure levels and the dates on which the changes will come into effect can be found at: https://edms.cern.ch/document/525717/1 Should any equipment under your responsibility be incompatible with the future pressure levels, please contact the Technical Control Room on 72201.

  17. System-Aware Smart Network Management for Nano-Enriched Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive water quality monitoring system that employs a smart network management, nano-enriched sensing framework, and intelligent and efficient data analysis and forwarding protocols for smart and system-aware decision making. The presented system comprises two main subsystems, a data sensing and forwarding subsystem (DSFS, and Operation Management Subsystem (OMS. The OMS operates based on real-time learned patterns and rules of system operations projected from the DSFS to manage the entire network of sensors. The main tasks of OMS are to enable real-time data visualization, managed system control, and secure system operation. The DSFS employs a Hybrid Intelligence (HI scheme which is proposed through integrating an association rule learning algorithm with fuzzy logic and weighted decision trees. The DSFS operation is based on profiling and registering raw data readings, generated from a set of optical nanosensors, as profiles of attribute-value pairs. As a case study, we evaluate our implemented test bed via simulation scenarios in a water quality monitoring framework. The monitoring processes are simulated based on measuring the percentage of dissolved oxygen and potential hydrogen (PH in fresh water. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed HI-based methodology at learning different water quality classes.

  18. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Water vapour plays a crucial part in a variety of atmospheric processes. As the most influential of greenhouse gases, it absorbs long-wave terrestrial radiation. The water vapour cycle of evaporation and recondensation is a major energy redistributing mechanism transferring heat energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere. Additionally, humidity has an important role in weather forecasting as a key variable required for initialization of atmospheric models and hazard warning techniques. However, current methods of monitoring humidity suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or a lack of precision when measuring near ground levels. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used is already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which include absence of rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good agreement with surface

  19. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  20. Oxidative stress responses in gills of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Kiki Syaputri; Novianty, Zahra; Saputri, Miftahul Rohmah; Irawan, Bambang; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the impact of different salinities on the levels of CAT, GSH and MDA of the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was treated by exposure to salinities concentration 0 ‰, 5 ‰ and 10 ‰. Research models were weakened and sacrificed, then took the left and right sides of the gills. The result of gills homogenity was centrifuged for supernatan, then supernatan was proceed with testing levels of CAT, GSH and MDA by ELISA assay methods. The levels of CAT in gills were significantly higher at 10 ‰ than at 5 ‰ and 0 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills were significantly higher at 0 ‰ than 5 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills at 5 ‰ and 10 ‰ salinities were not significantly different. The levels of MDA in gills at salinity 10 ‰ and 5 ‰ were higher than in control gills at 0 ‰ salinities. This occurs because the salinity of 10 ‰ salinity was optimal for live of fish tilapia. In conclusion, salinity impact the increasing of CAT, GSH, and MDA levels in gills of Nile tilapia.

  1. The gills of reef fish support a distinct microbiome influenced by host-specific factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A; Besson, Marc; Hollman, Rebecca D; Stewart, Frank J

    2018-02-16

    Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families. Gill microbiome composition differed significantly from that of the gut in both adults and juveniles, with fish-associated niches having lower alpha diversity and higher beta diversity compared to seawater, sediment, and algae-associated microbiomes. Of ∼45,000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected across all samples, 11% and 13% were detected only in the gill and intestine, respectively. OTUs most enriched in the gill included members of the gammaproteobacterial genus Shewanella and family Endozoicimonaceae. In adult fish, both gill and intestinal microbiomes varied significantly among host species grouped by diet category. Gill and intestinal microbiomes from the same individual were more similar to one another compared to gill and intestinal microbiomes from different individuals. These results demonstrate that distinct body sites are jointly influenced by host-specific organizing factors operating at the level of the host individual. The results also identify taxonomic signatures unique to the gill and intestine, confirming fish-associated niches as distinct reservoirs of marine microbial diversity. Importance Fish breath and excrete waste through their gills. The gills are also potential sites of pathogen invasion and colonization by other microbes. However, we know little about the microbial communities that live on the gill and the factors shaping their

  2. Gill infection model for columnaris disease in common carp and rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Broeck, W; Dewulf, J; Cornelissen, M; Decostere, A

