WorldWideScience

Sample records for networking existing pc-based

  1. Incorporating existing network information into gene network inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One methodology that has met success to infer gene networks from gene expression data is based upon ordinary differential equations (ODE. However new types of data continue to be produced, so it is worthwhile to investigate how to integrate these new data types into the inference procedure. One such data is physical interactions between transcription factors and the genes they regulate as measured by ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq experiments. These interactions can be incorporated into the gene network inference procedure as a priori network information. In this article, we extend the ODE methodology into a general optimization framework that incorporates existing network information in combination with regularization parameters that encourage network sparsity. We provide theoretical results proving convergence of the estimator for our method and show the corresponding probabilistic interpretation also converges. We demonstrate our method on simulated network data and show that existing network information improves performance, overcomes the lack of observations, and performs well even when some of the existing network information is incorrect. We further apply our method to the core regulatory network of embryonic stem cells utilizing predicted interactions from two studies as existing network information. We show that including the prior network information constructs a more closely representative regulatory network versus when no information is provided.

  2. PC-based tele-audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Haet Bit; Park, Cheol Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-10-01

    A personal computer (PC)-based audiometer was developed for interactive remote audiometry. This paper describes a tele-audiometric system and evaluates the performance of the device when compared with conventional face-to-face audiometry. The tele-audiometric system is fully PC-based. A sound card featuring a high-quality digital-to-analog converter is used as a pure-tone generator. The audiometric programs were developed based on Microsoft Windows in order to maximize usability. Audiologists and their subjects can use the tele-audiometry system as one would utilize any PC application. A calibration procedure has been applied for the standardization of sound levels in the remote system. The performance of this system was evaluated by comparing PC-based audiometry with the conventional clinical audiometry system for 37 subjects. Also, performance of the PC-based system was evaluated during use at a remote site. The PC-based audiometry system estimated the audiometric threshold with an error of less than 2.3 dBSPL. Only 10.7% of the results exhibited an error greater than 5 dBSPL during use at a remote site. The PC-based tele-audiomerty showed acceptable results for use at a remote site. This PC-based system can be used effectively and easily in many locations that have Internet access but no local audiologists.

  3. Reengineering a PC-based System into the Mobile Device Product Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stanislaw; Loughran, Neil

    2003-01-01

    devices must also perform well using less memory than PC-based systems. Mobile devices themselves are different from each other in many ways, too. We describe how we made an existing PC-based City Guide System available on a wide range of mobile devices, in a cost-effective way. We applied "reengineering...

  4. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  5. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  6. A PC based seismic data transcription system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Yong; Chung, Bu Heung; Jang, Seong Hyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Old seismic data recorded on magnetic tapes is often difficult to read because of the tape sticking problem known as the `sticky syndrome`. It has to be transcribed to other suitable media using dedicated multiple systems during the whole project years. The first system requirement is the capability of reading gapless magnetic tape, which is peculiar to the old seismic data tapes. The second requirement would be the availability of storage devices with compact and huge capacity. The system must be cheap enough compared to the total cost of the data being transcribed. We introduce a PC based seismic data transcribing system. The system is equipped with an tape drive which can handle 800, 1600, 3200, and 6250 BPI densities. Well known storage devices such as 8mm Exabyte, 4mm DDS-2, and the SCSI CD recorder, are selected for the output devices. These output media should provide more durability, compactness, and portability than the original. Linux is chosen for the operating system. Unfortunately, the Linux, like other Unix systems, is subject to the limit in maximum i/o block size. The maximum block size of the SCSI tape driver is fixed to 32 KB, which is far less than the requirements in SEG-A, B, and C seismic tapes. A kernel patch is written to extend such a limit up to 2048 KB. Input and output programs are written to handle the tape data in variable block mode. A unique disk file format is designed to preserve the IBG(inter-block gap) within the disk copy. A utility program is also provided to manipulate the disk copy and to convert to SU(Seismic Unix) compatible SEG-Y file. Of the total two months of the transcription period, we spend most of the time in reading the sticky magnetic tapes. The seismic tapes had to be `baked` to dry out the moisture before reading. It took nine days to burn the all 85 diskettes. Writing two sets of 8mm Exabytes took only one day. It is considered that 8mm Exabyte can be the optimum output media for the main seismic data storage

  7. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  8. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  9. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  10. Comparison between a newly developed PC-based Doppler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the accuracy of the resistance index (RI) of flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery measured using a newly developed PC-based continuous wave Doppler device (Umbiflow) with regard to systematic and random variations when compared with a commercial standard (Vasoflow). Design.

  11. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  12. Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based Data Logger. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... PC (Personal Computer) based instrumentation is getting more attention because of three technological enhancements; increasing reliability of PCs, steadily decreasing cost of hard drive space ...

  13. From a UNIX to a PC Based SCADA System

    CERN Document Server

    Momal, F

    1999-01-01

    In order to facilitate the development of supervisory applications involved in slow process control (such as cryogenic control), the LHC/IAS Group (Equipment Controls Group) opted, a few years ago, for an industrial SCADA package which runs on UNIXÒ platforms. However, to reduce costs and following market trends, it has been decided to move over to a PC-based package. Several processes relating to the testing of the prototypes of the LHC magnets are already controlled in this way. However, it was still necessary to provide all the services previously available to the users, for example, data archiving in central databases, real-time access through the Web, automatic GSM calls, etc. This paper presents the advantages and drawbacks of a PC-based package versus a Unix-based system. It also lists the criteria used in the market survey to arrive at the final selection, as well as, the overall architecture, highlighting the developments needed to integrate the package into the global computing environment.

  14. Structural Analysis of Existing Road Networks of Cooch Behar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road has been described as the life-blood of human civilisation. Social interaction and economic prosperity in space have been shaped by the road networks both at intra and inter regional levels. Consequently, it is regarded as one of the most important indices of economic, social and commercial progress of any region.

  15. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  16. Sufficient Condition for the Existence of the Compact Set in the RBF Neural Network Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaming; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Tianping; Yang, Yuequan; Yi, Yang

    2017-06-20

    In this brief, sufficient conditions are proposed for the existence of the compact sets in the neural network controls. First, we point out that the existence of the compact set in a classical neural network control scheme is unsolved and its result is incomplete. Next, as a simple case, we derive the sufficient condition of the existence of the compact set for the neural network control of first-order systems. Finally, we propose the sufficient condition of the existence of the compact set for the neural-network-based backstepping control of high-order nonlinear systems. The theoretic result is illustrated through a simulation example.

  17. Image Registration Algorithm For A PC-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Brian S.; Mitra, Sunanda; Krile, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    Image registration algorithms are essential for subtractive analysis of sequential images. Discrepancies in lighting, image orientation, and scale must be minimized before effective subtraction of two images can occur. We have successfully implemented computationally intensive algorithms for registration, which include illuminance normalization and magnification correction, in a PC-based image processing system. A homomorphic filter in the spatial domain is used to reduce the illumination variations in the images. A modified sequential similarity detection technique is used to derive the minimum error factor associated with each combination of translation, magnification, and rotation variations. Each variation of the test image is masked with one of three masks, and the squares of the pixel intensity differences are summed for every test image. An adaptive threshold is used to decrease the time required for a misfit by aborting the test image under consideration when its summation exceeds the value of the previous best fit summation. After the best fit parameters are obtained, they are used to register the images so that the images can be subtracted. The difference image is subjected to further image enhancement operations. The execution time of the image registration algorithm has been reduced through use of a hybrid program written in C and Assembly languages. Applications of the registration algorithms in analysis of fundus images will be presented.

  18. On the existence of efficient solutions to vector optimization problem of traffic flow on network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bozhanova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied traffic flow models in vector-valued optimization statement where the flow is controlled at the nodes of network. We considered the case when an objective mapping possesses a weakened property of upper semicontinuity and made no assumptions on the interior of the ordering cone. The sufficient conditions for the existence of efficient controls of the traffic problems are derived. The existence of efficient solutions of vector optimization problem for traffic flow on network are also proved.

  19. On the existence of efficient solutions to vector optimization problem of traffic flow on network

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Bozhanova

    2009-01-01

    We studied traffic flow models in vector-valued optimization statement where the flow is controlled at the nodes of network. We considered the case when an objective mapping possesses a weakened property of upper semicontinuity and made no assumptions on the interior of the ordering cone. The sufficient conditions for the existence of efficient controls of the traffic problems are derived. The existence of efficient solutions of vector optimization problem for traffic flow on network are also...

  20. Towards 'ecological coherence': Assessing larval dispersal within a network of existing Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rebecca E.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Howell, Kerry L.

    2017-08-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity mandates the establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks worldwide, with recommendations stating the importance of 'ecological coherence,' a responsibility to support and perpetuate the existing ecosystem, implying the need to sustain population connectivity. While recommendations exist for integrating connectivity data into MPA planning, little advice exists on how to assess the connectivity of existing networks. This study makes use of recently observed larval characteristics and freely available models to demonstrate how such an assessment could be undertaken. The cold water coral (CWC) Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) is used as a model species, as much of the NE Atlantic MPA network has been designated for CWC reef protection, but the ecological coherence of the network has yet to be assessed. Simulations are run for different behavioural null models allowing a comparison of 'passive' (current driven) and 'active' (currents + vertical migration) dispersal, while an average prediction is used for MPA assessment. This model suggests that the network may support widespread larval exchange and has good local retention rates but still has room for improvement. The best performing MPAs were large and central to the network facilitating transport across local dispersal barriers. On average, passive and active dispersal simulations gave statistically similar results, providing encouragement to future local dispersal assessments where active characteristics are unknown.

  1. DIOPS: A PC-Based Wave, Tide and Surf Prediction System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard; Dykes, James; Kaihatu, James; Wakeham, Dean

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Integrated Ocean Prediciton System (DIOPS) is a PC-based wave tide and surf prediction system designed to provide DoD accurate and timely surf predictions for essentially any world-wide location...

  2. Proposal to extend the existing contract for maintenance and upgrade of the telephone branch exchange network

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to extend the existing contract for maintenance and upgrade of the telephone branch exchange network. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an increase of 1 700 000 Swiss francs in the authorised amount of an existing maintenance contract, including the upgrade of equipment, with the company NEXTIRAONE (CH), over a period of three years for the telephone branch exchange network, bringing the total authorised amount from 5 320 450 Swiss francs to 7 020 450 Swiss francs.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS: CHALLENGES AND EXISTING SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakshmana Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Spectrum Allocation using Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising solution to the spectrum availability problem in wireless networks. Cognitive Radio, however, opens up certain new issues, mainly at the physical, medium access control and routing layer levels. Several solutions have been proposed to tackle these issues and use dynamic spectrum allocation to improve the performance of wireless networks. The focus of most of these has been to improve the throughput and other Quality of Service (QoS metrics. However, energy spent by a node is also an important matter of concern in most wireless networks e.g. wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we focus on the challenges posed by CR in routing data in an energy efficient manner. We then study some existing solutions to route data energy efficiently in CR networks and suggest some directions for future research.

  4. Realistic Energy Saving Potential of Sleep Mode for Existing and Future Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Saker, Louai; Elayoubi, Salah Eddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive overview on an energy saving feature referred to as ‘site sleep mode’, designed for existing and future mobile broadband networks. In addition to providing a detailed understanding of the main concept, the paper also provides various studies and results to highlight...... potential savings, and emphasize some of the expected limitations. Since site measurements show that the energy consumption of base station sites is largely load-independent, this makes such a feature highly effective for reducing the energy consumption of mobile networks during hours of low traffic. After...... going through a number of different alternatives of the feature, this is applied to different network topologies, macro-only based networks, and a set of heterogeneous networks that employ the use of small cells in traffic hotspots. Results obtained through detailed case studies show that sleep mode can...

  5. On the existence of a generalized non-specific task-dependent network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eHugdahl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest the existence of a generalized task-related cortical network that is up-regulated whenever the task to be performed requires the allocation of generalized non-specific cognitive resources, independent of the specifics of the task to be performed. We have labelled this general purpose network, the extrinsic mode network (EMN as complementary to the default mode network (DMN, such that the EMN is down-regulated during periods of task-absence, when the DMN is up-regulated, and vice versa. We conceptualize the EMN as a cortical network for extrinsic neuronal activity, similar to the DMN as being a cortical network for intrinsic neuronal activity. The EMN has essentially a fronto-temporo-parietal spatial distribution, including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, inferior temporal gyrus, We further hypothesize that this network is always active regardless of the cognitive task being performed. We suggest that failure of network up- and down-regulation dynamics may provide neuronal underpinnings for cognitive impairments seen in many mental disorders, such as e.g. schizophrenia. We start by describing a common observation in functional imaging, the close overlap in fronto-parietal activations in healthy individuals to tasks that denote very different cognitive processes. We now suggest that this is because the brain utilizes the EMN network as a generalized response to tasks that exceeds a cognitive demand threshold and/or requires the processing of novel information. We further discuss how the EMN is related to the DMN, and how a network for extrinsic activity is related to a network for intrinsic activity. Finally we discuss whether the EMN and DMN networks interact in a common single brain system, rather than being two separate and independent brain systems.

  6. Improving thermal performance of an existing UK district heat network: a case for temperature optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunzi, Michele; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Li, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results of a research study into improving energy performance of small-scale district heat network through water supply and return temperature optimization technique. The case study involves establishing the baseline heat demand of the estate’s buildings, benchmarking...... the existing heat network operating parameters, and defining the optimum supply and return temperature. A stepwise temperature optimization technique of plate radiators heat emitters was applied to control the buildings indoor thermal comfort using night set back temperature strategy of 21/18 °C....... It was established that the heat network return temperature could be lowered from the current measured average of 55 °C to 35.6 °C, resulting in overall reduction of heat distribution losses and fuel consumption of 10% and 9% respectively. Hence, the study demonstrates the potential of operating existing heat...

  7. Feasibility of using existing open access networks to support the harmonization of open access

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Peter; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Price, Lada; Noorman, Merel; Wyatt, Sally; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    In this report we identify and assess different options for bringing together and mobilizing relevant stakeholders in the open access arena. This builds on previous work done in the RECODE project about the open access stakeholder ecosystem, the barriers and the enablers for open access to research data as well as on the RECODE overarching policy recommendations set out in the RECODE work package 5. We have identified a sample of existing networks and organizations to determine whether they a...

  8. A Tablet-PC-Based Cancellation Test Assessing Executive Functions in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.H.; Vidal, J.S.; de Rotrou, J.; Sikkes, S.A.M.; Rigaud, A.S.; Plichart, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine older adults' performance on a newly developed tablet-PC-based cancellation test (e-CT) and to study its psychometric properties. Methods 94 older adults with normal cognitive functioning were recruited. The effects of age, education, sex, and experience with computer-based

  9. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reweti, Savern; Gilbey, Andrew; Jeffrey, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD) was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD). Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD) was…

  10. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: A Survey of Existing Protocols and Open Research Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bhandary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of wireless sensor networks (WSNs and technology, applicability of WSNs as a system is touching new heights. The development of multimedia nodes has led to the creation of another intelligent distributed system, which can transfer real-time multimedia traffic, ubiquitously. Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs are applicable in a wide range of areas including area monitoring and video surveillance. But due to unreliable error-prone communication medium and application specific quality of service (QoS requirements, routing of real-time multimedia traffic in WMSNs poses a serious problem. The paper discusses various existing routing strategies in WMSNs, with their properties and limitations which lead to open research issues. Further, detailed classification and analytical comparison of discussed protocols are also presented.

  11. Function and activity classification in network traffic data: existing methods, their weaknesses, and a path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy

    2016-05-01

    The cyber spaces are increasingly becoming the battlefields between friendly and adversary forces, with normal users caught in the middle. Accordingly, planners of enterprise defensive policies and offensive cyber missions alike have an essential goal to minimize the impact of their own actions and adversaries' attacks on normal operations of the commercial and government networks. To do this, the cyber analysis need accurate "cyber battle maps", where the functions, roles, and activities of individual and groups of devices and users are accurately identified. Most of the research in cyber exploitation has focused on the identification of attacks, attackers, and their devices. Many tools exist for device profiling, malware identification, user attribution, and attack analysis. However, most of the tools are intrusive, sensitive to data obfuscation, or provide anomaly flagging and not able to correctly classify the semantics and causes of network activities. In this paper, we review existing solutions that can identify functional and social roles of entities in cyberspace, discuss their weaknesses, and propose an approach for developing functional and social layers of cyber battle maps.

  12. The use of PC based VR in clinical medicine: the VREPAR projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, G; Bacchetta, M; Baruffi, M; Borgomainerio, E; Defrance, C; Gatti, F; Galimberti, C; Fontaneto, S; Marchi, S; Molinari, E; Nugues, P; Rinaldi, S; Rovetta, A; Ferretti, G S; Tonci, A; Wann, J; Vincelli, F

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology that alters the way individuals interact with computers: a 3D computer-generated environment in which a person can move about and interact as if he actually was inside it. Given to the high computational power required to create virtual environments, these are usually developed on expensive high-end workstations. However, the significant advances in PC hardware that have been made over the last three years, are making PC-based VR a possible solution for clinical assessment and therapy. VREPAR - Virtual Reality Environments for Psychoneurophysiological Assessment and Rehabilitation - are two European Community funded projects (Telematics for health - HC 1053/HC 1055 - http://www.psicologia.net) that are trying to develop a modular PC-based virtual reality system for the medical market. The paper describes the rationale of the developed modules and the preliminary results obtained.

  13. LITERATURE SURVEY ON EXISTING POWER SAVING ROUTING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING NETWORK LIFE TIME IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mariyappan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a special type of wireless network in which a collection of wireless mobile devices (called also nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the need of any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Currently, Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs play a significant role in university campus, advertisement, emergency response, disaster recovery, military use in battle fields, disaster management scenarios, in sensor network, and so on. However, wireless network devices, especially in ad hoc networks, are typically battery-powered. Thus, energy efficiency is a critical issue for battery-powered mobile devices in ad hoc networks. This is due to the fact that failure of node or link allows re-routing and establishing a new path from source to destination which creates extra energy consumption of nodes and sparse network connectivity, leading to a more likelihood occurrences of network partition. Routing based on energy related parameters is one of the important solutions to extend the lifetime of the node and reduce energy consumption of the network. In this paper detail literature survey on existing energy efficient routing method are studied and compared for their performance under different condition. The result has shown that both the broadcast schemes and energy aware metrics have great potential in overcoming the broadcast storm problem associated with flooding. However, the performances of these approaches rely on either the appropriate selection of the broadcast decision parameter or an energy efficient path. In the earlier proposed broadcast methods, the forwarding probability is selected based on fixed probability or number of neighbors regardless of nodes battery capacity whereas in energy aware schemes energy inefficient node could be part of an established path. Therefore, in an attempt to remedy the paucity of research and to address the gaps identified in this area, a study

  14. Implementing family physician programme in rural Iran: exploring the role of an existing primary health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-10-01

    The primary health care (PHC) network contributed considerably to improving health outcomes in rural Iran. However, the health system suffers from inadequate responses to ever-increasing demands. In 2005, a reform comprised of a family physician (FP) programme and universal health insurance was implemented in all rural areas and cities with a population of <20 000. We explored the role of the pre-existing PHC network on the implementation of FP programme in rural Iran. We conducted a qualitative study involving 71 semi-structured interviews at national, provincial and local levels, and three focus group discussions at local level, plus a purposeful content analysis of documents of various types. We used a mixed inductive/deductive framework approach for data analysis. We identified seven main aspects related to the existing primary health network, which contributed to the implementation of FP programme: 'a respected and functioning PHC network', 'accessibility and geographical coverage', 'efficient hierarchy', 'the only possible host', 'a remedy for chronic challenges in the rural PHC', 'FP as the gatekeeper?' and 'the role of the private sector'. The existence of a functioning PHC was pivotal in driving policy makers' decision to implement FP programme. Implementing a new policy depends on its hosting context. In regards to FP programme and rural insurance in Iran, the existing PHC network proved to be a fundamental asset in facilitating the implementation of FP programme in rural areas.

  15. An overview of existing modeling tools making use of model checking in the analysis of biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Miguel; Góngora, Pedro A; Rosenblueth, David A

    2012-01-01

    Model checking is a well-established technique for automatically verifying complex systems. Recently, model checkers have appeared in computer tools for the analysis of biochemical (and gene regulatory) networks. We survey several such tools to assess the potential of model checking in computational biology. Next, our overview focuses on direct applications of existing model checkers, as well as on algorithms for biochemical network analysis influenced by model checking, such as those using binary decision diagrams (BDDs) or Boolean-satisfiability solvers. We conclude with advantages and drawbacks of model checking for the analysis of biochemical networks.

  16. Explosive synchronization in clustered scale-free networks: Revealing the existence of chimera state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, V.

    2016-02-01

    The collective dynamics of Kuramoto oscillators with a positive correlation between the incoherent and fully coherent domains in clustered scale-free networks is studied. Emergence of chimera states for the onsets of explosive synchronization transition is observed during an intermediate coupling regime when degree-frequency correlation is established for the hubs with the highest degrees. Diagnostic of the abrupt synchronization is revealed by the intrinsic spectral properties of the network graph Laplacian encoded in the heterogeneous phase space manifold, through extensive analytical investigation, presenting realistic MC simulations of nonlocal interactions in discrete time dynamics evolving on the network.

  17. Design of a PC-based multimedia telemedicine system for brain function teleconsultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S K; Kim, S H; Kim, N H; Kang, Y T; Kim, K M; Bae, S H; Vannier, M W

    2001-05-01

    During time-critical brain surgery, the detection of developing cerebral ischemia is particularly important because early therapeutic intervention may reduce the mortality of the patient. The purpose of this system is to provide an efficient means of remote teleconsultation for the early detection of ischemia, particularly when subspecialists are unavailable. The hardware and software design architecture for the multimedia brain function teleconsultation system including the dedicated brain function monitoring system is described. In order to comprehensively support remote teleconsultation, multi-media resources needed for ischemia interpretation were included: EEG signals, CSA, CD-CSA, radiological images, surgical microscope video images and video conferencing. PC-based system integration with standard interfaces and the operability over the Ethernet meet the cost-effectiveness while the modular software was customized with a diverse range of data manipulations and control functions necessary for shared workspace and standard interfaces.

  18. Personal computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processsed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes commputation.

  19. Design, Development and Testing of a PC Based One Axis Sun Tracking System for Maximum Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu AGARWAL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is a clean source of energy and the photo-voltaic (PV solar panel converts the solar radiation into voltage. The PV solar panel produces the maximum power when the incident angle of sunlight is 90°. In the present paper a PC based one axis sun tracking system has been described to keep the PV solar panel perpendicular to the incident sunlight and thus to have maximum solar power utilization. A computer controlled stepper motor has been used in the tracking system to provide motion to the photovoltaic panel. LDR has been used as photo sensor to sense the incident solar radiation. The implementation of the system has been realized by designing optical to electrical signal conversion circuit, analog to digital conversion circuit, motor driving circuit and parallel port interfacing with PC. Experimental results are also included in order to validate the system performance.

  20. PC Based Instrument for the Measurement of Dielectric Constant of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramana C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A PC based instrument for the measurement of dielectric constant in liquids has been developed. It is based on the technique that utilizes frequency measurement for determination of capacitance using the personal computer as a tool. The change in frequency of XR–2206 function generator, when the liquid forms the dielectric medium of the dielectric cell, is measured with a personal computer. The programmable interval timer 8254 available in the DIOT card is used to measure the frequency, which in turn determines the capacitance of the cell and dielectric constant. The necessary software is developed in C language. The instrument system covers a wide range of dielectric constant for various liquids. The system is reasonably successful in measuring dielectric constant with an accuracy of ± 0.5 %. The paper deals with the hardware and software details.

  1. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards a SIM-Less Existence: The Evolution of Smart Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khouri, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that the widespread availability of wireless networks creates a case in which there is no real need for SIM cards. Recent technological developments offer the capability to outperform SIM cards and provide more innovative dimensions to current systems of mobility. In this context of changing realities in the domain of…

  3. Is U.S. climatic diversity well represented within the existing federal protection network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enric Batllori; Carol Miller; Marc-Andre Parisien; Sean A. Parks; Max A. Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Establishing protection networks to ensure that biodiversity and associated ecosystem services persist under changing environments is a major challenge for conservation planning. The potential consequences of altered climates for the structure and function of ecosystems necessitates new and complementary approaches be incorporated into traditional conservation plans....

  4. Polycentric city networks in Central-Eastern Europe: existing concepts and empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramar, H.; Kadi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of polycentricity has gained significance in discussions on spatial development in Europe in recent years. This paper presents new evidence on polycentric city networks in Central-Eastern Europe based on selected results of the ESPON project POLYCE (Metropolisation and Polycentric

  5. Evaluating the Capability of High-Altitude Infrasound Platforms to Cover Gaps in Existing Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at the Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, limiting their utility in acoustic event detection and localization. We describe the deployment of five drifting microphone stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic broad band signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted as well, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) below 2 seconds, but sensor self noise appears to dominate at higher frequencies.

  6. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution for high-order discrete-time BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ancai; Qiu, Jianlong; She, Jinhua

    2014-02-01

    This paper concerns the existence and exponential stability of periodic solution for the high-order discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays. First, we present the criteria for the existence of periodic solution based on the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and the Young's inequality, and then we give the criteria for the global exponential stability of periodic solution by using a non-Lyapunov method. After that, we give a numerical example that demonstrates the effectiveness of the theoretical results. The criteria presented in this paper are easy to verify. In addition, the proposed analysis method is easy to extend to other high-order neural networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the degree of powder homogeneity using PC-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuragić Olivera M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of powders and the quality control of the obtained mixtures are critical operations involved in the processing of granular materials in chemical, metallurgical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Studies on mixing efficiency and the time needed for achieving homogeneity in the powder mashes production have significant importance. Depending on the characteristic of the materials, a number of methods have been used for the homogeneity tests. Very often, the degree of mixing has been determined by analyzing images of particle arrays in the sample using microscopy, photography and/or video tools. In this paper, a new PC-based method for determining the number of particles in the powder homogeneity tests has been developed. Microtracers®, red iron particles, were used as external tracer added before mixing. Iron particles in the samples of the mixtures were separated by rotary magnet and spread onto a filter paper. The filter paper was sprayed with 50% solution of ethanol for color development and the particles counted where the number of spots presented the concentration of added tracer. The number of spots was counted manually, as well as by the developed PC program. The program which analyzes scanned filter papers with spots is based on digital image analyses, where red spots were converted through few filters into a black and white, and counted. Results obtained by manual and PC counting were compared. A high correlation was established between the two counting methods.

  8. The effects of priming with age stereotypes on a PC-based mail-sorting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Christine; Bock, Otmar Leo; Völker, Ina

    2017-04-01

    This study examines whether unconscious priming of attitudes towards older age might change the self-efficacy of older employees, and thus modify their performance at work. Three age- and gender-matched groups of 20 participants were primed with positive, negative or no age stereotypes by means of the scrambled sentence task, and were then transferred to a cognitively demanding PC-based mail-sorting task. Participants' accuracy on the latter task was significantly higher in the positively primed group than in the unprimed group, and was significantly lower in the negatively primed group than in the unprimed group, except for one parameter. These findings indicate that the performance of older workers may indeed be modifiable by unconscious priming. Practitioner Summary: This study analyses whether unconscious priming attitudes towards older age might modify work performance. Participants were primed with the scrambled sentence task and then conducted a cognitive mail-sorting task. The findings indicate that the performance of older workers may indeed be modifiable by unconscious negative as well as positive priming.

  9. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  10. Influence of metakaolin purities on potassium geopolymer formulation: The existence of several networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autef, A; Joussein, E; Poulesquen, A; Gasgnier, G; Pronier, S; Sobrados, I; Sanz, J; Rossignol, S

    2013-10-15

    Geopolymer materials are obtained by the alkaline activation of aluminosilicate sources, the best of which is metakaolin. However, every raw material is different, and very few comparative studies have been done on different metakaolin sources. The aim of this work is to develop methods for the prediction of the working properties of geopolymer materials based on the reactivity of the metakaolin employed. Infrared spectroscopy showed direct relationships between the wettability, the Si/Al ratio and the kinetics of conversion of Si-O-Si bonds to Si-O-Al bonds. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the presence of impurities and the reactivity of the metakaolin can generate the formation of one or several networks. Finally, a descriptive model of the mechanism of geopolymer formation was proposed that takes into account the quality of metakaolin used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical Analysis on the Formation of Fracture Network during the Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale with Pre-Existing Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, configurations of pre-existing fractures in cubic rock blocks were investigated and reconstructed for the modeling of experimental hydraulic fracturing. The fluid-rock coupling process of hydraulic fracturing was simulated based on the displacement discontinuities method. The numerical model was validated against the related laboratory experiments. The stimulated fracture configurations under different conditions can be clearly shown using the validated numerical model. First, a dominated fracture along the maximum principle stress direction is always formed when the stress difference is large enough. Second, there are less reopened pre-existing fractures, more newly formed fractures and less shear fractures with the increase of the cohesion value of pre-existing fractures. Third, the length of the stimulated shear fracture decreases rapidly with the increase of the friction coefficient, while the length of the tensile fracture has no correlation to the fiction coefficient. Finally, the increase of the fluid injection rate is favorable to the formation of a fracture network. The unfavorable effects of the large stress difference and the large cohesion of pre-existing fractures can be partly suppressed by an increase of the injection rate in the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The results of this paper are useful for understanding fracture propagation behaviors during the hydraulic fracturing of shale reservoirs with pre-existing fractures.

  12. Mobile Communication Networks and Digital Television Broadcasting Systems in the Same Frequency Bands – Advanced Co-Existence Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for wireless multimedia services provided by modern communication systems with stable services is a key feature of advanced markets. On the other hand, these systems can many times operate in a neighboring or in the same frequency bands. Therefore, numerous unwanted co-existence scenarios can occur. The aim of this paper is to summarize our results which were achieved during exploration and measurement of the co-existences between still used and upcoming mobile networks (from GSM to LTE and digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DVB systems. For all of these measurements and their evaluation universal measurement testbed has been proposed and used. Results presented in this paper are a significant part of our activities in work package WP5 in the ENIAC JU project “Agile RF Transceivers and Front-Ends for Future Smart Multi-Standard Communications Applications (ARTEMOS”.

  13. Parallel Task Processing on a Multicore Platform in a PC-based Control System for Parallel Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Dadji

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Multicore platforms are such that have one physical processor chip with multiple cores interconnected via a chip level bus. Because they deliver a greater computing power through concurrency, offer greater system density multicore platforms provide best qualifications to address the performance bottleneck encountered in PC-based control systems for parallel kinematic robots with heavy CPU-load. Heavy load control tasks are generated by new control approaches that include features like singularity prediction, structure control algorithms, vision data integration and similar tasks. In this paper we introduce the parallel task scheduling extension of a communication architecture specially tailored for the development of PC-based control of parallel kinematics. The Sche-duling is specially designed for the processing on a multicore platform. It breaks down the serial task processing of the robot control cycle and extends it with parallel task processing paths in order to enhance the overall control performance.

  14. Co-existence of TV Broadcast and Wireless Systems for Public Safety Networks in the TV White Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kabiru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35 and Public Safety Networks (PSNs is presented in this article. The networks to be deployed within Television White Space (TVWS in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State operate on a secondary basis spatially, without causing harmful interference to incumbent TV users. In order to guarantee the protection of incumbent TV users both in VHF and UHF bands, minimum separation distances were suggested considering field strengths of 36 dBu and 41 dBu as the protected contours for the two bands respectively. The effects of varying the transmit power and the antenna height of the secondary system on the coverage area are emphasized in this work. Aggregate interference effect from the multiple secondary systems on the TV service coverage was also investigated. The performances of VHF and UHF bands were also verified when used for secondary transmission both at lower and higher transmit power scenarios. The results of this work show that the safety networks can co-exist with the TV systems without causing harmful interference with the suggested separation distances at the edge of the noise-limited service area, where the signal-to-noise ratio is 16 dB as recommended by the International Telecommunication Union-Radio sector (ITU-R.

  15. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savern l Reweti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR

  16. A model for a PC-based, universal-format, multimedia digitization system: moving beyond the scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachen, James C; Cusack, Thomas J; McEachen, John C

    2003-08-01

    Digitizing images for use in case presentations based on hardcopy films, slides, photographs, negatives, books, and videos can present a challenging task. Scanners and digital cameras have become standard tools of the trade. Unfortunately, use of these devices to digitize multiple images in many different media formats can be a time-consuming and in some cases unachievable process. The authors' goal was to create a PC-based solution for digitizing multiple media formats in a timely fashion while maintaining adequate image presentation quality. The authors' PC-based solution makes use of off-the-shelf hardware applications to include a digital document camera (DDC), VHS video player, and video-editing kit. With the assistance of five staff radiologists, the authors examined the quality of multiple image types digitized with this equipment. The authors also quantified the speed of digitization of various types of media using the DDC and video-editing kit. With regard to image quality, the five staff radiologists rated the digitized angiography, CT, and MR images as adequate to excellent for use in teaching files and case presentations. With regard to digitized plain films, the average rating was adequate. As for performance, the authors recognized a 68% improvement in the time required to digitize hardcopy films using the DDC instead of a professional quality scanner. The PC-based solution provides a means for digitizing multiple images from many different types of media in a timely fashion while maintaining adequate image presentation quality.

  17. Dyke intrusion into a pre-existing joint network: The Aiguablava lamprophyre dyke swarm (Catalan Coastal Ranges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Poza, A. I.; Druguet, E.; Castaño, L. M.; Carreras, J.

    2014-09-01

    A structural analysis has been performed in the Upper Permian lamprophyric dyke swarm of Aiguablava (Costa Brava, NE Iberia). Emplacement of sub-vertical dykes is related to the presence of a widespread joint network, mostly developed during the cooling and decompression of the late Variscan leucogranitic host rocks. The joint pattern consists on multiple sub-vertical joint sets among which two orthogonal sets at ≈ N23° and ≈ N113° are predominant. A sub-horizontal set is also prominent. The sub-vertical dykes have a mean N100°-N125° trend, which corresponds to the trend of one of the main joint sets. However, dyke segmentation is noticeable at the Dm- to cm-scale, and this is inferred to be related to dyke propagation and emplacement along the variably oriented pre-existing joints. A mean robust sub-horizontal NNE-SSW net dilation direction was measured from matching dyke jogs, markers in the host rock and analysis of maximum dyke thicknesses, and this is in line with the minimum principal stress axis (3) derived from a three-dimensional paleostress analysis from dyke orientations. The inferred maximum principal stress axis (1) is sub-vertical, indicating that dykes intruded under conditions of tectonic extension. Furthermore, a Mohr construction allowed calculation of the stress ratio φ = 0.29 (close to a prolate stress ellipsoid) and a driving pressure ratio R‧ = 0.27, which corresponds to a magmatic pressure almost equal to the intermediate principal stress axis, σ2. It is inferred that many of the pre-existing joint sets were exploited by the magma, the WNW-ESE joint set (normal to σ3) being the most favorable for dyke emplacement. The present study highlights the structural control of a pre-existing fracture network on emplacement of the Aiguablava lamprophyres in the upper crust during late Permian NNE-SSW brittle extension.

  18. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  19. Validation of PC-based Sound Card with Biopac for Digitalization of ECG Recording in Short-term HRV Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshkumar, K; Dilara, K; Maruthy, K N; Sundareswaren, L

    2016-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR) in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate) the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity) and Biopac MP36 module. Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study. Following standard protocol, 5-min ECG was recorded after 10 min of supine rest by Portable simple analog amplifier PC-based sound card as well as by Biopac module with surface electrodes in Leads II position simultaneously. All the ECG data was visually screened and was found to be free of ectopic beats and noise. RR intervals from both ECG recordings were analyzed separately in Kubios software. Short-term HRV indexes in both time and frequency domain were used. The unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for the analysis using the R statistical software. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV. Correlation analysis revealed perfect positive correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) between the values in time and frequency domain obtained by the devices. On the basis of the results of the present study, we suggest that the calculation of HRV values in the time and frequency domains by RR series obtained from the PC-based sound card is probably as reliable as those obtained by the gold standard Biopac MP36.

  20. Existence and Globally Asymptotic Stability of Equilibrium Solution for Fractional-Order Hybrid BAM Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence and globally asymptotic stability of equilibrium solution for Riemann-Liouville fractional-order hybrid BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses. The factors of such network systems including the distributed delays, impulsive effects, and two different fractional-order derivatives between the U-layer and V-layer are taken into account synchronously. Based on the contraction mapping principle, the sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium solution for such network systems. By constructing a novel Lyapunov functional composed of fractional integral and definite integral terms, the globally asymptotic stability criteria of the equilibrium solution are obtained, which are dependent on the order of fractional derivative and network parameters. The advantage of our constructed method is that one may directly calculate integer-order derivative of the Lyapunov functional. A numerical example is also presented to show the validity and feasibility of the theoretical results.

  1. The social impact of introducing a tolling scheme on a pre-existing urban network: the case of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , and claims of severe economic and social impact. The paper shows that an indiscriminate implementation of the user-pays principle within the context of urban network tolling is indeed inappropriate. This is demonstrated through the use of more explicit, yet...

  2. Should individuals with chronic aphasia be treated with dedicated PC-based training? Considerations about a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Reitano, Simone; Digangi, Giuseppina; Bertè, Francesco; Sergi, Giuseppa; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an emerging rehabilitative tool ("Power-AFA" - software) in the recovery of a patient with chronic non-fluent aphasia. A 56-year-old woman, affected by post-stroke severe expressive aphasia, underwent two different intensive rehabilitation trainings, including either standard language rehabilitation alone or a proper PC based speech training in addition to conventional treatment. We evaluated her cognitive and psychological profile in two separate sessions, before and after the two different trainings, by using a proper psychometric battery, to assess cognitive status, language abilities, and to estimate the presence of mood alterations and coping strategies. The overall PC-program was articulated in 6 sessions/weekly for 3 months. Only at the end of the PC-training, we observed an important improvement in peculiar cognitive domains (attention and memory functions), in denomination, in verbal understanding ability, in written, in communication skills as well as an optimization of the mood and coping styles. Computer-based cognitive and language rehabilitation, using proper and dedicated software, may be a valuable tool in improving either communication or cognitive skills in patient affected by aphasia, even in the chronic state.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Pap Smear Cells by PC-Based Cytopathologic Image Analysis System and Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chi; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Chan, Po-Chou; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Rung-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ruei

    Cytologic screening has been widely used for controlling the prevalence of cervical cancer. Errors from sampling, screening and interpretation, still concealed some unpleasant results. This study aims at designing a cellular image analysis system based on feasible and available software and hardware for a routine cytologic laboratory. Totally 1814 cellular images from the liquid-based cervical smears with Papanicolaou stain in 100x, 200x, and 400x magnification were captured by a digital camera. Cell images were reviewed by pathologic experts with peer agreement and only 503 images were selected for further study. The images were divided into 4 diagnostic categories. A PC-based cellular image analysis system (PCCIA) was developed for computing morphometric parameters. Then support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify signature patterns. The results show that the selected 13 morphometric parameters can be used to correctly differentiate the dysplastic cells from the normal cells (p<0.001). Additionally, SVM classifier has been demonstrated to be able to achieve a high accuracy for cellular classification. In conclusion, the proposed system provides a feasible and effective tool for the evaluation of gynecologic cytologic specimens.

  4. GAZIANTEP AS PART OF THE UNESCO CREATIVE CITIES NETWORK: AN ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF EXISTING REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    AKIN, Nisa; BOSTANCI, Barış

    2017-01-01

    Theaim of the article is to develop a policy recommendation that will allowGaziantep, which has the feature of being the only city to represent Turkey in116 cities in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) Creative Cities Network (UCCN), to formulate a requiredmembership monitoring report by 30 November 2019, by using the self-evaluationand membership monitoring reports already published. Within the scope of theresearch, membership monitoring reports of 1...

  5. Agreement among dentists' restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Brad Rindal, D; Firestone, Allen R; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists' self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Agreement among dentists’ restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Firestone, Allen R.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists’ self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Methods Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Results Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Conclusions Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. Clinical implications These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. PMID:23743181

  7. The way to cover prediction for cytotoxicity for all existing nano-sized metal oxides by using neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novic, Marjana; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor

    2017-05-01

    The regulatory agencies should fulfil the data gap in toxicity for new chemicals including nano-sized compounds, like metal oxides nanoparticles (MeOx NPs) according to the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) legislation policy. This study demonstrates the perspective capability of neural network models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) for the widest range of metal oxides extracted from Periodic table. The counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs for data sets of 17, 36 and 72 metal oxides were employed in the study. The cytotoxicity of studied metal oxide NPs was correlated with (i) χ-metal electronegativity (EN) by Pauling scale and composition of metal oxides characterised by (ii) number of metal atoms in oxide, (iii) number of oxygen atoms in oxide and (iv) charge of metal cation in oxide. The paper describes the models in context of five OECD principles of validation models accepted for regulatory use. The recommendations were done for the minimal number of cytotoxicity tests needs for evaluation of the large set of MeOx with different oxidation states. The methodology is expected to be useful for potential hazard assessment of MeOx NPs and prioritisation for further testing and risk assessment.

  8. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services.

  9. Influence of existing secondary forest road network on the selection of timber extraction technologies at the tactical level of planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepoglavec Kruno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning is an intellectually demanding process that requires a conscious determination of actions and decisions based on related purpose, knowledge and right decisions. During planning timber harvesting it is very important to choose the best possible technology for timber extraction. The use of multi-criteria-decision-making models is a very good way of dealing with various forestry issues especially in terms of choosing the best applicable technology for timber extraction. Modern forest management in the Republic of Croatia in terms of timber harvesting mostly relies on ground based wheeled systems. The goal of this research is to show how the current way of planning timber harvesting (timber extraction and accordingly the construction of secondary forest road network affects future planning and introduction of »new« technologies for timber extraction i.e. forest cableway. Analysis of suitable forest stands for different timber extraction technologies s was carried out in the management unit Garjevica-Čazma with an area of 4380.20 ha. The paper presents multi-criteria-decision-making model for defining terrain suitable for ground based wheeled systems (skidder with a winch and forwarder and forest cableway on the base of raster maps (grid of 20×20 m i.e. 0.04 ha. The criteria used to select different technologies for timber extraction were: terrain slope, distance from the forest road, distance from the skid road and harvesting density. Analysis using GIS tools in ArcGIS and Idrisi applications goes in two directions, first the analysis of suitability of using selected technologies for timber extraction using four criteria, and comparison with results of the analysis where the criterion »distance from the skid road« has been excluded.

  10. Wireless Smart Sensor Network System Using SmartBridge Sensor Nodes for Structural Health Monitoring of Existing Concrete Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviña, J. R.; Uy, F. A.; Carreon, J. D.

    2017-06-01

    There are over 8000 bridges in the Philippines today according to the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). Currently, visual inspection is the most common practice in monitoring the structural integrity of bridges. However, visual inspections have proven to be insufficient in determining the actual health or condition of a bridge. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to give, in real-time, a diagnosis of the actual condition of the bridge. In this study, SmartBridge Sensor Nodes were installed on an existing concrete bridge with American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Type IV Girders to gather vibration of the elements of the bridge. Also, standards on the effective installation of SmartBridge Sensor Nodes, such as location and orientation was determined. Acceleration readings from the sensor were then uploaded to a server, wherein they are monitored against certain thresholds, from which, the health of the bridge will be derived. Final output will be a portal or webpage wherein the information, health, and acceleration readings of the bridge will be available for viewing. With levels of access set for different types of users, the main users will have access to download data and reports. Data transmission and webpage access are available online, making the SHM system wireless.

  11. Existence of periodic solutions for the discrete-time counterpart of a neutral-type cellular neural network with time-varying delays and impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Haydar; Al-Zahrani, Eadah; Covachev, Valéry; Covacheva, Zlatinka

    2017-07-01

    From the mathematical point of view, a cellular neural network (CNN) can be characterized by an array of identical nonlinear dynamical systems called cells (neurons) that are locally interconnected. Using the semi-discretization method, in the present talk we construct a discrete-time counterpart of a neutral-type CNN with time-varying delays and impulses. Sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions of the discrete-time system thus obtained are found by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory.

  12. Healthy human CSF promotes glial differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells while retaining spontaneous activity in existing neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Kiiski

    2013-05-01

    The possibilities of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells from the basic research tool to a treatment option in regenerative medicine have been well recognized. These cells also offer an interesting tool for in vitro models of neuronal networks to be used for drug screening and neurotoxicological studies and for patient/disease specific in vitro models. Here, as aiming to develop a reductionistic in vitro human neuronal network model, we tested whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived neural cells could be cultured in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in order to better mimic the in vivo conditions. Our results showed that CSF altered the differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells towards glial cells at the expense of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation rate was reduced in CSF cultures. However, even though the use of CSF as the culture medium altered the glial vs. neuronal differentiation rate, the pre-existing spontaneous activity of the neuronal networks persisted throughout the study. These results suggest that it is possible to develop fully human cell and culture-based environments that can further be modified for various in vitro modeling purposes.

  13. An eHealth Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Social Network of Single, Chronically Impaired Older Adults: Adaptation of an Existing Intervention Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Janet M; Peels, Denise A; Berendsen, Brenda Aj; Bolman, Catherine Aw; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-11-23

    Especially for single older adults with chronic diseases, physical inactivity and a poor social network are regarded as serious threats to their health and independence. The Active Plus intervention is an automated computer-tailored eHealth intervention that has been proven effective to promote physical activity (PA) in the general population of adults older than 50 years. The aim of this study was to report on the methods and results of the systematic adaptation of Active Plus to the wishes and needs of the subgroup of single people older than 65 years who have one or more chronic diseases, as this specific target population may encounter specific challenges regarding PA and social network. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was used to systematically adapt the existing intervention to optimally suit this specific target population. A literature study was performed, and quantitative as well as qualitative data were derived from health care professionals (by questionnaires, n=10) and the target population (by focus group interviews, n=14), which were then systematically integrated into the adapted intervention. As the health problems and the targeted behavior are largely the same in the original and adapted intervention, the outcome of the needs assessment was that the performance objectives remained the same. As found in the literature study and in data derived from health professionals and focus groups, the relative importance and operationalization of the relevant psychosocial determinants related to these objectives are different from the original intervention, resulting in a refinement of the change objectives to optimally fit the specific target population. This refinement also resulted in changes in the practical applications, program components, intervention materials, and the evaluation and implementation strategy for the subgroup of single, chronically impaired older adults. This study demonstrates that the adaptation of an existing intervention is an

  14. RPC communication layer and introduction to data protection for embedded PC based control and data acquisition module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Roszkowski, Piotr; Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes an implementation of the communication layer based on remote procedure calling ONC RPC and presents the first prototype of hardware data protection module for control and data acquisition module being developed by the ELHEP Group for the DESY research center in Hamburg. This control and DAQ module is designed for the SIMCON module (SIMulator and CONtroller) aimed to steer the nine-cell super conducting niobium resonators built and produced for TESLA and X-FEL projects. Solutions described here will allow to establish safe connections from any place in the world and control physics experiments via Internet network.

  15. More capacity for railway traffic. Is the existing railway network going to suffice?; Mehr Kapazitaet fuer den Schienenverkehr. Reicht das bestehende Streckennetz aus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, Werner [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Langfristplan/Fahrwegkapazitaet

    2009-07-01

    The volume of freight transported by rail has grown strongly in Germany in recent years, and the railway is expecting further expansion once the recession is over. The growth drivers are increasingly international integration of the world of business, liberalisation with the activities of competing rail transport undertakings, the possibility of being able to offer end-to-end international services from a single source and improved framework conditions brought about by increasing energy costs and shortages of resources. The author analyses the development of recent years, points to where there is still potential for growth, shows that the railway network still has very considerable capacity reserves, provided local bottlenecks can be eliminated, and reviews the possibilities and limits of alternative routes. The alternatives considered are the following: better utilisation of the capacity of trains within the existing system; longer and heavier trains (presupposing the appropriate upgrading of the infrastructure); localised performance improvements through timetabling measures and systematic routing of each type of train; making better use of the infrastructure and line capacities through computer-assisted planning and scheduling, real-time interventions in train movements and high-throughput signal blocks. All of these measures could be packaged together to bring about a significant increase in the transport capacity of the railway system. (orig.)

  16. EFFECTS OF STEEL PLANTS WITH THREE-PHASE INDUCTION FURNACES ON POWER DISTRIBUTION QUALITY OF THE EXISTING 33 kV NETWORK IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Lekan Gbadamosi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating and analyzing the voltage and current distortions on the introduction of a steel production plant in a typical 33 kV distribution system in Nigeria, with a view to assisting decisions made in the present system operation and planning effective service delivery in terms of quality. A three phase induction furnace was developed using MatLab Simulink software and the effects of steel plant loads on the quality of electric power system supply to electricity users on the same distribution network was analyzed in terms of total harmonic distortions of voltage and current. In order to evaluate voltage magnitude profile on the network, load flow computation and analyses were carried out on the 33 kV distribution network before and after the introduction of steel plant loads, using Successive Approximation Method. The results showed critical voltage magnitude profile below -5% of nominal voltage at the receiving end nodes. With the aid of the Matlab Simulink model, inadmissible voltage and current distortions of 15.47% and 10.35% were measured. Passive filter was proposed, designed and simulated, in order to mitigate these distortions caused by the steel production plant loads. By simulation, the installation of the designed passive filter gave a reduction of the distortions to permissible values. Further, for every 1 MW load increment when the steel plant is connected, network losses increased by 94%; however, for every of Mvar of filter capacity, loss reduction in the network is 5.1 MW.

  17. Design of a PC Based Mass Flow Indicator of an Electrical Motor Driven Water Lift Pump Using Motor Load Current as the Flow Sensing Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass flow rate of liquid at the outlet of a liquid lift pump is an important parameter to be measured and controlled in a process industry. In the present paper, the design of a PC based mass flow indicator of an electrical motor driven water lift pump using motor load current as the mass flow sensing parameter has been studied. The motor load current has been sensed by an opto-isolator based circuit and the output of this circuit has been displayed in a PC monitor using Labtech Note Book Pro software. A theoretical equation relating the output of opto-isolator circuit with mass flow rate has been derived and experimental study has been carried out to verify this theoretical equation, assuming the volume flow rate of water at constant room temperature to be proportional to mass flow rate. The experimental results are presented in the paper. It has been observed that the opto-isolator output and the on-line display in PC monitor both vary almost linearly with mass flow rate. Percentage deviation of the experimental results from ideal linearity and repeatability in terms of standard deviation are found to be within tolerable limit.

  18. Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

    Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

  19. The design of PC/MISI, a PC-based common user interface to remote information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-15. The paper discusses the following: problem definition; the PC solution; the goals of system design; the design description; future considerations, the research environment; conclusions.

  20. Incidence of colorectal cancer in new users and non-users of low-dose aspirin without existing cardiovascular disease: A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence regarding the chemo-protective effects of aspirin has influenced expert opinion in favour of low-dose aspirin use in certain patient populations without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of aspirin in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may be a large contributor to this favourable risk-benefit profile of low-dose aspirin in primary CVD prevention. Using The Health Improvement Network, we estimated the incidence of CRC in individuals free of CVD and either prescribed or not prescribed prophylactic low-dose aspirin. Two cohorts - new-users of low-dose aspirin (N=109,426) and a comparator cohort of non-users (N=154,056) at start of follow-up - were followed (maximum 13years) to identify incident CRC cases. Individuals with a record of CVD, cancer or low-dose aspirin prescription before start of follow-up were excluded. 2330 incident cases of CRC occurred; 885 in the aspirin cohort and 1445 in the comparator cohort, after mean follow-ups of 5.43years and 5.17years, respectively. Incidence rates of CRC per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval) were 14.90 (13.95-15.92) in the aspirin cohort and 18.15 (17.24-19.12) in the comparator cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.82 (0.76-0.89) adjusted for age, sex and primary care practitioner (PCP) visits in the previous year. Lower incidence rates were seen in the aspirin cohort for all strata evaluated (gender, age group and number of PCP visits in the previous year) except those aged ≥80years. Among most individuals without established CVD, initiation of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced incidence of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathfinder to EXIST: ProtoEXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, A. B., III; Allen, B.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burke, M.; Burnham, J.; Chammas, N.; Collins, J.; Cook, W. R.; Copete, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gauron, T.; Grindlay, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J.; Howell, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Labov, S.; Said, B.; Sheikh Sheikh, S.

    2008-04-01

    We describe the ProtoEXIST instrument, our fist-generation wide-field hard X-ray imaging (20 - 600 keV) balloon-borne telescope. The ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a candidate for the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST consists of two independent coded-aperture telescopes using pixellated (2.5mm pitch) CZT detectors. The two telescopes will provide performance comparison of two shielding configurations, for optimization of the EXIST design. We report on the science goals and designs of both ProtoEXIST and EXIST and their implications for hard X-ray astronomy and astrophysics.

  2. Scalable Cluster-based Routing in Large Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Li; Xuelian Cai; Jin Yang; Lina Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Large control overhead is the leading factor limiting the scalability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Clustering network nodes is an efficient solution, and Passive Clustering (PC) is one of the most efficient clustering methods. In this letter, we propose an improved PC-based route building scheme, named Route Reply (RREP) Broadcast with Passive Clustering (in short RBPC). Through broadcasting RREP packets on an expanding ring to build route, sensor nodes cache their route to the sink no...

  3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ROAD NETWORKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v6i1.9. Received 20th September 2012; accepted 15th January 2013. Abstract. Road has been described as the life-blood of human civilisation. Social interaction and economic prosperity in space have been shaped ...

  4. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  5. The EXIST OIRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Golisano, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, H.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST Optical / Infrared Telescope (OIRT) has been integrated into the EXIST concept design for the determination GRB redshifts on orbit and to preform follow up source identification and studies following the generation of a trigger from the EXIST high energy telescope (HET). The base OIRT main design has been inherited from the NextView OIRT has been operating in low earth orbit since September of 2007 and is currently being used for the acquisition of geospatial data. After reconfiguration of the instrumentation for astrophysical observations the OIRT will have an angular resolution of 0.15" and a 5'×5' field of view and be sensitive to emission in the range of 0.4 $\\mu$m - 2.2 $\\mu$m. Passive cooling of the tertiary, secondary, and primary mirrors will enable observation into the Ks$ band.

  6. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  7. The Light of Existence

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter derives the properties of light from the properties of processing, including its ability to be both a wave and a particle, to respond to objects it doesn't physically touch, to take all paths to a destination, to choose a route after it arrives, and to spin both ways at once as it moves. Here a photon is an entity program spreading as a processing wave of instances. It becomes a "particle" if any part of it overloads the grid network that runs it, causing the photon program to re...

  8. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

  9. Background Studies for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  10. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  11. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  12. Wireless PC-based phonocardiograph and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Auscultation is used to evaluate heart health and can indicate when it's needed to refer a patient to a cardiologist. Advanced PCG signal processing algorithms are developed to assist the physician in the initial diagnosis but they are primarily designed and demonstrated with research quality equipment. Therefore there is a need to demonstrate the applicability of those techniques with consumer grade instrument. Furthermore, routine monitoring would benefit from a wireless PCG sensor that all...

  13. PC Based wireless stepper motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Omar; Khan, Shahnawaz; Abideen, Zainul

    2013-01-01

    This project is about making an embedded system in order to control different functionalities of a stepper motor. The main functions of this stepper motor are to control the speed and direction. The whole hardware consists of two parts. One is the transmitter side and the other side is the receiver side. The transmitter side consists of PC, Encoder, a microcontroller and RF (Radio Frequency) transmitter. On the receiver side there is an RF receiver, a decoder, a microcontroller, a motor drive...

  14. Actually existing silk roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relevance of the concept of Silk Road for understanding the patterns of trade and exchange between China, Eurasia and the Middle East. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Yiwu, in China's Zhejiang Province. Yiwu is a node in the global distribution of Chinese ‘small commodities’ and home to merchants and traders from across Asia and beyond. The article explores the role played by traders from Afghanistan in connecting the city of Yiwu to markets and trading posts in the world beyond. It seeks to bring attention to the diverse types of networks involved in such forms of trade, as well as their emergence and development over the past thirty years.

  15. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  16. Do multiquark hadrons exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.; Isgur, N.

    1982-03-08

    The qqq-barq-bar system has been examined by solving the four-particle Schroedinger equation variationally. The main findings are that: (1) qqq-barq-bar bound states normally do not exist, (2) the cryptoexotic 0/sup + +/ sector of this system with KK-bar quantum numbers is probably the only exception to (1) and its bound states can be identified with the S* and delta just below KK-bar threshold, (3) qqq-barq-bar bound states provide a model for the weak binding and color-singlet clustering observed in nuclei, and (4) there is no indication that this system has strong resonances.

  17. Repowering existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steazel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Increased competition among power generation companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performances of older electric generation units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including; environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g.; increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy to use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant option. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the US, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Existence of Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks present Minkowski space as an almost pure mathematical construct, without any explicit restriction on a domain where it is applicable in physics. Meanwhile, its physical meaning cannot but follow the same premises as those which underlies the special relativity theory: motion of free point particles and propagation of electromagnetic waves. However, the common formalism of coordinate transformations between any two inertial frames appears too ponderous to infer the existence of Minkowski space. For this reason, the time dilation and retardation, the contraction of the length along and the spatial invariance across the direction of relative motion of two frames are presented in a coordinate-free manner. This results in the transformation between two frames in the form of relationships between the time moments and the components of the position vector of a given event, along and across the directions of the frames' motion. The obtained transformation rules for the components of the position ve...

  19. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  20. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  1. Mauriac syndrome still exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Joana; Martins, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Marques, Olinda; Antunes, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Mauriac syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). It is related to low insulin concentrations and is less common since longer-acting insulins became available. It is characterized by hepatomegaly, growth and puberty delay, and the presence of elevated transaminases and serum lipids. The aim of this study was to describe the patients from a pediatric diabetic population that fulfill the criteria of MS. A retrospective analysis of the pediatric diabetic population with diagnostic criteria of MS currently followed at Hospital de Braga, was performed. From a population of 91 patients with DM1 18 years, 6 patients with the criteria for MS were identified: 5 girls, and 1 boy. The age at presentation was 13-17 years, with a minimum interval between DM1 diagnosis and MS criteria of 4 years. All the patients were prescribed intensive insulin therapy (median daily insulin dose: 0.88 U/kg). All had a previous history of poor glycemic control before the diagnosis of MS with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 8.8 and 12.9%. Increase of hepatic enzymes was present in all the patients; 4 of them had associated hepatomegaly. All the girls presented puberty delay and cushingoid features. None of the patients presented short stature and 5 of them presented mixed dyslipidemia. Although MS is an ancient entity described in DM1, it still exists, particularly in adolescent females. Being aware of MS is of extreme importance since most of the clinical features are reversible with better glycemic control. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  3. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  4. FELIX: a High-Throughput Network Approach for Interfacing to Front End Electronics for ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Plessl, Christian; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified optical link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates up to 10.24~Gbps, will replace existing links used for readout, detector control and distribution of timing and trigger information. A new class of devices will be needed to interface many GBT links to the rest of the trigger, data-acquisition and detector control systems. In this paper FELIX (Front End LInk eXchange) is presented, a PC-based device to route data from and to multiple GBT links via a high-performance general purpose network capable of a total throughput up to O(20 Tbps). FELIX implies architectural changes to the ATLAS data acquisition system, such as the use of industry standard COTS components early in the DAQ chain. Additionally the design and implementation of a FELIX demonstration platform is presented, and hardware and ...

  5. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  6. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  7. Existence and Detection of Fireballs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An attempt is made to analyze critically the experimental proofs indicating the existence of fireballs. Some ideas are presented on methods of the...properties of fireballs if their existence will be checked by other methods. (Author)

  8. Kierkegaardovo pojetí existence

    OpenAIRE

    Janatová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Kierkegaard's conception of existence". There are both the life of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and his philosophy discussed. The issue of human existence is analysed with its main three stages which are focused on aesthetics, ethics and religion. These stages of existence are at first described and afterwards compared with each other. The aesthetic represents the first stage of life and the religious stage is considered to be the highest aim o...

  9. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  10. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  11. Graph measures and network robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Kooij, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. Once such a measure has been established, we will be able to compare networks, to improve existing networks and to design new networks that are able to continue to perform well when it is subject to failures or

  12. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  15. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and ...

  16. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  17. Existence of mesons after deconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Brau (Fabian); F. Buisseret

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the possibility for a quark-antiquark pair to form a bound state at temperatures higher than the critical one ($T>T_c$), thus after deconfinement. Our main goal is to find analytical criteria constraining the existence of such mesons. Our formalism relies on a Schrödinger

  18. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  19. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  20. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  1. Human Rights Being and Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Etexeberria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontological perspective in the approach to human rights is subject to different traps,against which measures must be taken. But it also faces us to the challenge of precisely specifying what they are and how are they to be based. In this paper we try to face this challenge, paying attention to avoid the traps above mentioned. The first part of it is focused on being-existence of human rights,trying to specify critically their «places»: social reality, laws and, in a founding sense, human dignity.The second part takes the category being-essence as reference, asking about the kind of being of humanrights in their different types. This «kind» will show itself densely mediated by cultural diversity andtemporality-historicity. What is really pretended with this reflection is to contribute to the cause of thesocial existence of human rights.

  2. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  3. Remodeling Pearson's Correlation for Functional Brain Network Estimation and Autism Spectrum Disorder Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikai Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain network (FBN has been becoming an increasingly important way to model the statistical dependence among neural time courses of brain, and provides effective imaging biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurological or psychological disorders. Currently, Pearson's Correlation (PC is the simplest and most widely-used method in constructing FBNs. Despite its advantages in statistical meaning and calculated performance, the PC tends to result in a FBN with dense connections. Therefore, in practice, the PC-based FBN needs to be sparsified by removing weak (potential noisy connections. However, such a scheme depends on a hard-threshold without enough flexibility. Different from this traditional strategy, in this paper, we propose a new approach for estimating FBNs by remodeling PC as an optimization problem, which provides a way to incorporate biological/physical priors into the FBNs. In particular, we introduce an L1-norm regularizer into the optimization model for obtaining a sparse solution. Compared with the hard-threshold scheme, the proposed framework gives an elegant mathematical formulation for sparsifying PC-based networks. More importantly, it provides a platform to encode other biological/physical priors into the PC-based FBNs. To further illustrate the flexibility of the proposed method, we extend the model to a weighted counterpart for learning both sparse and scale-free networks, and then conduct experiments to identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD from normal controls (NC based on the constructed FBNs. Consequently, we achieved an 81.52% classification accuracy which outperforms the baseline and state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Turbulence: does energy cascade exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Josserand, Christophe; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber $k_{1}$ to $k_{2}$ than from $k_{1}$ to $k'_{2}$ larger than $k_{2}$.

  5. A Comparison of Existing Optimisation Techniques with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we give a review of methods that have been used to solve the channel assignment problem and propose a new algorithm, namely the univariate marginal distribution algorithm. The existing techniques that are described are the simulated annealing, graph colouring, neural networks, genetic algorithms and ...

  6. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  7. EXIST OIRT Camera and Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. H.; Golisano, C.; Gong, Q.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Woodgate, B.; EXIST Team

    2009-01-01

    The EXIST mission includes a 1.1m infrared and visible telescope which provides the capability to locate, identify, and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. To allow rapid identification and spectroscopic follow up, the instruments will provide wide band imaging, covering the full error circle of the Gamma Ray Telescope (GRT), low spectral resolution slitless spectroscopy, and high resolution integral field spectroscopy. The integral field unit will have a small field of view of 2" x 2" to study diffuse objects, e.g. GRB host galaxies. The instrumentation capabilities will allow this telescope quickly identify the afterglow, measure its brightness curves, redshift, measure spectral characteristics of the GRBs, and measure absorption spectra of the intervening intergalactic medium. With this instrument, high redshift GRBs become important tools for observing the processes through which the universe is ionized.

  8. Why do interstellar grains exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seab, C. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included.

  9. Network security risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the existence of a computers network within any company with pretensions are obvious. But the construction and the existence of a network without meeting some minimum security requirements, although it would be preferable to be optimal, can lead to bad functioning in the performance of the company’s business. The vulnerability of a grouping, such as a network, is given by the weakest point in its competence. The establishing of the risk level of each component of the network, and implicitly of the grouping, is highly necessary

  10. Does the mental lexicon exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the central and mostintriguing components of language processing to researchers is the mentallexicon. The term was used for the first time by Ann Triesman in 1961 and westill do not have clear answers on how it is structured and how muchinformation it contains, or even if there is something to be called a mentallexicon. For some time, mental lexicon has been compared to a mental dictionaryboth storing and organizing word knowledge; however, they are surely differentin structure and quantity/quality of information. Neuroimaging studies havealso tried to bring contributions to these questions. Some researchers believethat there are many lexicons, one for each level of stored information (ULLMAN,2007: orthographic, phonological, semantic and syntactic lexicons. Another group of researchers (MCCLELLAND;ROGERS, 2003; SEIDENBERG, 1997, etc. postulates the existence of only onelexicon where all information levels are integrated. Recently, a new audaciousproposal has been done by Elman (2009, the inexistence of a mental lexicon. Inthis paper, we discuss the different views of mental lexicon structure andcontent. We try to proceed on the discussion of Elman’s new proposal andconfront it to data obtained by behavioral, neuroimaging and computationalstudies.

  11. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...

  12. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various......Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...

  13. Reconfigureable network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderveen, Keith B [Tracy, CA; Talbot, Edward B [Livermore, CA; Mayer, Laurence E [Davis, CA

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  14. Robustness Envelopes of Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case

  15. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  16. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  17. Security Enhancement Using Mutual Authentication in Existing CDMA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    L. Krishna Bharathi; Gnanou Florence Sudha

    2010-01-01

    Even though CDMA2000 wireless networks are being widely deployed as a cellular digital standard around the world, it has some hidden vulnerabilities concerned with security issues. The existing CDMA systems use authentication mechanism by CAVE (Cellular Authentication and Voice Encryption) algorithm. This authentication method has several disadvantages. Only one way authentication is provided, that is, only a base station authenticates a subscriber. And, CAVE algorithm is prone to cryptograph...

  18. Artificial neural network based fault identification scheme implementation for a three-phase induction motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Sri R; Altman, Shawn D

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents results from the implementation and testing of a PC based monitoring and fault identification scheme for a three-phase induction motor using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To accomplish the task, a hardware system is designed and built to acquire three-phase voltages and currents from a 1/3 HP squirrel-cage, three-phase induction motor. A software program is written to read the voltages and currents, which are first used to train a feed-forward neural network structure using the JavaNNS program. The trained network is placed in a LabVIEW based program formula node that monitors the voltages and currents online and displays the fault conditions and turns the motor off. The complete system is successfully tested in real time by creating different faults on the motor.

  19. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  20. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  1. Reliable Communication in Wireless Meshed Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The advantages of network coding have been extensively studied in the field of wireless networks. Integrating network coding with existing IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is a challenging problem. The IEEE 802.11 MAC does not provide any reliability mechanisms for overheard packets. This paper addresses th...... introduce some signaling overhead, the results show that the performance is yet improved....

  2. The African Field Epidemiology Network - Networking for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of ...

  3. Distributed Control System Design for Portable PC Based CNC Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Roni Permana; Atmaja, Tinton Dwi; Prawara, Budi

    2014-01-01

    The demand on automated machining has been increased and emerges improvement research to achieve many goals such as portability, low cost manufacturability, interoperability, and simplicity in machine USAge. These improvements are conducted without ignoring the performance analysis and USAbility evaluation. This research has designed a distributed control system in purpose to control a portable CNC machine. The design consists of main processing unit, secondary processing unit, motor control,...

  4. PC Based Display for Sonar Applications: A Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    G. Miny; Anney Morris; M.A. Jayendran; A. Unnikrishnan

    1994-01-01

    An attempt was made to standardise the hardware and the software used for the sonar display systems. The idea of standardise hardware suggested itself in using an IBM-compatible PC AT which configures with an Intel 80386 CPU and a standard VGA display adapter card. The software consists of Intel assembly procedures embedded in a PASCAL (turbo 4.0) environment.

  5. Use of PC Based Mathematics Software in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Joseph M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three mathematics software packages, MathCAD, Point Five, and TK Solver Plus, are described and compared. The packages were rated on the accompanying documentation, ease of learning, ease of use, matrix operations, equation solving capability, versatility, use of units, generation of graphs and tables, readability of output, and overall…

  6. Digital to Analog Converter Dac 0800 with Pc-based

    OpenAIRE

    Dedy Erwan Kustianto; Ir. Irawan Nimara, MM

    2000-01-01

    Computer produces a digital signal output of logic "0" and "1". While electronicdevices typically use an analog signal as a voltage source that a certain amount.Electronic devices that require analog signals can be connected to a computer using adigital to analog converter circuit. Digital to analog converter is used to change thedigital signal into analogue signal.To be able to relate to the computer to analog converter circuit, an interface is needed.The interface is often used in design is...

  7. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  8. Distributed Control System Design for Portable PC Based CNC Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand on automated machining has been increased and emerges improvement research to achieve many goals such as portability, low cost manufacturability, interoperability, and simplicity in machine usage. These improvements are conducted without ignoring the performance analysis and usability evaluation. This research has designed a distributed control system in purpose to control a portable CNC machine. The design consists of main processing unit, secondary processing unit, motor control, and motor driver. A preliminary simulation has been conducted for performance analysis including linear accuracy and circular accuracy. The results achieved in the simulation provide linear accuracy up to 2 μm with total cost for the whole processing unit is up to 5 million IDR.

  9. Diving with pre-existing medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; McD Taylor, David; Stevenson, Christopher; Williams, Jo; Mitchell, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    This is the second report based on a survey of Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members who dive with cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and diabetes. It examines the medical management of the divers' conditions, any diving modifications used to mitigate the risk and outcomes. An online cross-sectional survey was sent to 833 divers who had declared a targeted medical condition when applying for DAN AP membership between July 2009 and August 2013. Two-hundred-and-sixty-eight respondents (32%) provided sufficient information on their conditions to be included in the analyses. These included ischaemic heart disease (31), arrhythmias (20), cardiac septal defects (31), other cardiac conditions (10), hypertension (127), diabetes (25), asthma (40) and pneumothorax (5). Forty-nine per cent had sought specialist diving medical advice about their condition and 23% reported modifying their diving practices to mitigate their risk. The cohort had completed 183,069 career dives, 57,822 of these since being diagnosed with their medical condition. There were 27 individuals who reported having decompression illness (25 of whom were subsequently diagnosed with a persistent foramen ovale), and two individuals who experienced an arrhythmia during diving. Some DAN AP members are diving with medical conditions which could potentially impact the safety of their diving. A minority modified their diving practices to mitigate the risk of their condition and approximately half sought specialist diving medical advice. The incidence of diving-related problems precipitated by known and managed pre-existing health conditions seems low but further studies of larger cohorts and incorporating fatality data would be necessary to confirm this. These results are limited by the 32% response rate and potential for bias towards selection of those most careful with their health.

  10. Does Glocal Political Power Already Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ornaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large periods of history are usually characterized by equally important moments of change in scientific knowledge and, in particular, in the understanding of political power. We still need to study in depth whether the former provokes (almost of out necessity the latter, or whether they are “great” because they are favored by the innovation of the paradigms of knowledge. The passage from medieval universalism to the particularism of the modern age represents an extremely interesting analogy when compared to the transformations that are now underway. The example of John of Salisbury’s Policratus, the starting point of this article, is illuminating in our comprehension of the relevance of the interweaving between the persistence of the ancient forms of recognition of power and the search for new forms. The existence of glocal realities is already a fact. Even if it is relatively easy to recognize these realities (a business, a university, a humanitarian association, not a few of the same “parts” which constitute the traditional organization of the State, it is more difficult to define the specific characteristics of the power at their disposal. Moving from the widening gap between “actual” power and “potential” power, the article examines the motives for which the classical definitions of power are always becoming more insufficient in understanding the role now emerging from glocal realities. And, in particular, by looking at how the “command-obedience” relationship is changing also as a consequence of communication networks and information technology, the article analyzes that specific “contamination” within global elements and local elements, which seems to be the main base of glocal political power.

  11. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  12. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  13. Optimal management of the power distribution network. A novel network information system; Optimale Verwaltung des Versorgungsnetzes. Ein neues Netzinformationssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesel, U. [HEW AG, Hamburg (Germany); Korri, P. [Tekla Qyj, Eschborn (Germany). Energieversorgung

    2000-12-01

    In June 200, the German electric utility Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG (HEW) has bought and installed a high-performance, PC-based information system for all purposes of distribution network management tasks for their medium and low-voltage grids. The standard software Xpower of the Finnish software house Tekla Oyj has been streamlined with the requirements of the utility and is described with respect to the applications on site. (orig./CB) [German] Mit der Einfuehrung eines Netzinformationssystems (NIS) steht der Hamburgischen Electricitaets-Werke AG (HEW) seit Juni 2000 ein leistungsstarkes PC-basiertes Informationssystem zur Verfuegung, das langfristig die Projektierung und die Betriebsfuehrung der Mittel- und Niederspannungsnetze unterstuetzt und dokumentiert. Die Standardsoftware Xpower des finnischen Spezialisten Tekla Oyj wurde an die Anforderungen der HEW angepasst. (orig./CB)

  14. Scalable Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm for Internet-Scale Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Wu, Chunming; Zhang, Min

    The proper allocation of network resources from a common physical substrate to a set of virtual networks (VNs) is one of the key technical challenges of network virtualization. While a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms have been proposed in an attempt to address this issue from different facets, the challenge still remains in the context of large-scale networks as the existing solutions mainly perform in a centralized manner which requires maintaining the overall and up-to-date information of the underlying substrate network. This implies the restricted scalability and computational efficiency when the network scale becomes large. This paper tackles the virtual network mapping problem and proposes a novel hierarchical algorithm in conjunction with a substrate network decomposition approach. By appropriately transforming the underlying substrate network into a collection of sub-networks, the hierarchical virtual network mapping algorithm can be carried out through a global virtual network mapping algorithm (GVNMA) and a local virtual network mapping algorithm (LVNMA) operated in the network central server and within individual sub-networks respectively with their cooperation and coordination as necessary. The proposed algorithm is assessed against the centralized approaches through a set of numerical simulation experiments for a range of network scenarios. The results show that the proposed hierarchical approach can be about 5-20 times faster for VN mapping tasks than conventional centralized approaches with acceptable communication overhead between GVNCA and LVNCA for all examined networks, whilst performs almost as well as the centralized solutions.

  15. Co-existence of TV Broadcast and Wireless Systems for Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35) and Public Safety Networks. (PSNs) is ... the safety networks can co-exist with the TV systems without causing harmful interference with the suggested separation ... communication systems and management of relevant information.

  16. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  17. A Survey of Sensor Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseashta, A.; S. VASEASHTA

    2008-01-01

    Sensor networks deploy sensor nodes to detect and monitor environmental events and interactions. Existing sensor networks focus on communication within the bounds of resource restrained sensor nodes at the expense of security. In this paper, a review of sensor network components, architectures, algorithms and protocols aims to increase awareness of sensor network limitations and resulting strategies to ensure information security within wireless sensor networks. Because sensor networks deploy...

  18. Liner Service Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    This thesis concerns design of liner shipping networks using operations research to optimize liner shipping networks at the strategic, tactical and operational level. Liner shipping networks are often compared to public transit networks as they consist of a set of scheduled sailings connecting....... The research field of liner shipping network design is relatively young and many open research questions exists. Among others, a unified and rich mathematical model formulating the main characteristics of the business domain has not been clearly described and exact methods for such mathematical models...... are still not able to solve significant instances of this complex optimization problem. In this thesis two research directions are explored within the field: The first research direction contributes to basic research on the liner shipping network design problem by describing the domain seen from...

  19. Location-Based Services in Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di

    2013-01-01

    Location-based services have been identified as a promising communication paradigm in highly mobile and dynamic vehicular networks. However, existing mobile ad hoc networking cannot be directly applied to vehicular networking due to differences in traffic conditions, mobility models and network topologies. On the other hand, hybrid architectures…

  20. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  1. Chiral flat bands: Existence, engineering, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ajith; Andreanov, Alexei; Flach, Sergej

    2017-10-01

    We study flat bands in bipartite tight-binding networks with discrete translational invariance. Chiral flat bands with chiral symmetry eigenenergy E =0 and host compact localized eigenstates for finite range hopping. For a bipartite network with a majority sublattice chiral flat bands emerge. We present a simple generating principle of chiral flat-band networks and as a showcase add to the previously observed cases a number of new potentially realizable chiral flat bands in various lattice dimensions. Chiral symmetry respecting network perturbations—including disorder and synthetic magnetic fields—preserve both the flat band and the modified compact localized states. Chiral flat bands are spectrally protected by gaps and pseudogaps in the presence of disorder due to Griffiths effects.

  2. Chimera States in Continuous Media: Existence and Distinctness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Zachary G.; Riecke, Hermann; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-12-01

    The defining property of chimera states is the coexistence of coherent and incoherent domains in systems that are structurally and spatially homogeneous. The recent realization that such states might be common in oscillator networks raises the question of whether an analogous phenomenon can occur in continuous media. Here, we show that chimera states can exist in continuous systems even when the coupling is strictly local, as in many fluid and pattern forming media. Using the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation as a model system, we characterize chimera states consisting of a coherent domain of a frozen spiral structure and an incoherent domain of amplitude turbulence. We show that in this case, in contrast with discrete network systems, fluctuations in the local coupling field play a crucial role in limiting the coherent regions. We suggest these findings shed light on new possible forms of coexisting order and disorder in fluid systems.

  3. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  4. Why a Central Network Position Isn't Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholt, Mia; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting views exist on how network characteristics predict knowledge sharing. While large, open egocentric networks foster network positions that provide access to non-redundant knowledge, critics highlight that they impair knowledge sharing, because trust and reciprocity do not thrive...

  5. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  6. Signed Link Analysis in Social Media Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Beigi, Ghazaleh; Tang, Jiliang; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous real-world relations can be represented by signed networks with positive links (e.g., trust) and negative links (e.g., distrust). Link analysis plays a crucial role in understanding the link formation and can advance various tasks in social network analysis such as link prediction. The majority of existing works on link analysis have focused on unsigned social networks. The existence of negative links determines that properties and principles of signed networks are substantially dist...

  7. Transition Towards An Integrated Network Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2016-01-01

    Management of internationally dispersed and networked operations has been in the focus of research attention. However, the existing studies underestimate the incrementality of changes shaping such organisations. This work investigates how organisations evolve into network structures, with particu......Management of internationally dispersed and networked operations has been in the focus of research attention. However, the existing studies underestimate the incrementality of changes shaping such organisations. This work investigates how organisations evolve into network structures...

  8. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52... AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52 Existing mortgages. Nothing contained in this subpart amends, invalidates, terminates or rescinds any...

  9. Structural reliability of existing city bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrandt, L.; Steenbergen, R.; Vrouwenvelder, T.; Blom, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full probabilistic reliability analysis may be valuable for assessing existing structures. Measures for increasing the safety level are quite costly for existing structures and may be unnecessary when such a decision is grounded on a conservative analysis for determining the structural reliability.

  10. Existence of solutions of functional differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions of a functional differential inclusion. By using the variation of parameters formula we convert the functional differential inclusion into an integral inclusion and prove the existence of a fixed point of the set-valued mapping with the help of the Kakutani-Bohnenblust-Karlin fixed point theorem.

  11. On determining if a specular point exists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W; Sørensen, O

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the existence of a specular point on a convex surface of revolution can be determined without actually finding it. Only the evaluation of two simple algebraic expressions is involved. Should a specular point be found not to exist, a search procedure has been thereby...

  12. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  13. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based...

  14. EXIST's Gamma-Ray Burst Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J.; Fishman, G.; Hartmann, D. H.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Skinner, G.

    2008-02-01

    We use semianalytic techniques to evaluate the burst sensitivity of designs for the EXIST hard X-ray survey mission. Applying these techniques to the mission design proposed for the Beyond Einstein program, we find that with its very large field of view and faint gamma-ray burst detection threshold, EXIST will detect and localize approximately two bursts per day, a large fraction of which may be at high redshift. We estimate that EXIST's maximum sensitivity will be ~4 times greater than that of Swift's Burst Alert Telescope. Bursts will be localized to better than 40'' at threshold, with a burst position as good as a few arcseconds for strong bursts. EXIST's combination of three different detector systems will provide spectra from 3 keV to more than 10 MeV. Thus, EXIST will enable a major leap in the understanding of bursts, their evolution, environment, and utility as cosmological probes.

  15. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...

  16. Wykrzyknik - istnienie - zmiana (Exclamation - Existence - Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Karpiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It, what exists, so to say, demands for the addressee – the thing exists in the face of (for something (or somebody. In other words, the existence is the relation. The competitive conception of the existence outside the relation (existence isolated leads to the contradiction. The existential proposition ‘Some A exists’, understoodliterally, is the pleonasm. It tends to treat the existential proposition as the conventional figure, expressing the simple act of an A affirmation (the exclamation ‘A!’. The existence’s relation should not be narrowed down only to the relation of perception(esse est percipi. It is needed to be understood widely, as every relation, in which something influences on whatever (that is, some change occurs. This influence (change can take place both inside or outside the consciousness. The existing thing, the influence exerted by it, and the change, occurred as the result of this influence, are identical. Thanks to it, we can eliminate difficulties connected withfinding ‘the point of contact’ between modules of the existence’s relation (that is, ‘the place’ where existing thing and its addressee are connected. The existence, as the relation of influence-change, is modal and gradual (as regards both intensity and extensiveness: the thing, in different aspects, can exist more or less. Theoretically, discussed relation can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical. The concept of error should be redefined. The error concerning the existence (resp. the nonexistence of specified thing, must not mean the incompatibility between this thing and the perception (widely: between this thing and the change causedby this thing in its addressee. The existence is the unity of the thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change. That is why the incompatibility can occur only between the state of thing-perception (resp. the thing-influence-change and the related state of duty. The conception of the existence as the relation

  17. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  18. Modular Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics.

  19. Managerial challenges within networks: emphasizing the paradox of network participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... companies, and hence, the paradox reduces the potential advantages of the network. The objective of this paper is to analyse the fundamental conditions for a company which depends on an efficient network, and based on this discuss how active use of information can reduce the relative importance of trust...

  20. Managerial Challenges Within Networks - Emphasizing the Paradox of Network Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... companies, and hence, the paradox reduces the potential advantages of the network. The objective of this paper is to analyse the fundamental conditions for a company which depends on an efficient network, and based on this discuss how active use of information can reduce the relative importance of trust...

  1. Biological network motif detection and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooyoung; Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Molecular level of biological data can be constructed into system level of data as biological networks. Network motifs are defined as over-represented small connected subgraphs in networks and they have been used for many biological applications. Since network motif discovery involves computationally challenging processes, previous algorithms have focused on computational efficiency. However, we believe that the biological quality of network motifs is also very important. We define biological network motifs as biologically significant subgraphs and traditional network motifs are differentiated as structural network motifs in this paper. We develop five algorithms, namely, EDGEGO-BNM, EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM, NMF-BNM, NMFGO-BNM and VOLTAGE-BNM, for efficient detection of biological network motifs, and introduce several evaluation measures including motifs included in complex, motifs included in functional module and GO term clustering score in this paper. Experimental results show that EDGEGO-BNM and EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM perform better than existing algorithms and all of our algorithms are applicable to find structural network motifs as well. We provide new approaches to finding network motifs in biological networks. Our algorithms efficiently detect biological network motifs and further improve existing algorithms to find high quality structural network motifs, which would be impossible using existing algorithms. The performances of the algorithms are compared based on our new evaluation measures in biological contexts. We believe that our work gives some guidelines of network motifs research for the biological networks.

  2. Biological network motif detection and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wooyoung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular level of biological data can be constructed into system level of data as biological networks. Network motifs are defined as over-represented small connected subgraphs in networks and they have been used for many biological applications. Since network motif discovery involves computationally challenging processes, previous algorithms have focused on computational efficiency. However, we believe that the biological quality of network motifs is also very important. Results We define biological network motifs as biologically significant subgraphs and traditional network motifs are differentiated as structural network motifs in this paper. We develop five algorithms, namely, EDGEGO-BNM, EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM, NMF-BNM, NMFGO-BNM and VOLTAGE-BNM, for efficient detection of biological network motifs, and introduce several evaluation measures including motifs included in complex, motifs included in functional module and GO term clustering score in this paper. Experimental results show that EDGEGO-BNM and EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM perform better than existing algorithms and all of our algorithms are applicable to find structural network motifs as well. Conclusion We provide new approaches to finding network motifs in biological networks. Our algorithms efficiently detect biological network motifs and further improve existing algorithms to find high quality structural network motifs, which would be impossible using existing algorithms. The performances of the algorithms are compared based on our new evaluation measures in biological contexts. We believe that our work gives some guidelines of network motifs research for the biological networks.

  3. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  4. EXIST: The Next Large GRB Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have begun on the EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) Mission as a Black Hole Survey 'Einstein Probe', a major element in the new NASA Beyond Einstein Program in the Office of Space Science. This program was approved by the US Congress, in February 2003 as part of the NASA FY2004 NASA budget. EXIST is planned as a very wide-field coded aperture telescope and a positional accuracy for GRBs better than one arc-minute. The baseline detectors are Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), with a total sensitive area of approximately 8 m2. EXIST will use SWIFT as a pathfinder mission; the findings of SWIFT will refine the scientific objectives of EXIST and will help to determine many of its design parameters. EXIST will study early star and galaxy formation at high redshifts through observations of thousands of GRBs, their afterglows and host galaxies. It is intended that the international GRB community will play a large role in EXIST through direct participation as well as with complementary observational programs, both space-based and ground-based. Some preliminary design features and capabilities of the EXIST Mission will be presented.

  5. A Systematic, Automated Network Planning Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Åge; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case study conducted to evaluate the viability of a systematic, automated network planning method. The motivation for developing the network planning method was that many data networks are planned in an adhoc manner with no assurance of quality of the solution with respect...... to consistency and long-term characteristics. The developed method gives significant improvements on these parameters. The case study was conducted as a comparison between an existing network where the traffic was known and a proposed network designed by the developed method. It turned out that the proposed...... network performed better than the existing network with regard to the performance measurements used which reflected how well the traffic was routed in the networks and the cost of establishing the networks. Challenges that need to be solved before the developed method can be used to design network...

  6. Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, James D

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, networking has had little or no basis in analysis or architectural development, with designers relying on technologies they are most familiar with or being influenced by vendors or consultants. However, the landscape of networking has changed so that network services have now become one of the most important factors to the success of many third generation networks. It has become an important feature of the designer's job to define the problems that exist in his network, choose and analyze several optimization parameters during the analysis process, and then prioritize and evalua

  7. EXISTENCE OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE

    OpenAIRE

    Aksakallı, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that restricts the universe because of the metric expansion of space, and to determine whether there may be a new universe or existence  in the case of extinction of all the universe by way of mathematical and physical functions.This study was conducted as an attempt to determine the process of existence of the universe  and whether there is another volume that res...

  8. Investigating the Tradeoffs between Power Consumption and Quality of Service in a Backbone Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Gelenbe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving in networks has traditionally focussed on reducing battery consumption through smart wireless network design. Recently, researchers have turned their attention to the energy cost and carbon emissions of the backbone network that both fixed and mobile communications depend on, proposing primarily mechanisms that turn equipments OFF or put them into deep sleep. This is an effective way of saving energy, provided that the nodes can return to working condition quickly, but it introduces increased delays and packet losses that directly affect the quality of communication experienced by the users. Here we investigate the associated tradeoffs between power consumption and quality of service in backbone networks that employ deep sleep energy savings. We examine these tradeoffs by conducting experiments on a real PC-based network topology, where nodes are put into deep sleep at random times and intervals, resulting in a continuously changing network with reduced total power consumption. The average power consumption, the packet loss and the average delay of this network are examined with respect to the average value of the ON rate and the ON/OFF cycle of the nodes.

  9. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  10. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  11. LANDFIRE (90m) Existing Vegetation Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map depicts the distribution of existing vegetation types contained in the LANDFIRE dataset. All 30-meter EVT grids were resampled to 90-meter grids and merged...

  12. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  13. Functional interpretation and the existence property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two.......It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two....

  14. Optimality and existence for Lipschitz equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of certain boundary value problems are shown to exist for the nth order differential equation y(n=f(t,y,y′,…,y(n−1, where f is continuous on a slab (a,b×Rn and f satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the slab. Optimal length subintervals of (a,b are determined, in terms of the Lipschitz coefficients, on which there exist unique solutions.

  15. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  16. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  17. On Social and Economic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti

    2005-01-01

    textabstractYou can call it a clan, or a network, or a family, or a group of friends. The way you call it is not relevant. What matters is that it exists and often you will need one. A large body of empirical work shows that networks are pervasive in social and economic interactions. This book

  18. Supporting networks for realizing rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The chapter explores how DFID, the British bi-lateral aid donor, adopted an innovative rights' based approach that rested on supporting in existing networks in Peru. Focus is put on the history and challenges of DFID's engagement with three networks in particular: in the fields of health, local...

  19. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature

  20. Trends in Optical Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solution for the Gateway site · Case 3: Ethernet Leased Line Services over Existing Infrastructure · Transport for Mobile Voice/Data Networks · Functions needed for mapping Ethernet to SONET/SDH · Relevant Standards · EoS Mapping: without virtual concatenation · EoS Mapping: with virtual concatenation · Slide 21.

  1. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  2. Transcendental Self and the Feeling of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I investigate one aspect of Kant’s larger theory of the transcendental self. In the Prolegomena, Kant says that the transcendental self can be represented as a feeling of existence. In contrast to the view that Kant errs in describing the transcendental self in this fashion, I show that there exists a strand in Kant’s philosophy that permits us to interpret the representation of the transcendental self as a feeling of existence—as the obscurely conscious and temporally inaccessible modification of the state of the discursive subject, which is built into all the representations of such a subject. I also provide an account of how the transcendental self can be legitimately understood both as an epistemic condition for the possibility of experience as well as the representation of a non-naturalistic feeling of existence.

  3. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  4. Existing bridge evaluation using deficiency point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transforming EU countries, transportation infrastructure has a prominent position in advancing industry and society. Recent developments show, that attention should be moved from the design of new structures towards the repair and reconstruction of existing ones to ensure and increase their satisfactory structural reliability and durability. The problem is very urgent because many construction projects, especially transport infrastructure, in most European countries are more than 50-60 years old and require rehabilitations based on objective evaluations. Therefore, the paper presents methodology of existing bridge evaluation based on reliability concept using Deficiency Point Method. The methodology was prepared from the viewpoint to determine the priority order for existing bridge rehabilitation.

  5. Sensemaking in collaborative networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul; Brix, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to advance research on open business models as activity systems (Zott and Amit, 2010) in collaborative networks. We utilize Bradley’s (1995) theory of exchange behavior to discuss how new joint activities can be explored as well as how existing activities can be redesi......The purpose of the study is to advance research on open business models as activity systems (Zott and Amit, 2010) in collaborative networks. We utilize Bradley’s (1995) theory of exchange behavior to discuss how new joint activities can be explored as well as how existing activities can...... model that can be used strategically in collaborative networks to redesign or create new joint activities....

  6. New Magnetically Coupled Impedance (Z-) Source Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    by their discontinuous currents drawn from the sources and/or high stresses experienced by their components. This paper thus proposes three new MCIS networks named respectively as quasi-Y-source, quasi-Γ-Z-source and quasi-T-source or quasi-Trans-Z-source networks. These new networks inherit all advantages....... Derivations of all two-winding MCIS networks, including existing and new networks, from the generalized three-winding MCIS networks are then systematically illustrated, before comparing them. Operational principles, mathematical derivations, simulation and experimental results of all studied networks have...

  7. Revealing the hidden language of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Davis, Darren; Levnajic, Zoran; Janjic, Vuk; Karapandza, Rasa; Stojmirovic, Aleksandar; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-04-01

    Sophisticated methods for analysing complex networks promise to be of great benefit to almost all scientific disciplines, yet they elude us. In this work, we make fundamental methodological advances to rectify this. We discover that the interaction between a small number of roles, played by nodes in a network, can characterize a network's structure and also provide a clear real-world interpretation. Given this insight, we develop a framework for analysing and comparing networks, which outperforms all existing ones. We demonstrate its strength by uncovering novel relationships between seemingly unrelated networks, such as Facebook, metabolic, and protein structure networks. We also use it to track the dynamics of the world trade network, showing that a country's role of a broker between non-trading countries indicates economic prosperity, whereas peripheral roles are associated with poverty. This result, though intuitive, has escaped all existing frameworks. Finally, our approach translates network topology into everyday language, bringing network analysis closer to domain scientists.

  8. When business networks “kill” social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Laurel; Young, L.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are a key contributor to the economic and social fabric of life. There is evidence that the social cohesion that social networks provide is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. These social networks and the functions they perform co......-exist with, influence and are influenced by the business networks of connected firms and other economic organisations that surround them. This is increasingly so in our ever-more-complex, internationalized and connected world. This paper explores the potential consequences of this influence via a case study...... that considers the changes to a community's social network and the associated norms emerging from the growing influence of a microfinance providers' network. A case study reports the impact of microfinance on a particular Bangladesh rural community. We show there is a breakdown in traditional social networks...

  9. Robustness and health monitoring of existing bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Rius, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows how the robustness concept, mainly developed and thought for the design of new structures, and the monitoring by suitable sensors based on fiber optics can also play a relevant role in the safety and management of existing bridges. A new approach of robustness more related to the long-term and service life of bridges is presented and its advantages in the decision-making process during the management of existing bridges are highlighted and afterwards applied on a real brid...

  10. Spectral coarse grained controllability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Shuang

    2017-07-01

    With the accumulation of interaction data from various systems, a fundamental question in network science is how to reduce the sizes while keeping certain properties of complex networks. Combined the spectral coarse graining theory and the structural controllability of complex networks, we explore the structural controllability of undirected complex networks during coarse graining processes. We evidence that the spectral coarse grained controllability (SCGC) properties for the Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks, the scale-free (SF) random networks and the small-world (SW) random networks are distinct from each other. The SW networks are very robust, while the SF networks are sensitive during the coarse graining processes. As an emergent properties for the dense ER networks, during the coarse graining processes, there exists a threshold value of the coarse grained sizes, which separates the controllability of the reduced networks into robust and sensitive to coarse graining. Investigations on some real-world complex networks indicate that the SCGC properties are varied among different categories and different kinds of networks, some highly organized social or biological networks are more difficult to be controlled, while many man-made power networks and infrastructure networks can keep the controllability properties during the coarse graining processes. Furthermore, we speculate that the SCGC properties of complex networks may depend on their degree distributions. The associated investigations have potential implications in the control of large-scale complex networks, as well as in the understanding of the organization of complex networks.

  11. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  12. A Multidomain Survivable Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiancui Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the existing networks are more often deployed in the multidomain environment, most of existing researches focus on single-domain networks and there are no appropriate solutions for the multidomain virtual network mapping problem. In fact, most studies assume that the underlying network can operate without any interruption. However, physical networks cannot ensure the normal provision of network services for external reasons and traditional single-domain networks have difficulties to meet user needs, especially for the high security requirements of the network transmission. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a survivable virtual network mapping algorithm (IntD-GRC-SVNE that implements multidomain mapping in network virtualization. IntD-GRC-SVNE maps the virtual communication networks onto different domain networks and provides backup resources for virtual links which improve the survivability of the special networks. Simulation results show that IntD-GRC-SVNE can not only improve the survivability of multidomain communications network but also render the network load more balanced and greatly improve the network acceptance rate due to employment of GRC (global resource capacity.

  13. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  14. Discovering large network motifs from a complex biological network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Aika; Sese, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Graph structures representing relationships between entries have been studied in statistical analysis, and the results of these studies have been applied to biological networks, whose nodes and edges represent proteins and the relationships between them, respectively. Most of the studies have focused on only graph structures such as scale-free properties and cliques, but the relationships between nodes are also important features since most of the proteins perform their functions by connecting to other proteins. In order to determine such relationships, the problem of network motif discovery has been addressed; network motifs are frequently appearing graph structures in a given graph. However, the methods for network motif discovery are highly restrictive for the application to biological network because they can only be used to find small network motifs or they do not consider noise and uncertainty in observations. In this study, we introduce a new index to measure network motifs called AR index and develop a novel algorithm called ARIANA for finding large motifs even when the network has noise. Experiments using a synthetic network verify that our method can find better network motifs than an existing algorithm. By applying ARIANA to a real complex biological network, we find network motifs associated with regulations of start time of cell functions and generation of cell energies and discover that the cell cycle proteins can be categorized into two different groups.

  15. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  16. Proof That Chronic Lyme Disease Exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence continues to mount that Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD exists and must be addressed by the medical community if solutions are to be found. Four National Institutes of Health (NIH trials validated the existence and severity of CLD. Despite the evidence, there are physicians who continue to deny the existence and severity of CLD, which can hinder efforts to find a solution. Recognizing CLD could facilitate efforts to avoid diagnostic delays of two years and durations of illness of 4.7 to 9 years described in the NIH trials. The risk to society of emerging antibiotic-resistant organisms should be weighed against the societal risks associated with failing to treat an emerging population saddled with CLD. The mixed long-term outcome in children could also be examined. Once we accept the evidence that CLD exists, the medical community should be able to find solutions. Medical professionals should be encouraged to examine whether: (1 innovative treatments for early LD might prevent CLD, (2 early diagnosis of CLD might result in better treatment outcomes, and (3 more effective treatment regimens can be developed for CLD patients who have had prolonged illness and an associated poor quality of life.

  17. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  18. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. ... Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... Abstract. Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are ...

  19. 36 CFR 9.33 - Existing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing operations. 9.33 Section 9.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... permit may be continued for the term of that permit, exclusive of any renewal period whether mandatory or...

  20. Factorial Structure of the Existence Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Tomic, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Existential meaning in life is becoming an increasingly important measure of personal assessment. In search of a suitable instrument to measure existential meaning, the authors reviewed several measures. Eventually, they selected the Existence Scale (ES), doing so on theoretical grounds. The ES is a

  1. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  2. 7 CFR 15b.18 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... access to otherwise inaccessible areas or features of historic properties; (ii) Using audio-visual... visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of exiting facilities and... significant alteration in its existing facilities, the recipient may, as an alternative, refer the handicapped...

  3. Implementation of ventilation in existing schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    ; they evaluate both scientific and practical implementation The analyses lead to a list of criteria associated with the implementation of ventilation in existing schools. Generic retrofitting scenarios which prioritize energy savings, indoor climate and building/facade integration are assembled and illustrated...

  4. Human organisms begin to exist at fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calum; Pruss, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Eugene Mills has recently argued that human organisms cannot begin to exist at fertilization because the evidence suggests that egg cells persist through fertilization and simply turn into zygotes. He offers two main arguments for this conclusion: that 'fertilized egg' commits no conceptual fallacy, and that on the face of it, it looks as though egg cells survive fertilization when the process is watched through a microscope. We refute these arguments and offer several reasons of our own to think that egg cells do not survive fertilization, appealing to various forms of essentialism regarding persons, fission cases, and a detailed discussion of the biological facts relevant to fertilization and genetics. We conclude that it is plausible, therefore, that human organisms begin to exist at fertilization - or, at the very least, that there are grounds for thinking that they existed as zygotes which do not apply to the prior egg cells. While this does not entail that human persons begin to exist at this point, it nevertheless has considerable significance for this latter question. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. "Giftedness Science": Does It Exist at All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author finds that the target article, "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge-Economy: Towards a Culture-Sensitive Research Paradigm in the Science of Giftedness", has three substantial failures: (1) an unproven, even incorrect assumption about the existence of bias in the "science of giftedness" due to…

  6. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  7. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management...DSN Phone: 524-7909 DSN Fax: 524-7950 Date Assigned: November 15, 2013 Program Information Program Name Consolidated Afloat Networks and...4 Program Description Consolidated Afloat Networks & Enterprise Services (CANES) is the Navy’s only Program of Record to replace existing afloat

  8. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  9. Harnessing the Power of Teacher Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.; Buttram, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher networks are an important lever for helping schools make change. In order to take advantage of teacher networks, principals must map the existing networks in their schools, identifying teachers and others who serve as experts or advice givers, brokers, and advice seekers. Once these are known, principals can decide on a strategy for…

  10. 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Goldthwaite, Carolyn Sarno [Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Boston, MA (United States). High Performance Buildings; Coffman, Eric [Montgomery County Dept. of General Services, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Energy and Sustainability

    2016-01-21

    Leadership by state and local governments is critical to unlock national energy efficiency opportunities and deliver the benefits of efficiency to all Americans. But related to building energy efficiency, what will it mean to be a public sector leader over the next several years? What are the energy efficiency solutions that cities, counties, and states are implementing today that will make their communities more affordable, livable, healthy, and economically competitive? The SEE Action Network 2020 Leadership Agenda for Existing Commercial and Multifamily Buildings establishes a benchmark for state and local government leadership on improving the energy efficiency of buildings and seeks two-way collaboration among state, local, and federal officials. It defines a suite of innovative, yet practical policies and programs for policymakers to consider implementing by 2020, focusing on six important areas.

  11. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  12. Survey on Cloud Radio Access Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Chhatani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing wireless network will face the challenge of data tsunami in the near future. Densification of network will deal huge data traffic but will increase the interferences and network cost. At the same time, the existing wireless network is underutilized due to dynamic traffic. To deal with this adverse scenario, a change in the current network architecture is required. Based on virtualization, Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN was proposed for wireless network. In CRAN the functionality of base station will be distributed into base band unit (BBU and remote radio heads (RRH which will achieve benefits of centralization. This paper presents a survey on CRAN centring on optimized resource allocation, energy efficiency and throughput maximization under fronthaul capacity. The existing solution and future opportunities in CRAN are also summarized.

  13. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  14. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  15. Gambling on the existence of other universes

    CERN Document Server

    Sangalli, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Speculations and theories about the existence of other worlds have a long history. In recent times, the arguments have shifted away from their typical philosophical and theological character to supposedly become more objective thanks to their scientific underpinnings. A prime example of this is the current parallel universes or multiverse theory, which has the support of a number of famous cosmologists. In this article, we contend that the claim for the existence of those parallel universes, as presented in Max Tegmark's book "Our Mathematical Universe", rests crucially on some questionable probability arguments involving infinity. As a result, a doubt is cast over the multiverse hypothesis: Is it more credible than the counterarguments based on philosophical and metaphysical considerations?

  16. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    environment to evaluate their biofilm formation capability. It was found that multispecies consortia could lead to increased biofilm formation compared to mono species growth. This shows how co-localized isolates are able to influence biofilm production in a community with high relevance for food safety...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...... generally lead to enhanced biofilm formation in complex communities. We showed that bacteria, expected to have co-existed for a long time, generated more biofilm biomass in co-culture. This was further tested against random co-cultures of bacteria, which supported the conclusion. Discovering that some...

  17. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  18. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    sustainable building. In other words: the question is if it sensible to talk about a ‘sustainable building’ without taking the activities in the building into account? In many contexts, maintenance of the existing building stock is not a hot political topic. Facilities management can, however, be a vehicle......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities......, QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most...

  19. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  20. LOVE’S SYMPHONY: MULTIPLICITY OF EXISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINE McNEILL-MATTESON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Love, although universal in thought, is explicitly complex and articulately multi-defined in almost every idea and expression. Love written is timeless from the molecules we possess within us, to the cosmos we study and explore. We can only exist and continue to exist in harmony with creation. Harmony reaches far beyond galaxies and universes, flowing backinto the most separate of the smallest molecules. Within all common denominators of harmony there is love: the very catalyst of harmony itself. This paper will look at harmony from a poetic point of view and examine how it is expressed always in the context of the mystery of sentience and conscience from human biology to the divine cosmos

  1. Does H4SO5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Fernando; Vargas-Caamal, Alba; Pan, Sudip; Cabellos, José Luis; Mora-Fonz, Miguel J; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Restrepo, Albeiro; Merino, Gabriel

    2017-07-14

    The possible existence of H4SO5 in aqueous sulfuric acid is analyzed in detail. For bare H4SO5, the computed free energy barrier for the exergonic transformation of H4SO5 into the H2SO4H2O complex is only 3.8 kcal mol-1. The presence of water or sulfuric acid catalyzes the dehydration to such an extent that it becomes almost a barrierless process. In the gas phase, dehydration of H4SO5 is an autocatalytic reaction as the water molecule produced by the decomposition of one H4SO5 molecule induces further dissociation. Thus, in solution, the surrounding water molecules make the para-sulfuric acid a very vulnerable species to exist. The simulated Raman spectra also corroborate the absence of H4SO5 in solution.

  2. The Italian contribution to the EXIST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalucci, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Caraveo, P.; Pareschi, G.; Ubertini, P.; Villa, G.

    The EXIST Mission is a proposed multi-wavelength observatory to carry out the most sensitive hard X-ray survey and census of SMBH as well as the most powerful follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This mission will carry a large area (4.5m2) CdZnTe modular detector with an angular resolution of ˜2arcmin, sensitive in the energy range 5-600 keV, and a near infrared telescope with cooled mirror with outstanding sensitivity and capability of measuring onboard the redshift of many GRBs. Italy will contribute to EXIST with the provision of a soft X-ray telescope sensitive in the energy range 0.1-10 keV with an effective area approximately equivalent to one mirror module of XMM-Newton. We will describe hereafter the characteristics and performance of this instrument together with its capability of performing serendipitous surveys.

  3. A General Existence Thorem of Zero Points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Koshevoy, G.A.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2002-01-01

    Let X be a non-empty, compact, convex set in Rn and ° an upper semi-continuous mapping from X to the collection of non-empty, compact, convex subsets of Rn.It is well known that such a mapping has a stationary point on X, i.e. there exists a point in X satisfying that its image under ° has a

  4. Maximising the value of existing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Graham McCorkindale, who heads the Health and Wellbeing strand at multi-disciplinary architecture, town planning, interior design, and landscape architecture practice, Keppie Design, examines how architects can best support the NHS at a time of major change by refocusing design skills hitherto focused on creating new healthcare facilities on the need to work within the existing estate--'maximising utilisation and getting best value from any available spend'.

  5. Business Plan for Existing Venture: Papu Cafe

    OpenAIRE

    Truc, Nha

    2017-01-01

    Finland is considered as one of the potential markets for specialty coffee industry with the high amount of coffee consumption. The aim of this research is developing a business plan for existing business – Papu Cafe in the center of Helsinki, Finland. In this research, the author focuses on investigating the entrepreneurship and coffee industry in Finland, the characteristics of coffee drinking trends. Besides, it is essential to understand the purpose of conducting a business plan for ...

  6. On the existence of persistently outperforming firms

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, M.; Cefis, E.; Frenken, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses persistence in growth rates for a data set of manufacturing firms of all sizes. Previous quantile autoregressions of firm growth rates show that extreme growth events are likely to be negatively correlated over time, thus questioning the existence of persistent outperformers. By supplementing the quantile regression analyses with transition probability matrices, our study shows that "bouncing" firms coexist with persistent outperformers. This result is shown to be robust f...

  7. The slowdown in existing home sales

    OpenAIRE

    Krainer, John

    2014-01-01

    Sales of existing homes slowed noticeably over the second half of 2013, reflecting a more drawn-out recovery than expected for housing markets. A main reason for the slowdown is higher mortgage rates that have made financing more costly nationwide. Sales appear to be slowing even more in distressed markets, where real estate investors had bought up single-family homes to convert into rental properties following the housing bust. Evidence suggests that investors may be retreating from these ma...

  8. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  9. Overview of EXIST mission science and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, Al.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Fishman, G.; Ramsey, B.; Della Ceca, R.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P., III

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is designed to i) use the birth of stellar mass black holes, as revealed by cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), as probes of the very first stars and galaxies to exist in the Universe. Both their extreme luminosity (~104 times larger than the most luminous quasars) and their hard X-ray detectability over the full sky with wide-field imaging make them ideal "back-lights" to measure cosmic structure with X-ray, optical and near-IR (nIR) spectra over many sight lines to high redshift. The full-sky imaging detection and rapid followup narrowfield imaging and spectroscopy allow two additional primary science objectives: ii) novel surveys of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) accreting as very luminous but rare quasars, which can trace the birth and growth of the first SMBHs as well as quiescent SMBHs (non-accreting) which reveal their presence by X-ray flares from the tidal disruption of passing field stars; and iii) a multiwavelength Time Domain Astrophysics (TDA) survey to measure the temporal variability and physics of a wide range of objects, from birth to death of stars and from the thermal to non-thermal Universe. These science objectives are achieved with the telescopes and mission as proposed for EXIST described here.

  10. Do retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumours exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Nahid; Winquist, Eric; Power, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCTs) have been described arising in midline structures. Although primary retroperitoneal extragonadal GCTs (RPGCTs) comprise 30% to 40% of these, their existence as a genuine disease has been questioned. Our study evaluated clinicopathological findings to examine this question in RPGCT patients at our centre. Data from 414 men between 1980 and 2014 treated at London Health Sciences Centre with chemotherapy for testicular GCTs were reviewed retrospectively. Primary RPGCT was defined as pathologically diagnosed GCT with no evidence of GCT in the testes by physical exam or ultrasound. Patients thought to have primary RPGCT at the time of initial diagnosis were identified from an electronic database and data were extracted. In total, 18 men with a diagnosis of metastatic RPGCT were identified. Four were excluded due to ultrasound reports that were incomplete or suggested malignancy. The remaining 14 patients had negative or non-specific ultrasounds, and all received platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Ten patients (71%) underwent post-chemotherapy RP lymph node dissections; of those 8 (57%) who underwent orchiectomy, none had corresponding pathologically normal testicular tissue. RPGCT patients present with more advanced disease stage. Our study sample size is limited, but the findings are consistent with existing literature suggesting that primary RPGCTs may not exist as a unique disease, but instead may represent metastatic disease from a clinically occult testicular primary. By corollary, viable malignant germ cells may be present in testes of patients with presumed primary RPGCT, and may persist as a site of residual malignant disease after chemotherapy.

  11. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  12. Y-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new versatile Y-shaped impedance network for realizing converters that demand a very high-voltage gain, while using a small duty ratio. To achieve that, the proposed network uses a tightly coupled transformer with three windings, whose obtained gain is presently not matched...... by existing networks operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed impedance network also has more degrees of freedom for varying its gain, and hence, more design freedom for meeting requirements demanded from it. This capability has been demonstrated by mathematical derivation, and proven in experiment...

  13. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  14. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  15. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  16. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking

  17. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  18. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  19. Conditions for the existence of clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagylaki, T

    1975-07-01

    A very general partial differential equation in space and time satisfied by the gene frequency in a monoecious population distributed continuously over an arbitrary habitat is derived. The treatment is restricted to a single diallelic locus in the absence of mutation and random drift, and it is supposed that time is continuous, births and deaths occur at random, and migration is independent of genotype. With the further assumptions that migration is isotropic and homogeneous, the population density is constant and uniform (as permitted by the population regulation mechanism included in the formulation), and Hardy-Weinberg proportions obtain locally, this partial differential equation reduces to the simplest multidimensional generalization of the classical Fisher-Haldane cline model. The efficacy of migration and selection in maintaining genetic variability at equilibrium in this model is investigated by deducing conditions for the existence of clines under various circumstances. The effects of the degree of dominance, a neutral belt between the regions where a particular allele is advantageous and deleterious, finiteness of the habitat, and habitat dimensionality are evaluated. Provided at least one of the alleles is favored only in a finite region, excluding the special case in which its total effective selective coefficient is zero, if conditions for supporting a cline are too unfavorable because migration is too strong, selection is too weak, or both, a cline cannot exist at all. Thus, unless there is overdominance, the population must be monomorphic. It is possible for a cline which can barely exist under the prevailing ecological circumstances to show a large amount of variation in gene frequency.

  20. Existence of collateral Equilibrium without survival assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a collateral equilibrium without assuming any hypotheses on the strict positivity, be they individual initial endowments, including the ex post initial endowments, or aggregated initial endowments. Because of dropping the strict positivity of social initial endowment we fail to get an equilibrium. Instead, we get a quasi-equilibrium. Then, appealing to the concept of irreducibility (introduced by McKenzie in 1959 which is adapted to the collateral model, we show that the quasi-equilibrium is indeed a legitime equilibrium.

  1. Existing cometary data and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    To assist scientists studying comets and their interaction with the interplanetary medium, compilations of existing cometary observations and data plans for additional publication are reported. The works cited include updates and/or supplements to: (1) the Catalogue of Cometary Orbits, (2) Physical Characteristics of Comets, (3) the Atlas of Representative Cometary Spectra, (4) the Atlas Cometas-Viento Solar, (5) the Isophotometrischer Atlas der Kometen, and (6) the Atlas of Cometary Forms. An Atlas of Cometary Spectra and an Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 (II) photographs and spectra are in preparation.

  2. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    , sadness, and hunger/neutral conditions with equivalent stimuli. For each film sequence, the participant was asked: to rate the valence of the depicted person’s emotion; to rate how aroused the person appeared to be; and to identify the type of emotion that the person was feeling. The participant’s eye...... movements were recorded throughout the experiment using a remote eye-tracker (SMI iView X RED). A preliminary analysis of the results suggests that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For the different emotional conditions, the participants tended to choose the appropriate emotion more...

  3. Does the Kuleshov Effect Really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Rédei, Anna Cabak; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2016-01-01

    to replicate Kuleshov’s original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion...... of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants’ eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than...... between the emotional conditions....

  4. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter...... by arguing that it is incorrect to talk about African universities as a certain type of university due to the different colonial heritage. However, universities in Africa are facing a number of similar challenges related to the European heritage of the university for instance what counts as legitimate...

  5. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  6. Weighing Supermassive Black Holes with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo S.; Pappadakis, I.; ScienceTeam, EXIST

    2009-12-01

    The EXIST mission concept features a wide field of view telescope that scans the full sky every two orbits at hard X-ray energies (5-600 keV) as well as a high resolution (R 3000) near infrared/optical spectrograph that can be quickly slewed to new targets. These two instruments will enable us to extend supermassive black hole timing studies (reverberation mapping and power spectrum break determination) from the current sample of 30 objects to well over 300, including highly obscured ones. We present examples of the direct black hole mass determinations such studies will enable.

  7. Fitness for synchronization of network motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Y.M.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    We study the synchronization of Kuramoto's oscillators in small parts of networks known as motifs. We first report on the system dynamics for the case of a scale-free network and show the existence of a non-trivial critical point. We compute the probability that network motifs synchronize, and fi...... that the fitness for synchronization correlates well with motifs interconnectedness and structural complexity. Possible implications for present debates about network evolution in biological and other systems are discussed....

  8. An improved tarpit for network deception

    OpenAIRE

    Shing, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Networks are constantly bombarded with malicious or suspicious network traffic by attackers attempting to execute their attack operations. One of the most prevalent types of traffic observed on the network is scanning traffic from reconnaissance efforts. This thesis investigates the use of network tarpits to slow automated scanning or confuse human adversaries. We identify distinguishing tarpit signatures and shortcomings of existing t...

  9. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 h2>Backgroundh2> With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access

  10. Neutralino dark matter stars can not exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the recent ``Cosmos Project" observation of dark-matter concentrations with no ordinary matter in the same place, we study the question of the existence of compact objects made of pure dark matter. We assume that the dark matter is neutralino, and compare its elastic and annihilation cross sections. We find that the two cross sections are of the same order of magnitude. This result has a straightforward and important consequence that neutralinos comprising a compact object can not achieve thermal equilibrium. To substantiate our arguments, by solving Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation we constructed a model of the star made of pure neutralinos. We explicitly showed that the condition for the thermal equilibrium supported by the Fermi pressure is never fulfilled inside the star. This neutralino state can not be described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. Thus, a stable neutralino star, which is supported by the Fermi pressure, can not exist. We also estimated that a stable star can not contain more than a few percents of neutralinos, most of the mass must be in the form of the standard model particles.

  11. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  12. Repowering existing coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, E.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Increased competition among power generating companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performance of older electric generating units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including: environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g., increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, and optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy-to-use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant options. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the United States, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper. 14 figs.

  13. The existence of cords in olecranon bursae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeff; Ebert, Jay R; Taheri, Arash; Mathew, Ravi K; Chee, Derserri Y; Breidahl, William

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the existence of transverse cords in olecranon bursae in patients undergoing excision of the bursa and to describe the unique clinical presentation of patients with these cords. A retrospective study was performed on 24 patients who had surgery to excise an olecranon bursa between 2006 and 2011. The patient's history, preoperative radiographs, ultrasound images, intraoperative photographs, and findings on histologic analysis were reviewed in all cases. Nine olecranon bursae had cords (cord group) and 15 did not have cords (noncord group). All patients in the cord group were male manual laborers, and nearly all had olecranon enthesophytes (n = 8). Patients in the noncord group had associated medical conditions or an infection. A higher level of satisfaction was reported in the noncord group after surgical excision. This study documents the existence of transverse cords oriented at right angles to the long axis of the olecranon. Olecranon bursae with cords have a unique presentation and are found in male manual workers, are nearly always associated with an olecranon enthesophyte, and do not present with infections. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tweaked residual convolutional network for face alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenchao; Li, Ke; Zhao, Qijun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hu

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach for face alignment with two-level convolutional networks architecture. Specifically, the first-level Tweaked Convolutional Network (TCN) module predicts the landmark quickly but accurately enough as a preliminary, by taking low-resolution version of the detected face holistically as the input. The following Residual Convolutional Networks (RCN) module progressively refines the landmark by taking as input the local patch extracted around the predicted landmark, particularly, which allows the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract local shape-indexed features to fine tune landmark position. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach outperforms existing methods.

  15. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  16. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  17. EXOSOMES: CAN DOCTORS STILL IGNORE THEIR EXISTENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Caruso Bavisotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this invited commentary we want to draw the attention of young medical doctors, the main readers of this journal, towards the existence and importance of a group of nanovesicles released by human cells: the exosomes. These vesicles are incontinently secreted as a mean of cell-to-cell communication. They are involved in a number of physiologic processes as well as in the pathogenesis of, virtually, all human diseases. They can be isolated from all biological fluids, like blood, urine, sweat, sperm, crevicular fluid, bile, etc., and their composition in terms of proteins, RNA and lipids is different in pathology that in physiologic conditions. It is therefore possible to predict that they will become an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in medicine.

  18. Worldwide overview of existing haemovigilance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    Haemovigilance is a "quality process" with the aim to improve quality and increase safety of blood transfusion, taking into account that haemovigilance covers and surveys all activities of the blood transfusion chain from donors to recipients. Haemovigilance is indispensable when it comes to safety and quality of blood transfusions. Within the European Union (EU), the European Blood Directive requires haemovigilance in each Member State: the intention has been to rely on the existing or developing national systems. There are significant differences in haemovigilance around the world, in terms of definition, organisational schemes, state of development and implementation. These differences are more pronounced outside the EU: in some countries, even basic traceability causes a problem while in others systems similar as the most developed ones in the EU are implemented.

  19. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  20. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a real 3 dimensional analytic variety. For each regular point p L there exists a unique complex line l p on the space tangent to L at p. When the field of complex line p l p is completely integrable, we say that L is Levi variety. More generally; let L M be a real subvariety in an holomorphic complex variety M. If there exists a real 2 dimensional integrable distribution on L which is invariant by the holomorphic structure J induced by M, we say that L is a Levi variety. We shall prove: Theorem. Let be a Levi foliation and let be the induced holomorphic foliation. Then, admits a Liouvillian first integral. In other words, if is a 3 dimensional analytic foliation such that the induced complex distribution defines an holomorphic foliation ; that is, if is a Levi foliation; then admits a Liouvillian first integral--a function which can be constructed by the composition of rational functions, exponentiation, integration, and algebraic functions (Singer 1992. For example, if f is an holomorphic function and if theta is real a 1-form on ; then the pull-back of theta by f defines a Levi foliation : f*theta = 0 which is tangent to the holomorphic foliation : df = 0. This problem was proposed by D. Cerveau in a meeting (see Fernandez 1997.Seja L Ì uma variedade real de dimensão 3. Para todo ponto regular p Î L existe uma única reta complexa l p no espaço tangente à L em p. Quando o campo de linhas complexas p l p é completamente integrável, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Mais geralmente, seja L Ì M uma subvariedade real em uma variedade analítica complexa. Se existe uma distribuição real integrável de dimensão 2 em L que é invariante pela estrutura holomorfa J induzida pela variedade complexa M, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Vamos provar: Teorema. Seja uma folheação de Levi e seja a folheação holomorfa induzida. Então tem integral primeira Liouvilliana. Em outras palavras, se é uma folheação real de

  1. Synaesthesia: the existing state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, Matej; Milán, Emilio G

    2008-02-01

    In synaesthesia one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, such as when hearing a sound produces photisms--that is, mental percepts of colours. In the past, the idiosyncrasy of this phenomenon, as well as the natural mistrust of scientists towards the subjective, consigned synaesthesia to the periphery of scientific interest. However, the landscape has changed radically in the last two decades. The labour of many researchers, inside as well as outside of cognitive neuroscience, has transformed synaesthesia into a scientific reality whose existence can be demonstrated and studied empirically. The present paper summarizes and reflects on our current knowledge concerning synaesthesia in all its aspects (cognition, behaviour, neurology, genetics, and demographics).

  2. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  3. Gender Existence: Correlation between Equality and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Storozhuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the conceptual vision of gender content in its relation to sex taking into account the extremes to which researchers of gender issues and social movements have resorted to and considering the role and place of men and women in social and cultural life. On this background wrongfulness of such approaches is justified, according to which gender and sex are identified. It is shown in this article that these notions have different meanings and represent different dimensions of human existence. Thus, in contrast to sex, which reveals the physiological differences between men and women, gender is a socio cultural construct which sets the «matrix» of gender interaction at every historical stage of social and cultural life by offering their own vision of gender equality. Alongside with other ideas we substantiate the idea that gender equality is possible only in the social aspect.

  4. Review of existing reactive transport software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W., LLNL

    1998-02-03

    Simulations of thermal and hydrological evolution following the potential emplacement of a subterranean nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV provide data that suggest the inevitability of dependent, simultaneous chemical evolution in this system. These chemical changes will modify significantly both the magnitude and structure of local porosity and permeability; hence, they will have a dynamic feedback effect on the evolving thermal and hydrological regime. Yet, despite this intimate interdependence of transport and chemical processes, a rigorous quantitative analysis of the post- emplacement environment that incorporates this critical feedback mechanism has not been completed to date. As an initial step in this direction, the present document outlines the fundamental chemical and transport processes that must be accounted for in such an analysis, and reviews the inventory of existing software that encodes these processed in explicitly coupled form. A companion report describes the prioritization of specific capabilities that are needed for modeling post-emplacement reactive transport at Yucca Mountain.

  5. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  6. Testing Metadata Existence of Web Map Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a general user is quite common to use data sources available on WWW. Almost all GIS software allow to use data sources available via Web Map Service (ISO/OGC standard interface. The opportunity to use different sources and combine them brings a lot of problems that were discussed many times on conferences or journal papers. One of the problem is based on non existence of metadata for published sources. The question was: were the discussions effective? The article is partly based on comparison of situation for metadata between years 2007 and 2010. Second part of the article is focused only on 2010 year situation. The paper is created in a context of research of intelligent map systems, that can be used for an automatic or a semi-automatic map creation or a map evaluation.

  7. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  8. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  9. The pastor as model for peaceful existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Cooke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many people are disillusioned in the democratic South Africa. That is because they went out from the assumption that with the dawn of democracy, violence would disappear. Unfortunately this did not happen. As with most things in life it is not an either � or, but a both � and scenario. In fact, violence is part of the democratic system. Real peace between men and powers can only be the peace of God, the peace which alone heals all disorder. The peace of the world is at best peaceful coexistence, not peace.In South Africa we have a negotiated agreement to peaceful coexistence, and sometimes, for example, after the miracle of the 1994 election and the euphoria of the World Cups of 1995, 2007 and 2010, we may even think we have achieved real peace. It is indeed in these times of euphoria that the people of South Africa may be tempted to lower our aim and settle for second best thinking that we have arrived.Model is used not in the sense of the pastor being an example of a peaceful existence to be followed. It is rather used in the sense that a pastor in his or her professional capacity has the knowledge of the meaning of the term �peaceful existence� and also the hermeneutic competency to apply that knowledge in concrete situations. This opens the exiting possibility that pastors can become travel companions on the road to real peace.The different aspects of being a pastor, office bearer, professional and person, each contribute to the pastor being a model for peace. It must be emphasised that the different aspects always work together as a unity and the strength of the pastor as a model for a peaceful existence is in the simultaneous application of these aspects in the context in which the pastor lives.

  10. The high energy telescope on EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  11. Concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks: COCONETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kleessen

    Full Text Available The accumulation of high-throughput data from different experiments has facilitated the extraction of condition-specific networks over the same set of biological entities. Comparing and contrasting of such multiple biological networks is in the center of differential network biology, aiming at determining general and condition-specific responses captured in the network structure (i.e., included associations between the network components. We provide a novel way for comparison of multiple networks based on determining network clustering (i.e., partition into communities which is optimal across the set of networks with respect to a given cluster quality measure. To this end, we formulate the optimization-based problem of concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks, termed COCONETS, based on the modularity. The solution to this problem is a clustering which depends on all considered networks and pinpoints their preserved substructures. We present theoretical results for special classes of networks to demonstrate the implications of conditionality captured by the COCONETS formulation. As the problem can be shown to be intractable, we extend an existing efficient greedy heuristic and applied it to determine concurrent conditional clusters on coexpression networks extracted from publically available time-resolved transcriptomics data of Escherichia coli under five stresses as well as on metabolite correlation networks from metabolomics data set from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to eight environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the investigation of the differences between the clustering based on all networks with that obtained from a subset of networks can be used to quantify the specificity of biological responses. While a comparison of the Escherichia coli coexpression networks based on seminal properties does not pinpoint biologically relevant differences, the common network substructures extracted by COCONETS are supported by

  12. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This phase will endeavor to expand the existing network to include two thematic networks on food security and rural enterprise, respectively. A third thematic network - on knowledge management strategies - will play an advisory and support role to the larger network. Project activities will include a call for research proposals ...

  13. The use of Wireless Sensor Network for increasing airport security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of wireless sensor networks for airport security, respectively using sensor networks as a replacement or add-on to existing security measures. The article describes the sensor network and its possible application to various airport objects and financial analysis of the perimeter security with wireless sensor network.

  14. Statistical analysis of the road network of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study the Indian highway network as a complex network where the junction points are considered as nodes, and the links are formed by an existing connection. We explore the topological properties and community structure of the network. We observe that the Indian highway network displays small-world ...

  15. Structure of triadic relations in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in the study of networked systems have highlighted that our interconnected world is composed of networks that are coupled to each other through different ‘layers’ that each represent one of many possible subsystems or types of interactions. Nevertheless, it is traditional to aggregate multilayer networks into a single weighted network in order to take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic, as important information can be lost as a result. It is therefore important to develop multilayer generalizations of network concepts. In this paper, we analyze triadic relations and generalize the idea of transitivity to multiplex networks. By focusing on triadic relations, which yield the simplest type of transitivity, we generalize the concept and computation of clustering coefficients to multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of such networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why one must take great care when generalizing standard network concepts to multiplex networks. We also derive analytical expressions for our clustering coefficients for ensemble averages of networks in a family of random multiplex networks. Our analysis illustrates that social networks have a strong tendency to promote redundancy by closing triads at every layer and that they thereby have a different type of multiplex transitivity from transportation networks, which do not exhibit such a tendency. These insights are invisible if one only studies aggregated networks.

  16. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  17. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities...

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  20. A distribution network review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)

  1. Discovering universal statistical laws of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Different network models have been suggested for the topology underlying complex interactions in natural systems. These models are aimed at replicating specific statistical features encountered in real-world networks. However, it is rarely considered to which degree the results obtained for one particular network class can be extrapolated to real-world networks. We address this issue by comparing different classical and more recently developed network models with respect to their generalisation power, which we identify with large structural variability and absence of constraints imposed by the construction scheme. After having identified the most variable networks, we address the issue of which constraints are common to all network classes and are thus suitable candidates for being generic statistical laws of complex networks. In fact, we find that generic, not model-related dependencies between different network characteristics do exist. This allows, for instance, to infer global features from local ones usi...

  2. The Haqqani Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    history that has resulted in the current makeup of its people and has affected the way the Haqqani Network makes decisions. Since its inception, the...repression and exile of Muslim Brotherhood activists in Egypt , Iraq, and Syria in the 1960s, led to a large diaspora of Muslim Brotherhood activists to...existence. The repression and exile of Muslim Brotherhood activists in Egypt , Iraq, and Syria in the 1960s, led to a large diaspora of Muslim Brotherhood

  3. ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF EXISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIA POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Nuratinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Adaptation possibilities of mycobacteria in the conditions of existence in the external environment and habitats of animals and man are studied. Adaptation mechanisms, which have pathogenic mycobacteria, allow them to survive long and circulate in the environment, which leads to special sanitary and epidemiological value of pathogens of tuberculosis. Location. Russia, Dagestan.Results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a high resistance to influence of cold, heat, chemical and physical factors, moisture and light. They carry high and low temperatures, while more than a year pathogenic properties, and even more in the dark and without sunlight. It should be noted that the stability of pathogenic species of mycobacteria in the external environment is relatively lower than that of saprophytes, capable of quickly adapting to the external environment. Raonin’s groups have more widespread in environment, in water, soil, air, plants, and habitats of animals, products of plant and animal origin and their often isolated from clinical samples.Main conclusions. Environmental conditions define the intensity of habitats of any species of mycobacteria in certain landscapes and their circulation in macroorganism. The impact of the various elements of the environment both in the macro- and microorganisms is a response that was the basis for the development of the doctrine about “limiting factors”. This concept applies not only to the necessary for mycobacteria chemical elements, but also to all the other environmental factors (temperature, humidity, aeration conditions etc. Minimum and maximum intensity factors determine the limits of endurance species. Beyond these limits, due to sharply expressed extreme conditions and is portable microorganism existence of species is not possible. The most favorable for the species optimum intensity of environmental factors, usually occupied a middle position. This provision is significantly

  4. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  5. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  6. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  7. ProtoEXIST: advanced prototype CZT coded aperture telescopes for EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Branden; Hong, Jaesub; Grindlay, Josh; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Baker, Robert G.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Garson, Trey; Krawczynski, Henric S.; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2010-07-01

    ProtoEXIST1 is a pathfinder for the EXIST-HET, a coded aperture hard X-ray telescope with a 4.5 m2 CZT detector plane a 90x70 degree field of view to be flown as the primary instrument on the EXIST mission and is intended to monitor the full sky every 3 h in an effort to locate GRBs and other high energy transients. ProtoEXIST1 consists of a 256 cm2 tiled CZT detector plane containing 4096 pixels composed of an 8x8 array of individual 1.95 cm x 1.95 cm x 0.5 cm CZT detector modules each with a 8 x 8 pixilated anode configured as a coded aperture telescope with a fully coded 10° x 10° field of view employing passive side shielding and an active CsI anti-coincidence rear shield, recently completed its maiden flight out of Ft. Sumner, NM on the 9th of October 2009. During the duration of its 6 hour flight on-board calibration of the detector plane was carried out utilizing a single tagged 198.8 nCi Am-241 source along with the simultaneous measurement of the background spectrum and an observation of Cygnus X-1. Here we recount the events of the flight and report on the detector performance in a near space environment. We also briefly discuss ProtoEXIST2: the next stage of detector development which employs the NuSTAR ASIC enabling finer (32×32) anode pixilation. When completed ProtoEXIST2 will consist of a 256 cm2 tiled array and be flown simultaneously with the ProtoEXIST1 telescope.

  8. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Khandare, Shobha M

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3-4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. There is a need-supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower.

  9. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  10. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  11. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  12. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  13. The Analysis of Duocentric Social Networks: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Jackson, Grace L; Green, Harold D; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2015-02-01

    Marriages and other intimate partnerships are facilitated or constrained by the social networks within which they are embedded. To date, methods used to assess the social networks of couples have been limited to global ratings of social network characteristics or network data collected from each partner separately. In the current article, the authors offer new tools for expanding on the existing literature by describing methods of collecting and analyzing duocentric social networks, that is, the combined social networks of couples. They provide an overview of the key considerations for measuring duocentric networks, such as how and why to combine separate network interviews with partners into one shared duocentric network, the number of network members to assess, and the implications of different network operationalizations. They illustrate these considerations with analyses of social network data collected from 57 low-income married couples, presenting visualizations and quantitative measures of network composition and structure.

  14. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  15. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  16. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  17. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  18. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  19. Control and Optimization of Network in Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid quality of performance (QoP degradation resulting from quality of service (QoS, the solution to network congestion from the point of control theory, which marks departure of our results from the existing methods, is proposed in this paper. The congestion and bandwidth are regarded as state and control variables, respectively; then, the linear time-invariant (LTI model between congestion state and bandwidth of network is established. Consequently, linear quadratic method is used to eliminate the network congestion by allocating bandwidth dynamically. At last, numerical simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this modeling approach.

  20. An Examination of Not-For-Profit Stakeholder Networks for Relationship Management: A Small-Scale Analysis on Social Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wyllie, Jessica; Lucas, Benjamin; Carlson, Jamie; Kitchens, Brent; Kozary, Ben; Zaki, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Using a small-scale descriptive network analysis approach, this study highlights the importance of stakeholder networks for identifying valuable stakeholders and the management of existing stakeholder...

  1. A metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are leaf-labeled, rooted, acyclic, and directed graphs that are used to model reticulate evolutionary histories. Several measures for quantifying the topological dissimilarity between two phylogenetic networks have been devised, each of which was proven to be a metric on certain restricted classes of phylogenetic networks. A biologically motivated class of phylogenetic networks, namely, reduced phylogenetic networks, was recently introduced. None of the existing measures is a metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks. In this paper, we provide a metric on the space of reduced phylogenetic networks that is computable in time polynomial in the size of the networks.

  2. Existence and non-existence of transition fronts in mixed ignition-monostable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cole; Shean Lim, Tau; Ma, Andrew; Weber, David

    2018-02-01

    We study transition fronts for one-dimensional reaction–diffusion equations with compactly-perturbed ignition-monostable reactions. We establish an almost sharp condition on reactions which characterizes the existence and non-existence of fronts. In particular, we prove that a strong inhomogeneity in the reaction prevents formation of transition fronts, while a weak inhomogeneity gives rise to a front. Our work extends the results and methods introduced in Nolen et al 2012 (Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 203 217–46), which studied the same question in inhomogeneous KPP media.

  3. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  4. Life on Titan: Theorem of existance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, O.

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective ``search for life'' are Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites and first of all -- Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity -- from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active -- mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet -- like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn't lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These

  5. The Census of SFXTs with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Angela; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Ubertini, P.; Natalucci, L.; Grindlay, J.

    2010-03-01

    One of the most intriguing discoveries obtained by the INTEGRAL mission is the identification of a new class of hard X-ray transients, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs). They are a subclass of High Mass X-ray Binaries, with 20 members to date (10 firmly identified, the others are candidates), hosting an OB supergiant donor and displaying short X-ray outbursts with fast flares on brief timescales of hours and large flux variability in the range 10E3-10E5. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray imaging (5-600 keV) all-sky deep survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will explore the transient X-ray Universe to get a clearer picture of this new class of puzzling transients, whose actual physical mechanism driving the emission is still unknown. Some models involve the structure of the supergiant wind and the orbital parameters, others invoke very low magnetic field values (B1E14 G, magnetars). Orbital parameters are largely unknown, as well as the duty cycles. No cyclotron lines have been detected to date, except in IGRJ18483-0311, where a hint for a cyclotron line at 3.3 keV has been found, implying a neutron star magnetic field of a few time 1E11 G. The magnetic field in all other SFXTs is unknown. A complete census of the number of these sources is essential to enlarge the sample and possibly discover different SFXTs sub-classes. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring of SFXTs is crucial to (1)-obtain the duty cycle, (2)-investigate their orbital parameters and search periodicities predicted by some models, (3)-to completely cover the whole outburst activity (now possible only for SFXTs with periodically recurrent X-ray flaring activity), (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra which will allow a direct measurement of the neutron star magnetic field.

  6. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  7. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  8. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  9. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  10. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  11. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  12. Flight Testing of Wireless Networking for Nanosat Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...

  13. Redundant Design in Interdependent Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    Full Text Available Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system. In this paper, we propose two redundant methods, node back-up and dependency redundancy, and the experiment results indicate that two measures are effective and costless. Two detailed models about redundant design are introduced based on the non-linear load-capacity model. Based on the attributes and historical failure distribution of nodes, we introduce three static selecting strategies-Random-based, Degree-based, Initial load-based and a dynamic strategy-HFD (historical failure distribution to identify which nodes could have a back-up with priority. In addition, we consider the cost and efficiency of different redundant proportions to determine the best proportion with maximal enhancement and minimal cost. Experiments on interdependent networks demonstrate that the combination of HFD and dependency redundancy is an effective and preferred measure to implement redundant design on interdependent networks. The results suggest that the redundant design proposed in this paper can permit construction of highly robust interactive networked systems.

  14. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  15. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  17. Rationale for constructing waste-disposal plants at existing enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Teplykh, Svetlana; Gorshkalev, Pavel; Proshina, Elizaveta

    2017-10-01

    The Federal State Statistics Service of the Republic of Tatarstan collected data on registered organizations involved in the fabrication and dyeing of fur. This paper describes wastewater characteristic of an existing enterprise, LLC “Melita”. This enterprise is a factory of a complete technology cycle, with the process starting from fur manufacture and design to implementation. Maximum capacity of the factory is 1800 skins per day, (excluding fur), and its average productivity is 1000 skins per day. Thorough examination of possible methods and schemes for wastewater from fur production purification showed that it is most reasonable to use technology schemes which included the structures of mechanical, physico-chemical and biological purification. As a result, the study provided a new technological scheme for industrial wastewater purification. This scheme offers using chloride barium and sodium hydrocarbons complex as reagents. For LLC “Melita”, the wastewater absorbing pond is the Volga River. Water quality indicators are taken according to the data of the FGBU “Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Office”. The research also calculates allowable discharge rates and environmental charges in the city sewer networks and ponds.

  18. Ranking species in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-02-02

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  19. Epidemic thresholds for bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D. G.; Risau-Gusman, S.

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that sexually transmitted diseases (STD) spread across a network of human sexual contacts. This network is most often bipartite, as most STD are transmitted between men and women. Even though network models in epidemiology have quite a long history now, there are few general results about bipartite networks. One of them is the simple dependence, predicted using the mean field approximation, between the epidemic threshold and the average and variance of the degree distribution of the network. Here we show that going beyond this approximation can lead to qualitatively different results that are supported by numerical simulations. One of the new features, that can be relevant for applications, is the existence of a critical value for the infectivity of each population, below which no epidemics can arise, regardless of the value of the infectivity of the other population.

  20. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  1. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.

  2. Spinning Q-balls in Abelian Gauge Theories with positive potentials: existence and non existence

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnai, Dimitri; Rinaldi, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We study the existence of cylindrically symmetric electro-magneto-static solitary waves for a system of a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation coupled with Maxwell's equations in presence of a positive mass and of a nonnegative nonlinear potential. Nonexistence results are provided as well.

  3. Existing climate data sources and Their Use in Heat IslandResearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Pon, Brian; Smith, Craig Kenton; Stamper-Kurn, Dan Moses

    1998-10-01

    Existing climate data sources can be used in two general types of analysis for the detection of urban heat islands. Historical analyses use long-term data records-preferentially from several locations in and around an urban area-to trace the gradual influence of urban development on its climate. Primary sources of such data include the cooperative network, first-order National Weather Service stations, and military weather stations. Analyses of short-term data use information from a dense urban weather station network to discern the location, extent, and magnitude of urban heat islands. Such analyses may use the aforementioned national networks or regional networks such as agricultural, air quality monitoring, or utility networks. We demonstrate the use of existing data sources with a historical analysis of temperature trends in Los Angeles, California, and an analysis of short-term data of the urban temperature profile for Phoenix, Arizona. The Los Angeles climate was examined with eleven long-term data records from the cooperative network. Statistically significant trends of rising temperature were detected at Los Angeles Civic Center and other stations over some parts of the year, although timing of the increase varied from station to station. Observed increases in temperatures maybe due to long-term climate changes, microclimate influences, or local-scale heat islands. The analysis of short-term data was made for Phoenix using the PRISMS station network. Mean diurnal temperature profiles for a month were examined and compared with those for adjacent rural areas. Data fi-om stations in the center of Phoenix showed clear and significant nighttime and daytime temperature differences of 1- 2K (3 - 4"F). These temperature increases maybe attributable to a local-scale heat island.

  4. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  5. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  6. Protocols for multi-satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Nachum

    The unique features of a multisatellite network, which distinguish it from ordinary terrestrial networks, are the large propagation delay on the links, the constant changes in the network topology, and additional constraints such as limitation on power consumption. It is noted that ordinary protocols, which are designed to operate in stable, benign environments, will perform poorly under the dynamic conditions of multisatellite network. The author analyzes the limitations to existing protocols and describes protocols, such as routing, topology control, and reliable transport, that are suitable for multisatellite networks.

  7. Handbook of social network technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a concept that has existed for a long time; however, with the explosion of the Internet, social networking has become a tool for people to connect and communicate in ways that were impossible in the past. The recent development of Web 2.0 has provided many new applications, such as Myspace, Facebook, and LinkedIn. The purpose of ""Handbook of Social Networks: Technologies and Applications"" is to provide comprehensive guidelines on the current and future trends in social network technologies and applications in the field of Web-based Social Networks. This handbook includes

  8. NETWORK, HOW? Perceptions of business people on networking practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia De Klerk

    2010-12-01

    and that networking skills form an important part of management and entrepreneurship. The conclusion is that this research supports the notion that networking skills are important and should be developed on a wider basis. Formal courses on networking or incorporation in existing management training and development courses need to be implemented on all levels by educational institutions and government.

  9. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... history of their successful use in revealing the importance of various members of the network. However, modeling of covert, terrorist or criminal networks through social graph dose not really provide the hierarchical structure which exist in these networks as these networks are composed of leaders...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  10. Statistical properties of random clique networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi-Min; Meng, Jun; Fan, Jing-Fang; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a random clique network model to mimic the large clustering coefficient and the modular structure that exist in many real complex networks, such as social networks, artificial networks, and protein interaction networks, is introduced by combining the random selection rule of the Erdös and Rényi (ER) model and the concept of cliques. We find that random clique networks having a small average degree differ from the ER network in that they have a large clustering coefficient and a power law clustering spectrum, while networks having a high average degree have similar properties as the ER model. In addition, we find that the relation between the clustering coefficient and the average degree shows a non-monotonic behavior and that the degree distributions can be fit by multiple Poisson curves; we explain the origin of such novel behaviors and degree distributions.

  11. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-06-22

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.

  12. Network repair based on community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wandelt, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    Real-world complex systems are often fragile under disruptions. Accordingly, research on network repair has been studied intensively. Recently proposed efficient strategies for network disruption, based on collective influence, call for more research on efficient network repair strategies. Existing strategies are often designed to repair networks with local information only. However, the absence of global information impedes the creation of efficient repairs. Motivated by this limitation, we propose a concept of community-level repair, which leverages the community structure of the network during the repair process. Moreover, we devise a general framework of network repair, with in total six instances. Evaluations on real-world and random networks show the effectiveness and efficiency of the community-level repair approaches, compared to local and random repairs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of repair processes, and reveals that exploitation of the community structure improves the repair process on a disrupted network significantly.

  13. Exploring the structural regularities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Guo, Jia-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of exploring structural regularities of networks by dividing the nodes of a network into groups such that the members of each group have similar patterns of connections to other groups. Specifically, we propose a general statistical model to describe network structure. In this model, group is viewed as hidden or unobserved quantity and it is learned by fitting the observed network data using the expectation-maximization algorithm. Compared with existing models, the most prominent strength of our model is the high flexibility. This strength enables it to possess the advantages of existing models and overcomes their shortcomings in a unified way. As a result, not only broad types of structure can be detected without prior knowledge of what type of intrinsic regularities exist in the network, but also the type of identified structure can be directly learned from data. Moreover, by differentiating outgoing edges from incoming edges, our model can detect several types of stru...

  14. Low complexity detectors for cooperative wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks (WSN) when sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, U strongest signals are selected while the remaining (L - U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening (CS) is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs rank-reduction technique instead of CS. This detector operates on the principles of principal components (PC). From our simulations it can be observed that this detector is capable of achieving a similar bit error rate (BER) performance as the full-rank MMSE detector with significantly lower complexity. It outperforms the CS-based detector in terms of BER performance when using fixed amplification factor. However, for variable gain amplification factor a tradeoff between the diversity gain and the receiver complexity can be observed. From the simulations it can be concluded that the BER performance of the PC-based detector when using variable gain amplification factor are better than that of the CS-based detector for lower signal to noise ratio. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a p(x-biharmonic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem A. Afrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the following problem with Navier boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\Delta (|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u+|u|^{p(x-2}u =\\lambda |u|^{q(x-2}u +\\mu|u|^{\\gamma(x-2}u\\quad \\text{in } \\Omega,\\cr u=\\Delta u=0 \\quad \\text{on } \\partial\\Omega. }$$ where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with smooth boundary $\\partial \\Omega$, $N\\geq1$. $p(x,q(x$ and $\\gamma(x$ are continuous functions on $\\overline{\\Omega}$, $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ are parameters. Using variational methods, we establish some existence and non-existence results of solutions for this problem.

  16. Existence and non-existence results for a nonlinear heat equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Celik

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider the nonlinear heat equation $$displaylines{ u_{t}(x,t = Delta u(x,t + u(x,t^p quad hbox{in } Omega imes (0,T,cr Bu(x,t = 0 quad hbox{on } partialOmega imes (0,T,cr u(x,0 = u_0(x quad hbox{in } Omega,}$$ with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions, where $Omega subset mathbb{R}^n$ is a smooth bounded domain and $p = 1+ 2 /n$ is the critical exponent. For an initial condition $u_0 in L^1$, we prove the non-existence of local solution in $L^1$ for the mixed boundary condition. Our proof is based on comparison principle for Dirichlet and mixed boundary value problems. We also establish the global existence in $L^{1+epsilon}$ to the Dirichlet problem, for any fixed $epsilon > 0$ with $|u_0|_{1+epsilon}$ sufficiently small.

  17. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  18. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  19. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  20. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    , construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  1. Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Levé, Marine; Claidière, Nicolas; van de Waal, Erica; Whiten, Andrew; MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelé, Marie; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L.; Borgeaud, Christèle; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Fichtel, Claudia; Hopper, Lydia M.; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Petit, Odile; Schnoell, Anna Viktoria; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Thierry, Bernard; Tiddi, Barbara; Sueur, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities. PMID:25534964

  2. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  3. Networked water citizen organizations in Spain: Potential for transformation of existing power structures in water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuria Hernández-Mora; Violeta Cabello; Lucia De Stefano; Leandro Del Moral

    2015-01-01

    ... water has traditionally been limited to a closed water policy community, made up of economic water users, primarily irrigator associations and hydropower generators, civil engineering corps and large public works companies...

  4. Worldwide Crisis Alerting Network, Phase II. Task 2. Identification of Existing Communications Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    radiotelephony en-route communicatio s (selected from the Allotment Plan in Appendix 27 to the ITU Radio Regulations) 10 Supplementary infomiation Where...AUSTINW . � IO SNSAN ANTONIO/. . H C 40PCORM C IN I .REU C 120 IO 240 1I I I I S. ൉WAL MILES CALE Changes included in this issue ARINC COMMUNICATIO

  5. Crop evapotranspiration estimation using remote sensing and the existing network of meteorological stations in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Michaelides, S.; Nisantzi, A.

    2011-05-01

    Cyprus is frequently confronted with severe droughts and the need for accurate and systematic data on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for decision making, regarding water irrigation management and scheduling. The aim of this paper is to highlight how data from meteorological stations in Cyprus can be used for monitoring and determining the country's irrigation demands. This paper shows how daily ETc can be estimated using FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted to satellite data and auxiliary meteorological parameters. This method is widely used in many countries for estimating crop evapotranspiration using auxiliary meteorological data (maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed) as inputs. Two case studies were selected in order to determine evapotranspiration using meteorological and low resolution satellite data (MODIS - TERRA) and to compare it with the results of the reference method (FAO-56) which estimates the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by using only meteorological data. The first approach corresponds to the FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted for using both meteorological and remotely sensed data. Furthermore, main automatic meteorological stations in Cyprus were mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS). All the agricultural areas of the island were categorized according to the nearest meteorological station which is considered as "representative" of the area. Thiessen polygons methodology was used for this purpose. The intended goal was to illustrate what can happen to a crop, in terms of water requirements, if meteorological data are retrieved from other than the representative stations. The use of inaccurate data can result in low yields or excessive irrigation which both lead to profit reduction. The results have shown that if inappropriate meteorological data are utilized, then deviations from correct ETc might be obtained, leading to water losses or crop water stress.

  6. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  7. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low-energy h...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area........ The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...

  8. Current State of the Art for Existing Critical Systems in Urban Seismic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Atanasiu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in three main parts. In the first part, there is a classification of the critical systems existing in the urban background, which are part of an extremely urging informational infrastructure in case of a seismic event. The critical systems are identified as those systems whose malfunction may lead to disasters affecting the human being and the environment as well. The second part focuses on the underground pipe networks, presenting at the same time, their classification into three categories of great importance in case of an earthquake, and last but not least, the final part contains the presentation of an analysis methodology of seismic behavior of the underground pipe networks, considered as part of the existing critical systems, in case of a seismic event in an urban area.

  9. Fractal and multifractal analysis of complex networks: Estonian network of payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2017-12-01

    Complex networks have gained much attention from different areas of knowledge in recent years. Particularly, the structures and dynamics of such systems have attracted considerable interest. Complex networks may have characteristics of multifractality. In this study, we analyze fractal and multifractal properties of a novel network: the large scale economic network of payments of Estonia, where companies are represented by nodes and the payments done between companies are represented by links. We present a fractal scaling analysis and examine the multifractal behavior of this network by using a sandbox algorithm. Our results indicate the existence of multifractality in this network and consequently, the existence of multifractality in the Estonian economy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes multifractality of a complex network of payments.

  10. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...

  11. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    architecture of ‘Hovering Ad-hoc Network (HANET)’ for the latter will be deployed to assist and manage the overloaded primary base stations enhancing the on-demand coverage and capacity of the entire system. Proposed modes can either operate independently or as a cascaded architecture to form a Heterodox......It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide...

  12. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  13. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  14. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  15. [Analysis of the design and renovation of mid-sized hospital's local area network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Li, Min; Guo, Yifeng

    2011-11-01

    To address several hospital network issues, this paper discusses the overall plan, design and renovation of hospital's Local Area Network, making full use of existing network facilities. The techniques, such as Physical Separation of Internal and External Network, HSRP, OSPF, All-Routers Networking Model, etc., create features of extensibility, manageability, high safety, stability and so on to the overall network, and provide a reliable network platform to the function of the information systems.

  16. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  17. Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner

    2004-01-01

    Building upon a long tradition in sociology, economists have recently turned their attention to the analysis of social networks. The present paper adds to this emerging literature by proposing a different approach to social-network formation. As in the model of Jackson and Wolinsky (1996), formation of a link between two individuals requires two-sided investments in the present framework. But in contrast to their approach, where the required investments are exogenously specified and link form...

  18. Developer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  19. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Buhai, Sebastian; van der Leij, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important in getting a job, then expected inbreeding bias in the contact network structure induces different career choices for individuals from different social groups. This further translates into stable occupational segregation equilibria in the labour market. We derive the condi...

  20. State machine replication for wide area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    State machine replication is the most general approach for providing highly available services with strong consistency guarantees. This dissertation studies protocols for implementing replicated state machines for wide area networks. First it demonstrates the challenges by comparing two protocols designed for local area networks in a cluster-based wide-area setting and shows that existing protocols designed for local area networks do not perform well in wide-area settings. A generic rotating ...

  1. Investment in electricity networks with transmission switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    allows the solution of large problem instances. The methodology is illustrated by its application to a problem of determining the optimal investment in switching equipment and transmission capacity for an existing network. Computational tests on IEEE test networks with 73 nodes and 118 nodes confirm...

  2. Informal Networks in Organizations - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2001-01-01

    and assess the existing contributions to the understanding of these informal networks in organizations. The first part of the paper presents the key terms and concepts needed to understand social networks both in general and within the framework of formal organizations in particular. In the second part...

  3. Literature Overview - Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, Michael; Jeckmans, Arjan; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become an important part of daily life for many. Users build explicit networks to represent their social relationships, either existing or new. Users also often upload and share a plethora of information related to their personal lives. The

  4. Quadratic Boost A-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chub, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    A novel quadratic boost A-source impedance network is proposed to realize converters that demand very high voltage gain. To satisfy the requirement, the network uses an autotransformer where the obtained gain is quadratically dependent on the duty ratio and is unmatched by any existing impedance ...

  5. Optimal Redesign of the Dutch Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.; Schrijver, J.M.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Immers, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch national road network has been developed over several decades. In the past, roads were constructed according to the then current spatial and transportation planning philosophies. Because the existing road network is a result of a long process of successive developments, the question can be

  6. VSAT networks in India - Specifications and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, A. K.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes briefly the evolution of VSATs in India, including the existing and proposed networks and their applications. The salient specifications of the various types of VSATs are described. Some of the VSATs under advanced stages of development as well as those to be used in proposed networks due for implementation soon are also covered.

  7. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Buhai (Sebastian); M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a simple social network model of occupational segregation, generated by the existence of inbreeding bias among individuals of the same social group. If network referrals are important in getting a job, then expected inbreeding bias in the social structure results in

  8. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  9. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  10. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  11. Multifunctional Mesoscale Observing Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Schlatter, Thomas W.; Carr, Frederick H.; Friday, Elbert W. Joe; Jorgensen, David; Koch, Steven; Pirone, Maria; Ralph, F. Martin; Sun, Juanzhen; Welsh, Patrick; Wilson, James W.; Zou, Xiaolei

    2005-07-01

    More than 120 scientists, engineers, administrators, and users met on 8 10 December 2003 in a workshop format to discuss the needs for enhanced three-dimensional mesoscale observing networks. Improved networks are seen as being critical to advancing numerical and empirical modeling for a variety of mesoscale applications, including severe weather warnings and forecasts, hydrology, air-quality forecasting, chemical emergency response, transportation safety, energy management, and others. The participants shared a clear and common vision for the observing requirements: existing two-dimensional mesoscale measurement networks do not provide observations of the type, frequency, and density that are required to optimize mesoscale prediction and nowcasts. To be viable, mesoscale observing networks must serve multiple applications, and the public, private, and academic sectors must all actively participate in their design and implementation, as well as in the creation and delivery of value-added products. The mesoscale measurement challenge can best be met by an integrated approach that considers all elements of an end-to-end solution—identifying end users and their needs, designing an optimal mix of observations, defining the balance between static and dynamic (targeted or adaptive) sampling strategies, establishing long-term test beds, and developing effective implementation strategies. Detailed recommendations are provided pertaining to nowcasting, numerical prediction and data assimilation, test beds, and implementation strategies.

  12. Interpolative Boolean Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boolean networks are used for modeling and analysis of complex systems of interacting entities. Classical Boolean networks are binary and they are relevant for modeling systems with complex switch-like causal interactions. More descriptive power can be provided by the introduction of gradation in this model. If this is accomplished by using conventional fuzzy logics, the generalized model cannot secure the Boolean frame. Consequently, the validity of the model’s dynamics is not secured. The aim of this paper is to present the Boolean consistent generalization of Boolean networks, interpolative Boolean networks. The generalization is based on interpolative Boolean algebra, the [0,1]-valued realization of Boolean algebra. The proposed model is adaptive with respect to the nature of input variables and it offers greater descriptive power as compared with traditional models. For illustrative purposes, IBN is compared to the models based on existing real-valued approaches. Due to the complexity of the most systems to be analyzed and the characteristics of interpolative Boolean algebra, the software support is developed to provide graphical and numerical tools for complex system modeling and analysis.

  13. A review on existing OSSEs and their implications on European marine observation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Marine observations are essential for understanding marine processes and improving the forecast quality, they are also expensive. It has always been an important issue to optimize sampling schemes of marine observational networks so that the value of marine observations can be maximized and the cost can be lowered. Ocean System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is an efficient tool in assessing impacts of proposed future sampling schemes on reconstructing and forecasting the ocean and ecosystem conditions. In this study existing OSSE research results from EU projects (such as JERICO, OPEC, SANGOMA, E-AIMS and AtlantOS), institutional studies and review papers are collected and analyzed, according to regions (Arctic, Baltic, N. Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) and instruments/variables. The preliminary results show that significant gaps for OSSEs in regions and instruments. Among the existing OSSEs, Argo (Bio-Argo and Deep See Argo), gliders and ferrybox are the most often investigated instruments. Although many of the OSSEs are dedicated for very specific monitoring strategies and not sufficiently comprehensive for making solid recommendations for optimizing the existing networks, the detailed findings for future marine observation requirements from the OSSEs will be summarized in the presentation. Recommendations for systematic OSSEs for optimizing European marine observation networks are also given.

  14. Optimal resource allocation for efficient transport on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaofeng; Kun, Li; Lai, C.-H.

    2008-07-01

    The problem of efficient transport on a complex network is studied in this paper. We find that there exists an optimal way to allocate resources for information processing on each node to achieve the best transport capacity of the network, or the largest input information rate which does not cause jamming in network traffic, provided that the network structure and routing strategy are given. More interestingly, this achievable network capacity limit is closely related to the topological structure of the network, and is actually inversely proportional to the average distance of the network, measured according to the same routing rule.

  15. The Strategic Use of Networks - the case of Danish High-tech and Knowledge-based Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2001-01-01

    The paper explores the existence and impact of alpha entrepreneurial networks in new technology-based entrepreneurial ventures.......The paper explores the existence and impact of alpha entrepreneurial networks in new technology-based entrepreneurial ventures....

  16. Network management systems for active distribution networks. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A.

    2004-07-01

    A technical feasibility study on network management systems for active distribution networks is reported. The study investigated the potential for modifying a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) to give some degree of active management. Government incentives have encouraged more and more embedded generation being connected to the UK distribution networks and further acceleration of the process should support the 2010 target for a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide. The report lists the objectives of the study and summarises what has been achieved; it also discusses limitations, reliability and resilience of existing SCADA. Safety and operational communications are discussed under staff safety and operational safety. Recommendations that could facilitate active management through SCADA are listed, together with suggestions for further study. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  17. Research on Network Scanning Strategy Based on Information Granularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Futong; Shi, Pengfei; Du, Jing; Cheng, Ruosi; Zhou, Yunyan

    2017-10-01

    As the basic mean to obtain the information of the targets network, network scanning is often used to discover the security risks and vulnerabilities existing on the network. However, with the development of network technology, the scale of network is more and more large, and the network scanning efficiency put forward higher requirements. In this paper, the concept of network scanning information granularity is proposed, and the design method of network scanning strategy based on information granularity is proposed. Based on single information granularity and hybrid information granularity, four network scanning strategies were designed and verified experimentally. Experiments show that the network scanning strategies based on hybrid information granularity can improve the efficiency of network scanning.

  18. CUFID-query: accurate network querying through random walk based network flow estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyundoo; Qian, Xiaoning; Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2017-12-28

    performance evaluation based on biological networks with known functional modules, we show that CUFID-query outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy and biological significance of the predictions.

  19. Migration of optical core network to next generation networks - Carrier Grade Ethernet Optical Transport Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glamočanin, D.

    2017-05-01

    In order to maintain the continuity of the telecom operators’ network construction, while monitoring development needs, increasing customers’ demands and application of technological improvements, it is necessary to migrate optical transport core network to the next generation networks - Carrier Grade Ethernet Optical Transport Network (OTN CE). The primary objective of OTN CE is to realize an environment that is based solely on the switching in the optical domain, i.e. the realization of transparent optical networks and optical switching to the second layer of ISO / OSI model. The realization of such a network provides opportunities for further development of existing, but also technologically more demanding, new services. It is also a prerequisite to provide higher scalability, reliability, security and quality of QoS service, as well as prerequisites for the establishment of SLA (Service Level Agreement) for existing services, especially traffic in real time. This study aims to clarify the proposed model, which has the potential to be eventually adjusted in accordance with new scientific knowledge in this field as well as market requirements.

  20. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    , such kind of automated and flexible network operation require a Self Organizing Network algorithm based on network performance parameters being partly derived from the radio measurements. Appropriate radio propagation models are not only needed for network planning tools but also for simulative lab tests...... of the developed Self Organizing Network algorithm controlling the flexible deployment changes enabled by Active Antenna Systems. In this paper, an extension of the existing 3D propagation model is proposed in order to incorporate the the propagation condition variation effects, not considered so far, by changing...... antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model approval....

  1. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...... exists between the emission time of corresponding transmissions from different nodes. The method comprises receiving reports from a plurality of wireless terminals of transmissions received from the network nodes (110, 210), selecting a subset of network nodes (120, 220) and identifying a plurality...

  2. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...... and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... by similar evidence from other cases. Our goal is to develop centrality measures for fragmented and non-navigational states of criminal network investigations. A network model with three basic first class entities is presented together with a topology of associations between network entities. We implement...

  3. Airline network structure in competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Danica D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airline's network is the key element of its business strategy and selected network structure will not have influence only on the airline's costs but could gain some advantage in revenues, too. Network designing implies that an airline has to make decisions about markets that it will serve and how to serve those markets. Network choice raises the following questions for an airline: a what markets to serve, b how to serve selected markets, c what level of service to offer, d what are the benefits/cost of the that decisions and e what is the influence of the competition. We analyzed the existing airline business models and corresponding network structure. The paper highlights the relationship between the network structures and the airline business strategies. Using a simple model we examine the relationship between the network structure and service quality in deregulated market.

  4. Coevolution of a network and perception

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    How does individuals' cognition change a system which is a collective behavior of individuals? Or how does a system affect individuals' cognition? To examine the interplay between a system and individuals, we study a cognition-based strategic link formation. When a network is not fully observable, individuals' perception of a network plays an important role in decision making. Assuming that a communication link is costly and more accurate perception yields higher network utility, one decides whether to form a link in order to get better knowledge. A newly added link is a change in a network, which affects individuals' perception accuracy back. We characterize the early stage of dynamics that a ring network is a global structure and there exists an agent who keeps the full information once a network is connected. Moreover, we discuss a local linking process which causes clusters and the influence of a positive cost of linking in the coevolution between a network and perception.

  5. Modelling of virtual production networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, specialize in a limited field of production. It requires forming virtual production networks of cooperating enterprises to manufacture better, faster and cheaper. Apart from that, some production orders cannot be realized, because there is not a company of sufficient production potential. In this case the virtual production networks of cooperating companies can realize these production orders. These networks have larger production capacity and many different resources. Therefore it can realize many more production orders together than each of them separately. Such organization allows for executing high quality product. The maintenance costs of production capacity and used resources are not so high. In this paper a methodology of rapid prototyping of virtual production networks is proposed. It allows to execute production orders on time considered existing logistic constraints.

  6. Production, Innovation and Service Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2012-01-01

    Production, innovation and service networks of companies all over the world become increasingly decentralised, specialised and interdependent. These three characteristics combined inevitably lead to the formation of complex configurations of resources, crossing both national and organisational...... borders. The existing studies do not adequately address the complex interplay between co-evolving production, innovation and service networks. The widening geographical and cognitive gaps between these networks mean that coordinating them and managing their interfaces in a global operations context...... are becoming strategically important. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue and to develop a number of propositions about the development and organisation of these networks. The paper highlights the critical importance of engineering operations in this process. The propositions are developed...

  7. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  8. Action Research as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    and the different roles I occupied. To better understand the complex nature of collaboration found within action research projects, I propose conceptualizing action research as a network. The network framework directs our attention to the collective production and the conditions through which roles......This paper explores roles and interventions in IS action research. I draw upon a four-year research project about electronic medical records, conducted in close collaboration with a community partner. Following a self-reflexive stance, I trace the trajectory of the research engagement...... and interventions come to exist. Thus, interventions and roles can be seen as network effects—they are enacted and supported by the network. Accordingly, roles and interventions are neither simply static and fixed nor fluid and flexible; rather, these are products of past and present attachments. I demonstrate how...

  9. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  10. Towards an International Polar Data Coordination Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Pulsifer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data management is integral to sound polar science. Through analysis of documents reporting on meetings of the Arctic data management community, a set of priorities and strategies are identified. These include the need to improve data sharing, make use of existing resources, and better engage stakeholders. Network theory is applied to a preliminary inventory of polar and global data management actors to improve understanding of the emerging community of practice. Under the name the Arctic Data Coordination Network, we propose a model network that can support the community in achieving their goals through improving connectivity between existing actors.

  11. Network interruptions

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  12. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  13. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  14. Research of multimedia streaming transmission in multiservice networks

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, Vasyl; Chervenets, Vladymyr; Polishuk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In order to forecast the quality of media streaming in multiservice networks under conditions of high load of network resources the research of the influence of network circulating traffic on streaming video and the efficiency analysis of existing protocols for transmission of multimedia data is held.

  15. Comparison of routing metrics for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, SL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of routing metrics exist in wireless networks. These routing metrics were originally designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). When Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) came into being, an idea of introducing and using these routing metrics...

  16. A Real-Time Multimedia Streaming Protocol for Wireless Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Mank, Wietse; Zwikker, Arjan

    This paper describes a new token-based medium access protocol for real-time networks and its implementation on a wireless network. Originally, the protocol is developed for use in low cost domestic or home networks that are based on Ethernet hardware. In contrast to existing protocols the token is

  17. Final Report. Analysis and Reduction of Complex Networks Under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Youssef M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Coles, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Spantini, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tosatto, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    uncertainty in this context raised fundamentally new issues, e.g., how is the topology of slow manifolds transformed by parametric uncertainty? How to construct dynamical models on these uncertain manifolds? To address these questions, we used stochastic spectral polynomial chaos (PC) methods to reformulate uncertain network models and analyzed them using CSP in probabilistic terms. Finding uncertain manifolds involved the solution of stochastic eigenvalue problems, facilitated by projection onto PC bases. These problems motivated us to explore the spectral properties stochastic Galerkin systems. We also introduced novel methods for rank-reduction in stochastic eigensystems—transformations of a uncertain dynamical system that lead to lower storage and solution complexity. These technical accomplishments are detailed below. This report focuses on the MIT portion of the joint project.

  18. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  19. Contemporary Network Organisations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Kovač

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern organisations are confronted with enormous challenges. The need to continuously adapt to changing environments represents a main challenge for modern organisations. In order to adapt to the requirements of modern environments more easily and more rapidly, organisations become connected into networks. A network organisation is fast becoming a favourite form of the modern organisation. On the basis of an analysis of members in the field of network organisations, this contribution presents the dimensions and definitions of network organisations. In the follow-up, the starting point for a theoretical explanation of network organisations and their different existing forms is presented. The emphasis of the empirical part of the contribution focuses on presenting an analysis of forms of network organisations that are present in Slovenia from the perspective of their shape, development and actual state. Based on an analysis of relevant documentation, it may be concluded that it was the institutional environment which initiated and directed the start-up processes that led to the establishment of contemporary network organisations within Slovenia.

  20. GraphCrunch: A tool for large network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent explosion in biological and other real-world network data has created the need for improved tools for large network analyses. In addition to well established global network properties, several new mathematical techniques for analyzing local structural properties of large networks have been developed. Small over-represented subgraphs, called network motifs, have been introduced to identify simple building blocks of complex networks. Small induced subgraphs, called graphlets, have been used to develop "network signatures" that summarize network topologies. Based on these network signatures, two new highly sensitive measures of network local structural similarities were designed: the relative graphlet frequency distance (RGF-distance and the graphlet degree distribution agreement (GDD-agreement. Finding adequate null-models for biological networks is important in many research domains. Network properties are used to assess the fit of network models to the data. Various network models have been proposed. To date, there does not exist a software tool that measures the above mentioned local network properties. Moreover, none of the existing tools compare real-world networks against a series of network models with respect to these local as well as a multitude of global network properties. Results Thus, we introduce GraphCrunch, a software tool that finds well-fitting network models by comparing large real-world networks against random graph models according to various network structural similarity measures. It has unique capabilities of finding computationally expensive RGF-distance and GDD-agreement measures. In addition, it computes several standard global network measures and thus supports the largest variety of network measures thus far. Also, it is the first software tool that compares real-world networks against a series of network models and that has built-in parallel computing capabilities allowing for a user

  1. GraphCrunch: a tool for large network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Tijana; Lai, Jason; Przulj, Natasa

    2008-01-30

    The recent explosion in biological and other real-world network data has created the need for improved tools for large network analyses. In addition to well established global network properties, several new mathematical techniques for analyzing local structural properties of large networks have been developed. Small over-represented subgraphs, called network motifs, have been introduced to identify simple building blocks of complex networks. Small induced subgraphs, called graphlets, have been used to develop "network signatures" that summarize network topologies. Based on these network signatures, two new highly sensitive measures of network local structural similarities were designed: the relative graphlet frequency distance (RGF-distance) and the graphlet degree distribution agreement (GDD-agreement). Finding adequate null-models for biological networks is important in many research domains. Network properties are used to assess the fit of network models to the data. Various network models have been proposed. To date, there does not exist a software tool that measures the above mentioned local network properties. Moreover, none of the existing tools compare real-world networks against a series of network models with respect to these local as well as a multitude of global network properties. Thus, we introduce GraphCrunch, a software tool that finds well-fitting network models by comparing large real-world networks against random graph models according to various network structural similarity measures. It has unique capabilities of finding computationally expensive RGF-distance and GDD-agreement measures. In addition, it computes several standard global network measures and thus supports the largest variety of network measures thus far. Also, it is the first software tool that compares real-world networks against a series of network models and that has built-in parallel computing capabilities allowing for a user specified list of machines on which to perform

  2. Modeling the interdependent network based on two-mode networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Gao, Xiangyun; Guan, Jianhe; Huang, Shupei; Liu, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Among heterogeneous networks, there exist obviously and closely interdependent linkages. Unlike existing research primarily focus on the theoretical research of physical interdependent network model. We propose a two-layer interdependent network model based on two-mode networks to explore the interdependent features in the reality. Specifically, we construct a two-layer interdependent loan network and develop several dependent features indices. The model is verified to enable us to capture the loan dependent features of listed companies based on loan behaviors and shared shareholders. Taking Chinese debit and credit market as case study, the main conclusions are: (1) only few listed companies shoulder the main capital transmission (20% listed companies occupy almost 70% dependent degree). (2) The control of these key listed companies will be more effective of avoiding the spreading of financial risks. (3) Identifying the companies with high betweenness centrality and controlling them could be helpful to monitor the financial risk spreading. (4) The capital transmission channel among Chinese financial listed companies and Chinese non-financial listed companies are relatively strong. However, under greater pressure of demand of capital transmission (70% edges failed), the transmission channel, which constructed by debit and credit behavior, will eventually collapse.

  3. 48 CFR 27.405-4 - Other existing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.405-4 Other existing data. (a) Except for existing works pursuant to 27.405-2 or commercial computer software pursuant to 27...

  4. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  5. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  6. 40 CFR 417.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  7. Student Collaborative Networks and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David; Bridgeman, Ariel; Kohl, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Undergraduate physics students commonly collaborate with one another on homework assignments, especially in more challenging courses. However, there currently exists a dearth of empirical research directly comparing the structure of students' collaborative networks to their academic performances in lower and upper division physics courses. We investigate such networks and associated performances through a mandated collaboration reporting system in two sophomore level and three junior level physics courses during the Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 semesters. We employ social network analysis to quantify the structure and time evolution of networks involving approximately 140 students. Analysis includes analytical and numerical assignments in addition to homework and exam scores. Preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  9. A neural network simulation package in CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Himanshu; Krolak, Patrick D.; Mcgee, Brenda J.; Coleman, John

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic similarity between the firing of a rule and the firing of a neuron has been captured in this research to provide a neural network development system within an existing production system (CLIPS). A very important by-product of this research has been the emergence of an integrated technique of using rule based systems in conjunction with the neural networks to solve complex problems. The systems provides a tool kit for an integrated use of the two techniques and is also extendible to accommodate other AI techniques like the semantic networks, connectionist networks, and even the petri nets. This integrated technique can be very useful in solving complex AI problems.

  10. Quantum networks: where should we be heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    Quantum key distribution network has become a reality in practical environment. Quantum repeaters have been explored in various physical systems and their combinations. For practical use of them, these new paradigms must be combined with existing or emerging infrastructures of communication and security systems. In this article, we discussed how quantum network can be combined with modern cryptographic technologies in fibre network and with emerging mobile terminals in wireless network, creating new solutions for the future cryptographic and communication systems. Our discussions are summarised in a roadmap.

  11. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    that their personal networks engage not only their families, but also their home communities and by extension Nepal. The two women constitute weak links between their country and other countries and as such they function as bridges or channels for transmission of practices, ideas, knowledge, and artefacts. However...

  12. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  13. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  14. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  15. distribution network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper examined the acidic properties of distribution transformer oil insulation in service at Jericho distribution network Ibadan, Nigeria. Five oil samples each from six distribution transformers (DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5) making a total of thirty samples were taken from different installed distribution transformers all ...

  16. Existence of pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Daishi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness. By employing an existence theorem of Pareto equilibria due to Yu and Yuan([10]), several existence theorems of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for the multiobjective games are established in a similar way to Flores-B´azan.

  17. 46 CFR 184.115 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 184.115 Section 184... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.115 Applicability to existing vessels. (a) An existing vessel need not comply with §§ 184.402(c), 184.404, 184.410...

  18. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade Commission... July 11, 2011, the Commission recently adopted its Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules... submitted in connection with the Commission's Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules...

  19. Network Traffic Prediction Based on Deep Belief Network and Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing in Wireless Mesh Backbone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisen Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh network is prevalent for providing a decentralized access for users and other intelligent devices. Meanwhile, it can be employed as the infrastructure of the last few miles connectivity for various network applications, for example, Internet of Things (IoT and mobile networks. For a wireless mesh backbone network, it has obtained extensive attention because of its large capacity and low cost. Network traffic prediction is important for network planning and routing configurations that are implemented to improve the quality of service for users. This paper proposes a network traffic prediction method based on a deep learning architecture and the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method. The proposed method first adopts discrete wavelet transform to extract the low-pass component of network traffic that describes the long-range dependence of itself. Then, a prediction model is built by learning a deep architecture based on the deep belief network from the extracted low-pass component. Otherwise, for the remaining high-pass component that expresses the gusty and irregular fluctuations of network traffic, the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method is adopted to predict it. Based on the predictors of two components, we can obtain a predictor of network traffic. From the simulation, the proposed prediction method outperforms three existing methods.

  20. Characterizing and Predicting the Robustness of Power-law Networks

    CERN Document Server

    LaRocca, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Power-law networks such as the Internet, terrorist cells, species relationships, and cellular metabolic interactions are susceptible to node failures, yet maintaining network connectivity is essential for network functionality. Disconnection of the network leads to fragmentation and, in some cases, collapse of the underlying system. However, the influences of the topology of networks on their ability to withstand node failures are poorly understood. Based on a study of the response of 2,000 power-law networks to node failures, we find that networks with higher nodal degree and clustering coefficient, lower betweenness centrality, and lower variability in path length and clustering coefficient maintain their cohesion better during such events. We also find that network robustness, i.e., the ability to withstand node failures, can be accurately predicted a priori for power-law networks across many fields. These results provide a basis for designing new, more robust networks, improving the robustness of existing...

  1. Software Defined Networking to support IP address mobility in future LTE network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    The existing LTE network architecture dose not scale well to increasing demands due to its highly centralized and hierarchical composition. In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture. Next, we develop two IP

  2. Network performance analysis of the Limpopo TV white space (TVWS) trial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available the spectrum allocation is managed appropriately, SUs can co-exist on the same radio frequency (RF) spectrum band with licensed networks. This paper introduces the Limpopo TVWS trial network, which provides a point-to-point Internet connectivity to five rural...

  3. Scholarly Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsparg, Paul

    I review the background and some recent trends of a particular scholarly information network, arXiv.org, and discuss some of its implications for new scholarly publication models. If we were to start from scratch today to design a quality-controlled archive and distribution system for scientific and technical information, it could take a very different form from what has evolved in the past decade from pre-existing print infrastructure. Near-term advances in automated classification systems, authoring tools, and document formats will facilitate efficient datamining and long-term archival stability, and I discuss how these could provide not only more efficient means of accessing and navigating the information, but also more cost-effective means of authentication and quality control. Finally, I illustrate the use of machine learning techniques to analyze, structure, maintain, and evolve a large online corpus of academic literature. An emerging field of research can be identified as part of an existing corpus, permitting the implementation of a more coherent community structure for its network of practitioners.

  4. Autonomous vision networking: miniature wireless sensor networks with imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Gioia; Goldberg, Giora

    2006-09-01

    . Image processing at the sensor node level may also be required for applications in security, asset management and process control. Due to the data bandwidth requirements posed on the network by video sensors, new networking protocols or video extensions to existing standards (e.g. Zigbee) are required. To this end, Avaak has designed and implemented an ultra-low power networking protocol designed to carry large volumes of data through the network. The low power wireless sensor nodes that will be discussed include a chemical sensor integrated with a CMOS digital camera, a controller, a DSP processor and a radio communication transceiver, which enables relaying of an alarm or image message, to a central station. In addition to the communications, identification is very desirable; hence location awareness will be later incorporated to the system in the form of Time-Of-Arrival triangulation, via wide band signaling. While the wireless imaging kernel already exists specific applications for surveillance and chemical detection are under development by Avaak, as part of a co-founded program from ONR and DARPA. Avaak is also designing vision networks for commercial applications - some of which are undergoing initial field tests.

  5. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  6. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  7. Predictive structural dynamic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2015-04-30

    Classifying individuals based on magnetic resonance data is an important task in neuroscience. Existing brain network-based methods to classify subjects analyze data from a cross-sectional study and these methods cannot classify subjects based on longitudinal data. We propose a network-based predictive modeling method to classify subjects based on longitudinal magnetic resonance data. Our method generates a dynamic Bayesian network model for each group which represents complex spatiotemporal interactions among brain regions, and then calculates a score representing that subject's deviation from expected network patterns. This network-derived score, along with other candidate predictors, are used to construct predictive models. We validated the proposed method based on simulated data and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, we built a predictive model based on the baseline biomarker characterizing the baseline state and the network-based score which was constructed based on the state transition probability matrix. We found that this combined model achieved 0.86 accuracy, 0.85 sensitivity, and 0.87 specificity. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, the model based on the baseline biomarkers achieved 0.77 accuracy. The accuracy of our model is significantly better than the model based on the baseline biomarkers (p-value=0.002). We have presented a method to classify subjects based on structural dynamic network model based scores. This method is of great importance to distinguish subjects based on structural network dynamics and the understanding of the network architecture of brain processes and disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using existing thinning studies to investigate the carbon consequences of thinning: learning from the past to craft the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2010-01-01

    Although long-term research is a critical tool for answering forest management questions, managers must often make decisions before results from such experiments are available. One way to meet those information needs is to reanalyze existing long-term data sets to address current research questions; the Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) network...

  9. Towards building hybrid biological/in silico neural networks for motor neuroprosthetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eKocaturk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce the Bioinspired Neuroprosthetic Design Environment (BNDE as a practical platform for the development of novel brain machine interface (BMI controllers which are based on spiking model neurons. We built the BNDE around a hard real-time system so that it is capable of creating simulated synapses from extracellularly recorded neurons to model neurons. In order to evaluate the practicality of the BNDE for neuroprosthetic control experiments, a novel, adaptive BMI controller was developed and tested using real-time closed-loop simulations. The present controller consists of two in silico medium spiny neurons which receive simulated synaptic inputs from recorded motor cortical neurons. In the closed-loop simulations, the recordings from the cortical neurons were imitated using an external, hardware-based neural signal synthesizer. By implementing a reward-modulated spike timing-dependent plasticity rule, the controller achieved perfect target reach accuracy for a two target reaching task in one dimensional space. The BNDE combines the flexibility of software-based spiking neural network (SNN simulations with powerful online data visualization tools and is a low-cost, PC-based and all-in-one solution for developing neurally-inspired BMI controllers. We believe the BNDE is the first implementation which is capable of creating hybrid biological/in silico neural networks for motor neuroprosthetic control and utilizes multiple CPU cores for computationally intensive real-time SNN simulations.

  10. Controlling complex networks with conformity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Controlling complex networks accompanied by common conformity behavior is a fundamental problem in social and physical science. Conformity behavior that individuals tend to follow the majority in their neighborhood is common in human society and animal communities. Despite recent progress in understanding controllability of complex networks, the existent controllability theories cannot be directly applied to networks associated with conformity. Here we propose a simple model to incorporate conformity-based decision making into the evolution of a network system, which allows us to employ the exact controllability theory to explore the controllability of such systems. We offer rigorous theoretical results of controllability for representative regular networks. We also explore real networks in different fields and some typical model networks, finding some interesting results that are different from the predictions of structural and exact controllability theory in the absence of conformity. We finally present an example of steering a real social network to some target states to further validate our controllability theory and tools. Our work offers a more realistic understanding of network controllability with conformity behavior and can have potential applications in networked evolutionary games, opinion dynamics and many other complex networked systems.

  11. Social Networks and Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Research in Command & