WorldWideScience

Sample records for networks 7-1 s-modular

  1. 7 CFR 7.1 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 7.1 Section 7.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.1 Administration. (a) The regulations of this part are...

  2. 27 CFR 7.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 7.1 Section 7.1... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Scope § 7.1 General. The regulations in this part relate to the labeling and advertising of malt beverages. ...

  3. 39 CFR 7.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE PUBLIC OBSERVATION (ARTICLE VII) § 7.1 Definitions. For purposes of §§ 7.2 through 7.8 of these bylaws: (a) The term Board means the...

  4. 42 CFR 7.1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL STANDARDS AND BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS § 7.1 Applicability. The provisions of this part are applicable to private entities requesting from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference biological standards and biological preparations for use in their laboratories. ...

  5. Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol. 7 (1)2007 Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    7 (1)2007. 13. Information and Communication Network Among Natural Scientists in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ... Introduction. Generally ... planning and adding value in all human .... internationally ( x = 3.75). .... McGraw-Hill Companies.

  6. Stanford survives 7.1 shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-12-15

    The Monday morning of 16 October looked like the start of a quiet week at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). After a successful six-month physics run, the SLC Stanford Linear Collider was shut down to begin scheduled upgrades and the installation of two vertex detectors for the Mark II detector. Then at 5.04 p.m. the next day, the Earth's crust had had enough. A major earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale rocked the San Francisco Bay Area from an epicentre along the wicked San Andreas Fault in the Southern Santa Cruz mountains.

  7. Stanford survives 7.1 shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The Monday morning of 16 October looked like the start of a quiet week at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). After a successful six-month physics run, the SLC Stanford Linear Collider was shut down to begin scheduled upgrades and the installation of two vertex detectors for the Mark II detector. Then at 5.04 p.m. the next day, the Earth's crust had had enough. A major earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale rocked the San Francisco Bay Area from an epicentre along the wicked San Andreas Fault in the Southern Santa Cruz mountains

  8. Subtask 7.1 - Strategic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Erickson

    2009-03-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has recently completed 11 years of research through the Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) focused on fossil energy technology development and demonstration. To support a significant number of the different activities being considered within all of our research contracts with NETL, a subtask (7.1 Strategic Studies) was created to focus on small research efforts that came up throughout the year which would support an existing EERC-NETL project or would help to develop a new concept for inclusion in future efforts. Typical efforts conducted under this task were usually between $15,000 and $60,000 in scope and had time lines of less than 6 months. A limited number of larger studies were also conducted, generally at the direct request of NETL. Over the life of this task, 46 projects were conducted. These efforts ranged from quick experiments to gain fundamental knowledge to support a current effort, to literature reviews, to a few larger engineering efforts.

  9. 46 CFR 7.1 - General purpose of boundary lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose of boundary lines. 7.1 Section 7.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES General § 7.1 General purpose of boundary lines. The lines in this part delineate the application of the...

  10. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Christian D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2012-11-16

    Deep excavation of soil has been conducted at the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 waste sites within the 100-BC Operable Unit at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination with the excavations reaching to near the water table. Soil sampling showed that Cr(VI) contamination was still present at the bottom of the 100-C-7:1 excavation. In addition, Cr(VI) concentrations in a downgradient monitoring well have shown a transient spike of increased Cr(VI) concentration following initiation of excavation. Potentially, the increased Cr(VI) concentrations in the downgradient monitoring well are due to Cr(VI) from the excavation site. However, data were needed to evaluate this possibility and to quantify the overall impact of the 100-C-7:1 excavation site on groundwater. Data collected from a network of aquifer tubes installed across the floor of the 100-C-7:1 excavation and from temporary wells installed at the bottom of the entrance ramp to the excavation were used to evaluate Cr(VI) releases into the aquifer and to estimate local-scale hydraulic properties and groundwater flow velocity.

  11. A Plutarchan Parallel to Arrian Anabasis 7.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Buszard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For his analysis of Alexander's character at Anab. 7.1 Arrian adopted the thematic structure and language of Plutarch Caes. 58, while close comparison of the two passages also demonstrates the extent of Arrian's rhetorical independence.

  12. 43 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-10-11

    . Akure, Ondo State,Nigeria ... development, poor housing quality and condition, ... In the case of the rehabilitation .... cross-junctions dotted the entire road network in this area. ... organize themselves into cooperative and thrift.

  13. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  14. User's guide to ESME v. 7.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, S.; MacLachlan, J.

    1990-01-01

    ESME is a computer program to calculate the evolution of a distribution of particles in energy and azimuth as it is acted upon by the radiofrequency system of a proton synchrotron. It provides for the modeling of multiple rf systems, feedback control, spacecharge, and many of the effects of longitudinal coupling impedance. The capabilities of the program are described, and the requirements for input data are specified in sufficient detail to permit significant calculations by an uninitiated user. The program is currently at version 7.1 and extensively modified since the previous user documentation. Fundamental enhancements make version 6 data unusable, but nearly all facilities of the earlier version have been retained and input data is similar. Also described is a VAX-based code management convention which has been established with a view to maintaining functional equivalence in versions used on different computers. 13 refs

  15. Enriched uranium processing with 7-1/2% TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, D.A.; Martin, W.H.; Pickett, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    The 7-1/2% TBP flowsheet gives adequate recovery of uranium and neptunium or plutonium, with reduced waste volume as compared to the prior aluminum-salted 3-1/2% TBP flowsheet. Decontamination from fission products is sensitive to numerous variables, including aluminum nitrate concentration in the feed, impeller speeds, and prior treatment of the fuel solution in head end operations. The impeller speed in the 1A bank also influences uranium losses as well as the fission product decontamination. The magnitudes of these effects suggest that stage efficiency is poor with this flowsheet in this mixer settler unit. The existing continuous solvent washers give evidence of low washing efficiency that limits permissible feed activity and that may be related to low contact time between the solvent and the carbonate wash solution. The most general conclusion is that satisfactory operation can be obtained with all projected domestic and foreign fuels under consideration for processing, by suitable adjustment of operating conditions. Also, possible flowsheet and equipment changes are known that could improve operations with these fuels further. 7 references

  16. Ex-Ante Impact Assessment & Value Network Analysis for SI: Report Task 7.1

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, S.; Ven, H. van de; Ziauberyte, R.; Torre, W. van der; Cressey, P.; Kaderabkova, A.; Luna, Á.; Moghadam Saman, S.; Castro Spila, J.; Terstriep, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a conceptual framework is presented to conduct an ex-ante impact assessment for social innovation. The building blocks for an ex-ante impact assessment are goal formulation; developing the relationships between inputs, outputs and outcomes; determining the role of stakeholders to achieve the objectives; calculating the impact; and deciding on the social innovation. These building blocks are sequentially interconnected to each other. In conclusion, our conceptual framework aims...

  17. Ex-Ante Impact Assessment & Value Network Analysis for SI: Report Task 7.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Ven, H. van de; Ziauberyte, R.; Torre, W. van der; Cressey, P.; Kaderabkova, A.; Luna, Á.; Moghadam Saman, S.; Castro Spila, J.; Terstriep, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a conceptual framework is presented to conduct an ex-ante impact assessment for social innovation. The building blocks for an ex-ante impact assessment are goal formulation; developing the relationships between inputs, outputs and outcomes; determining the role of stakeholders to

  18. VLF radio wave anomalies associated with the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhima, Zeren; Zhao, Shufan; Qian, Geng; Ye, Qing; Ruzhin, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    The VLF radio signals recorded both from the ground based VLF radio wave monitoring network and the DEMETER satellite are investigated during the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake. The ground-based observations show that the disturbance intensity of VLF wave's amplitude relative to the background gets an enhancement over 22% at 11.9 kHz, 27% at 12.6 kHz and 62% at 14.9 kHz VLF radio wave along the path from Novosibirsk - TH one day before the main shock, as compared to the maximum 20% observed during non-earthquake time. The space based observations indicate that there is a decrease of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the power spectral density data of 14.9 kHz VLF radio signal at electric field four days before the main shock, with disturbance intensity exceeding the background by over 5% as compared to the maximum 3% observed during non-earthquake time. The geoelectric field observations in the epicenter region also show that a sharp enhancement from ∼340 to 430 mV/km simultaneously appeared at two monitors 14 days before main shock. The comparative analysis from the ground and space based observations during the earthquake and non-earthquake time provides us convincible evidence that there exits seismic anomalies from the VLF radio wave propagation before the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake. The possible mechanism for VLF radio signal propagation anomaly during 2010 Yushu earthquake maybe related to the change of the geoelectric field nearby the earthquake zone.

  19. 45 CFR 7.1 - Duty of employee to report inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty of employee to report inventions. 7.1 Section 7.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.1 Duty of employee to report inventions. Every Department employee is required to report to...

  20. Any value of podocyte B7-1 as a biomarker in human MCD and FSGS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in children and in young adults. Relapsing MCD carries the risk of severe complications and prolonged immunosuppression, whereas FSGS remains largely untreatable and urgently needs more effective treatments. Recently, induction of B7-1 (CD80), an immune-related protein expressed by antigen-presenting cells, was observed in podocytes of MCD and FSGS patients, suggesting that B7-1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and hence that abatacept, a B7-1 inhibitor, could be a possible treatment. Since previous studies raised serious concerns regarding the reliability of immunohistochemical assays for B7-1 detection and the efficacy of B7-1 inhibitory treatment, we investigated B7-1 podocyte expression in MCD and FSGS patients. Using different primary antibodies and immunohistochemical assays, no significant upregulation of podocyte B7-1 was detected in patients' biopsies compared with controls. To further confirm our findings, we analyzed mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy, a model of human FSGS, and mice injected with LPS as additional control. Podocyte B7-1 was not observed in mice injected with adriamycin or LPS either. In conclusion, since B7-1 is not induced in podocyte of MCD and FSGS patients, the antiproteinuric action of abatacept, if confirmed, may not be the result of an effect on podocyte B7-1. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Pharmacological dissection of K(v)7.1 channels in systemic and pulmonary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Davis, Alison J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature.......The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature....

  2. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont:�Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  3. Kv7.1 surface expression is regulated by epithelial cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2011-01-01

    The potassium channel K(V)7.1 is expressed in the heart where it contributes to the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In addition, K(V)7.1 is expressed in epithelial tissues where it plays a role in salt and water transport. Mutations in the kcnq1 gene can lead to long QT syndrome...... and deafness, and several mutations have been described as trafficking mutations. To learn more about the basic mechanisms that regulate K(V)7.1 surface expression, we have investigated the trafficking of K(V)7.1 during the polarization process of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) using...... is regulated by signaling mechanisms involved in epithelial cell polarization in particular signaling cascades involving protein kinase C and PI3K....

  4. USGS 1:12000 (Quarter 7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a mathematically generated grid in which each polygon represents one quarter of a standard USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle. The result is a 3 3/4 minute...

  5. USGS 1:24000 (7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Mathematically generated grid representing USGS 7 1/2 Minute Quadrangle Map outlines. Quadrangle names and standard identifiers are included with the data set.

  6. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Ethiopia Vol. 7 (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH). Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (1), S/No ... Department of International and Strategic Studies. Faculty of Arts and ..... American political science review, 98(01), 171-. 189. Stiglitz, J. (2002).

  7. The zinc transporter ZIPT-7.1 regulates sperm activation in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sperm activation is a fascinating example of cell differentiation, in which immotile spermatids undergo a rapid and dramatic transition to become mature, motile sperm. Because the sperm nucleus is transcriptionally silent, this transition does not involve transcriptional changes. Although Caenorhabditis elegans is a leading model for studies of sperm activation, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways induce this transformation remain poorly characterized. Here we show that a conserved transmembrane zinc transporter, ZIPT-7.1, regulates the induction of sperm activation in Caenorhabditis nematodes. The zipt-7.1 mutant hermaphrodites cannot self-fertilize, and males reproduce poorly, because mutant spermatids are defective in responding to activating signals. The zipt-7.1 gene is expressed in the germ line and functions in germ cells to promote sperm activation. When expressed in mammalian cells, ZIPT-7.1 mediates zinc transport with high specificity and is predominantly located on internal membranes. Finally, genetic epistasis places zipt-7.1 at the end of the spe-8 sperm activation pathway, and ZIPT-7.1 binds SPE-4, a presenilin that regulates sperm activation. Based on these results, we propose a new model for sperm activation. In spermatids, inactive ZIPT-7.1 is localized to the membranous organelles, which contain higher levels of zinc than the cytoplasm. When sperm activation is triggered, ZIPT-7.1 activity increases, releasing zinc from internal stores. The resulting increase in cytoplasmic zinc promotes the phenotypic changes characteristic of activation. Thus, zinc signaling is a key step in the signal transduction process that mediates sperm activation, and we have identified a zinc transporter that is central to this activation process.

  8. KCNE1 constrains the voltage sensor of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liora Shamgar

    Full Text Available Kv7 potassium channels whose mutations cause cardiovascular and neurological disorders are members of the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+ channels, comprising a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs and sharing a homologous S4 sensor sequence. The Kv7.1 pore-forming subunit can interact with various KCNE auxiliary subunits to form K(+ channels with very different gating behaviors. In an attempt to characterize the nature of the promiscuous gating of Kv7.1 channels, we performed a tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis of the S4 sensor and analyzed the mutation-induced perturbations in gating free energy. Perturbing the gating energetics of Kv7.1 bias most of the mutant channels towards the closed state, while fewer mutations stabilize the open state or the inactivated state. In the absence of auxiliary subunits, mutations of specific S4 residues mimic the gating phenotypes produced by co-assembly of Kv7.1 with either KCNE1 or KCNE3. Many S4 perturbations compromise the ability of KCNE1 to properly regulate Kv7.1 channel gating. The tryptophan-induced packing perturbations and cysteine engineering studies in S4 suggest that KCNE1 lodges at the inter-VSD S4-S1 interface between two adjacent subunits, a strategic location to exert its striking action on Kv7.1 gating functions.

  9. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    that CD28-B7 blockade by systemic administration of CTLA4Ig prevents actively induced EAE. Since CTLA4Ig binds to both B7-1 and B7-2, we used a mutant form of CTLA4Ig (CTLA4IgY100F) that binds only B7-1, to study the role of B7-1 blockade in this model. Such a reagent avoids the potential of signaling...... treated with systemic CTLA4gY100F did not. More importantly, systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F abrogated the protective effect of ex vivo treated APCs. These data suggest an important regulatory role for B7-1, perhaps through binding to CTLA4, in this model of EAE. Understanding the role......Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown...

  10. Trafficking and intracellular regulation of Kv7.1 potassium channels in the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nathalie Hélix

    identified. About 100 of these mutations are located in the N- or the C-terminal parts of the channel. The aim of the present work was to gain a better understanding of the Kv7.1 channel protein function. In the first study we identified a Kv7.1 missense mutation in a German family with Long QT Syndrome......The electrical activity of the heart, measured by application of surface body electrodes and recorded as an electrocardiogram, is the result of a finely tuned balance of ion movement (K+, Na+, Ca2+). The ionic currents collectively constitute the cardiac action potential created in the cell...

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  12. Structural basis for KV7.1/KCNEx interactions in the IKs channel complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Tseng, Gea-Ny; Schmitt, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac I(Ks) current is involved in action potential repolarization, where its primary function is to limit action potential prolongation during sympathetic stimulation. The I(Ks) channel is mainly composed of K(V)7.1 ion channels associated with KCNE1 auxiliary subunits. The availability of...

  13. Protein kinase A stimulates Kv7.1 surface expression by regulating Nedd4-2-dependent endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Hefting, Louise Leth; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2015-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv7.1 plays critical physiological roles in both heart and epithelial tissues. In heart, Kv7.1 and the accessory subunit KCNE1 forms the IKs current, which is enhanced by PKA mediated phosphorylation. The observed current increase requires both phosphorylation of Kv7.......1 and the presence of KCNE1. However, PKA also stimulates Kv7.1 currents in epithelial tissues, such as colon, where the channel does not co-assemble with KCNE1. Here, we demonstrate that PKA activity significantly impacts the subcellular localization of Kv7.1 in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells. While PKA inhibition...... reduced the fraction of channels at the cell surface, PKA activation increased it. We show that PKA inhibition lead to intracellular accumulation of Kv7.1 in late endosomes/lysosomes. By mass spectroscopy we identified eight phosphorylated residues on Kv7.1, however, none appeared to play a role...

  14. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of the Spaceliner-7.1 vehicle in high altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, Gennaro; Morsa, Luigi; Sippel, Martin; Schwanekamp, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    SpaceLiner, designed by DLR, is a visionary, extremely fast passenger transportation concept. It consists of two stages: a winged booster, a vehicle. After separation of the two stages, the booster makes a controlled re-entry and returns to the launch site. According to the current project, version 7-1 of SpaceLiner (SpaceLiner-7.1), the vehicle should be brought at an altitude of 75 km and then released, undertaking the descent path. In the perspective that the vehicle of SpaceLiner-7.1 could be brought to altitudes higher than 75 km, e.g. 100 km or above and also for a speculative purpose, in this paper the aerodynamic parameters of the SpaceLiner-7.1 vehicle are calculated in the whole transition regime, from continuum low density to free molecular flows. Computer simulations have been carried out by three codes: two DSMC codes, DS3V in the altitude interval 100-250 km for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients and DS2V at the altitude of 60 km for the evaluation of the heat flux and pressure distributions along the vehicle nose, and the DLR HOTSOSE code for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients in continuum, hypersonic flow at the altitude of 44.6 km. The effectiveness of the flaps with deflection angle of -35 deg. was evaluated in the above mentioned altitude interval. The vehicle showed longitudinal stability in the whole altitude interval even with no flap. The global bridging formulae verified to be proper for the evaluation of the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude interval 80-100 km where the computations cannot be fulfilled either by CFD, because of the failure of the classical equations computing the transport coefficients, or by DSMC because of the requirement of very high computer resources both in terms of the core storage (a high number of simulated molecules is needed) and to the very long processing time.

  15. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Ethiopia Vol. 7 (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... Economics, small and medium term enterprises and agriculture, .... recognized interdependence); and 3) the community must be able to integrate the implemented .... characterised by dense networks of civic associations. ... City. Radda, S.I. (2008). Towards optimum resource management by governments.

  16. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Ethiopia Vol. 7 (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... This study examined the scope of African's regional economic integration and the ... and development, therefore, it is an irreplaceable factor for wider ... Using Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy, as a case study of this .... The distribution of consumer goods is effected largely through a complex of a network of.

  17. Expression of fusion IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and effects on T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghong; Li, Yaochen; Yang, Ye; Li, Kangsheng

    2007-12-01

    The search for an effective immunotherapeutic treatment for tumors is an important area of cancer research. To prepare a more effective form of the bifunctional fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and analyze its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation, we used DNAStar 5.03 software to predict the structural diversity and biochemical character of IL2-B7.1(IgV+C). We then prepared fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) by establishing its prokaryotic expression system, and tested its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocytes in vitro. The results indicated that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) correctly formed a secondary structure in which both IL2 and B7.1(IgV+C) maintained their original hydrophilicity and epitopes. Western blot analysis revealed that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) was efficiently expressed. Our analysis of CTLL-2 and T-cell proliferation showed that recombinant human (rh) IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) exerted the combined stimulating effects of both rhIL2 and rh B7.1(IgV+C) on cell proliferation, and that these effects could be blocked by adding either anti-IL2 or anti-B7.1 monoclonal antibodies. A >2-fold increase in [3H]TdR incorporation compared with that of cells treated with recombinant protein IL2, or B7.1(IgV+C) alone, revealed that rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) had dose-dependent synergetic effects on T-cell activation in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. We concluded that the augmented potency of rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) resulted in a stronger stimulation of T-cell proliferation than either rhB7.1(IgV+C) or rhIL2 alone.

  18. The Kumamoto Mw7.1 mainshock: deep initiation triggered by the shallow foreshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Wei, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Kumamoto Mw7.1 earthquake and its Mw6.2 foreshock struck the central Kyushu region in mid-April, 2016. The surface ruptures are characterized with multiple fault segments and a mix of strike-slip and normal motion extended from the intersection area of Hinagu and Futagawa faults to the southwest of Mt. Aso. Despite complex surface ruptures, most of the finite fault inversions use two fault segments to approximate the fault geometry. To study the rupture process and the complex fault geometry of this earthquake, we performed a multiple point source inversion for the mainshock using the data on 93 K-net and Kik-net stations. With path calibration from the Mw6.0 foreshock, we selected the frequency ranges for the Pnl waves (0.02 0.26 Hz) and surface waves (0.02 0.12 Hz), as well as the components that can be well modeled with the 1D velocity model. Our four-point-source results reveal a unilateral rupture towards Mt. Aso and varying fault geometries. The first sub-event is a high angle ( 79°) right-lateral strike-slip event at the depth of 16 km on the north end of the Hinagu fault. Notably the two M>6 foreshocks is located by our previous studies near the north end of the Hinagu fault at the depth of 5 9 km, which may give rise to the stress concentration at depth. The following three sub-events are distributed along the surface rupture of the Futagawa fault, with focal depths within 4 10 km. Their focal mechanisms present similar right-lateral fault slips with relatively small dip angles (62 67°) and apparent normal-fault component. Thus, the mainshock rupture initiated from the relatively deep part of the Hinagu fault and propagated through the fault-bend toward NE along the relatively shallow part of the Futagawa fault until it was terminated near Mt. Aso. Based on the four-point-source solution, we conducted a finite-fault inversion and obtained a kinematic rupture model of the mainshock. We then performed the Coulomb Stress analyses on the two foreshocks

  19. Novel Kv7.1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate interaction sites uncovered by charge neutralization scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckey, Karina; Wrobel, Eva; Strutz-Seebohm, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Kv7.1 to Kv7.5 α-subunits belong to the family of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv). Assembled with the β-subunit KCNE1, Kv7.1 conducts the slowly activating potassium current IKs, which is one of the major currents underlying repolarization of the cardiac action potential. A known regulator...... of corresponding long QT syndrome mutants suggested impaired PIP2 regulation as the cause for channel dysfunction. To clarify the underlying structural mechanism of PIP2 binding, molecular dynamics simulations of Kv7.1/KCNE1 complexes containing two PIP2 molecules in each subunit at specific sites were performed...

  20. Discriminating satellite IR anomalies associated with the MS 7.1 Yushu earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Shuo; Ma, Weiyu

    2018-03-01

    In the process of exploring pre-earthquake thermal anomalies using satellite infrared data, Blackett et al. (2011) found that the previously reported anomalies before the 2001 Mw 7.7 Gujarat earthquake, in India, were related to positive biases caused by data gaps due to cloud cover and mosaicing of neighboring orbits of MODIS satellite data. They supposed that such effects could also be responsible for other cases. We noted a strip-shaped TIR anomaly on March 17th, 2010, 28 days before the Ms. 7.1 Yushu earthquake (Qin et al., 2011). Here we again investigate multi-year infrared satellite data in different bands to discriminate whether the anomaly is associated with the earthquake, or is only bias caused by the data gaps. From the water vapor images, we find lots of clouds that have TIR anomalies. However, on the cloudiness background, there is an obvious strip-shaped gap matching the tectonic faults almost perfectly. In particular, the animation loops of hourly water vapor images show that the cloud kept moving from west to east, while they never covered the strip-shaped gap. We consider that the cloud with this special spatial pattern should have implied the abnormal signals associated with the seismogenic process. Based on current physical models, the satellite IR anomalies both on TIR and water vapor bands can qualitatively be explained using synthetic mechanisms.

  1. Nuclear-related budget for fiscal 1982 increased by 7.1 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In the budget draft for fiscal 1982, highest priority is given to the cost of energy countermeasures, and 563,200 million yen is earmarked, which is 13.2 % increase as compared with the budget for 1981. Emphasis is placed on the stable supply of oil and the development of the alternative sources of energy. The main pillar of the measures for alternative energy sources is nuclear power development. 290,448 million yen is allocated to the nuclearrelated budget, which is 7.1 % increase as compared with that for 1981. Besides, in order to develop overseas uranium resources and to promote nuclear fuel cycle industries and the domestic production of nuclear power equipments, the fiscal loans and investments of 159,000 million yen are available. The budget draft for the nuclear power development in the Science and Technology Agency is 243,038 million yen, which amounts to 83.7 % of the nuclear-related budget mentioned above. The budget for the STA is roughly classified into the expansion and reinforcement of nuclear safety measures, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advenced power reactors, the R and D on nuclear fusion and HTGRs, the R and D on nuclear ships, the smooth siting of nuclear facilities, etc. (Kako, I.)

  2. Kv7.1 ion channels require a lipid to couple voltage sensing to pore opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, Mark A; Silva, Jonathan R; Delaloye, Kelli; Li, Yang; Liang, Hongwu; Larsson, H Peter; Shi, Jingyi; Cui, Jianmin

    2013-08-06

    Voltage-gated ion channels generate dynamic ionic currents that are vital to the physiological functions of many tissues. These proteins contain separate voltage-sensing domains, which detect changes in transmembrane voltage, and pore domains, which conduct ions. Coupling of voltage sensing and pore opening is critical to the channel function and has been modeled as a protein-protein interaction between the two domains. Here, we show that coupling in Kv7.1 channels requires the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). We found that voltage-sensing domain activation failed to open the pore in the absence of PIP2. This result is due to loss of coupling because PIP2 was also required for pore opening to affect voltage-sensing domain activation. We identified a critical site for PIP2-dependent coupling at the interface between the voltage-sensing domain and the pore domain. This site is actually a conserved lipid-binding site among different K(+) channels, suggesting that lipids play an important role in coupling in many ion channels.

  3. Comparison between low-cost and traditional MEMS accelerometers: a case study from the M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, aftershock deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS sensing and distributed computing techniques have enabled the development of low-cost, rapidly deployed dense seismic networks. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN uses triaxial MEMS accelerometers installed in homes and businesses to record moderate to large earthquakes. Real-time accelerations are monitored and information is transferred to a central server using open-source, distributed computing software installed on participating computers. Following the September 3, 2010, Mw 7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding region to record the on-going aftershock sequence. Here, we compare the ground motions recorded by QCN accelerometers with GeoNet strong-motion instruments to verify whether low-cost MEMS accelerometers can provide reliable ground-motion information in network-scale deployments. We find that observed PGA and PGV amplitudes and RMS scatter are comparable between the GeoNet and QCN observations. Closely spaced stations provide similar acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series and computed response spectra are also highly correlated, with correlation coefficients above 0.94.

  4. Macroscopic anomalies before the September 2010 M = 7.1 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Ulusoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous published work after the Kobe and İzmit earthquakes (1995 and 1999, respectively demonstrated some reported meteorological and animal behaviour precursors were valid. Predictions were freshly tested for the Christchurch earthquake (M = 7.1, 4 September 2010. An internet survey with nearly 400 valid replies showed relative numbers of reports in precursor categories the day before the quake, were statistically significantly different from those in the preceding three days (excess meteorological events and animal behaviour. The day before the quake, there was also altered relative precursor class occurrence within 56 km compared with further away. Both these confirmed the earlier published work. Owners were woken up by unique pet behaviour 12 times as often in the hour before the quake compared with other hours immediately before (statistically highly significant. Lost and Found pet reports were double normal the week before, and 4.5 times normal both the day before the quake, and 9 days before. (Results were again statistically significant. Unique animal behaviour before the quake was often repeated before the numerous aftershocks. These pet owners claimed an approximate 80% prediction reliability. However, a preliminary telephone survey suggested that animals showing any precursor response are a minority. Some precursors seem real, but usefulness seemed mostly restricted to 7 cases where owners were in, or near, a place of safety through disruptive pet behaviour, and one in which owners were diverted by a pet from being struck by falling fixtures. For a later 22 February 2011 M = 6.3 quake no reports of escape through warning by pets were recorded, which raises serious questions whether such prediction is practically useful, because lives claimed saved are extremely low compared with fatalities. It is shown the lost-pet statistics dates, correspond to ionospheric anomalies recorded using the GPS satellite system and geomagnetic

  5. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  6. Adrenergic Stress Protection of Human iPS Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes by Fast Kv7.1 Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Piccini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fight-or-flight response (FFR, a physiological acute stress reaction, involves positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on heart muscle cells mediated through β-adrenoceptor activation. Increased systolic calcium is required to enable stronger heart contractions whereas elevated potassium currents are to limit the duration of the action potentials and prevent arrhythmia. The latter effect is accomplished by an increased functional activity of the Kv7.1 channel encoded by KCNQ1. Current knowledge, however, does not sufficiently explain the full extent of rapid Kv7.1 activation and may hence be incomplete. Using inducible genetic KCNQ1 complementation in KCNQ1-deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs, we here reinvestigate the functional role of Kv7.1 in adapting human CMs to adrenergic stress. Under baseline conditions, Kv7.1 was barely detectable at the plasma membrane of hiPSC-CMs, yet it fully protected these from adrenergic stress-induced beat-to-beat variability of repolarization and torsade des pointes-like arrhythmia. Furthermore, isoprenaline treatment increased field potential durations specifically in KCNQ1-deficient CMs to cause these adverse macroscopic effects. Mechanistically, we find that the protective action by Kv7.1 resides in a rapid translocation of channel proteins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, induced by adrenergic signaling. Gene silencing experiments targeting RAB GTPases, mediators of intracellular vesicle trafficking, showed that fast Kv7.1 recycling under acute stress conditions is RAB4A-dependent.Our data reveal a key mechanism underlying the rapid adaptation of human cardiomyocytes to adrenergic stress. These findings moreover aid to the understanding of disease pathology in long QT syndrome and bear important implications for safety pharmacological screening.

  7. Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering (sections 2.7.1 - 2.7.5 and 7.6.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    1999-04-19

    The sections written by this author are: 2.7.1- Thomas - BMT equation; 2.2.2- Spinor Algebra; 2.7.3- Spin Rotators and Siberian Snakes; 2.7.4- Ring with Spin Rotator and Siberian Snakes; 2.7.5- Depolarizing Resonances and Spin Flippers; & 7.6.2- Proton Beam Polarimeters

  8. Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren

    2009-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.

  9. The September 2017 M=8.1 Chiapas and M=7.1 Puebla, Mexico, earthquakes: Chain reaction or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The M=8.1 and M=7.1 events struck 12 days and 600 km apart, both with an independent probability of occurrence of 0.5% per year, based on the GEAR model [Bird et al., 2015]. Are they related? First, we calculated the static stress imparted by the M=8.1 shock to the fault that ruptured in the M=7.1, and find a tiny push that would favor rupture. But the stress increase (0.2 kPa) is less than the fault would experience from the tidal stresses, and so it should be inconsequential. We next used the México Servicio Sismológico Nacional (UNAM) online catalog to look at the quakes in the month before the M=8.1 and in the 13 days since. We calculate the completeness to be M≥4.0. There are virtually no remote aftershocks from the Chiapas rupture that extend within 250 km of the M=7.1 shock during the first week after the M=8.1. So, if anything, the M=8.1 turned off for a week or more the region that ruptured in the M=7.1. Events started turning on about 2-3 days before the M=7.1, but none of those struck within 40 km of the future M=7.1 mainshock. The seismic surface waves unleashed by great earthquakes envelop the globe in just 160 minutes, and yet triggering of remote large aftershocks during these 2-3 hours is either very rare [Pollitz et al., Nature 2012] or in dispute [Fan & Shearer, 2016 vs. Yue et al., 2017]. So, the waves must trigger tiny shocks that cascade into larger shocks after some delay. Or, perhaps the stresses conveyed by the waves pump pockets of fluids that slowly diffuse into nearby fault zones, lubricating them to the point of failure [Parsons at al., 2017]. In the cases where great earthquakes are indisputably seen to trigger aftershocks at great distances or even globally, they to do so within several days, or a week at most. Since Puebla struck 12 days later, this seems to us too long a period to be explained by dynamic triggering. Even though neither quake on their own is rare, what's the chance of independent M=8.1 and M=7.1 events just 12

  10. Genome and proteome analysis of 7-7-1, a flagellotropic phage infecting Agrobacterium sp H13-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinski Andrew M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. Here we describe the complete genomic sequence of 69,391 base pairs of this unusual bacteriophage. Methods The sequence of the 7-7-1 genome was determined by pyro(454sequencing to a coverage of 378-fold. It was annotated using MyRAST and a variety of internet resources. The structural proteome was analyzed by SDS-PAGE coupled electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results Sequence annotation and a structural proteome analysis revealed 127 open reading frames, 84 of which are unique. In six cases 7-7-1 proteins showed sequence similarity to proteins from the virulent Burkholderia myovirus BcepB1A. Unique features of the 7-7-1 genome are the physical separation of the genes encoding the small (orf100 and large (orf112 subunits of the DNA packaging complex and the apparent lack of a holin-lysin cassette. Proteomic analysis revealed the presence of 24 structural proteins, five of which were identified as baseplate (orf7, putative tail fibre (orf102, portal (orf113, major capsid (orf115 and tail sheath (orf126 proteins. In the latter case, the N-terminus was removed during capsid maturation, probably by a putative prohead protease (orf114.

  11. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  12. Post-seismic velocity changes following the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand, revealed by ambient seismic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckels, R. EG; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying seismic velocity changes following large earthquakes can provide insights into fault healing and reloading processes. This study presents temporal velocity changes detected following the 2010 September Mw 7.1 Darfield event in Canterbury, New Zealand. We use continuous waveform data from several temporary seismic networks lying on and surrounding the Greendale Fault, with a maximum interstation distance of 156 km. Nine-component, day-long Green's functions were computed for frequencies between 0.1 and 1.0 Hz for continuous seismic records from immediately after the 2010 September 04 earthquake until 2011 January 10. Using the moving-window cross-spectral method, seismic velocity changes were calculated. Over the study period, an increase in seismic velocity of 0.14 ± 0.04 per cent was determined near the Greendale Fault, providing a new constraint on post-seismic relaxation rates in the region. A depth analysis further showed that velocity changes were confined to the uppermost 5 km of the subsurface. We attribute the observed changes to post-seismic relaxation via crack healing of the Greendale Fault and throughout the surrounding region.

  13. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  14. COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2009-08-01

    COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B-3 or B-1 approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. The fine group cross sections in the thermal energy range are replaced by those self-shielded with the Amouyal/Benoist/Horowitz method in the three region geometry when this option is requested. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constant may be output in any of several standard formats including ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional, discrete

  15. COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Woo Y.; Nigg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B-3 or B-1 approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. The fine group cross sections in the thermal energy range are replaced by those self-shielded with the Amouyal/Benoist/Horowitz method in the three region geometry when this option is requested. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constant may be output in any of several standard formats including ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional, discrete

  16. N-terminal arginines modulate plasma-membrane localization of Kv7.1/KCNE1 channel complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenawit Girmatsion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks is important for cardiac action potential termination. The underlying channel is composed of Kv7.1 α-subunits and KCNE1 β-subunits. While most evidence suggests a role of KCNE1 transmembrane domain and C-terminus for the interaction, the N-terminal KCNE1 polymorphism 38G is associated with reduced I(Ks and atrial fibrillation (a human arrhythmia. Structure-function relationship of the KCNE1 N-terminus for I(Ks modulation is poorly understood and was subject of this study. METHODS: We studied N-terminal KCNE1 constructs disrupting structurally important positively charged amino-acids (arginines at positions 32, 33, 36 as well as KCNE1 constructs that modify position 38 including an N-terminal truncation mutation. Experimental procedures included molecular cloning, patch-clamp recording, protein biochemistry, real-time-PCR and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: All KCNE1 constructs physically interacted with Kv7.1. I(Ks resulting from co-expression of Kv7.1 with non-atrial fibrillation '38S' was greater than with any other construct. Ionic currents resulting from co-transfection of a KCNE1 mutant with arginine substitutions ('38G-3xA' were comparable to currents evoked from cells transfected with an N-terminally truncated KCNE1-construct ('Δ1-38'. Western-blots from plasma-membrane preparations and confocal images consistently showed a greater amount of Kv7.1 protein at the plasma-membrane in cells co-transfected with the non-atrial fibrillation KCNE1-38S than with any other construct. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that N-terminal arginines in positions 32, 33, 36 of KCNE1 are important for reconstitution of I(Ks. Furthermore, our results hint towards a role of these N-terminal amino-acids in membrane representation of the delayed rectifier channel complex.

  17. S1 constrains S4 in the voltage sensor domain of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Haitin

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated K(+ channels comprise a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs. While movement of the S4 helix is known to couple to channel gate opening and closing, the nature of S4 motion is unclear. Here, we substituted S4 residues of Kv7.1 channels by cysteine and recorded whole-cell mutant channel currents in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. In the closed state, disulfide and metal bridges constrain residue S225 (S4 nearby C136 (S1 within the same VSD. In the open state, two neighboring I227 (S4 are constrained at proximity while residue R228 (S4 is confined close to C136 (S1 of an adjacent VSD. Structural modeling predicts that in the closed to open transition, an axial rotation (approximately 190 degrees and outward translation of S4 (approximately 12 A is accompanied by VSD rocking. This large sensor motion changes the intra-VSD S1-S4 interaction to an inter-VSD S1-S4 interaction. These constraints provide a ground for cooperative subunit interactions and suggest a key role of the S1 segment in steering S4 motion during Kv7.1 gating.

  18. Selecting an appropriate strategy to make quality 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate accessible for umbilical cord care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Mutsumi; Coffey, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Achieving increased access to medicines in low- and middle-income countries is a complex issue that requires a holistic approach. Choosing an appropriate manufacturing strategy that can ensure a sustainable supply of these medicines is an essential component of that approach. The Chlorhexidine Working Group, a consortium of more than 25 international organizations, donors, and manufacturers led by PATH, has been working to increase access to 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care in low- and middle-income countries to reduce neonatal mortality due to infection. The working group initially considered two strategies for manufacture of this commodity: (1) production and global distribution by a multinational company; and (2) production and regional distribution by locally owned companies or subsidiaries of multinational companies based in low- and middle-income countries. Local production may be beneficial to public health and economic development in these countries, yet capability and capacity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, regulatory and legal provisions, and market factors must be carefully assessed and addressed to ensure that local production is the correct strategy and that it contributes to improved access to the medicine. To date, this effort to implement a local production strategy has resulted in successful registration of 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care by manufacturers in Bangladesh, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria. Additionally, the product is now available in domestic and export markets.

  19. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  20. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  1. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  2. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  3. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Qiufang; Zhou, Tong; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  4. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the chicken MHC class I molecule YF1*7.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Chee Seng; Gao, Song; Miller, Marcia M.; Goto, Ronald M.; Ziegler, Andreas; Daumke, Oliver; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The chicken classical MHC class I antigen YF1*7.1 was crystallized together with β 2 -microglobulin but without a peptide ligand. Crystals diffracted synchrotron radiation to 1.32 Å and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . YF1*7.1 is an allele of a polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like locus within the chicken Y gene complex. With the aim of understanding the possible role of the YF1*7.1 molecule in antigen presentation, the complex of YF1*7.1 heavy chain and β 2 -microglobulin was reconstituted and purified without a peptide. Crystals diffracted synchrotron radiation to 1.32 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . The phase problem was solved by molecular replacement. A detailed examination of the structure may provide insight into the type of ligand that could be bound by the YF1*7.1 molecule

  5. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the K+ channel KV7.1 and the regulatory subunit KCNE1 from equine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten B.; Flak, Jon B.

    2017-01-01

    To characterize equine KV7.1/KCNE1 currents and compare them to human KV7.1/KCNE1 currents to determine whether KV7.1/KCNE1 plays a similar role in equine and human hearts. Methods mRNA encoding KV7.1 and KCNE1 was isolated from equine hearts, sequenced, and cloned into expression vectors. The channel subunits...... were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or CHO-K1 cells and characterized using voltage-clamp techniques. Results Equine KV7.1/KCNE1 expressed in CHO-K1 cells exhibited electrophysiological properties that are overall similar to the human orthologs; however, a slower deactivation...

  6. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  7. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  8. Remotely-triggered Slip in Mexico City Induced by the September 2017 Mw=7.1 Puebla Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Havazli, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2017-12-01

    Although the epicenter of the September 19th, 2017 Mw=7.1 Puebla earthquake is located 100 km from Mexico City, the earthquake caused severe destruction in the city, leading to life loss and property damage. Mexico City is built on a thick clay-rich sedimentary sequence and, hence, is susceptible to seismic acceleration during earthquakes. The sediment layer also causes land subsidence, at rates as high as 350 mm/yr, and surface faulting. The earthquake damage in the eastern part of the city, characterized by the collapse of several buildings, can be explained by seismic amplification. However, the damage in the southern part of the city, characterized by the collapse of small houses and surface faulting, requires a different explanation. We present here geodetic observations suggesting that the surface faulting in Mexico City triggered by the Puebla earthquake occurred in areas already experiencing differential displacements. Our study is based on Sentinel-1A satellite data from before and after the earthquake (September 17th and 29th, 2017). We process the data using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to produce a coseismic interferogram. We also identify phase discontinuities that can be interpreted as surface faulting using the phase gradient technique (Price and Sandwell, 1998). The results of our analysis reveal the locations and patterns of coseismic phase discontinuities, mainly in the piedmont of the Sierra de Santa Catarina, which agree with the location of earthquake's damage reported by official and unofficial sources (GCDMX, 2017; OSM, 2017). The observed phase discontinuities also agree well with the location of preexisting, subsidence-related faults identified during 10 years of field surveys (GCDMX, 2017) and coincide with differential displacements identified using a Fast Fourier Transform residual technique on high-resolution InSAR results from 2012 (Solano-Rojas et. al, 2017). We propose that the seismic energy released by the 2017

  9. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  10. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  11. Final comparison report on ISP-35: Nupec hydrogen mixing and distribution test (Test M-7-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This final comparison report summarizes the results of the OECD/CSNI sponsored ISP-35 exercise which was based on NUPEC's Hydrogen Mixing and Distribution Test M-7-1. 12 organizations from 10 different countries took part in the exercise. For the ISP-35 test, a steam/light gas (helium) mixture was released into the lower region of a simplified model of a PWR containment. At the same time, the dome cooling spray was also activated. the transient time histories for gas temperature and concentrations were recorded for each of the 25 compartments of the model containment. The wall temperatures as well as the dome pressure were also recorded. The ISP-35 participants simulated the test conditions and attempted to predict the time histories using their accident analysis codes. Results of these analyses are presented, and comparisons are made between the experimental data and the calculated data. In general, predictions for pressure, helium concentration and gas distribution patterns were achieved with acceptable accuracy

  12. Bend Faulting at the Edge of a Flat Slab: The 2017 Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos, Mexico Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Spica, Zack; Espíndola, Victor Hugo; Hammond, William C.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    We present results of a slip model from joint inversion of strong motion and static Global Positioning System data for the Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos earthquake. We find that the earthquake nucleates at the bottom of the oceanic crust or within the oceanic mantle with most of the moment release occurring within the oceanic mantle. Given its location at the edge of the flat slab, the earthquake is likely the result of bending stresses occurring at the transition from flat slab subduction to steeply dipping subduction. The event strikes obliquely to the slab, we find a good agreement between the seafloor fabric offshore the source region and the strike of the earthquake. We argue that the event likely reactivated a fault first created during seafloor formation. We hypothesize that large bending-related events at the edge of the flat slab are more likely in areas of low misalignment between the seafloor fabric and the slab strike where reactivation of preexisting structures is favored. This hypothesis predicts decreased likelihood of bending-related events northwest of the 2017 source region but also suggests that they should be more likely southeast of the 2017 source region.

  13. Response of a 42-storey steel-frame building to the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of 14 acceleration records was obtained from a 42-storey steel-frame building, the Chevron Building, in San Francisco during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Data were analysed using a system identification method based on the discretetime linear filtering, and the least-squares estimation techniques. The results show that the response of the building is dominated by two modes: a translational mode in the weaker (southwest-northeast) principal direction of the building at 0.16 Hz with 5% damping, and a translational-torsional mode along the east-west diagonal of the building's cross-section at 0.20 Hz with 7% damping. There are significant contributions from higher modes at 0.54 Hz, 0.62 Hz, 1.02 Hz and 1.09 Hz. All the modes incorporate some torsion, but the amplitudes of torsional components are small, about 10% of translational amplitudes. Soil-structure interaction influences the vibrations near 1.0 Hz. The contribution of soil-structure interaction to the peak displacements of the building is significant, particularly at lower floors. ?? 1993.

  14. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  15. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  16. Incremental Centrality Algorithms for Dynamic Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    literature.   7.1.3 Small World Networks In 1998, Watts and Strogatz introduced a model that starts with a regular lattice (ring) of n nodes and...and S. Strogatz , "Collective Dynamics of ‘Small-World’ Networks," Nature, vol. 393, pp. 440-442, 1998. [13] T. Opsahl, "Structure and Evolution of...34On Random Graphs," Publicationes Mathematicae, vol. 6, 1959. [167] D.J. Watts and S.H. Strogatz , "Collective Dynamics of ‘Small-World’ Networks

  17. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(7)-1 - Payments for services not in the course of employer's trade or business or for domestic service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(a)(7)-1 Payments for... an apartment house, hotel, or other similar establishment may constitute a private home. If a...

  19. Tissue Distribution of Kir7.1 Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Probed in a Knock-in Mouse Expressing a Haemagglutinin-Tagged Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cornejo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kir7.1 encoded by the Kcnj13 gene in the mouse is an inwardly rectifying K+ channel present in epithelia where it shares membrane localization with the Na+/K+-pump. Further investigations of the localisation and function of Kir7.1 would benefit from the availability of a knockout mouse, but perinatal mortality attributed to cleft palate in the neonate has thwarted this research. To facilitate localisation studies we now use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate a knock-in mouse, the Kir7.1-HA that expresses the channel tagged with a haemagglutinin (HA epitope. The availability of antibodies for the HA epitope allows for application of western blot and immunolocalisation methods using widely available anti-HA antibodies with WT tissues providing unambiguous negative control. We demonstrate that Kir7.1-HA cloned from the choroid plexus of the knock-in mouse has the electrophysiological properties of the native channel, including characteristically large Rb+ currents. These large Kir7.1-mediated currents are accompanied by abundant apical membrane Kir7.1-HA immunoreactivity. WT-controlled western blots demonstrate the presence of Kir7.1-HA in the eye and the choroid plexus, trachea and lung, and intestinal epithelium but exclusively in the ileum. In the kidney, and at variance with previous reports in the rat and guinea-pig, Kir7.1-HA is expressed in the inner medulla but not in the cortex or outer medulla. In isolated tubules immunoreactivity was associated with inner medulla collecting ducts but not thin limbs of the loop of Henle. Kir7.1-HA shows basolateral expression in the respiratory tract epithelium from trachea to bronchioli. The channel also appears basolateral in the epithelium of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in newborn animals. We show that HA-tagged Kir7.1 channel introduced in the mouse by a knock-in procedure has functional properties similar to the native protein and the animal thus generated has clear advantages in localisation

  20. Tissue Distribution of Kir7.1 Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Probed in a Knock-in Mouse Expressing a Haemagglutinin-Tagged Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Isabel; Villanueva, Sandra; Burgos, Johanna; López-Cayuqueo, Karen I; Chambrey, Régine; Julio-Kalajzić, Francisca; Buelvas, Neudo; Niemeyer, María I; Figueiras-Fierro, Dulce; Brown, Peter D; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L P

    2018-01-01

    Kir7.1 encoded by the Kcnj13 gene in the mouse is an inwardly rectifying K + channel present in epithelia where it shares membrane localization with the Na + /K + -pump. Further investigations of the localisation and function of Kir7.1 would benefit from the availability of a knockout mouse, but perinatal mortality attributed to cleft palate in the neonate has thwarted this research. To facilitate localisation studies we now use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate a knock-in mouse, the Kir7.1-HA that expresses the channel tagged with a haemagglutinin (HA) epitope. The availability of antibodies for the HA epitope allows for application of western blot and immunolocalisation methods using widely available anti-HA antibodies with WT tissues providing unambiguous negative control. We demonstrate that Kir7.1-HA cloned from the choroid plexus of the knock-in mouse has the electrophysiological properties of the native channel, including characteristically large Rb + currents. These large Kir7.1-mediated currents are accompanied by abundant apical membrane Kir7.1-HA immunoreactivity. WT-controlled western blots demonstrate the presence of Kir7.1-HA in the eye and the choroid plexus, trachea and lung, and intestinal epithelium but exclusively in the ileum. In the kidney, and at variance with previous reports in the rat and guinea-pig, Kir7.1-HA is expressed in the inner medulla but not in the cortex or outer medulla. In isolated tubules immunoreactivity was associated with inner medulla collecting ducts but not thin limbs of the loop of Henle. Kir7.1-HA shows basolateral expression in the respiratory tract epithelium from trachea to bronchioli. The channel also appears basolateral in the epithelium of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in newborn animals. We show that HA-tagged Kir7.1 channel introduced in the mouse by a knock-in procedure has functional properties similar to the native protein and the animal thus generated has clear advantages in localisation studies. It

  1. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  2. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  3. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...

  4. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  5. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  6. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  7. Study of B7.1 costimulatory molecule neoexpression induced by γ irradiation of different dose in various human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianghua; Su Liaoyuan; Tong Jian; Zhu Minqing; Xue Lian

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between irradiation and B7.1 co-stimulative molecule expression of human tumor cells was studied to explore the reason of enhanced tumor cells immunity. The effect of γ ray irradiation on B7.1 molecule expression in various human tumor cells which were irradiated with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy, 60 Gy γ ray was investigated. At 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after irradiation the changes of B7.1 molecule was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with immunofluorescence technique. The activation of lymphocyte toxin upon tumor target cell after exposure was determined by using radiation release method. The results showed that a few of tumor cells after γ-ray irradiation express B7.1 co-stimulative molecule. Furthermore, B7.1 molecule membrane expression after γ ray irradiation is shown to enhance the activation of lymphocyte toxin. The data could explain the enhanced immunogenicity of tumor cells after irradiation, and could lead to new immunotherapy protocols. The experiments suggested that γ ray irradiation could induce human tumor cells to express B7.1 co-stimulative molecules and enhance tumor cell immunity

  8. Rapid Seismic Deployment for Capturing Aftershocks of the September 2017 Tehuantepec, Mexico (M=8.1) and Morelos-Puebla (M=7.1), Mexico Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.; Karplus, M. S.; Dena, O.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Husker, A. L.; Perez-Campos, X.; Calo, M.; Valdes, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The September 7 Tehuantepec, Mexico (M=8.1) and the September 19 Morelos-Puebla, Mexico (M=7.1) earthquakes ruptured with extensional faulting within the Cocos Plate at 70-km and 50-km depth, as it subducts beneath the continental North American Plate. Both earthquakes caused significant damage and loss of life. These events were followed by a M=6.1 extensional earthquake at only 10-km depth in Oaxaca on September 23, 2017. While the Morelos-Puebla earthquake was likely too far away to be statically triggered by the Tehuantepec earthquake, initial Coulomb stress analyses show that the M=6.1 event may have been an aftershock of the Tehuantepec earthquake. Many questions remain about these earthquakes, including: Did the Cocos Plate earthquakes load the upper plate, and could they possibly trigger an equal or larger earthquake on the plate interface? Are these the result of plate bending? Do the aftershocks migrate to the locked zone in the subduction zone? Why did the intermediate depth earthquakes create so much damage? Are these earthquakes linked by dynamic stresses? Is it possible that a potential slow-slip event triggered both events? To address some of these questions, we deployed 10 broadband seismometers near the epicenter of the Tehuantepec, Mexico earthquake and 51 UTEP-owned nodes (5-Hz, 3-component geophones) to record aftershocks and augment networks deployed by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The 10 broadband instruments will be deployed for 6 months, while the nodes were deployed 25 days. The relative ease-of-deployment and larger numbers of the nodes allowed us to deploy them quickly in the area near the M=6.1 Oaxaca earthquake, just a few days after that earthquake struck. We deployed them near the heavily-damaged cities of Juchitan, Ixtaltepec, and Ixtepec as well as in Tehuantepec and Salina Cruz, Oaxaca in order to test their capabilities for site characterization and aftershock studies. This is the first test of these

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  11. Quantitative mapping of precursory seismic quiescence before the 1989, M 7.1off-Sanriku earthquake, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Umino

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The first main shock of the off-Sanriku earthquake sequence (02/11/89, M 7.1; 18/07/92, M 6.9; 28/12/94, M 7.5 was preceded by a precursory seismic quiescence lasting 2.5 ± 1 year and up to this main shock. The detailed properties of this quiescence were mapped as a function of time and space by a gridding technique using the ZMAP computer code, and the statistical significance was estimated by generating a synthetic catalog based on the microearthquake catalog of Tohoku University, which was the data set used. The statistically most significant expression of this precursory quiescence has a probability of 0.1% to have occurred at random and was located in the eastern part of the 1989 aftershock area, at a point to which the 1994 aftershocks extended also. If we define the dimensions of the quiescence anomaly by a vertical cylinder with the depth of the entire seismogenic layer, centered at the point of most significant quiescence and showing a rate decrease of 75%, then we find its radius is 25 ± 9 km. If we allow other shapes, such as the simplified aftershock volume of 1989, or other simple geometric figures, to define the rate decrease we find dimensions of 80 by 80 km. The characteristics of the quiescence anomaly do not depend strongly on the choice of free parameters within the following ranges: 100 ? number of events ? 400, 2.0 ? Mmin £ 3.0, 1 ? time window ? 3 years. With our method, a thorough analysis of the period before the 1994 main shock is not possible because of the interference of the extended aftershock sequence of 1989. Nevertheless, we identified a quiescence of nearly zero earthquakes located near the center of the 1994 aftershock area that lasted for one year up to that main shock. However, this quiescence period ranked only 46th in significance, behind other quiescences of equal duration and similar dimensions distributed in time and space through the data set. Because of the ubiquitous existence of periods of near

  12. Kinematic source inversion of the 2017 Puebla-Morelos, Mexico earthquake (2017/09/19, Mw.7.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Castro-Artola, O.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Singh, S. K.; Ji, C.; Franco-Sánchez, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    On September 19th 2017, an Mw 7.1 earthquake struck Central Mexico, causing severe damage in the epicentral region, especially in several small and medium size houses as well as historical buildings like churches and government offices. In Mexico City, at a distance of 100km from the epicenter, 38 buildings collapsed. Authorities reported that 369 persons were killed by the earthquake (> 60% in the Mexico City). We determined the hypocentral location (18.406N, 98.706W, d=57km), from regional data, situating this earthquake inside the subducted Cocos Plate, with a normal fault mechanism (Globalcmt: =300°, =44°, and =-82°). In this presentation we show the the slip on the fault plane, determined by 1) a frequency-domain inversion using local and regional acceleration records that have been numerically integrated twice and bandpass filtered between 2 and 30, and 2) a wavelet domain inversion using teleseismic body and surface-waves, filtered between 1-100 s and 50-150 s respectively, as well as static offsets. In both methods the fault plane is divided into subfaults, and for each subfault we invert for the average slip, and timing of initiation of slip. In the first method the slip direction is fixed to the ? direction and we invert for the rise time. In the second method the direction of slip is estimated, with values between -90 and +90 allowed, and the time history is an asymmetric cosine time function, for which we determine the "rise" and "fall" durations. For both methods, synthetic seismograms, based on the GlobalCMT focal mechanism, are computed for each subfault-station pair and for three components (Z, N-S, EW). Preliminary results, using local data, show some slip concentrated close to the hypocentral location and a large patch 20 km in NW direction far from the origin. Using teleseismic data, it is difficult to distinguish between the two fault planes, as the waveforms are equally well fit using either one of them. However, both are consistent with a

  13. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  14. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  15. Pigment pattern in jaguar/obelix zebrafish is caused by a Kir7.1 mutation: implications for the regulation of melanosome movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Iwashita

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals have a variety of pigment patterns, even within a species, and these patterns may be one of the driving forces of speciation. Recent molecular genetic studies on zebrafish have revealed that interaction among pigment cells plays a key role in pattern formation, but the mechanism of pattern formation is unclear. The zebrafish jaguar/obelix mutant has broader stripes than wild-type fish. In this mutant, the development of pigment cells is normal but their distribution is altered, making these fish ideal for studying the process of pigment pattern formation. Here, we utilized a positional cloning method to determine that the inwardly rectifying potassium channel 7.1 (Kir7.1 gene is responsible for pigment cell distribution among jaguar/obelix mutant fish. Furthermore, in jaguar/obelix mutant alleles, we identified amino acid changes in the conserved region of Kir7.1, each of which affected K(+ channel activity as demonstrated by patch-clamp experiments. Injection of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the wild-type Kir7.1 genomic sequence rescued the jaguar/obelix phenotype. From these results, we conclude that mutations in Kir7.1 are responsible for jaguar/obelix. We also determined that the ion channel function defect of melanophores expressing mutant Kir7.1 altered the cellular response to external signals. We discovered that mutant melanophores cannot respond correctly to the melanosome dispersion signal derived from the sympathetic neuron and that melanosome aggregation is constitutively activated. In zebrafish and medaka, it is well known that melanosome aggregation and subsequent melanophore death increase when fish are kept under constant light conditions. These observations indicate that melanophores of jaguar/obelix mutant fish have a defect in the signaling pathway downstream of the alpha2-adrenoceptor. Taken together, our results suggest that the cellular defect of the Kir7.1 mutation is directly responsible for

  16. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  17. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  18. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  19. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  20. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  1. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  2. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  3. Bipartite Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations

  4. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  5. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  6. Capturing Postseismic Processes of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan, Using Dense, Continuous GPS and Short-repeat Time ALOS-2 InSAR Data: Implications for the Shallow Slip Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Burgmann, R.; Wang, T.; Inbal, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Liang, C.; Fielding, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Separating the contribution of shallow coseismic slip from rapidly decaying, postseismic afterslip in surface rupturing events has been difficult to resolve due to the typically sparse configuration of GPS networks and long-repeat time of InSAR acquisitions. Whether shallow fault motion along surface ruptures is a result of coseismic slip, or largely a product of rapid afterslip occurring within the first minutes to days, has significant implications for our understanding of the mechanics and frictional behavior of faulting in the shallow crust. To test this behavior in the case of a major surface rupturing event, we attempt to quantify the co- and postseismic slip of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using a dense and continuous GPS network ( 10 km spacing), with short-repeat time, ALOS-2 InSAR data. Using the Network Inversion Filter method, we jointly invert the GPS and InSAR data to obtain a time history of afterslip in the first minutes to months following the mainshock. From our initial results, we find no clear evidence of significant shallow afterslip (i.e., no observable slip > 30 cm at depths of changes related to poroelastic processes, the majority of shallow fault slip was largely complete after rupture cessation. We also attempt to improve our coseismic slip model by implementing a method that inverts changes in seismicity rates for coseismic slip, helping constrain parts of the model space at depth where geodetic data loses resolving power. The use of geodetic data with the ability to resolve near-field, coseismic deformation and rapidly decaying postseismic processes will aid in our understanding of the frictional properties of shallow faulting, giving more reliable predictions for ground motion simulations and seismic hazard assessments.

  7. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  8. Integrated Adversarial Network Theory (iANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    elite networks and governance changes in the 1980s. American Journal of Sociology, 103(1): 1-37. DiMaggio, P. 1986. Structural analysis of...Interorganization contagion in corporate philanthropy . Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(1): 88-105. Gargiulo, M., & Benassi, M. 1999. The dark...1): 7 1-84. Useem, M. 1979. The social organization ofthe American business elite and participation of corporation directors in the governance of

  9. 19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.1 Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... bonded manufacturing warehouse for shipment in bond to Puerto Rico pursuant to section 311, Tariff Act of...

  10. QTL list: ldr7.1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT64353 Cucumis sativus Cucurbitaceae ldr7.1 Mean length:diameter ratio over three... harvests little-leaf (ll) trait (ldr1.3) 1,6 ... LG_06 ... 27.8 6.1 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1277-1 12827247

  11. Quantification of Liver Proton-Density Fat Fraction in an 7.1 Tesla preclinical MR Systems: Impact of the Fitting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, C; Hernando, D; Jahn, C; Cigliano, A; Ittermann, T; Mössler, A; Kromrey, ML; Domaska, G; Reeder, SB; Kühn, JP

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of estimating the proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) using a 7.1 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system and to compare the accuracy of liver fat quantification using different fitting approaches. Materials and Methods Fourteen leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and eight intact controls were examined in a 7.1 Tesla animal scanner using a 3-dimensional six-echo chemical shift-encoded pulse sequence. Confounder-corrected PDFF was calculated using magnitude (magnitude data alone) and combined fitting (complex and magnitude data). Differences between fitting techniques were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. In addition, PDFFs derived with both reconstructions were correlated with histopathological fat content and triglyceride mass fraction using linear regression analysis. Results The PDFFs determined with use of both reconstructions correlated very strongly (r=0.91). However, small mean bias between reconstructions demonstrated divergent results (3.9%; CI 2.7%-5.1%). For both reconstructions, there was linear correlation with histopathology (combined fitting: r=0.61; magnitude fitting: r=0.64) and triglyceride content (combined fitting: r=0.79; magnitude fitting: r=0.70). Conclusion Liver fat quantification using the PDFF derived from MRI performed at 7.1 Tesla is feasible. PDFF has strong correlations with histopathologically determined fat and with triglyceride content. However, small differences between PDFF reconstruction techniques may impair the robustness and reliability of the biomarker at 7.1 Tesla. PMID:27197806

  12. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  13. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  14. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  15. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...

  16. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  17. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  18. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  19. Diversity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    and professional growth of women through networking, mentoring and training. We strive to ensure that will be used. National Processing Center Seniors Leader: Jo Anne Hankins Champion: Eric Milliner NO

  20. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    , as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  1. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  2. Expression of membrane anchored cytokines and B7-1 alters tumor microenvironment and induces protective antitumor immunity in a murine breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Erica N; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Machiah, Deepa K; Patel, Jaina M; Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Tien, Linda; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2013-05-07

    Many studies have shown that the systemic administration of cytokines or vaccination with cytokine-secreting tumors augments an antitumor immune response that can result in eradication of tumors. However, these approaches are hampered by the risk of systemic toxicity induced by soluble cytokines. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of 4TO7, a highly tumorigenic murine mammary tumor cell line, expressing glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form of cytokine molecules alone or in combination with the costimulatory molecule B7-1 as a model for potential cell or membrane-based breast cancer vaccines. We observed that the GPI-anchored cytokines expressed on the surface of tumor cells greatly reduced the overall tumorigenicity of the 4TO7 tumor cells following direct live cell challenge as evidenced by transient tumor growth and complete regression within 30 days post challenge. Tumors co-expressing B7-1 and GPI-IL-12 grew the least and for the shortest duration, suggesting that this combination of immunostimulatory molecules is most potent. Protective immune responses were also observed following secondary tumor challenge. Further, the 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-2 and 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 transfectants were capable of inducing regression of a wild-type tumor growing at a distant site in a concomitant tumor challenge model, suggesting the tumor immunity elicited by the transfectants can act systemically and inhibit the tumor growth at a distant site. Additionally, when used as irradiated whole cell vaccines, 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 led to a significant inhibition in tumor growth of day 7 established tumors. Lastly, we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T-cells in the tumor microenvironment on day 7 post challenge with 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 cells, which provides mechanistic insight into antitumor efficacy of the tumor-cell membrane expressed IL-12. These studies have implications in designing membrane

  3. Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharade, Sujay V; Sheehan, Jonathan H; Figueroa, Eric E; Meiler, Jens; Denton, Jerod S

    2017-09-01

    VU590 was the first publicly disclosed, submicromolar-affinity (IC 50 = 0.2 μ M), small-molecule inhibitor of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel and diuretic target, Kir1.1. VU590 also inhibits Kir7.1 (IC 50 ∼ 8 μ M), and has been used to reveal new roles for Kir7.1 in regulation of myometrial contractility and melanocortin signaling. Here, we employed molecular modeling, mutagenesis, and patch clamp electrophysiology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying VU590 inhibition of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1. Block of both channels is voltage- and K + -dependent, suggesting the VU590 binding site is located within the pore. Mutagenesis analysis in Kir1.1 revealed that asparagine 171 (N171) is the only pore-lining residue required for high-affinity block, and that substituting negatively charged residues (N171D, N171E) at this position dramatically weakens block. In contrast, substituting a negatively charged residue at the equivalent position in Kir7.1 enhances block by VU590, suggesting the VU590 binding mode is different. Interestingly, mutations of threonine 153 (T153) in Kir7.1 that reduce constrained polarity at this site (T153C, T153V, T153S) make wild-type and binding-site mutants (E149Q, A150S) more sensitive to block by VU590. The Kir7.1-T153C mutation enhances block by the structurally unrelated inhibitor VU714 but not by a higher-affinity analog ML418, suggesting that the polar side chain of T153 creates a barrier to low-affinity ligands that interact with E149 and A150. Reverse mutations in Kir1.1 suggest that this mechanism is conserved in other Kir channels. This study reveals a previously unappreciated role of membrane pore polarity in determination of Kir channel inhibitor pharmacology. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  5. Pintadas network

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.

    2006-01-01

    The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...

  6. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....

  7. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  8. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  9. EXTENDED NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE ALIGNED SHELL GALAXIES Arp 230 AND MCG -5-7-1: FORMATION OF DISKS IN MERGING GALAXIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiminovich, David; Van Gorkom, J. H. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) morphology and kinematics of 'shell' elliptical galaxies, we present Very Large Array observations of two shell galaxies with aligned shells, Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1. Our data provide the first H I images of Arp 230 and deeper images of MCG -5-7-1 than previously reported. Optical images of Arp 230 reveal a bright, aligned, interleaved shell system, making it an ideal candidate for 'phase-wrapped' shell formation following a radial encounter with a smaller companion. The fainter, non-interleaved shells of MCG -5-7-1 do not clearly favor a particular formation scenario. The H I we detect in both galaxies extends to nearly the same projected distance as the optical shells. In Arp 230 this gas appears to be anti-correlated with the aligned shells, consistent with our expectations for phase-wrapped shells produced in a radial encounter. In MCG -5-7-1, we observe gas associated with the shells making a 'spatial wrapping' or looping scenario more plausible. Although the extended gas component in both galaxies is unevenly distributed, the gas kinematics are surprisingly regular, looking almost like complete disks in rotation. We use the H I kinematics and optical data to determine mass-to-light ratios M/L{sub B} of 2.4{sup +3.0}{sub -0.5} (at 13.5 kpc, 4.5 R{sub e} ) for Arp 230 and M/L{sub B} of 30 {+-} 7 (at 40 kpc, 7 R{sub e} ) in MCG -5-7-1. In both systems we find that this ratio changes as a function of radius, indicating the presence of a dark halo. By comparing orbital and precession timescales, we conclude that the potentials are slightly flattened. We infer a 5%-10% flattening for Arp 230 and less flattening in the case of MCG -5-7-1. Finally, we present images of the H I associated with the inner disk or (polar) ring of each galaxy and discuss possible explanations for their different present-day star formation rates. We detect total H I masses of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10

  10. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 1 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity.

  11. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  12. High-risk Long QT Syndrome Mutations in the Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) Pore Disrupt the Molecular Basis for Rapid K+ Permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Don E.; Bartos, Daniel C.; Reloj, Allison R.; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Johnson, Jonathan N.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Fressart, Véronique; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Moss, Arthur J.; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Delisle, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1, which encodes the K+ channel (Kv7.1) that underlies the slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current in the heart. Intragenic risk stratification suggests LQT1 mutations that disrupt conserved amino acid residues in the pore are an independent risk factor for LQT1-related cardiac events. The purpose of this study is to determine possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss-of-function for these high-risk mutations. Extensive genotype-phenotype analyses of LQT1 patients showed that T322M-, T322A-, or G325R-Kv7.1 confer a high risk for LQT1-related cardiac events. Heterologous expression of these mutations with KCNE1 revealed they generated non-functional channels and caused dominant negative suppression of WT-Kv7.1 current. Molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) of analogous mutations in KcsA (T85M-, T85A-, and G88R-KcsA) demonstrated that they disrupted the symmetrical distribution of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the selectivity filter, which upset the balance between the strong attractive and K+-K+ repulsive forces required for rapid K+ permeation. We conclude high-risk LQT1 mutations in the pore likely disrupt the architectural and physical properties of the K+ channel selectivity filter. PMID:23092362

  13. High-risk long QT syndrome mutations in the Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) pore disrupt the molecular basis for rapid K(+) permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Don E; Bartos, Daniel C; Reloj, Allison R; Campbell, Kenneth S; Johnson, Jonathan N; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J; Fressart, Véronique; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Moss, Arthur J; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Delisle, Brian P

    2012-11-13

    Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene, which encodes the K(+) channel (Kv7.1) that underlies the slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current in the heart. Intragenic risk stratification suggests LQT1 mutations that disrupt conserved amino acid residues in the pore are an independent risk factor for LQT1-related cardiac events. The purpose of this study is to determine possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss of function for these high-risk mutations. Extensive genotype-phenotype analyses of LQT1 patients showed that T322M-, T322A-, or G325R-Kv7.1 confers a high risk for LQT1-related cardiac events. Heterologous expression of these mutations with KCNE1 revealed they generated nonfunctional channels and caused dominant negative suppression of WT-Kv7.1 current. Molecular dynamics simulations of analogous mutations in KcsA (T85M-, T85A-, and G88R-KcsA) demonstrated that they disrupted the symmetrical distribution of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the selectivity filter, which upset the balance between the strong attractive and K(+)-K(+) repulsive forces required for rapid K(+) permeation. We conclude high-risk LQT1 mutations in the pore likely disrupt the architectural and physical properties of the K(+) channel selectivity filter.

  14. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  15. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  16. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  17. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... threats to the critical infrastructure. Finally, before our conclusions and outlook, we give a brief overview of some key activities in the field and what research directions are currently investigated....

  18. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  19. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of networkbehaviour, knowing how to manage this relation becomes essential, especiallyduring the development of new strategies....

  20. Percolation of interdependent network of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Bashan, Amir; Gao, Jianxi; Kenett, Dror Y.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a Network Of Networks (NONs) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (first-order) phase transition, unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. Moreover, although networks with broader degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are more robust when analyzed as single networks, they become more vulnerable in a NON. We also review the effect of space embedding on network vulnerability. It is shown that for spatially embedded networks any finite fraction of dependency nodes will lead to abrupt transition

  1. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  2. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  3. Network Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…

  4. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  5. Global Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…

  6. Multiple faulting events revealed by trench analysis of the seismogenic structure of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake, Tangshan Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wali; Xie, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    The Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred on 28 July 1976 at 03:42 CST. Approximately 15 h later, the Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake occurred approximately 40 km northeast of the main shock. The two earthquakes formed different surface rupture zones. The surface rupture of the Tangshan earthquake was NNE-trending and more than 47 km long. The surface rupture of the Luanxian earthquake was more than 6 km long and consisted of two sections, forming a protruding arc to the west. The north and south sections were NE- and NW-trending and 2 km and 4 km long, respectively. A trench was excavated in Sanshanyuan Village across the NE-trending rupture of the Luanxian earthquake, at the macroscopic epicenter of the Luanxian earthquake. Analysis of this trench revealed that the surface rupture is connected to the underground active fault. The following major conclusions regarding Late Quaternary fault activity have been reached. (1) The Sanshanyuan trench indicated that its fault planes trend NE30° and dip SE or NW at angles of approximately 69-82°. (2) The fault experienced four faulting events prior to the Luanxian earthquake at 27.98 ka with an average recurrence interval of approximately 7.5 ka. (3) The Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake resulted from the activity of the Luanxian Western fault and was triggered by the Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The seismogenic faults of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake and the 1976 Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake are not the same fault. This example of an M7 earthquake triggered by a nearly M8 earthquake after more than 10 h on a nearby fault is a worthy topic of research for the future prediction of strong earthquakes.

  7. Environmental standard review plan for ES Section 7.1.1. Environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving releases of radioactive materials to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) 7.1.1 provides guidance to the staff for preparation of environmental assessments of ''Radiological Impacts - Releases to Groundwater,'' an input to the staff's environmental statement which addresses the groundwater pathway consequences from postulated reactor core-melt accidents. The ESRP lists the type of information which should be collected, references that may be useful, and provides a procedure for uniform staff review of applicant analyses. The ESRP is applicable to both Construction Permit and Operating License Stage reviews

  8. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but

  9. Study plan for evaluating carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 2 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one report of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated December 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for the development of a study plan based on the critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. In the evaluation of carrying capacity the authors concluded that defining capacity and listing the determinants of capacity is not a simple exercise. Capacity is a complex variable among the attributes that all together define salmon performance. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, will not lead to the development of a useful study plan. To increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. This report describes the elements of a study plan that could be used to increase the understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors that influence salmon survival under current conditions

  10. B7.1 expression on tumor cells circumvents the need of professional antigen presentation for in vitro propagation of cytotoxic T cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, G; Protti, M P; Rugarli, C; Bellone, M

    1996-01-01

    In vitro propagation of tumor-specific CTLs, to be used for identification of tumor antigens (Ag) and/or adoptive immunotherapy, is hampered by the need of large amounts of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) used for periodical cycles of restimulation. We evaluated whether RMA T lymphoma cells, stably transfected with the cDNA encoding for the B7.1 costimulatory molecule, provided the activation signals to CD8+ T lymphocytes in the absence of professional APC and CD4+ helper cells. We demonstrate here that long-term CD8+ cell lines can be efficiently propagated in vitro by repeated cycles of stimulation with tumor cells stably expressing B7.1. Professional APC and CD4+ helper cells are not required as far as interleukin 2 is exogenously provided. Furthermore, CD8+ blasts needed both signal 1 (Ag in the contest of the MHC molecule) and signal 2 (interaction of costimulatory molecules) for restimulation. T cell blasts in the presence of signal 1 or 2 only still retained their effector potential but did not undergo clonal expansion. These results are very promising for further applications of specific immunotherapies in humans.

  11. Supralinear response and efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti to 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Aviles, P.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) response, supralinearity function, and relative efficiency with respect to 60 Co γ-rays, of TLD-100 exposed to 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons have been measured. The TL response of the glow curve peaks using two different deconvolutions, separating in either 7 (3-9) or 9 peaks (3-10 and peaks 6a and 6b), was investigated. Results for the supralinearity function of peaks 5 and 7-9 and the relative response of peaks 5 and 7 are insensitive to the chosen deconvolution scheme. At all energies we observe that peak 5 is slightly supralinear and that supralinearity increases as a function of the peak temperature. The relative efficiencies, measured for the total TL signal (area under the glow curve) and peaks 5 and 7, decrease with the proton energy having values of 0.33, 0.46 and 0.70 (total TL signal), 0.22, 0.32 and 0.53 (peak 5) and 1.4, 2.6 and 3.6 (peak 7) at 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV, respectively. These data agree with the systematics reported in the literature. The measurements of the supralinearity function are compared with Monte Carlo track interaction model calculations. The analysis suggests that the model ion track effective radius and the saturation radius are independent of the incident ion energy

  12. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  13. Feedback Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Amir R.; Wu, Te-Lin; Sun, Lin; Shen, William; Malik, Jitendra; Savarese, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most successful learning models in computer vision are based on learning successive representations followed by a decision layer. This is usually actualized through feedforward multilayer neural networks, e.g. ConvNets, where each layer forms one of such successive representations. However, an alternative that can achieve the same goal is a feedback based approach in which the representation is formed in an iterative manner based on a feedback received from previous iteration's...

  14. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  15. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  16. Networks of networks – An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Perc, Matjaž; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Interdependent network reciprocity. Only those blue cooperative domains that are initially present on both networks survive. Abstract: This is an introduction to the special issue titled “Networks of networks” that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. Recent research and reviews attest to the fact that networks of networks are the next frontier in network science [1–7]. Not only are interactions limited and thus inadequately described by well-mixed models, it is also a fact that the networks that should be an integral part of such models are often interconnected, thus making the processes that are unfolding on them interdependent. From the World economy and transportation systems to social media, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might significantly affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has a certain relevance and meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Networks of networks, interdependent networks, or multilayer networks are therefore a much better and realistic description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, percolation, diffusion, synchronization, collective behavior, and evolutionary games on networks of networks. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of networks of networks, regardless of background and motivation, is very welcome.

  17. Willingness to pay for a 4% chlorhexidine (7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate) product for umbilical cord care in rural Bangladesh: a contingency valuation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Patricia S; Metzler, Mutsumi; Islam, Ziaul; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-10-18

    Recent trials in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan have shown that chlorhexidine is an effective antiseptic for umbilical cord care compared to existing community-based cord care practices. Because of the aggregate reduction in neonatal mortality in these trials, interest is high in introducing a 7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate liquid or gel that delivers 4% chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care in Bangladesh and elsewhere. In 2010, we conducted a household survey applying a contingent valuation method with 1717 eligible couples (pregnant women or women with a first child younger than 6 months old, and their husbands) in the rural subdistricts of Abhoynagar and Mirsarai in Bangladesh to assess their willingness to pay for three types of umbilical cord care products at different price points. Each respondent was asked about willingness to pay prefixed prices for any one of three 7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate products: 1) a single-dose liquid, 2) a multi-dose liquid, or 3) a gel formulation. Each also reported the maximum price they were independently willing to pay for their selected product. We compared participant willingness-to-pay responses to the prefixed prices with their independently reported maximum prices for each type of the product separately. The comparison identified to what extent the respondents' positive responses to the prefixed prices matched their independently reported maximum prices. This cross matching revealed that willingness to pay the prefixed prices was 41% for the single-dose liquid, 33% for the multi-dose liquid, and 31% for the gel formulation. Although the majority of the respondents were unwilling to pay the prefixed prices, all were willing to pay some amount and reported they could borrow money if necessary. Subsequent analysis of responses to the multi-dose liquid showed borrowing money would not be required if the unit price was Bangladeshi taka 15-25. A unit price of Bangladeshi taka 15-25 (US$0.21-0.35) for multi-dose 7.1

  18. Green mobile networks a networking perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Nirwan

    2016-01-01

    Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.

  19. Joint inversion of gravity and seismic data along a profile across the seismogenic fault of 2010 Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guangliang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake occurred on the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone, across which we carried out a joint relative-gravity and seismic-reflection survey, and then performed a gravity inversion constrained by the seismic-reflection result. Based on the data of complete Bouguer gravity anomaly and seismic reflection, we obtained a layered interface structure in deep crust down to Moho. Our study showed that the inversion could reveal the interfaces of strata along the survey profile and the directions of regional faults in two-dimension. From the characteristics of the observed topography of the Moho basement, we tentatively confirmed that the uplift of eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet plateau was caused by the subduction of the Indian plate.

  20. Minimum Requirements of Flagellation and Motility for Infection of Agrobacterium sp. Strain H13-3 by Flagellotropic Bacteriophage 7-7-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun Y.; Broadway, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 specifically adsorbs to Agrobacterium sp. strain H13-3 (formerly Rhizobium lupini H13-3) flagella for efficient host infection. The Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 flagellum is complex and consists of three flagellin proteins: the primary flagellin FlaA, which is essential for motility, and the secondary flagellins FlaB and FlaD, which have minor functions in motility. Using quantitative infectivity assays, we showed that absence of FlaD had no effect on phage infection, while absence of FlaB resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in infectivity. A flaA deletion strain, which produces straight and severely truncated flagella, experienced a significantly reduced infectivity, similar to that of a flaB flaD strain, which produces a low number of straight flagella. A strain lacking all three flagellin genes is phage resistant. In addition to flagellation, flagellar rotation is required for infection. A strain that is nonmotile due to an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the motor component MotA is resistant to phage infection. We also generated two strains with point mutations in the motA gene resulting in replacement of the conserved charged residue Glu98, which is important for modulation of rotary speed. A change to the neutral Gln caused the flagellar motor to rotate at a constant high speed, allowing a 2.2-fold-enhanced infectivity. A change to the positively charged Lys caused a jiggly motility phenotype with very slow flagellar rotation, which significantly reduced the efficiency of infection. In conclusion, flagellar number and length, as well as speed of flagellar rotation, are important determinants for infection by phage 7-7-1. PMID:22865074

  1. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  2. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunev, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  3. Modeling regional air quality and climate: improving organic aerosol and aerosol activation processes in WRF/Chem version 3.7.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; Glotfelty, Timothy; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    Air quality and climate influence each other through the uncertain processes of aerosol formation and cloud droplet activation. In this study, both processes are improved in the Weather, Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.7.1. The existing Volatility Basis Set (VBS) treatments for organic aerosol (OA) formation in WRF/Chem are improved by considering the following: the secondary OA (SOA) formation from semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA), a semi-empirical formulation for the enthalpy of vaporization of SOA, and functionalization and fragmentation reactions for multiple generations of products from the oxidation of VOCs. Over the continental US, 2-month-long simulations (May to June 2010) are conducted and results are evaluated against surface and aircraft observations during the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Among all the configurations considered, the best performance is found for the simulation with the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) and the VBS SOA module with semivolatile POA treatment, 25 % fragmentation, and the emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds being 3 times the original POA emissions. Among the three gas-phase mechanisms (CB05, CB6, and SAPRC07) used, CB05 gives the best performance for surface ozone and PM2. 5 concentrations. Differences in SOA predictions are larger for the simulations with different VBS treatments (e.g., nonvolatile POA versus semivolatile POA) compared to the simulations with different gas-phase mechanisms. Compared to the simulation with CB05 and the default SOA module, the simulations with the VBS treatment improve cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) predictions (normalized mean biases from -40.8 % to a range of -34.6 to -27.7 %), with large differences between CB05-CB6 and SAPRC07 due to large differences in their OH and HO2 predictions. An advanced aerosol activation parameterization based on the Fountoukis and Nenes

  4. Some statistical features of the seismic activity related to the recent M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, L.; Baeza-Blancas, E.; Reyes, I.; Angulo Brown, F.; Rudolf Navarro, A.

    2017-12-01

    By studying the magnitude earthquake catalogs, previous studies have reported evidence that some changes in the spatial and temporal organization of earthquake activity is observedbefore and after of a main-shock. These previous studies have used different approach methods for detecting clustering behavior and distance-events density in order topoint out the asymmetric behavior of before shocks and aftershocks. Here, we present a statistical analysis of the seismic activity related to the M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes occurredon Sept. 7th and Sept. 19th, respectively. First, we calculated the interevent time and distance for the period Sept. 7th 2016 until Oct. 20th 2017 for each seismic region ( a radius of 150 km centeredat coordinates of the M8.1 and M7.1). Next, we calculated the "velocity" of the walker as the ratio between the interevent distance and interevent time, and similarly, we also constructed the"acceleration". A slider pointer is considered to estimate some statistical features within time windows of size τ for the velocity and acceleration sequences before and after the main shocks. Specifically, we applied the fractal dimension method to detect changes in the correlation (persistence) behavior of events in the period before the main events.Our preliminary results pointed out that the fractal dimension associated to the velocity and acceleration sequences exhibits changes in the persistence behavior before the mainshock, while thescaling dimension values after the main events resemble a more uncorrelated behavior. Moreover, the relationship between the standard deviation of the velocity and the local mean velocity valuefor a given time window-size τ is described by an exponent close to 1.5, and the cumulative distribution of velocity and acceleration are well described by power law functions after the crash and stretched-exponential-like distribution before the main shock. On the other hand, we present an analysis of patterns of seismicquiescence

  5. Phase Transformations of an Fe-0.85 C-17.9 Mn-7.1 Al Austenitic Steel After Quenching and Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Low-density Mn-Al steels could potentially be substitutes for commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels. However, the development of the Mn-Al stainless steels requires knowledge of the phase transformations that occur during the steel making processes. Phase transformations of an Fe-0.85 C-17.9 Mn-7.1 Al (wt.%) austenitic steel, which include spinodal decomposition, precipitation transformations, and cellular transformations, have been studied after quenching and annealing. The results show that spinodal decomposition occurs prior to the precipitation transformation in the steel after quenching and annealing at temperatures below 1023 K and that coherent fine particles of L12-type carbide precipitate homogeneously in the austenite. The cellular transformation occurs during the transformation of high-temperature austenite into lamellae of austenite, ferrite, and kappa carbide at temperatures below 1048 K. During annealing at temperatures below 923 K, the austenite decomposes into lamellar austenite, ferrite, κ-carbide, and M23C6 carbide grains for another cellular transformation. Last, when annealing at temperatures below 873 K, lamellae of ferrite and κ-carbide appear in the austenite.

  6. The Analysis of the Possible Thermal Emission at Radio Frequencies from an Evolved Supernova Remnant HB 3 (G132.7+1.3: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onić, D.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been reported that some of the flux density values for an evolved supernova remnant (SNR HB 3 (G132.7$+$1.3 are not accurate enough. In this work we therefore revised the analysis of the possible thermal emission at radio frequencies from this SNR using the recently published, corrected flux density values. A model including the sum of non-thermal (purely synchrotron and thermal (bremsstrahlung components is applied to fit the integrated radio spectrum of this SNR. The contribution of thermal component to the total volume emissivity at $1 mathrm{GHz}$ is estimated to be $approx37 \\%$. The ambient density is also estimated to be $napprox 9 mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ for $mathrm{T}=10^{4} mathrm{K}$. Again we obtained a relatively significant presence of thermal emission at radio frequencies from the SNR, which can support interaction between SNR HB 3 and adjacent molecular cloud associated with the mbox{H,{sc ii}} region W3. Our model estimates for thermal component contribution to total volume emissivity at $1 mathrm{GHz}$ and ambient density are similar to those obtained earlier ($approx40 \\%$, $approx10 mathrm{cm^{-3}}$. It is thus obvious that the corrected flux density values do not affect the basic conclusions.

  7. Mental health service use by patients with dysthymic disorder: treatment use and dropout in a 7 1/2-year naturalistic follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Brian R; Klein, Daniel N

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about long-term treatment use among patients with dysthymia. This paper describes patterns of treatment use by 85 outpatients with dysthymic disorder and a comparison group of 36 outpatients with nonchronic (episodic) major depression in a naturalistic follow-up. Patients with dysthymia had higher rates of treatment use across 7 1/2 years compared with patients with episodic major depression. Baseline variables that predicted which patients with dysthymia dropped out of treatment before recovering from dysthymic disorder included age, ethnicity, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition Axis II pathology as obtained from informant reports, higher self-reported autonomy, and receiving psychotherapy alone as compared to receiving a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Dysthymic disorder places a significant burden on the mental health services system, yet many outpatients with dysthymia may be receiving inadequate treatment. Younger patients, ethnic minority patients, and patients with personality disorders may be at increased risk of dropping out from treatment for depression. Combination treatments may increase treatment retention.

  8. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  9. Multiple parameters anomalies for verifying the geosystem spheres coupling effect: a case study of the 2010 Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the research of earthquake anomaly recognition, the coupling effect of multiple geosystem spheres can be expected to reasonably interpretating the correlation between various anomalous signals before strong earthquake. Specially, the development of the Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere (LAI coupling model has been accepted as verified by some experimental, thermal and electromagnetic data. However, quasi-synchronous anomalies of the multiple parameters, including thermal, radon and electromagnetic data, have not been reported in a single event case for verifying the geosystem spheres coupling effect. In this paper, we firstly summarized the reported studies on the power spectrum density (PSD in the ELF/VLF band and radon data recorded from Guza seismic station. Then, historical surface latent heat flux (SLHF data from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project was employed for investigating anomalous change in a month before the April 14, 2010, Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake which is one of the typical intra-continental earthquakes in Tibet Plateau. The results from spatial and temporal analysis revealed that anomalous fields of PSD and SLHF data were located close to the epicenter and the ends of some active faults at Bayan Har Block and all anomalous dates converged between April 8 and 11 (6 to 3 days before the Yushu earthquake. Therefore, we suggest that the anomalies of multiple parameters before the main shock are related with the Yushu earthquake. This paper could give an ideal case study to verify the geosystem spheres coupling effect happened in a single event.

  10. Testing earthquake links in Mexico from 1978 up to the 2017 M=8.1 Chiapas and M=7.1 Puebla shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, Margarita; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    The M = 8.1 Chiapas and the M = 7.1 Puebla earthquakes occurred in the bending part of the subducting Cocos plate 11 days and ~600 km apart, a range that puts them well outside the typical aftershock zone. We find this to be a relatively common occurrence in Mexico, with 14% of M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1900 striking more than 300 km apart and within a 2 week interval, not different from a randomized catalog. We calculate the triggering potential caused by crustal stress redistribution from large subduction earthquakes over the last 40 years. There is no evidence that static stress transfer or dynamic triggering from the 8 September Chiapas earthquake promoted the 19 September earthquake. Both recent earthquakes were promoted by past thrust events instead, including delayed afterslip from the 2012 M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake. A repeated pattern of shallow thrust events promoting deep intraslab earthquakes is observed over the past 40 years.

  11. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  12. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is .... Such a time-varying topology can occur in social networks, computer networks, WWW ... This has the effect of reducing the spread of the transverse ...

  13. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network

  14. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  15. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  16. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  17. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  18. Network development plan 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    Network plan 1995 concerns several strategic problems, among others environmental policy of power transmission lines. Possibilities of restructuring aerial cable network are described. The state of the existing systems and plans for new network systems are presented. (EG)

  19. Fatores perinatais associados a recém-nascidos de termo com pH<7,1 na artéria umbilical e índice de Apgar <7,0 no 5º minuto Perinatal factors associated with pH<7.1 in umbilical artery and Apgar 5 min <7.0 in term newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Moraes De Zorzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores perinatais associados a recém-nascidos de termo com pHPURPOSE: To assess perinatal factors associated with term newborns with pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery and 5th min Apgar score<7,0. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study carried out after reviewing the medical records of all births from September/1998 to March/2008, that occurred at the General Hospital of Caxias do Sul. The inclusion criterion was term newborns who presented a 5th min Apgar score <7.0 and umbilical artery pH<7.10. In the univariate analysis, we used the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables, the c² test for dichotomous variables and risk estimation by the odds ratio (OR. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Of a total of 15,495 consecutive births, 25 term neonates (0.16% had pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery and a 5th min Apgar score <7.0. Breech presentation (OR=12.9, p<0.005, cesarean section (OR=3.5, p<0.01 and modified intrapartum cardiotocography (OR=7.8, p<0.02 presented a significant association with the acidosis event. Among the fetal characteristics, need for hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR=79.7, p <0.0001, need for resuscitation (OR=12.2, p <0.0001 and base deficit were associated with the event (15.0 versus -4.5, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Low Apgar score at the 5th min of life associated with pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery can predict adverse neonatal outcomes.

  20. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  1. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  2. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  3. Vulnerability and controllability of networks of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueming; Peng, Hao; Gao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Network science is a highly interdisciplinary field ranging from natural science to engineering technology and it has been applied to model complex systems and used to explain their behaviors. Most previous studies have been focus on isolated networks, but many real-world networks do in fact interact with and depend on other networks via dependency connectivities, forming “networks of networks” (NON). The interdependence between networks has been found to largely increase the vulnerability of interacting systems, when a node in one network fails, it usually causes dependent nodes in other networks to fail, which, in turn, may cause further damage on the first network and result in a cascade of failures with sometimes catastrophic consequences, e.g., electrical blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. The vulnerability of a NON can be analyzed by percolation theory that can be used to predict the critical threshold where a NON collapses. We review here the analytic framework for analyzing the vulnerability of NON, which yields novel percolation laws for n-interdependent networks and also shows that percolation theory of a single network studied extensively in physics and mathematics in the last 50 years is a specific limited case of the more general case of n interacting networks. Understanding the mechanism behind the cascading failure in NON enables us finding methods to decrease the vulnerability of the natural systems and design of more robust infrastructure systems. By examining the vulnerability of NON under targeted attack and studying the real interdependent systems, we find two methods to decrease the systems vulnerability: (1) protect the high-degree nodes, and (2) increase the degree correlation between networks. Furthermore, the ultimate proof of our understanding of natural and technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. We also review the recent studies and challenges on the

  4. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  5. Integrating Networking into ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Networking is foundational to the ATLAS distributed infrastructure and there are many ongoing activities related to networking both within and outside of ATLAS. We will report on the progress in a number of areas exploring ATLAS's use of networking and our ability to monitor the network, analyze metrics from the network, and tune and optimize application and end-host parameters to make the most effective use of the network. Specific topics will include work on Open vSwitch for production systems, network analytics, FTS testing and tuning, and network problem alerting and alarming.

  6. Network Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Walter; Chesnais, Pascal

    1988-05-01

    Over the past several years, the Electronic Publishing Group at the MIT Media Laboratory has been conducting a family of media experiments which explore a new kind of broadcast: the distribution of data and computer programs rather than pre-packaged material. This broadcast is not directed to a human recipient, but to a local computational agent acting on his behalf. In response to instructions from both the broadcaster and the reader, this agent selects from the incoming data and presents it in a manner suggestive of traditional media. The embodiment of these media experiments is a news retrieval system where the news editor has been replaced by the personal computer. A variety of both local and remote databases which operate passively as well as interac-tively are accessed by "reporters." These "reporters" are actually software interfaces, which are programmed to gather news. Ideally, they are "broadcatching" that is to say, watching all broadcast television channels, listening to all radio transmissions, and reading all newspapers, magazines, and journals. 1 A possible consequence of the synthesis of media through active processing is the merger of newspapers and television (figure 1). The result is either a newspaper with illustrations which move 2 or, conversely, print as television output. The latter is the theme of Network Plus.

  7. Modeling regional air quality and climate: improving organic aerosol and aerosol activation processes in WRF/Chem version 3.7.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yahya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and climate influence each other through the uncertain processes of aerosol formation and cloud droplet activation. In this study, both processes are improved in the Weather, Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem version 3.7.1. The existing Volatility Basis Set (VBS treatments for organic aerosol (OA formation in WRF/Chem are improved by considering the following: the secondary OA (SOA formation from semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA, a semi-empirical formulation for the enthalpy of vaporization of SOA, and functionalization and fragmentation reactions for multiple generations of products from the oxidation of VOCs. Over the continental US, 2-month-long simulations (May to June 2010 are conducted and results are evaluated against surface and aircraft observations during the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex campaign. Among all the configurations considered, the best performance is found for the simulation with the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05 and the VBS SOA module with semivolatile POA treatment, 25 % fragmentation, and the emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds being 3 times the original POA emissions. Among the three gas-phase mechanisms (CB05, CB6, and SAPRC07 used, CB05 gives the best performance for surface ozone and PM2. 5 concentrations. Differences in SOA predictions are larger for the simulations with different VBS treatments (e.g., nonvolatile POA versus semivolatile POA compared to the simulations with different gas-phase mechanisms. Compared to the simulation with CB05 and the default SOA module, the simulations with the VBS treatment improve cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC predictions (normalized mean biases from −40.8 % to a range of −34.6 to −27.7 %, with large differences between CB05–CB6 and SAPRC07 due to large differences in their OH and HO2 predictions. An advanced aerosol activation

  8. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  9. Improved performance of polymer solar cells using PBDTT-F-TT:PC_7_1BM blend film as active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Yue; Gao, Xiumin; Lu, Xinmiao; Xin, Qing; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jufeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The PCE of PBDTT-F-TT-based PSCs was improved to 9.34% by morphology control and device engineering. • Effect of DIO additive on the BHJ morphology and charge transport was investigated. • Effect of device architecture on the performance was studied in depth by optical modeling. • A low-temperature processed interfacial layer was introduced for plastic substrates. - Abstract: A detailed study of high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a low bandgap polymer PBDTT-F-TT and PC_7_1BM as the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is carried out. By using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as solvent additive to control the morphology of active layer and comparing different device architecture to optimize the optical field distribution, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulted devices can be reached as high as 9.34%. Comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of the resulting devices is performed to understand the effect of DIO and device geometry on photovoltaic performance. It was found that the addition of DIO can significantly improve the nanoscale morphology and increased electron mobility in the BHJ layer. The inverted device architecture was chosen because the results from optical modeling shows that it offers better optical field distribution and exciton generation profile. Based on these results, a low-temperature processed ZnO was finally introduced as an electron transport layer to facility the fabrication on flexible substrates and showed comparable performance with the device based on conventional ZnO interlayer prepared by sol-gel process.

  10. MELCOR 1.8.3 application to NUPEC M-7-1 test (ISP-35) and two hydrogen severe accident scenarios in a typical PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Garcia, M.A.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion of the hydrogen released to the containment during a severe accident is one of the issues to establish the real threats to the third barrier integrity in nuclear power facilities. Computational efforts on management procedures, such as the containment spray operation, are being addressed at the CTN-UPM to cope with the problem. On top of this, studies about in-containment hydrogen distribution and combustion are currently carried out with the codes MELCOR 1.8.3 and ESTER 1.0-RALOC 2.2. In this study, MELCOR 1.8.3 has been validated against the NUPEC M-7-1 Test, which already showed in 1993 that a good agreement was reached out when the previous MELCOR 1.8.2 calculations were performed regarding to the helium distribution throughout the facility. Nevertheless, some discrepancies were detected when analysing wall and atmosphere temperatures. Generally, well-mixed atmosphere scenarios, in which the role played by the containment water spraying is of the major importance, appear when such a mechanism promotes the onset of convection driven flow patterns that rapidly homogenize the gas properties. The purpose of the new MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment is to take advantage of the newest implemented models to obtain a more realistic thermalhydraulics simulation. A variation case was also performed to highlight the influence of water spray operation. In a second part of the study, insights coming from the previous work were used to apply MELCOR 1.8.3 models to a SBO severe accident scenario management in a commercial 2700 MWt 3-loop W PWR containment

  11. Data center networks and network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses and proposes the architectural framework, which is for data center networks. The data center networks require new technical challenges, and it would be good opportunity to change the functions, which are not need in current and future networks. Based on the observation and consideration on data center networks, this paper proposes; (i) Broadcast-free layer 2 network (i.e., emulation of broadcast at the end-node), (ii) Full-mesh point-to-point pipes, and (iii) IRIDES (Invitation Routing aDvertisement for path Engineering System).

  12. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  13. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  14. Technologies for Home Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP...

  15. Modeling Network Interdiction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    118 xiii Table Page 36 Computation times for weighted, 100-node random networks for GAND Approach testing in Python ...in Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 38 Accuracy measures for weighted, 100-node random networks for GAND...networks [15:p. 1]. A common approach to modeling network interdiction is to formulate the problem in terms of a two-stage strategic game between two

  16. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  17. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  18. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  19. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  20. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  1. A physical model of the Mexico City seismic response after the damaging M7.1 earthquake of September 19, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Tago, J.; Villafuerte, C. D.; Chaljub, E.; Sanabria-Gómez, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Built-up on top of ancient lake deposits, Mexico City experiences some of the largest seismic site effects in the world. The M7.1 intermediate-depth earthquake of September 19, 2017 (S19) collapsed 43 one-to-ten story buildings in the city close to the western edge of the lake-bed sediments, on top of the geotechnically-known transition zone. In this work we explore the physical reasons explaining such a damaging pattern and the long-lasting strong motion records well-documented from past events by means of new observations and high performance computational modeling. Besides the extreme amplification of seismic waves, duration of intense ground motion in the lake-bed lasts more than three times those recorded in hard-rock a few kilometers away. Different mechanisms contribute to the long lasting motions, such as the regional dispersion and multiple-scattering of the incoming wavefield all the way from the source. However, recent beamforming observations at hard-rock suggest that duration of the incoming field is significantly shorter than the strong shaking in the lake-bed. We show that despite the highly dissipative shallow deposits, seismic energy can propagate long distances in the deep structure of the valley, promoting also a large elongation of motion. Our simulations reveal that the seismic response of the basin is dominated by surface-waves overtones, and that this mechanism increases the duration of ground motion up to 280% and 500% of the incoming wavefield duration at 0.5 and 0.3 Hz, respectively. Furthermore, our results indicate that the damage pattern of the S19 earthquake is most likely due to the propagation of the fundamental mode in the transition zone of the basin. These conclusions contradicts what has been previously stated from observational and modeling investigations, where the basin itself has been discarded as a preponderant factor promoting long and devastating shaking in Mexico City. Reference: Cruz-Atienza, V. M., J. Tago, J. D

  2. Ground motion attenuation during M 7.1 Darfield and M 6.2 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquakes and performance of global Ppedictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, Margaret; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The M 7.1 Darfield earthquake occurred 40 km west of Christchurch (New Zealand) on 4 September 2010. Six months after, the city was struck again with an M 6.2 event on 22 February local time (21 February UTC). These events resulted in significant damage to infrastructure in the city and its suburbs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of global predictive models (GMPEs) using the strong motion data obtained from these two events to improve future seismic hazard assessment and building code provisions for the Canterbury region.The Canterbury region is located on the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates; its surface expression is the active right lateral Alpine fault (Berryman et al. 1993). Beneath the North Island and the north South Island, the Pacific plate subducts obliquely under the Australian plate, while at the southwestern part of the South Island, a reverse process takes place. Although New Zealand has experienced several major earthquakes in the past as a result of its complex seismotectonic environment (e.g., M 7.1 1888 North Canterbury, M 7.0 1929 Arthur's Pass, and M 6.2 1995 Cass), there was no evidence of prior seismic activity in Christchurch and its surroundings before the September event. The Darfield and Christchurch earthquakes occurred along the previously unmapped Greendale fault in the Canterbury basin, which is covered by Quaternary alluvial deposits (Forsyth et al. 2008). In Figure 1, site conditions of the Canterbury epicentral area are depicted on a VS30 map. This map was determined on the basis of topographic slope calculated from a 1-km grid using the method of Allen and Wald (2007). Also shown are the locations of strong motion stations.The Darfield event was generated as a result of a complex rupture mechanism; the recordings and geodetic data reveal that earthquake consists of three sub-events (Barnhart et al. 2011, page 815 of this issue). The first event was due to rupturing of a blind reverse

  3. vhv supply networks, problems of network structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbault, J

    1966-04-01

    The present and future power requirements of the Paris area and the structure of the existing networks are discussed. The various limitations that will have to be allowed for to lay down the structure of a regional transmission network leading in the power of the large national transmission network to within the Paris built up area are described. The theoretical solution that has been adopted, and the features of its final achievement, which is planned for about the year 2000, and the intermediate stages are given. The problem of the structure of the National Power Transmission network which is to supply the regional network was studied. To solve this problem, a 730 kV voltage network will have to be introduced.

  4. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality......’s approach to local co-governing as well as by the capacity and interest of key private actors. It is argued that national legislation requesting the creation of local policy networks was not enough to assure network governing and the case studies show that local policy networks may subsist also under...... hierarchical governing modes. Reasons why hierarchical governing modes prevail over network governing in some settings are identified pointing to both actor borne and structural factors. Output indicators of the four cases do not show that a particular governing mode is more efficient in its employment policy...

  5. Computer network defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias, Vincent; Stout, William M. S.; Loverro, Caleb

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus for protecting virtual machines. A computer system creates a copy of a group of the virtual machines in an operating network in a deception network to form a group of cloned virtual machines in the deception network when the group of the virtual machines is accessed by an adversary. The computer system creates an emulation of components from the operating network in the deception network. The components are accessible by the group of the cloned virtual machines as if the group of the cloned virtual machines was in the operating network. The computer system moves network connections for the group of the virtual machines in the operating network used by the adversary from the group of the virtual machines in the operating network to the group of the cloned virtual machines, enabling protecting the group of the virtual machines from actions performed by the adversary.

  6. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  8. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  9. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  10. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  11. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  12. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  13. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  14. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway promotes Kv7.1 channel surface expression by inhibiting Nedd4-2 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Petersen, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell polarization involves several kinase signaling cascades that eventually divide the surface membrane into an apical and a basolateral part. One kinase, which is activated during the polarization process, is phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In MDCK cells, the basolateral potassium...... channel Kv7.1 requires PI3K activity for surface-expression during the polarization process. Here, we demonstrate that Kv7.1 surface expression requires tonic PI3K activity as PI3K inhibition triggers endocytosis of these channels in polarized MDCK. Pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 gave similar results...... as PI3K inhibition, whereas overexpression of constitutively active SGK1 overruled it, suggesting that SGK1 is the primary downstream target of PI3K in this process. Furthermore, knockdown of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 overruled PI3K inhibition, whereas a Nedd4-2 interaction-deficient Kv7.1 mutant...

  15. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    source si and a target ti . For each commodity (si, ki) the commodity specifies a non- negative demand di [5]. The objective of the multi-commodity...queue predictions, and network con- gestion [15]. The implementation of the DRQC uses the Kalman filter to predict the state of the network and optimize

  16. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  17. Comparative analysis of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in Langerhans cells: differential regulation by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, T; Furue, M

    1995-07-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are Ia-bearing potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) of dendritic cell lineage that play a crucial role in primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses. LC express several costimulatory molecules such as B7, which has been implicated as one of the important determinants of professional APC. Recently, B7 antigens have been shown to include three distinct molecules termed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-3, and the expression of B7-1 and B7-2 in LC has been already confirmed. However, little is known of the regulation of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in LC. We demonstrated that LC do not express B7-1 and B7-2 in situ; however, the expression of both molecules is rapidly induced during the first 3 days of culture, and high levels of expression are maintained at least until day 6. We show that the expression of B7-2 in LC is much higher than that of B7-1 in each experiment, and that B7-1 and B7-2 expression is reproducibly augmented by interleukin (IL)-4 in a dose-dependent manner; however, IL-2 affected expression very little. Finally, B7-1 expression is significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma or IL-10, and B7-2 expression is consistently inhibited by IL-10, but not by IFN-gamma. The effects of these cytokines are active only in the induction phase (during first 3 days of culture) of B7 expression: the modulatory effects of cytokines are hardly detected in the plateau phase (days 4 to 6 of culture) of B7 expression in LC. These findings suggest that B7-1 and B7-2 expression are indeed selectively and differentially regulated by these T cell-derived cytokines, and that the cytokines may modulate the synthesis of B7 molecules rather than the degradation of already-expressed B7 molecules.

  18. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs......To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social......), and stochastic actor-oriented models. We focus most attention on ERGMs by providing an illustrative example of a model for a strategic information network within a local government. We draw inferences about the structural role played by individuals recognized as key innovators and conclude that such an approach...

  19. Innovations, status, and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wang (Pengfei)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTo obtain and maintain competitive advantage, firms need to implement appropriate innovation strategies (i.e. exploration or exploitation) and acquire status in external networks. In this dissertation, I investigate how innovation strategy, status, and network structure jointly

  20. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  1. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...

  2. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  3. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described......Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  4. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  5. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  7. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  8. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Thomas [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  9. Networking for the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickel, Petra; Hörisch, Jacob; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Although the public debate on the environmental orientation of firms has intensified, there is a lack of understanding about the consequences of that orientation, especially in terms of its impact on firms' networking behavior. In order to fill this gap, this paper analyzes the impact of external...... and internal environmental orientation on start-ups’ network characteristics, because networks are both vital for the success of start-ups and resource demanding. More specifically, the effects of environmental orientation on networking frequency and network size among start-ups are analyzed. Empirical data...... from 248 technology-based start-ups shows that those firms with a strong external environmental orientation have significantly higher networking frequencies and build larger networks. Conversely, a strong internal environmental orientation is linked to smaller networks. Thus, the results highlight...

  10. Remote Network Access (RNA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Remote Network Access (RNA) includes or is associated with all communication devices/software, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and virus protection applications to ensure security of the OIG, DoD, Network from remote...

  11. Stabilizing weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification

  12. Wireshark network security

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    If you are network administrator or a security analyst with an interest in using Wireshark for security analysis, then this is the book for you. Basic familiarity with common network and application services terms and technologies is assumed.

  13. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  14. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  15. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  16. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  17. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  18. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  19. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  20. Linux Networking Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Carla

    2008-01-01

    If you want a book that lays out the steps for specific Linux networking tasks, one that clearly explains the commands and configurations, this is the book for you. Linux Networking Cookbook is a soup-to-nuts collection of recipes that covers everything you need to know to perform your job as a Linux network administrator. You'll dive straight into the gnarly hands-on work of building and maintaining a computer network

  1. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  2. Heterogeneity and Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, S.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter shows that networks can have large and differentiated effects on behavior and then argues that social and economic pressures facilitate the formation of heterogenous networks. Thus networks can play an important role in understanding the wide diversity in human behaviour and in economic outcomes.

  3. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and multi-cluster ...

  4. Networks around entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how such gender......Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how...... such gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks differ between societies and cultures. Research Design: Based on survey data from the Global Entrepreneurships Monitor, a sample of 16,365 entrepreneurs is used to compare the gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks in China, and five countries largely located around...... the Persian Gulf, namely Yemen, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates. Findings: Analyses show that female entrepreneurs tend to have slightly larger private sphere networks than male entrepreneurs. The differences between male and female entrepreneurs’ networking in the public sphere...

  5. Message network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuo-Tung

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a computer simulation of a multinode data communication network using a virtual network model to determine the effects of various system parameters on overall network performance. Lieutenant Commander, Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy

  6. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  7. Optimal Fragile Financial Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, F.; Navarro, N.

    2007-01-01

    We study a financial network characterized by the presence of depositors, banks and their shareholders. Belonging to a financial network is beneficial for both the depositors and banks' shareholders since the return to investment increases with the number of banks connected. However, the network is

  8. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  9. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.; Egersted, Magnus; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2018-01-01

    the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked

  10. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  11. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  12. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  13. Analysis of the Source and Ground Motions from the 2017 M8.2 Tehuantepec and M7.1 Puebla Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, D.; Sahakian, V. J.; Perez-Campos, X.; Quintanar, L.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Spica, Z.; Espindola, V. H.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Baltay, A.; Geng, J.

    2017-12-01

    The September 2017 Tehuantepec and Puebla earthquakes were intra-slab earthquakes that together caused significant damage in broad regions of Mexico, including the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, Morelos, Puebla, Mexico, and Mexico City. Ground motions in Mexico City have approximately the same angle of incidence from both earthquakes and potentially sample similar paths close to the city. We examine site effects and source terms by analysis of residuals between Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) and observed ground motions for both of these events at stations from the Servicio Sismólogico Nacional, Instituto de Ingeniería, and the Instituto de Geofísica Red del Valle de Mexico networks. GMPEs are a basis for seismic design, but also provide median ground motion values to act as a basis for comparison of individual earthquakes and site responses. First, we invert for finite-fault slip inversions for Tehuantepec with high-rate GPS, static GPS, tide gauge and DART buoy data, and for Puebla with high-rate GPS and strong motion data. Using the distance from the stations with ground motion observations to the derived slip models, we use the GMPEs of Garcia et al. (2005), Zhao et al. (2006), and Abrahamson, Silva and Kamai (2014), to compute predicted values of peak ground acceleration and velocity (PGA and PGV) and response spectral accelerations (SA). Residuals between observed and predicted ground motion parameters are then computed for each recording, and are decomposed into event and site components using a mixed effects regression. We analyze these residuals as an adjustment away from median ground motions in the region to glean information about the earthquake source properties, as well as local site response in and outside of the Mexico City basin. The event and site terms are then compared with available values of stress drop for the two earthquakes, and Vs30 values for the sites, respectively. This analysis is useful in determining which GMPE is most

  14. The Genesis of Transformation: The Rise of the United States Army’s Modular Brigade Combat Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    institutional theory to the equation when looking at military change. According to international theory, “military organizations should balance (or...Domestic theory is concerned with internal organizational politics and bureaucratic processes that impact decision making. Institutional theory , similar to...organizational theory, is concerned with the power that an organization has or seeks. However, institutional theory differs in that it suggests that

  15. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  16. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  17. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Ahmad, Qutbuddin S.

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009

  18. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  19. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  20. Stoicism and Civic Duty. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.1. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of modern democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by…

  1. Logistical networking: a global storage network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it

  2. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  3. Network Characterization Service (NCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guojun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, George [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Crowley, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-06-06

    Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

  4. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  5. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  6. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  7. Social networking in nursing education: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushi, Luciana Emi; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2016-01-01

    to identify the use of social networking in nursing education. integrative literature review in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, CAPES Periodicals Portal and Web of Science, using the descriptors: social networking and nursing education and the keywords: social networking sites and nursing education, carried out in April 2015. of the 489 articles found, only 14 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies were published after 2013 (57%), originating from the United States and United Kingdom (77.8%). It was observed the use of social networking among nursing students, postgraduate students, mentors and nurses, in undergraduate programmes, hybrid education (blended-learning) and in interprofessional education. The social networking sites used in the teaching and learning process were Facebook (42.8%), Ning (28.5%), Twitter (21.4%) and MySpace (7.1%), by means of audios, videos, quizzes, animations, forums, guidance, support, discussions and research group. few experiences of the use of social networking in nursing education were found and their contributions show the numerous benefits and difficulties faced, providing resourses for the improvement and revaluation of their use in the teaching and learning process.

  8. Social networking in nursing education: integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Emi Kakushi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the use of social networking in nursing education. Method: integrative literature review in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, CAPES Periodicals Portal and Web of Science, using the descriptors: social networking and nursing education and the keywords: social networking sites and nursing education, carried out in April 2015. Results: of the 489 articles found, only 14 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies were published after 2013 (57%, originating from the United States and United Kingdom (77.8%. It was observed the use of social networking among nursing students, postgraduate students, mentors and nurses, in undergraduate programmes, hybrid education (blended-learning and in interprofessional education. The social networking sites used in the teaching and learning process were Facebook (42.8%, Ning (28.5%, Twitter (21.4% and MySpace (7.1%, by means of audios, videos, quizzes, animations, forums, guidance, support, discussions and research group. Conclusion: few experiences of the use of social networking in nursing education were found and their contributions show the numerous benefits and difficulties faced, providing resourses for the improvement and revaluation of their use in the teaching and learning process.

  9. Synchronization on effective networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  10. Synchronization on effective networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  11. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  12. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  13. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  14. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  15. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  16. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  17. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  18. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  20. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  1. Networks : Empowering Communities through Telecentre Networking

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Morocco - have pulled together in loose networks for peer support. ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  2. Network-Centric Applications and Tactical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krout, Timothy; Durbano, Steven; Shearer, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    .... Command and control applications will always require communications capabilities. There are numerous examples of command and control applications that have been developed without adequate attention to the realities of tactical networks...

  3. Tunable Sparse Network Coding for Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Soheil; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Sørensen, Chres Wiant

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential and key enabling mechanisms for tunable sparse network coding, a scheme in which the density of network coded packets varies during a transmission session. At the beginning of a transmission session, sparsely coded packets are transmitted, which benefits decoding...... complexity. At the end of a transmission, when receivers have accumulated degrees of freedom, coding density is increased. We propose a family of tunable sparse network codes (TSNCs) for multicast erasure networks with a controllable trade-off between completion time performance to decoding complexity...... a mechanism to perform efficient Gaussian elimination over sparse matrices going beyond belief propagation but maintaining low decoding complexity. Supporting simulation results are provided showing the trade-off between decoding complexity and completion time....

  4. Organization of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  5. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  6. Adverse Outcome Pathway Networks II: Network Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Angrish, Michelle M; Fortin, Marie C; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leonard, Marc; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Munn, Sharon; O'Brien, Jason M; Pollesch, Nathan L; Smith, L Cody; Zhang, Xiaowei; Knapen, Dries

    2018-02-28

    Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks. First, graph theory-based approaches for identifying important topological features are illustrated using two example AOP networks derived from existing AOP descriptions. Second, considerations for identifying the most significant path(s) through an AOP network from either a biological or risk assessment perspective are described. Finally, approaches for identifying interactions among AOPs that may result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic responses, or previously undefined emergent patterns of response, are introduced. Along with a companion article (Knapen et al. part I), these concepts set the stage for development of tools and case studies that will facilitate more rigorous analysis of AOP networks, and the utility of AOP network-based predictions, for use in research and regulatory decision-making. Collectively, this work addresses one of the major themes identified through a SETAC Horizon Scanning effort focused on advancing the AOP framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent advances on failure and recovery in networks of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhtman, Louis M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, network science has focused on the properties of single isolated networks that do not interact or depend on other networks. However it has now been recognized that many real-networks, such as power grids, transportation systems, and communication infrastructures interact and depend on other networks. Here, we will present a review of the framework developed in recent years for studying the vulnerability and recovery of networks composed of interdependent networks. In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This is also the case when some nodes, like for example certain people, play a role in two networks, i.e. in a multiplex. Dependency relations may act recursively and can lead to cascades of failures concluding in sudden fragmentation of the system. We review the analytical solutions for the critical threshold and the giant component of a network of n interdependent networks. The general theory and behavior of interdependent networks has many novel features that are not present in classical network theory. Interdependent networks embedded in space are significantly more vulnerable compared to non-embedded networks. In particular, small localized attacks may lead to cascading failures and catastrophic consequences. Finally, when recovery of components is possible, global spontaneous recovery of the networks and hysteresis phenomena occur. The theory developed for this process points to an optimal repairing strategy for a network of networks. Understanding realistic effects present in networks of networks is required in order to move towards determining system vulnerability.

  8. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  9. Modelling computer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, G

    2011-01-01

    Traffic models in computer networks can be described as a complicated system. These systems show non-linear features and to simulate behaviours of these systems are also difficult. Before implementing network equipments users wants to know capability of their computer network. They do not want the servers to be overloaded during temporary traffic peaks when more requests arrive than the server is designed for. As a starting point for our study a non-linear system model of network traffic is established to exam behaviour of the network planned. The paper presents setting up a non-linear simulation model that helps us to observe dataflow problems of the networks. This simple model captures the relationship between the competing traffic and the input and output dataflow. In this paper, we also focus on measuring the bottleneck of the network, which was defined as the difference between the link capacity and the competing traffic volume on the link that limits end-to-end throughput. We validate the model using measurements on a working network. The results show that the initial model estimates well main behaviours and critical parameters of the network. Based on this study, we propose to develop a new algorithm, which experimentally determines and predict the available parameters of the network modelled.

  10. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  11. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  12. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  13. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  14. Innovation and network collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can benefit from network collaboration by enhancing opportunities for innovation. Managing the necessary collaboration to benefit from network participation may however be particularly challenging for SMEs due to their size...... and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper, we propose that human resource management (HRM) practices may provide a means by which SMEs can increase their innovation capacity through network collaboration. Following a brief presentation of the relevant literature on networks, and innovation in networks...... in particular, and HRM, we analyse and evaluate the potential applicability of existing models for supporting innovation in SMEs participating in networks. Finally, we propose several lines of inquiry arising from our analysis that provide directions for future research....

  15. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  16. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  17. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  18. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  19. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  20. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  1. Macroecology of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2013-01-01

    towards the tropics, and that network topology would be affected by current climate. Location Global. Methods Each network was organized as a presence/absence matrix, consisting of P plant species, A pollinator species and their links. From these matrices, network parameters were estimated. Additionally...... with either latitude or elevation. However, network modularity decreased significantly with latitude whereas mean number of links per plant species (Lp) and A/P ratio peaked at mid-latitude. Above 500 m a.s.l., A/P ratio decreased and mean number of links per pollinator species (La) increased with elevation......Aim Interacting communities of species are organized into complex networks, and network analysis is reckoned to be a strong tool for describing their architecture. Many species assemblies show strong macroecological patterns, e.g. increasing species richness with decreasing latitude, but whether...

  2. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  3. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  4. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  5. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  6. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  7. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  8. Local area networking handbook

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis provides Navy shore based commands with sufficient information on local area networking to (1) decide if they need a LAN, (2) determine what their networking requirements are, and (3) select a LAN that satisfies their requirements. LAN topologies, transmission media, and medium access methods are described. In addition, the OSI reference model for computer networking and the IEEE 802 LAN standards are explained in detail. ...

  9. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  10. Molecular ecological network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-05-30

    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  11. NASA Integrated Network COOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael L.; Wright, Nathaniel; Tai, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, civil unrest, and other events have the potential of disrupting mission-essential operations in any space communications network. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) is in the process of studying options for integrating the three existing NASA network elements, the Deep Space Network, the Near Earth Network, and the Space Network, into a single integrated network with common services and interfaces. The need to maintain Continuity of Operations (COOP) after a disastrous event has a direct impact on the future network design and operations concepts. The SCaN Integrated Network will provide support to a variety of user missions. The missions have diverse requirements and include anything from earth based platforms to planetary missions and rovers. It is presumed that an integrated network, with common interfaces and processes, provides an inherent advantage to COOP in that multiple elements and networks can provide cross-support in a seamless manner. The results of trade studies support this assumption but also show that centralization as a means of achieving integration can result in single points of failure that must be mitigated. The cost to provide this mitigation can be substantial. In support of this effort, the team evaluated the current approaches to COOP, developed multiple potential approaches to COOP in a future integrated network, evaluated the interdependencies of the various approaches to the various network control and operations options, and did a best value assessment of the options. The paper will describe the trade space, the study methods, and results of the study.

  12. Networks in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks. We will report on a number of networking initiatives in ATLAS including participation in the global perfSONAR network monitoring and measuring efforts of WLCG and OSG, the collaboration with the LHCOPN/LHCONE effort, the integration of network awareness into PanDA, the use of the evolving ATLAS analytics framework to better understand our networks and the changes in our DDM system to allow remote access to data. We will also discuss new efforts underway that are exploring the inclusion and use of software defined networks (SDN) and how ATLAS might benefit from: • Orchestration and optimization of distributed data access and data movement. • Better control of workflows, end to end. • Enabling prioritization of time-critical vs normal tasks • Improvements in the efficiency of resource usage

  13. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  14. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  16. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Networked professional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.

  18. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  19. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  20. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  1. Networks and Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Considine, Mark; Lewis, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    of `street-level' employment services staff for the impacts of this. Contrary to expectations, networking has generally declined over the last decade. There are signs of path dependence in networking patterns within each country, but also a convergence of patterns for the UK and Australia......The systemic reform of employment services in OECD countries was driven by New Public Management (NPM) and then post-NPM reforms, when first-phase changes such as privatization were amended with `joined up' processes to help manage fragmentation. This article examines the networking strategies......, but not The Netherlands. Networking appears to be mediated by policy and regulatory imperatives....

  2. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...: Declarative Languages and Execution Environment includes topographical soldier interface and a sensor network simulation environment for algorithm development, deployment planning, and operational support. Finally, Task 3...

  3. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  4. Introduction to neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    This lecture is a presentation of today's research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix

  5. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  6. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  7. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  8. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Competing edge networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.

  10. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  11. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Mobile networks architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  13. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: An integrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Dan J. Isaak; Jeffrey A. Falke; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Kristina McNyset; Pascal Monestiez; Aaron S. Ruesch; Aritra Sengupta; Nicholas Som; E. Ashley Steel; David M. Theobald; Christian E. Torgersen; Seth J. Wenger

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of...

  14. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  15. Better sales networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.

  16. Cascading Failures and Recovery in Networks of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Shlomo

    Network science have been focused on the properties of a single isolated network that does not interact or depends on other networks. In reality, many real-networks, such as power grids, transportation and communication infrastructures interact and depend on other networks. I will present a framework for studying the vulnerability and the recovery of networks of interdependent networks. In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This is also the case when some nodes like certain locations play a role in two networks -multiplex. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures and to a sudden fragmentation of the system. I will present analytical solutions for the critical threshold and the giant component of a network of n interdependent networks. I will show, that the general theory has many novel features that are not present in the classical network theory. When recovery of components is possible global spontaneous recovery of the networks and hysteresis phenomena occur and the theory suggests an optimal repairing strategy of system of systems. I will also show that interdependent networks embedded in space are significantly more vulnerable compared to non embedded networks. In particular, small localized attacks may lead to cascading failures and catastrophic consequences.Thus, analyzing data of real network of networks is highly required to understand the system vulnerability. DTRA, ONR, Israel Science Foundation.

  17. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  18. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...

  19. Location based Network Optimizations for Mobile Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen

    selection in Wi-Fi networks and predictive handover optimization in heterogeneous wireless networks. The investigations in this work have indicated that location based network optimizations are beneficial compared to typical link measurement based approaches. Especially the knowledge of geographical...

  20. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  1. Classroom Computer Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John

    1984-01-01

    This article describes a computer network system that connects several microcomputers to a single disk drive and one copy of software. Many schools are switching to networks as a cheaper and more efficient means of computer instruction. Teachers may be faced with copywriting problems when reproducing programs. (DF)

  2. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...

  3. Online Social Network Interactions:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jung Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural comparison of social networking structure on McDonald’s Facebook fan sites between Taiwan and the USA was conducted utilizing the individualism/collectivism dimension proposed by Hofstede. Four network indicators are used to describe the network structure of McDonald’s Facebook fan sites: size, density, clique and centralization. Individuals who post on both Facebook sites for the year of 2012 were considered as network participants for the purpose of the study. Due to the huge amount of data, only one thread of postings was sampled from each month of the year of 2012. The final data consists of 1002 postings written by 896 individuals and 5962 postings written by 5532 individuals from Taiwan and the USA respectively. The results indicated that the USA McDonald’s Facebook fan network has more fans, while Taiwan’s McDonald’s Facebook fan network is more densely connected. Cliques did form among the overall multiplex and within the individual uniplex networks in two countries, yet no significant differences were found between them. All the fan networks in both countries are relatively centralized, mostly on the site operators.

  4. Brokerage in SME networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkels, Y.E.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on SME networks of design and high-tech companies in Southeast Netherlands. By highlighting the personal networks of members across design and high-tech industries, the study attempts to identify the main brokers in this dynamic environment. In addition, we investigate whether

  5. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  6. Miniaturized wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Lecointre , Aubin; Dragomirescu , Daniela; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia; Pons , Patrick; Aubert , Hervé; Müller , A.; Berthou , Pascal; Gayraud , Thierry; Plana , Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses an overview of the wireless sensor networks. It is shown that MEMS/NEMS technologies and SIP concept are well suited for advanced architectures. It is also shown analog architectures have to be compatible with digital signal techniques to develop smart network of microsystem.

  7. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  8. FTS2000 network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  9. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  10. Weaponizing Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios; Tassos, Dimitriou; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    of a sensor network. Results show that our tool can be flexibly applied to different sensor network operating systems and protocol stacks giving an adversary privileges to which she is not entitled to. We hope that our tool will be used proactively, to study the weaknesses of new security protocols, and......, hopefully, to enhance the level of security provided by these solutions even further....

  11. Untangle network security

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bawab, Abd El-Monem A

    2014-01-01

    If you are a security engineer or a system administrator and want to secure your server infrastructure with the feature-rich Untangle, this book is for you. For individuals who want to start their career in the network security field, this book would serve as a perfect companion to learn the basics of network security and how to implement it using Untangle NGFW.

  12. Network SCADA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, Dragan R.; Tasic, Visa; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    Copper Institute, Industrial Informatics department, is developing and applying network real time process monitoring and control systems. Some of these systems are already in use. The paper presents some hardware and software general remarks and performances, with special regard to communication sub-systems and network possibilities. (Author)

  13. Managing Interorganizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jeppe

    bold enough to predict that networks will become the dominant organisation form in future. Several authors maintain that the shift from traditional hierarchical structures to networks involves dramatic changes for managers and employees (Champy 2002, Rohlin 1994, Kanter 2002). This article seeks...... organisation theories and theories about strategic management....

  14. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Application data flow .............................................................................2 Fig. 2 Sample JSON data...interface supporting improved network analysis and network communication visualization. 2. Application Design NVP consists of 2 parts: back-end data...notation ( JSON ) format. This JSON is provided as input to the front-end application of the project. This interaction of the user with the back-end

  15. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Chip

    2002-01-01

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  16. Understanding telecommunications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Valdar, Andy

    2017-01-01

    A telecommunications network is an electronic system of links, nodes and the controls that govern their operations to allow voice and data transfer among users and devices. This fully revised, updated and expanded second edition covers all aspects of today's networks, including how they are planned, formed and operated.

  17. The Photograph as Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by actor-network theory (ANT), this article develops a theoretical framework to grasp the dynamic visual work of memory. It introduces three sensitizing concepts of actor-network methodology, namely entanglement, relationality and traceability, and operationalizes them in a methodological...

  18. Networked business process management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current economy, a shift can be seen from stand-alone business organizations to networks of tightly collaborating business organizations. To allow this tight collaboration, business process management in these collaborative networks is becoming increasingly important. This paper discusses

  19. Integrating networks with Mathematica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meijer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a concept that considers network behavior as a collection of software objects, which can be used or modified in computer programs. The interfaces of these software objects are exposed as web services and enable applications to analyze and manipulate networks, e.g. to find

  20. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  1. CRCHD Integrated Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    INB supports two network-based programs—the National Outreach Network (NON) and the Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP)—as well as advising on women’s health and sexual and gender minority opportunities within and across the NCI.

  2. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  3. Advanced Polymer Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    attractive interaction (n = 2.0) and a neutral interaction (n = 1.0); n is equal to unity for self-interactions among the monomers of first network and...... Network Structures by Robert Lambeth, Joseph Lenhart, and Tim Sirk Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Yelena Sliozberg TKC Global

  4. Home Network Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Hans; van Dijk, Hylke

    2008-01-01

    Service discovery and secure and safe service usage are essential elements in the deployment of home and personal networks. Because no system administrator is present, setup and daily operation of such a network has to be automated as much as possible with a high degree of user friendliness. To

  5. Home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Some of the specific areas/topics discussed include: Convergence in home networks, home service scenarios; Home wired network architectures, CapEx and OpEx; Residential Gateway; Optical fiber types;

  6. Personalized Home-Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José; Gandy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides details of a home-networking architecture based on an enhanced residential gateway. Initially the need for mechanisms allowing user-dependent network behavior is described and afterwards details of an initial implementation are provided in terms of architectural description...

  7. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  8. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  9. Deep Spiking Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, P.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to do backpropagation on a spiking network. Our network is "spiking" in the sense that our neurons accumulate their activation into a potential over time, and only send out a signal (a "spike") when this potential crosses a threshold and the neuron is reset. Neurons only

  10. Information Networks in Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, William L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes current biomedical information networks, focusing on those with an educational function, and elaborates on the problems encountered in planning, implementing, utilizing and evaluating such networks. Journal of Biocommunication, T. Banks, Educ. TV-431N, U. of Calif., San Francisco 94143. Subscription Rates: individuals and libraries,…

  11. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  12. Robustness Envelopes of Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case

  13. Innovation in Virtual Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore and highlight the particular innovation characteristics and modes of the chinese game industry from a networking perspective......The purpose of this article is to explore and highlight the particular innovation characteristics and modes of the chinese game industry from a networking perspective...

  14. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  15. Wireless networks; Traadloese nettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks - WLAN, is being installed in homes, offices, schools and city areas with an increasing speed. Computers communicate with each other through networks by using radio signals. Base stations make sure there is sufficient radio coverage in the current areas. The effects on human and if it is dangerous is discussed

  16. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  17. Wireless Sensor Networks Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on hardware and software configurations for a network architecture for sensors. The hardware configuration uses a central station and remote stations. The software configuration uses the 'lost station' software algorithm. The presentation profiles a couple current examples of this network architecture in use.

  18. Trends in Optical Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integrated TDM/IP Service Network: Built using next-generation SDH · Case 2: ISP Backbone over SONET/SDH · Solution for the PoPs · Solution for the Gateway site · Case 3: Ethernet Leased Line Services over Existing Infrastructure · Transport for Mobile Voice/Data Networks · Functions needed for mapping Ethernet to ...

  19. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  20. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  1. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  2. Categorical Tensor Network States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Biamonte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the use of string diagrams and the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach lead to a unification of several ideas, as well as several results and methods that have not previously appeared in either side of the literature. Our approach enabled the development of a tensor network framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem which has several appealing features. Specifically, given an n-body quantum state |ψ〉, we present a new and general method to factor |ψ〉 into a tensor network of clearly defined building blocks. We use the solution to expose a previously unknown and large class of quantum states which we prove can be sampled efficiently and exactly. This general framework of categorical tensor network states, where a combination of generic and algebraically defined tensors appear, enhances the theory of tensor network states.

  3. Organization Virtual or Networked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked organization” are presented.Originality/Value—distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization” creates possibilities to use all advantages of those types of organizations and gives foundation for deeper researches in this field.Research type: general review.

  4. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  5. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks

  6. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  7. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  8. Semaphore network encryption report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper documents the results of a preliminary assessment performed on the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Semaphore Communications Corporation (SCC) Network Security System (NSS). The Semaphore NSS is a family of products designed to address important network security concerns, such as network source address authentication and data privacy. The assessment was performed in the INFOSEC Core Integration Laboratory, and its scope was product usability focusing on interoperability and system performance in an existing operational network. Included in this paper are preliminary findings. Fundamental features and functionality of the Semaphore NSS are identified, followed by details of the assessment, including test descriptions and results. A summary of test results and future plans are also included. These findings will be useful to those investigating the use of commercially available solutions to network authentication and data privacy.

  9. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  10. Theory of spatial networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1983-01-01

    A new framework of synchronous parallel processing systems called spatial networks is examined, in which the family of all cellular automata is included perfectly. This framework is free from the two restrictions of cellular automata of which one is the finiteness of the set of states of a cell and the other is the countability of an array space. Throughout this article, the relationships between function and structure of spatial networks are considered. First, the necessary and sufficient condition for spatial networks to be uniformly interconnected is given. That for spatial networks to be finitely interconnected is also given with a topological approach. The characterization theorem of cellular automata comes from these results. Second, it is shown that finitely and uniformly interconnected linear spatial networks can be characterized by the convolution form. Last, the conditions for their global mappings to be injective or surjective are discussed. 10 references.

  11. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most important components required for enabling optical networking are investigated through both experiments and modelling. These all-optical components are the wavelength converter, the regenerator and the space switch. When these devices become "off-the-shelf" products, optical cross......, it is expected that the optical solution will offer an economical benefit for hight bit rate networks. This thesis begins with a discussion of the expected impact on communications systems from the rapidly growing IP traffic, which is expected to become the dominant source for traffic. IP traffic has some...... characteristics, which are best supported by an optical network. The interest for such an optical network is exemplified by the formation of the ACTS OPEN project which aim was to investigate the feasibility of an optical network covering Europe. Part of the work presented in this thesis is carried out within...

  12. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...... is established as a flexible means to reduce the optical buffer, e.g., the number of fibre delay lines for a 16x16 switch block is reduced from 23 to 6 by going from 2 to 8 wavelength channels pr. inlet. Additionally, a component count analysis is carried out to illustrate the trade-offs in the switch block...

  13. Brain Network Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther

    Three main topics are presented in this thesis. The first and largest topic concerns network modelling of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI). In particular nonparametric Bayesian methods are used to model brain networks derived from resting state f...... for their ability to reproduce node clustering and predict unseen data. Comparing the models on whole brain networks, BCD and IRM showed better reproducibility and predictability than IDM, suggesting that resting state networks exhibit community structure. This also points to the importance of using models, which...... allow for complex interactions between all pairs of clusters. In addition, it is demonstrated how the IRM can be used for segmenting brain structures into functionally coherent clusters. A new nonparametric Bayesian network model is presented. The model builds upon the IRM and can be used to infer...

  14. Maintenance of family networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    marsico, giuseppina; Chaudhary, N; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Families are social units that expand in time (across generations) and space (as a geographically distributed sub-structures of wider kinship networks). Understanding of intergenerational family relations thus requires conceptualization of communication processes that take place within a small...... collective of persons linked with one another by a flexible social network. Within such networks, Peripheral Communication Patterns set the stage for direct everyday life activities within the family context. Peripheral Communication Patterns are conditions where one family network member (A) communicates...... manifestly with another member (B) with the aim of bringing the communicative message to the third member (C) who is present but is not explicitly designated as the manifest addressee of the intended message. Inclusion of physically non-present members of the family network (elders living elsewhere, deceased...

  15. Online social support networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  16. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  17. Competing edge networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails. -- Highlights: ► A model for edgewise-competing evolving network pairs is introduced. ► Defined competition equations yield to a mean field analysis. ► Multiple equilibrium states and different bifurcation types can occur. ► The system is sensitive to sparse initial conditions and near unstable equilibriums.

  18. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  19. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  20. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  1. Network topology descriptions in hybrid networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosso, P.; Brown, A.; Cedeyn, A.; Dijkstra, F.; van der Ham, J.; Patil, A.; Primet, P.; Swany, M.; Zurawski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The NML-WG goal is to define a schema for describing topologies of hybrid networks. This schema is in first instance intended for: • lightpath provisioning applications to exchange topology information intra and inter domain; • reporting performance metrics. This document constitutes Deliverable 1

  2. Information theoretic description of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy Rdictatorship network. In democracy networks all nodes are, on average, of similar importance, whereas in dictatorship networks some nodes play distinguished roles in network functioning. In other words, democracy networks are characterized by cycling of information (or mass, or energy), while in dictatorship networks there is a straight through-flow from sources to sinks. The classification of directed networks into information spreading and information collecting networks is based on the conditional entropies of the considered networks ( H(A/B)=uncertainty of sender node if receiver node is known, H(B/A)=uncertainty of receiver node if sender node is known): if H(A/B)>H(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  3. Mobility Network and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility network is crucial for ensuring territorial safety with respect to natural and technological hazards. They represent a basic support to community’s everyday life although being exposed elements often characterized by high vulnerability to different hazards and, in the meanwhile, strategic equipments for emergency management. Physical damages or the lack in functioning of those networks may greatly increase the loss of human lives caused by hazardous events as well as produce relevant economic damages at medium and long term. Although the relevance of the mobility networks in assuring territorial safety is at present largely recognized, risk analyses have been long focused on buildings’ vulnerability or, even where they have paid attention to mobility network, they have been mainly focused on the physical damages that a given hazard could may induce on individual elements of such network. It is recent the awareness that mobility network represents a system, characterized by relevant interdependences both among its elements and among network infrastructures and urban systems. Based on these assumptions, this paper points out the heterogeneous aspects of the mobility network vulnerability and their relevance in increasing the overall territorial or urban vulnerability to hazardous events. Therefore, an in-depth investigation of the concept of mobility network vulnerability is provided, in order to highlight the aspects mostly investigated and more recent research perspectives. Finally, a case study in the Campania Region is presented in order to point out how traditional risk analyses, generally referred to individual hazards, can sometimes led to invest in the mobility network improvement or development which, targeted to increase the security of a territory result, on the opposite, in an increase of the territorial vulnerability.

  4. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  5. Network on Target: Remotely Configured Adaptive Tactical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Bourakov, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    The emerging tactical networks represent complex network-centric systems, in which multiple sensors, unmanned vehicles, and geographically distributed units of highly mobile decision makers, transfer...

  6. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  7. Neural Networks: Implementations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, E.; Veelenturf, L.P.J.; Jain, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, also called neural networks, have been used successfully in many fields including engineering, science and business. This paper presents the implementation of several neural network simulators and their applications in character recognition and other engineering areas

  8. Wireless sensor network topology control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, Olexandr; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Sova, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Topology control process for the wireless sensor network is considered. In this article the use of rule base for making decision on the search of optimum network topology is offered for the realization of different aims of network management.

  9. Information networks and worker recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, A.; Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies experimentally how the existence of social information networks affects the ways in which firms recruit new personnel. Through such networks firms learn about prospective employees' performance in previous jobs. Assuming individualistic preferences social networks are predicted

  10. Flow whitelisting in SCADA networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Rafael Ramos Regis; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks are commonly deployed in large industrial facilities. Modern SCADA networks are becoming more vulnerable to cyber attacks due to the common use of standard communications protocols and increased interconnections with corporate networks and

  11. Real-Time Network Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riolo, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... According to our Phase I research, it is possible to collect data on the network and morph it into queuing models to produce information about the network and physical layers of nodes on a network...

  12. 24 CFR 7.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C... Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color...

  13. Ports Primer: 7.1 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  14. D7.1 Quality Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Lee, Deirdre; Maglavera, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable includes a detailed description of the quality assurance process for the EATrain2 project, the initial results of the risk assessment and self-evaluation processes as well as a description of the peer-review process for ensuring qualitative deliverables....

  15. 10 CFR 7.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee is essential to the conduct of NRC business; or (iii) When the information to be obtained is not..., guidelines, or rules affecting NRC business; (ii) The information to be obtained is available through another... periodically invite feedback from the public regarding the effectiveness of NRC advisory committees. [54 FR...

  16. Soil Mechanics. Design Manual 7.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    cementation, or precipitates in fissures or open-. ings. (e) General Field Behavior. 1) Clays. Clays exhibit a high degree of dry strength in 7 K a small cube...refraction, resistivity and gravimetry are often found to be valuable supplements. c. Coral’and Coral Formation. (1) Origin. Living coral and coralline...pore water may change if water is added, diluting the salt concentration, or if water is removed, concentrating or precipitating the salt. Organic

  17. L-2-6-7~1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract A request for elective surgery for aUgInentation mammoplasty (AM) is .... item explored on a given topic; total percentages are thus greater or less than ..... This lends further credence to the thesis that those patients who can benefit ...

  18. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  19. Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David

    2011-01-01

    Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.

  20. Collective Classification in Network Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Prithviraj; Namata, Galileo; Bilgic, Mustafa; Getoor, Lise; University of Maryland; Galligher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world applications produce networked data such as the world-wide web (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks), social networks (for example, people connected by friendship links), communication networks (computers connected via communication links) and biological networks (for example, protein interaction networks). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification techniques to classify nodes in such networks. In this a...

  1. Network coding at different layers in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how to apply network coding at different layers in wireless networks – including MAC, routing, and TCP – with special focus on cognitive radio networks. It discusses how to select parameters in network coding (e.g., coding field, number of packets involved, and redundant information ration) in order to be suitable for the varying wireless environments. The book explores how to deploy network coding in MAC to improve network performance and examines joint network coding with opportunistic routing to improve the successful rate of routing. In regards to TCP and network coding, the text considers transport layer protocol working with network coding to overcome the transmission error rate, particularly with how to use the ACK feedback of TCP to enhance the efficiency of network coding. The book pertains to researchers and postgraduate students, especially whose interests are in opportunistic routing and TCP in cognitive radio networks.

  2. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking

  3. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  4. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  5. Wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed.

  6. Launch Control Network Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  7. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  8. Parallel consensual neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benediktsson, J A; Sveinsson, J R; Ersoy, O K; Swain, P H

    1997-01-01

    A new type of a neural-network architecture, the parallel consensual neural network (PCNN), is introduced and applied in classification/data fusion of multisource remote sensing and geographic data. The PCNN architecture is based on statistical consensus theory and involves using stage neural networks with transformed input data. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are used as if they were independent inputs. The independent inputs are first classified using the stage neural networks. The output responses from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a consensual decision. In this paper, optimization methods are used in order to weight the outputs from the stage networks. Two approaches are proposed to compute the data transforms for the PCNN, one for binary data and another for analog data. The analog approach uses wavelet packets. The experimental results obtained with the proposed approach show that the PCNN outperforms both a conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network and conventional statistical methods in terms of overall classification accuracy of test data.

  9. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  10. Markets on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroczkai, Zoltan; Anghel, Marian; Bassler, Kevin; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2003-03-01

    The dynamics of human, and most biological populations is characterized by competition for resources. By its own nature, this dynamics creates the group of "elites", formed by those agents who have strategies that are the most successful in the given situation, and therefore the rest of the agents will tend to follow, imitate, or interact with them, creating a social structure of leadership in the agent society. These inter-agent communications generate a complex social network with small-world character which itself forms the substrate for a second network, the action network. The latter is a highly dynamic, adaptive, directed network, defined by those inter-agent communication links on the substrate along which the passed information /prediction is acted upon by the other agents. By using the minority game for competition dynamics, here we show that when the substrate network is highly connected, the action network spontaneously develops hubs with a broad distribution of out-degrees, defining a robust leadership structure that is scale-free. Furthermore, in certain, realistic parameter ranges, facilitated by information passing on the action network, agents can spontaneously generate a high degree of cooperation making the collective almost maximally efficient.

  11. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  12. Optimal Network-Topology Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Victor O. K.; Yuen, Joseph H.; Hou, Ting-Chao; Lam, Yuen Fung

    1987-01-01

    Candidate network designs tested for acceptability and cost. Optimal Network Topology Design computer program developed as part of study on topology design and analysis of performance of Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. Uses efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs consisting of subsets of set of all network components, in increasing order of total costs and checks each design to see whether it forms acceptable network. Technique gives true cost-optimal network and particularly useful when network has many constraints and not too many components. Program written in PASCAL.

  13. Temporal Databases in Network Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ajay

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis discusses issues involved with performing network management, specifically with means of reducing and storing the large quantity of data that networks management tools and systems generate...

  14. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  15. Revisiting Network Organization in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    of networks in a network organization, which are internal market, IT networks, informal and social networks, global R&D project networks, global R&D specialists’ network, and alliances with external partners. Though the case TNCs are network-based, hierarchies remain to be an important part...... of the organizational designs, which we refer to duality of organization. In terms of duality of organization, there are three emerging patterns of duality, i.e. market-led, value-led and directed network organization. More important, we find that an organization is not only dual but also ternary since...

  16. Change Detection in Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloh, Ian; Webb, Matthew; Graham, John; Carley, Kathleen; Horn, Daniel B

    2008-01-01

    .... This project proposes a new method for detecting change in social networks over time, by applying a cumulative sum statistical process control statistic to normally distributed network measures...

  17. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    .... The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains...

  18. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  19. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  20. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  1. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...... the SID model’s behavior and impact on the network performance, as well as the severity of the infection spreading. The simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler. The model provides an important input to epidemic connection recovery mechanisms, and can due to its flexibility and versatility be used...... to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types....

  2. Data Exchange Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau Larsen, Anton; Ellersgaard, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the extensive Danish elite network. Collected during 2012 and 2013, the data comprises 56,536 positions within 5,079 affiliations, and connects 37,750 individuals. The network consists of the largest Danish corporations, state institutions, NGO’s, and other integrative...... networks such as social clubs or royal events. Data were gathered through an inclusion principle, adding all potentially interesting affiliations. Procedures of name-matching and quality control are presented. Finally, the data are introduced: made available through a package for R, which enables...

  3. The EH network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santolini, E; Salcini, A E; Kay, B K

    1999-01-01

    . Moreover, a number of cellular ligands of the domain have been identified and demonstrated to define a complex network of protein-protein interactions in the eukaryotic cell. Interestingly, many of the EH-containing and EH-binding proteins display characteristics of endocytic "accessory" proteins......, suggesting that the principal function of the EH network is to regulate various steps in endocytosis. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the EH network might work as an "integrator" of signals controlling cellular pathways as diverse as endocytosis, nucleocytosolic export, and ultimately cell...

  4. The Space Mobile Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  5. Social Networks and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe.

  6. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  7. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  8. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  9. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  10. Network Intrusion Dataset Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Natural Computing, volume 2, pages 413–416, June 2009. • Rung Ching Chen, Kai -Fan Cheng, and...Chia-Fen Hsieh . “Using rough set and support vector machine for network intrusion detection.” International Journal of Network Security & Its...intrusion detection using FP tree rules.” Journal Of Advanced Networking and Applications, 1(1):30–39, 2009. • Ming-Yang Su, Gwo-Jong Yu , and Chun-Yuen

  11. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  12. Broadband network selection issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  13. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  14. Holographic spin networks from tensor network states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; McMahon, Nathan A.; Brennen, Gavin K.

    2018-01-01

    In the holographic correspondence of quantum gravity, a global on-site symmetry at the boundary generally translates to a local gauge symmetry in the bulk. We describe one way how the global boundary on-site symmetries can be gauged within the formalism of the multiscale renormalization ansatz (MERA), in light of the ongoing discussion between tensor networks and holography. We describe how to "lift" the MERA representation of the ground state of a generic one dimensional (1D) local Hamiltonian, which has a global on-site symmetry, to a dual quantum state of a 2D "bulk" lattice on which the symmetry appears gauged. The 2D bulk state decomposes in terms of spin network states, which label a basis in the gauge-invariant sector of the bulk lattice. This decomposition is instrumental to obtain expectation values of gauge-invariant observables in the bulk, and also reveals that the bulk state is generally entangled between the gauge and the remaining ("gravitational") bulk degrees of freedom that are not fixed by the symmetry. We present numerical results for ground states of several 1D critical spin chains to illustrate that the bulk entanglement potentially depends on the central charge of the underlying conformal field theory. We also discuss the possibility of emergent topological order in the bulk using a simple example, and also of emergent symmetries in the nongauge (gravitational) sector in the bulk. More broadly, our holographic model translates the MERA, a tensor network state, to a superposition of spin network states, as they appear in lattice gauge theories in one higher dimension.

  15. Inferring general relations between network characteristics from specific network ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Pernice, Volker; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Different network models have been suggested for the topology underlying complex interactions in natural systems. These models are aimed at replicating specific statistical features encountered in real-world networks. However, it is rarely considered to which degree the results obtained for one particular network class can be extrapolated to real-world networks. We address this issue by comparing different classical and more recently developed network models with respect to their ability to generate networks with large structural variability. In particular, we consider the statistical constraints which the respective construction scheme imposes on the generated networks. After having identified the most variable networks, we address the issue of which constraints are common to all network classes and are thus suitable candidates for being generic statistical laws of complex networks. In fact, we find that generic, not model-related dependencies between different network characteristics do exist. This makes it possible to infer global features from local ones using regression models trained on networks with high generalization power. Our results confirm and extend previous findings regarding the synchronization properties of neural networks. Our method seems especially relevant for large networks, which are difficult to map completely, like the neural networks in the brain. The structure of such large networks cannot be fully sampled with the present technology. Our approach provides a method to estimate global properties of under-sampled networks in good approximation. Finally, we demonstrate on three different data sets (C. elegans neuronal network, R. prowazekii metabolic network, and a network of synonyms extracted from Roget's Thesaurus) that real-world networks have statistical relations compatible with those obtained using regression models.

  16. Network Restoration for Next-Generation Communication and Computing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Awoyemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Network failures are undesirable but inevitable occurrences for most modern communication and computing networks. A good network design must be robust enough to handle sudden failures, maintain traffic flow, and restore failed parts of the network within a permissible time frame, at the lowest cost achievable and with as little extra complexity in the network as possible. Emerging next-generation (xG communication and computing networks such as fifth-generation networks, software-defined networks, and internet-of-things networks have promises of fast speeds, impressive data rates, and remarkable reliability. To achieve these promises, these complex and dynamic xG networks must be built with low failure possibilities, high network restoration capacity, and quick failure recovery capabilities. Hence, improved network restoration models have to be developed and incorporated in their design. In this paper, a comprehensive study on network restoration mechanisms that are being developed for addressing network failures in current and emerging xG networks is carried out. Open-ended problems are identified, while invaluable ideas for better adaptation of network restoration to evolving xG communication and computing paradigms are discussed.

  17. Maximum entropy networks are more controllable than preferential attachment networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Lvlin; Small, Michael; Lao, Songyang

    2014-01-01

    A maximum entropy (ME) method to generate typical scale-free networks has been recently introduced. We investigate the controllability of ME networks and Barabási–Albert preferential attachment networks. Our experimental results show that ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same size and the same degree distribution. Moreover, the control profiles are used to provide insight into control properties of both classes of network. We identify and classify the driver nodes and analyze the connectivity of their neighbors. We find that driver nodes in ME networks have fewer mutual neighbors and that their neighbors have lower average degree. We conclude that the properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. Hence, subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks of the same degree distribution. - Highlights: • The controllability of maximum entropy (ME) and Barabási–Albert (BA) networks is investigated. • ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same degree distribution. • The properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. • Subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks

  18. Emergence of robustness in networks of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kevin; Morone, Flaviano; Min, Byungjoon; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-06-01

    A model of interdependent networks of networks (NONs) was introduced recently [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 114, 3849 (2017), 10.1073/pnas.1620808114] in the context of brain activation to identify the neural collective influencers in the brain NON. Here we investigate the emergence of robustness in such a model, and we develop an approach to derive an exact expression for the random percolation transition in Erdös-Rényi NONs of this kind. Analytical calculations are in agreement with numerical simulations, and highlight the robustness of the NON against random node failures, which thus presents a new robust universality class of NONs. The key aspect of this robust NON model is that a node can be activated even if it does not belong to the giant mutually connected component, thus allowing the NON to be built from below the percolation threshold, which is not possible in previous models of interdependent networks. Interestingly, the phase diagram of the model unveils particular patterns of interconnectivity for which the NON is most vulnerable, thereby marking the boundary above which the robustness of the system improves with increasing dependency connections.

  19. Job Accommodation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TTY) Email JAN Subscribe to Newsletters Share Through Social Networks Newsletter Live Help Link to Us Toolkit Webcasts FOR EMPLOYERS Private Employers Federal Employers State & Local Government FOR INDIVIDUALS Employees Job Seekers Entrepreneurs FOR OTHERS ...

  20. Managing collaborative innovation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vidar; Agger, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative innovation networks are increasingly used as vehicles for fostering innovative policy solutions. However, scholars have noted that the extent to which collaborative networks can actually contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions depends on how they are managed...... a Flemish administrative network to develop a radical new Spatial Planning Policy Plan. This study shows that the best way to manage collaborative innovation networks is not to press directly for results, but take the time to invest in relationship-building and together agree on a planning and clear process...... steps. Such a management approach allows actors to get to know each other and from thereon expand, with more background and appreciation for the others’ goals, behaviors, and intentions, their group activities concerning the formulation of a radical and innovative policy plan....

  1. The NEPTUNE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Degre, T.

    The main aim for NEPTUNE is the establishing of an "open" European network of universities and research institutes engaged in research, training and education for waterborne (maritime and inland navigation) transport. This network should constitute an European knowledge base to support....... For the support to the objectives of NEPTUNE the association is developing the NEPTUNE Information Network. A pilot demonstration on the basis of the world wide web technique on Internet has been established. Two NEPTUNE server, on the premises of ISL in Bremen and NTUA in Athens, can be adressed via the URL......=http://www.isl.uni-bremen.de/NEPTUNE/ and URL=http://www.maritime.deslab.naval.ntua.gr/neptune/framelayout.html The pilot will be enlarged concerning the number of NEPTUNE servers as well as regarding the scope of information provided by the various servers. The implementation and operating of such an European Waterborne Information Network...

  2. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  3. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  4. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  5. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  6. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input......Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  7. Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Trier, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise Social Networks (ESNs), d. h. Informationssysteme, die die Vernetzung von Mitarbeitern in Unternehmen fördern sollen, sind in verschiedenen Varianten und unter verschiedenen Bezeichnungen (etwa Enterprise Social Media, Corporate Social Software, Social Business oder Enterprise 2...

  8. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  9. Urban networks of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, D; Kaufmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for urban utility grids are subject to a considerable change. The diversification of the energy supply and the changing feed-in structure (central -> decentral) also influence the operation of the existing networks considerably. Therefore, the focus of future studies will be on the flexibility of energy supply and the energy-carrier-wide network analysis or planning. These aspects are addressed, among other things, within the URBEM project, with a focus on a holistic, interdisciplinary approach. On the basis of separately performed thermal and electrical network calculations an optimization task is defined (for example, minimization of operating resources, minimization of CO2 emissions) and solved under technical conditions. The scenarios for the period 2030 and 2050 developed in the URBEM project serve as the basis for the optimization. The results of the calculations show current utilization or bottlenecks in the supply networks as well as optimum future supply structures for development areas in urban areas. (rössner) [de

  10. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  11. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  12. Network Security Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The application of interactive, three-dimensional viewing techniques to the representation of security-related, computer network status and events is expected to improve the timeliness and efficiency...

  13. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    . This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions

  14. Stochastic network calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yuming

    2009-01-01

    This book is devoted to a comprehensive treatment of this important field, a grand challenge for future networking research. It covers results from the authors as well as other researchers. Topics covered include Independent Case Analysis and its applications.

  15. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... December 8, 2017 11.08.2017 The Lymphatic Education & Research Network… Read More > ASRM LE&RN Combined ...

  16. Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-06-01

    Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.

  17. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.......9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input...

  18. Learning Python network programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sarker, M O Faruque

    2015-01-01

    If you're a Python developer or a system administrator with Python experience and you're looking to take your first steps in network programming, then this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Python is assumed.

  19. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  20. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  1. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  2. Networks / Tiia Johannson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannson, Tiia, 1965-2002

    2002-01-01

    11.-25. IV Kanadas Newfoundlandi saare pealinnas St. Johnis toimunud meediakunstifestivalist "Networks" alapealkirjaga "A Placeless Space". Kuraator Andrea Cooper. Pikemalt Liz Pickardi installatsioonist "Museum of the Mind". Virtuaalse ruumina kasutati virtuaalmaailma "OnLive Traveller"

  3. Network-Oblivious Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilardi, Gianfranco; Pietracaprina, Andrea; Pucci, Geppino

    2016-01-01

    A framework is proposed for the design and analysis of network-oblivious algorithms, namely algorithms that can run unchanged, yet efficiently, on a variety of machines characterized by different degrees of parallelism and communication capabilities. The framework prescribes that a network......-oblivious algorithm be specified on a parallel model of computation where the only parameter is the problem’s input size, and then evaluated on a model with two parameters, capturing parallelism granularity and communication latency. It is shown that for a wide class of network-oblivious algorithms, optimality...... of cache hierarchies, to the realm of parallel computation. Its effectiveness is illustrated by providing optimal network-oblivious algorithms for a number of key problems. Some limitations of the oblivious approach are also discussed....

  4. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  5. NIDDK Information Network (DKnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Information Network serves the needs of basic and clinical investigators by providing seamless access to large pools of data relevant to the mission of...

  6. The Colombia Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  7. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: anintegrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Isaak, Dan J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordon, Chris E.; McNyset, Kristina; Monestiez, Pascal; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Sengupta, Aritra; Som, Nicholas; Steel, E. Ashley; Theobald, David M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Wenger, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of ecological networks, or in 2-D space, may be inadequate for studying the influence of structure and connectivity on ecological processes within DENs. We propose a conceptual taxonomy of network analysis methods that account for DEN characteristics to varying degrees and provide a synthesis of the different approaches within

  8. Network Performance Improvement under Epidemic Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate epidemic failure spreading in large- scale GMPLS-controlled transport networks. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network, we design several strategies for cost-effective network performance improvement via differentiated repair times....... First we identify the most vulnerable and the most strategic nodes in the network. Then, via extensive simulations we show that strategic placement of resources for improved failure recovery has better performance than randomly assigning lower repair times among the network nodes. Our OPNET simulation...... model can be used during the network planning process for facilitating cost- effective network survivability design....

  9. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    leak paths”) and determine if firewalls and router access control lists are violating network policy. Visualization tools are provided to help analysts...with which a supply agent may not be familiar. In this environment, errors in requisition are easy to make, and they are costly : an incomplete cyber...establishing an email network and recommend a firewall and additional laptops. YMAL would also match mission details like the deployment location with

  10. Network Security Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    3.2.15.3 ISDN Services over the Telephone Network 3 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services are subject to the same restrictions as router...to be audited: [SYS$SYSTEM]SYS.EXE, LOGINOUT.EXE, STARTUP.COM, RIGHTSLIST.DAT [SYS$ LIBARY ] I SECURESHR.EXE [SYS$ROOT] SYSEXE.DIR, SYSLIB.DIR...quantification) of the encoded value; ASCII is normally used for asynchronous transmission. compare with digital . ASYNCHRONOUS-Data transmission that is

  11. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  12. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  13. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  14. Joint Hub Network Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once. Rather, the partners will have a more cautious attitude and build the hub facilities one-by-one. In the proposed framework, every time a new hub is introduced, partners will have the opportunity to dec...

  15. Software defined access networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maricato, José Miguel Duarte

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of internet usage and the exponential growth of bandwidth consumption due to the increasing number of users of new generation equipments and the creation of new services that consume increasingly higher bandwidths, it's necessary to nd solutions to meet these new requirements. Passive optical networks (PONs) promise to solve these problems by providing a better service to users and providers. PON networks are very attractive since they don't depend on a...

  16. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  17. Network Function Virtualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aakarshan Singh; Kamal Grover; Palak Bansal; Taranveer Singh Seekhon

    2017-01-01

    This paper is written to give basic knowledge of Network function virtualisation in network system. In this paper the work on NFV done till now has been collaborated. It describes how the challenges faced by industry lead to NFV and what is meaning of NFV and NFV architecture model. It also explains NFV Infrastructure is managed and the forwarding path on which packets traverse in NFV. A relationship of NFV with SDN and current research ongoing on NFV policies is discussed.

  18. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  19. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  20. Inter-organizational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge. These...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....