    2015-03-01

    Challenge models generating gill lesions typical for columnaris disease were developed for the fry of both Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by means of an immersion challenge and Flavobacterium columnare field isolates were characterized regarding virulence. Carp inoculated with highly virulent isolates revealed diffuse, whitish discoloration of the gills affecting all arches, while in trout mostly unilateral focal lesions, which were restricted to the first two gill arches, occurred. Light microscopic examination of the gills of carp exposed to highly virulent isolates revealed a diffuse loss of branchial structures and desquamation and necrosis of gill epithelium with fusion of filaments and lamellae. In severe cases, large parts of the filaments were replaced with necrotic debris entangled with massive clusters of F. columnare bacterial cells enwrapped in an eosinophilic matrix. In trout, histopathologic lesions were similar but less extensive and much more focal, and well delineated from apparently healthy tissue. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of the affected gills showed long, slender bacterial cells contained in an extracellular matrix and in close contact with the destructed gill tissue. This is the first study to reveal gill lesions typical for columnaris disease at macroscopic, light microscopic, and ultrastructural levels in both Common Carp and Rainbow Trout following a challenge with F. columnare. The results provide a basis for research opportunities to examine pathogen-gill interactions.

  3. Detection of Escherichia coli in biofilms from pipe samples and coupons in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhna, T; Birzniece, D; Larsson, S; Zulenkovs, D; Sharipo, A; Azevedo, N F; Ménard-Szczebara, F; Castagnet, S; Féliers, C; Keevil, C W

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for direct detection of Escherichia coli on pipe surfaces and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Old cast iron main pipes were removed from water distribution networks in France, England, Portugal, and Latvia, and E. coli was analyzed in the biofilm. In addition, 44 flat coupons made of cast iron, polyvinyl chloride, or stainless steel were placed into and continuously exposed to water on 15 locations of 6 distribution networks in France and Latvia and examined after 1 to 6 months exposure to the drinking water. In order to increase the signal intensity, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) 15-mer probe was used in the FISH screening for the presence or absence of E. coli on the surface of pipes and coupons, thus reducing occasional problems of autofluorescence and low fluorescence of the labeled bacteria. For comparison, cells were removed from the surfaces and examined with culture-based or enzymatic (detection of beta-d-glucuronidase) methods. An additional verification was made by using PCR. Culture method indicated presence of E. coli in one of five pipes, whereas all pipes were positive with the FISH methods. E. coli was detected in 56% of the coupons using PNA FISH, but no E. coli was detected using culture or enzymatic methods. PCR analyses confirmed the presence of E. coli in samples that were negative according to culture-based and enzymatic methods. The viability of E. coli cells in the samples was demonstrated by the cell elongation after resuscitation in low-nutrient medium supplemented with pipemidic acid, suggesting that the cells were present in an active but nonculturable state, unable to grow on agar media. E. coli contributed to ca. 0.001 to 0.1% of the total bacterial number in the samples. The presence and number of E. coli did not correlate with any of physical and/or chemical characteristic of the drinking water (e.g., temperature, chlorine, or biodegradable organic matter concentration

  4. Stream-gage locations where streamflow gains/losses were quantified along the Central Valley surface-water network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  5. Response of Fresh Water Distributions on Abrupt Changes of Topography in the Pearl River Networks of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Shousheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-D numerical model was used to study the response of fresh water transports and distributions on the abrupt changes of topography in the Pearl River Networks (RNPRD. The results indicate that both the tidal forces in Jiaomen and Humen and the runoff power in Modaomen are intensified, which leads to a fresh water movement from the northeast to the southwest side of the West and North River Delta Networks. However, the water distributions in the East River Delta Networks remain almost the same. The residual currents in the RNPRD decreased dramatically in the West and North River Delta Networks due to the increasing volume of the river channels. This decreasing trend was intensified in the North River Main Channel due to the annual water discharge redistribution in the RNPRD.

  6. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density.

  7. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline; Prest, Emmanuelle; Saikaly, Pascal; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Hammes, Frederik; Vrouwenvelder, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  9. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; Ali ZAFARZADEH; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks.Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal stre...

  10. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  11. Social Networks for Management of Water Scarcity: Evidence from the San Miguel Watershed, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alan Navarro-Navarro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive social and ecological water crises in Mexico remain, despite over two decades of legal and institutional backing for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM as a policy tenet. In this article we apply a socialshed analysis to uncover and understand the geographical and jurisdictional forces influencing the social construction and simultaneous fragmentation of the San Miguel Watershed (SMW in the state of Sonora, in Mexico’s water-scarcity bulls-eye. Specific insights derived from an empirical analysis include that water management (WM is socially embedded in dense networks of family and friends, farmers and ranchers, citizens and local government – all to varying degrees sharing information about local water crises. Irrigation water user representatives (WUR are connected across communities and within their own municipalities, but inter-watershed social links with other WUR are virtually nonexistent, despite high levels of awareness of cross-municipality WM problems. Implementation of IWRM as a federal policy by a single agency and the creation of basin councils and subsidiary technical committees for groundwater management have not been sufficient for technical – much less social – integration at the watershed level. This study shows that the SMW socialshed remains fragmented by local jurisdictions; without coordinated agency-jurisdiction-local action fomenting social connections, a socialshed will not emerge.

  12. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  13. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  14. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  15. Na,K-ATPase activity and epithelial interfaces in gills of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, N M; Faleiros, R O; Firmino, K C S; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M

    2009-03-01

    Diadromous freshwater shrimps are exposed to brackish water both as an obligatory part of their larval life cycle and during adult reproductive migration; their well-developed osmoregulatory ability is crucial to survival in such habitats. This study examines gill microsomal Na,K-ATPase (K-phosphatase activity) kinetics and protein profiles in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum when in fresh water and after 10-days of acclimation to brackish water (21 per thousand salinity), as well as potential routes of Na+ uptake across the gill epithelium in fresh water. On acclimation, K-phosphatase activity decreases 2.5-fold, Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit expression declines, total protein expression pattern is markedly altered, and enzyme activity becomes redistributed into different density membrane fractions, possibly reflecting altered vesicle trafficking between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an intimately coupled pillar cell-septal cell architecture and shows that the cell membrane interfaces between the external medium and the hemolymph are greatly augmented by apical pillar cell evaginations and septal cell invaginations, respectively. These findings are discussed regarding the putative movement of Na+ across the pillar cell interfaces and into the hemolymph via the septal cells, powered by the Na,K-ATPase located in their invaginations.

  16. RISK ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMs IN THE WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA ROMAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs, as disinfection by-products resulted from water chlorination, can get into the body through ingestion of beverages, food or drinking water. This paper discusses the relationship between the use of drinking water from the public distribution network of Cluj-Napoca and exposure to trihalomethanes. To better characterize individual water consumption, at home and at work, we applied a questionnaire to a group of 211 subjects from Cluj-Napoca, while assessing their current exposure to THMs by collecting and analyzing water from different points of the distribution network. The data obtained were statistically processed and then used to calculate the exposure dose and cancer risk for both adults and children. The results showed that subjects consumed for drinking both bottled water and water from the distribution network, but for preparing food and beverages (tea, coffee they used only water from the public distribution network. The average daily consumption of drinking water from the distribution network, is 1.4 l/day for adults, including beverages prepared with treated water. The surveyed subjects declared that they consume coffee or tea, in percentage of 88%, 94.4% respectively. The calculation of the exposure dose, daily intake and risk of cancer was achieved by using a model developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR from the USA to calculate the dose and assess the risk of cancer. Our study shows that the cancer risk to THMs is increasing related to the higher daily intake of the drinking water, being higher for chloroform compared to dibromochloroform. For the measured concentrations of chloroform and dibromochloroform in drinking water and the average daily consumption of 1.4 l water/day, the probability of new cancers occurrence is at least 2.4 additional cases for 25 years of exposure and maximum 4.61 cases for 35 years of exposure in the existing background of a 1 million people.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics of fish gill rakers during crossflow filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheer, Angela; Cheung, Samson; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Piedrahita, Raul H; Sanderson, S Laurie

    2012-04-01

    We study crossflow filtration mechanisms in suspension-feeding fishes using computational fluid dynamics to model fluid flow and food particle movement in the vicinity of the gill rakers. During industrial and biological crossflow filtration, particles are retained when they remain suspended in the mainstream flow traveling across the filter surface rather than traveling perpendicularly to the filter. Here we identify physical parameters and hydrodynamic processes that determine food particle movement and retention inside the fish oral cavity. We demonstrate how five variables affect flow patterns and particle trajectories: (1) flow speed inside the fish oral cavity, (2) incident angle of the flow approaching the filter, (3) dimensions of filter structures, (4) particle size, and (5) particle density. Our study indicates that empirical experiments are needed to quantify flow parameters inside the oral cavity, and morphological research is needed to quantify dimensions of the filter apparatus such as gill rakers, the gaps between rakers, and downstream barriers. Ecological studies on suspension-feeding fishes are also needed to quantify food particle size and density, as these variables can affect particle retention due to hydrodynamic processes during crossflow filtration.

  18. Water Quality Modeling in Reservoirs Using Multivariate Linear Regression and Two Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two artificial neural network models (i.e., a radial basis function neural network, RBFN, and an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system approach, ANFIS and a multilinear regression (MLR model were developed to simulate the DO, TP, Chl a, and SD in the Mingder Reservoir of central Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network and the MLR models were determined using linear regression. The performances were evaluated using the RBFN, ANFIS, and MLR models based on statistical errors, including the mean absolute error, the root mean square error, and the correlation coefficient, computed from the measured and the model-simulated DO, TP, Chl a, and SD values. The results indicate that the performance of the ANFIS model is superior to those of the MLR and RBFN models. The study results show that the neural network using the ANFIS model is suitable for simulating the water quality variables with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that the ANFIS model can be used as a valuable tool for reservoir management in Taiwan.

  19. Oxidative stress in gills of limpets from the Beagle Channel: comparison with limpets from the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Malanga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the oxidative profile of gills of two limpet species (Nacella (Patinigera magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera deaurata (Gmelin, 1971 exposed to different environmental conditions. Due to the tidal characteristics of the Beagle Channel, N. magellanica are exposed to air twice daily for 3 to 5 hours each time, whereas N. deaurata are exposed to air for 3 hours only during spring tides. The different regime of exposure includes extreme temperatures under 0ºC during winter and more than 20°C in summer for N. magellanica, whereas N. deaurata are usually covered by more than 0.3 m of water at 4°C in winter and 11°C in summer. No significant differences were found between the two molluscs regarding the oxygen uptake, the content of ?-tocopherol and ?-carotene and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation in gills was estimated as the content of lipid radicals, assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. Lipid radical content and total iron content were respectively 80.6 and 62% lower in N. magellanica than in N. deaurata. A typical EPR spectrum of ascorbyl radical in gills from both limpets was observed. Both the ascorbyl radical content and the ascorbyl radical content/ascorbate content ratio were significantly lower in N. magellanica than in N. deaurata. In the Antarctic Nacella concinna inhabits all levels of the littoral zone. Limpets at the highest level in the intertidal showed significantly increased activities of both catalase and superoxide dismutase as compared to their intertidal and subtidal relatives. Thus, it seems that Antarctic high intertidal conditions, involving regular exposure to air and presumably also thermal stress on sunny days during the Antarctic summer, cause a necessity for N. concinna to ward off higher oxygen radical species production by increasing its antioxidant defence. Taken as a whole, the data presented here indicate

  20. Qualitative time trend analysis of ground water monitoring networks : An example from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frapporti, G; Vriend, S P; van Gaans, P F

    1994-03-01

    The detection of significant (short-term) time trends is one of the major goals of ground water monitoring networks. These trends can be used to recognize active geochemical processes and potential environmental threats. This paper presents a case history of time trend analysis on macrochemical parameters of ground water quality. It shows the difficulties and traps that are generally encountered in such studies. The data used originated from the Dutch National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network. This network is operative since 1979, and keeps track of the ground water composition at 350 locations at two depths (ca. 10 and 25 m below surface; general density, one location per 100 km(2)). Prior to the trend analysis the data set was divided into geochemically homogeneous groups using fuzzy c-means clustering. Each group represents a specific ground water type, characterized by a distinct source (seawater, surface water or precipitation) and a unique combination of dominant geochemical processes (e.g. mineralization of organic matter, carbonate dissolution and cation exchange).To study trends qualitatively, the concentrations of the various macro-constituents in ground water are correlated with time of sampling. The nonparametric and outlier insensitive Spearman rank correlation coefficient is computed per well screen. A frequency distribution of correlation coefficients is formed by combining the Spearman correlation coefficients of all individual wells within a homogeneous group. This distribution is tested for trends against the appropriate theoretical distribution of zero correlation by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. The type of trend is derived from the shape of the distribution.Most ground water types show statistically significant qualitative trends, of which many, however, are caused by changes in the sampling and analytical procedures over the monitoring period. After elimination of differences in limits of detection for NO3, total-P, and

  1. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, M.G. [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, Sao Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl{sub 2} (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V{sub max} for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10{sup 4} cells{sup −1} × 300 s{sup −1} respectively and K{sub m} values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K{sub m} for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that

  2. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  3. Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status (normal, leakage, and breakage, pipe failure modeling in hydraulic simulation, and negative pressure treatment. The network’s seismic reliability is defined as the ratio of the available quantity of water to the required water demand under stochastic earthquakes. The proposed model allows no pipe option in decisions, making it possible to identify seismic-reliability-based optimal layout for a WDS. The model takes into account the physical impact of earthquake events on the WDS, which ultimately affects the network’s boundary conditions (e.g., failure level of pipes. A well-known benchmark network, the Anytown network, is used to demonstrate the proposed model. The network’s optimal topology and pipe layouts are determined from a series of optimizations. The results show that installing large redundant pipes degrades the system’s seismic reliability because the pipes will cause a large rupture opening under failure. Our model is a useful tool to find the optimal pipe layout that maximizes system reliability under earthquakes.

  4. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zorrilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a "good ecological state" within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

  5. Serviceability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Water Distribution Network under Seismic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of water service is a hot point in industrial production, public safety, and academic research. The paper establishes a service evaluation model for the water distribution network (WDN. The serviceability is measured in three aspects: (1 the functionality of structural components under disaster environment; (2 the recognition of cascading failure process; and (3 the calculation of system reliability. The node and edge failures in WDN are interrelated under seismic excitations. The cascading failure process is provided with the balance of water supply and demand. The matrix-based system reliability (MSR method is used to represent the system events and calculate the nonfailure probability. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method. The cascading failure processes with different node failures are simulated. The serviceability is analyzed. The critical node can be identified. The result shows that the aged network has a greater influence on the system service under seismic scenario. The maintenance could improve the antidisaster ability of WDN. Priority should be given to controlling the time between the initial failure and the first secondary failure, for taking postdisaster emergency measures within this time period can largely cut down the spread of cascade effect in the whole WDN.

  6. Strategic rehabilitation planning of piped water networks using multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Lisa; Scheidegger, Andreas; Reichert, Peter; Maurer, Max; Mauer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2014-02-01

    To overcome the difficulties of strategic asset management of water distribution networks, a pipe failure and a rehabilitation model are combined to predict the long-term performance of rehabilitation strategies. Bayesian parameter estimation is performed to calibrate the failure and replacement model based on a prior distribution inferred from three large water utilities in Switzerland. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and scenario planning build the framework for evaluating 18 strategic rehabilitation alternatives under future uncertainty. Outcomes for three fundamental objectives (low costs, high reliability, and high intergenerational equity) are assessed. Exploitation of stochastic dominance concepts helps to identify twelve non-dominated alternatives and local sensitivity analysis of stakeholder preferences is used to rank them under four scenarios. Strategies with annual replacement of 1.5-2% of the network perform reasonably well under all scenarios. In contrast, the commonly used reactive replacement is not recommendable unless cost is the only relevant objective. Exemplified for a small Swiss water utility, this approach can readily be adapted to support strategic asset management for any utility size and based on objectives and preferences that matter to the respective decision makers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Reaction-Based River/Stream Water Quality Model: Reaction Network Decomposition and Model Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes details of an automatic matrix decomposition approach for a reaction-based stream water quality model. The method yields a set of equilibrium equations, a set of kinetic-variable transport equations involving kinetic reactions only, and a set of component transport equations involving no reactions. Partial decomposition of the system of water quality constituent transport equations is performed via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network by pivoting on equilibrium reactions to decouple equilibrium and kinetic reactions. This approach minimizes the number of partial differential advective-dispersive transport equations and enables robust numerical integration. Complete matrix decomposition by further pivoting on linearly independent kinetic reactions allows some rate equations to be formulated individually and explicitly enforces conservation of component species when component transport equations are solved. The methodology is demonstrated for a case study involving eutrophication reactions in the Des Moines River in Iowa, USA and for two hypothetical examples to illustrate the ability of the model to simulate sediment and chemical transport with both mobile and immobile water phases and with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  8. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  10. The Optimization-Based Design and Synthesis of Water Network for Water Management in an Industrial Process: Refinery Effluent Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Siemanond, Kitipat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the sustainability of water resources has become an important issue. Many process industries contribute to high water consumption and wastewater generation. Problems in industrial water management include the processing of complex contaminants in wastewater, selection......-based synthesis process for a water/wastewater treatment network design problem utilizing the framework of Quaglia et al. (2013) in order to effectively design, synthesize, and optimize an industrial water management problem using different scenarios (both existing and retrofit system design). The model...

  11. Multiscale River Hydraulic and Water Quality Observations Combining Stationary and Mobile Sensor Network Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Fisher, J. C.; Kaiser, W. J.

    2006-05-01

    Increasing demands on water supplies, non-point source pollution, and water quality-based ecological concerns all point to the need for observing stream flow perturbations and pollutant discharges at higher resolution than was practical in the past. This work presents the results from a test of a rapidly deployable river observational approach consisting of four components: (1) existing geospatial data and federal, state, and private river gauging infrastructure for identifying key river reaches and critical sampling times, (2) human- actuated sensor deployments for broad spatial characterization of the targeted river reach, (3) stationary sensors embedded in the river and its sediments for longer term spatiotemporal observations within the targeted reach, and (4) the robotic Networked Infomechanical System (NIMS RD) for high resolution scanning of spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties at specific points along the reach. The approach is demonstrated for a test bed deployment at the confluence of the Merced and San Joaquin Rivers in Central California. After identifying a suitable reach for the test deployment, a network of on-line gauging stations, accessed through the California Data Exchange Center (CDEC), is used to coordinate the timing of the subsequent three deployment aspects based on flow and river stage forecasts. Kayak-mounted sonar and water quality sensors are used to rapidly survey the test zone bathymetry and basic water quality parameters (temperature, salinity). Results from the rapid survey are then used to guide locations of the sediment- anchored sensor arrays (javelins) which include temperature, water pressure (depth) and water quality sensors distributed vertically at screened intervals. The NIMS RD is comprised of two supporting towers and a suspension cable delivering power and Internet connectivity for controlling and actuating the tram-like NIMS unit. The NIMS unit is capable of raising and lowering a payload of sensors

  12. Salinity independent volume fraction prediction in water-gas-oil multiphase flows using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, C.M.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    This work investigates the response of a volume fraction prediction system for water-gas-oil multiphase flows considering variations on water salinity. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The detection system uses appropriate fan beam geometry, comprised of a dual-energy gamma-ray source and two NaI(Tl) detectors adequately positioned outside the pipe in order measure transmitted and scattered beams. An ideal and static theoretical model for annular flow regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the ANN. More than 500 simulations have been done, in which water salinity have been ranged from 0 to 16% in order to cover a most practical situations. Validation tests have included values of volume fractions and water salinity different from those used in ANN training phase. The results presented here show that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to material volume fraction prediction on watergas- oil multiphase flows considering practical (real) levels of variations in water salinity. (author)

  13. Coupling of ground biosensor networks for water monitoring with satellite observations in assessing Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, A. N.; Rickerby, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis became recently a major public-health problem that is closely related with the environment (Nature review Oct 2009, Vol 7, pp 736-747). This disease originates from zoonotic pathogens associated with asymptomatic rodent carriers. Unfortunately, it effects human populations via various direct and indirect routes. This disease can claim many victims with large outbreaks during natural disasters or floods occurring during seasonal conditions. The severity of the illness ranges from subclinical infection to a fulminating fatal disease. Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, micro-fluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive and monitor the aquatic environment. Biosensors are capable of providing specific, high spatial resolution information and allow unattended operation that will be particularly useful for water borne related diseases. Current research on biosensors is leading to solutions to problems for several contaminants that were previously irresolvable due to their high degree of complexity. Networking of the sensors enables sensitive monitoring systems allowing real-time monitoring of pollutants and facilitates data transmission between the measurement points and central control stations for continuous surveillance and to provide an early warning capability. The application of intelligent biosensor networks for water quality monitoring and detection of localized sources of pollution are discussed together with the setting up of a methodology that utilizes images from satellite coupled with in-situ sensors for anticipating the zones of potential evolution of this disease and assessing the population at risk. Environmental and climatic conditions that are associated the outbreaks are described and the rational of combining earth observations coupled with advanced in-situ biosensors is explained. The implementation of sensor networks for data collection and exposure

  14. Sensor data validation and reconstruction in water networks : a methodology and software implementation

    OpenAIRE

    García Valverde, Diego; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cugueró Escofet, Miquel Àngel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a data validation and reconstruction methodology that can be applied to the sensors used for real-time monitoring in water networks is presented. On the one hand, a validation approach based on quality levels is described to detect potential invalid and missing data. On the other hand, the reconstruction strategy is based on a set of temporal and spatial models used to estimate missing/invalid data with the model estimation providing the best fit. A software tool implementing t...

  15. Application of Chaos Theory and Artificial Neural Networks to Evaluate Evaporation from Lake's Water Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Farzin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dynamic nature of hydrological phenomena and the limited availability of appropriate mathematical tools caused the most previous studies in this field led to the random and the probabilistic approach. So selection the best model for evaluation of these phenomena is essential and complex. Nowadays different models are used for evaluation and prediction of hydrological phenomena. Damle and Yalcin (2007 estimated river runoff by chaos theory. khatibi et al (2012 used artificial neural network and gene expression programming to predict relative humidity. Zounemat and Kisi (2015 evaluated chaotic behavior of marine wind-wave system of Caspian sea. One of the important hydrological phenomena is evaporation, especially in lakes. The investigation of deterministic and stochastic behavior of water evaporation values in the lakes in order to select the best simulation approach and capable of prediction is an important and controversial issue that has been studied in this research. Materials and Methods: In the present paper, monthly values of evaporation are evaluated by two different models. Chaos theory and artificial neural network are used for the analysis of stochastic behavior and capability of prediction of water evaporation values in the Urmia Lake in northwestern of Iran. In recent years, Urmia Lake has unpleasant changes and drop in water level due to inappropriate management and climate change. One of the important factors related to climate change, is evaporation. Urmia Lake is a salt lake, and because of existence valuable ecology, environmental issues and maintenance of ecosystems of this lake are very important. So evaporation can have an essential role in the salinity, environmental and the hydrological cycle of the lake. In this regard, according to the ability of chaos theory and artificial neural network to analysis nonlinear dynamic systems; monthly values of evaporation, during a 40-year period, are investigated and then

  16. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  17. Sodium-potassium dependent adenosine triphosphatase activity in gills and kidneys of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Gill and kidney ATPase activities of 2-year-old Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were determined periodically from March to July.2. Na-K ATPase activity increased in the gill and declined in the kidney during the time encompassing transformation of parr to smolt under hatchery conditions.

  18. Black gill disease of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei in India. Methods: The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannamei in potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Fungal DNA was amplified by ITS4 and ITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by using MEGA 6 software. Results: Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand the effect of pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannamei culture.

  19. Chapter 27: Mortality of Marbled Murrelets in Gill Nets in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry R. Carter; Michael L.C. McAllister; M.E. Pete Isleib

    1995-01-01

    Mortality of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) due to accidental capture in gill nets is one of the major threats to murrelet populations. Gill-net mortality of murrelets throughout their range has been occurring for several decades and probably has contributed to declines in populations, in conjunction with loss of nesting habitat and...

  20. Training Researchers in Cultural Psychiatry: The McGill-CIHR Strategic Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Corin, Ellen; Groleau, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors aim to summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of researchers in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry at McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of the McGill cultural psychiatry…

  1. Transformation rules and degradation of CAHs by Fentonlike oxidation in growth ring of water distribution network-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D.; Ma, W. C.; Jiang, X. Q.; Yuan, Y. X.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Fang, T. T.; Huang, W. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used as organic solvent and chemical raw materials. After treatment, water polluted with trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can reach the water quality requirements, while water with trace amounts of TCE/PCE is still harmful to humans, which will cause cancers. Water distribution network is an extremely complicated system, in which adsorption, desorption, flocculation, movement, transformation and reduction will occur, leading to changes of TCE/PCE concentrations and products. Therefore, it is important to investigate the transformation rules of TCE/PCE in water distribution network. What’s more, growth-ring, including drinking water pipes deposits, can act as catalysts in Fenton-like reagent (H2O2). This review summarizes the status of transformation rules of CAHs in water distribution network. It also evaluates the effectiveness and fruit of CAHs degradation by Fenton-like reagent based on growth-ring. This review is important in solving the potential safety problems caused by TCE/PCE in water distribution network.

  2. Water Retention, Gas Transport, and Pore Network Complexity during Short-Term Regeneration of Soil Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2013-01-01

    , and smectite) amended with organic material (7.5 Mg ha−1). The newly formed structure was compared with that of sieved, repacked (SR) and natural intact samples described in previous studies. Assessment and comparison of structural complexity and organization was done using water retention (pore size......: smectite structural complexity, quantified by soil gas diffusivity, air permeability, and derived pore network indices, was greater for incubated than SR samples. For illitic soils, incubated samples had lower water content and higher air......Soil structure maintains prime importance in determining the ability of soils to carry out essential ecosystem functions and services. This study quantified the newly formed structure of 22-mo field-incubated physically disturbed (2-mm sieved) samples of varying clay mineralogy (illite, kaolinite...

  3. Application of Artificial Neural Network into the Water Level Modeling and Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dangerous sea and river water level increase does not only destroy the human lives, but also generate the severe flooding in coastal areas. The rapidly changes in the direction and velocity of wind and associated with them sea level changes could be the severe threat for navigation, especially on the fairways of small fishery harbors located in the river mouth. There is the area of activity of two external forcing: storm surges and flood wave. The aim of the work was the description of an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN methodology into the water level forecast in the case study field in Swibno harbor located is located at 938.7 km of the Wisla River and at a distance of about 3 km up the mouth (Gulf of Gdansk - Baltic Sea.

  4. Using Neural Network for Determination of Viscosity in Water-TiO2 Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bahiraei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using nanofluids is a novel solution to enhance heat transfer. This study tries to extract the model of viscosity changes in water-TiO2 nanofluid through examining the effect of temperature and volume fraction on the viscosity. Results were recorded and analyzed within temperature range of 25 to 70°C with increments of five for 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, and 1% volume fractions. The obtained results demonstrated that the viscosity of this nanofluid decreases by increasing the temperature and increases by raising the volume fraction. The results show that conventional correlations are unable to properly predict nanofluid viscosity especially at high volume fractions. A model was developed by the data obtained from experiments to estimate viscosity of water-TiO2 nanofluid based on two variables of temperature and volume fraction using neural network. The proposed model was qualified as highly competent for determination of nanofluid viscosity.

  5. Multiobjective Optimization of Water Distribution Networks Using Fuzzy Theory and Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, various phenomenon-mimicking algorithms, such as genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, tabu search, shuffled frog-leaping, ant colony optimization, harmony search, cross entropy, scatter search, and honey-bee mating, have been proposed to optimally design the water distribution networks with respect to design cost. However, flow velocity constraint, which is critical for structural robustness against water hammer or flow circulation against substance sedimentation, was seldom considered in the optimization formulation because of computational complexity. Thus, this study proposes a novel fuzzy-based velocity reliability index, which is to be maximized while the design cost is simultaneously minimized. The velocity reliability index is included in the existing cost optimization formulation and this extended multiobjective formulation is applied to two bench-mark problems. Results show that the model successfully found a Pareto set of multiobjective design solutions in terms of cost minimization and reliability maximization.

  6. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  7. Multi-agent modelling framework for water, energy and other resource networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Meier, P.; Harou, J. J.; Yoon, J.; Lachaut, T.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Avisse, N.; Mohamed, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Khadem, M.; Tilmant, A.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bespoke modelling tools are often needed when planning future engineered interventions in the context of various climate, socio-economic and geopolitical futures. Such tools can help improve system operating policies or assess infrastructure upgrades and their risks. A frequently used approach is to simulate and/or optimise the impact of interventions in engineered systems. Modelling complex infrastructure systems can involve incorporating multiple aspects into a single model, for example physical, economic and political. This presents the challenge of combining research from diverse areas into a single system effectively. We present the Pynsim 'Python Network Simulator' framework, a library for building simulation models capable of representing, the physical, institutional and economic aspects of an engineered resources system. Pynsim is an open source, object oriented code aiming to promote integration of different modelling processes through a single code library. We present two case studies that demonstrate important features of Pynsim's design. The first is a large interdisciplinary project of a national water system in the Middle East with modellers from fields including water resources, economics, hydrology and geography each considering different facets of a multi agent system. It includes: modelling water supply and demand for households and farms; a water tanker market with transfer of water between farms and households, and policy decisions made by government institutions at district, national and international level. This study demonstrates that a well-structured library of code can provide a hub for development and act as a catalyst for integrating models. The second focuses on optimising the location of new run-of-river hydropower plants. Using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, this study analyses different network configurations to identify the optimal placement of new power plants within a river network. This demonstrates that Pynsim can be

  8. An unusual outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital respiratory wards: Association with nontuberculous mycobacterial colonization of hospital water supply network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore D′Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is increasing worldwide arousing concerns that NTM infection may become a serious health challenge. We recently observed a significant increase of NTM-positive sputa samples from patients referred to respiratory disease wards of a large tertiary hospital in Rome. A survey to identify possible NTM contamination revealed a massive presence of NTM in the hospital water supply network. After decontamination procedures, NTM presence dropped both in water pipelines and sputa samples. We believe that this observation should encourage water network surveys for NTM contamination and prompt decontamination procedures should be considered to reduce this potential source of infection.

  9. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  10. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Asal Kzar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS. The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data, classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R and root mean square error (RMSE were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977 and lower RMSE (2.887. In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis. Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the

  11. YERSINIA RUCKERI INFECT RAINBOW TROUT THROUGH THE GILLS DEMONSTRATED BY A THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal tissues including gills, skin and intestine are known as the infection route for pathogenic bacteria in fish. In order to understand the bacterial infection route throughout the mucosal tissues, we adopted the optical projection tomography (OPT) which is a new technique for three...... for immunohistochemistry (IHC). For OPT scanning, the gills were incubated whole with rabbit anti-Y. ruckeri polyclonal antibody and Alexa Fluor®594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, then specimens were scanned by Bioptonic OPT 3001 scanner. The presence of Y. ruckeri bacteria in gill tissue was confirmed by IHC using...... rabbit anti-Y. ruckeri antibody. The OPT results showed that Y. ruckeri were observed in connection with the gill filaments 1 minute post infection (mpi) and confirmed inside the gill filament by IHC and isolation of the bacteria from blood. The present results indicate that the single layer...

  12. Sublethal effect of nanosilver on the structure of gill of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of nanosilver can be led the contamination of aquatic environment and impact on living organisms such as fishes. We investigated histopathological changes in the gills tissue of Caspian roach fingerlings after two weeks exposure to sublethal concentrations of nanosilver. Following one and two weeks exposure, necrosis, shortening of secondary lamellae, edema, destruction of epithelial lamella, shortening of secondary lamellae, epithelial lifting and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues. This observation showed that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of nanosilver is caused damages in the gill tissues of Caspian roach. The results demonstrated direct correlation of gill tissue damage and toxin exposure i.e. increasing nanosilver concentration is caused more tissue damage. Hence, histopathological changes of gill can considered as a proper indicator for nanosilver contamination of aquatic environments.

  13. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  14. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows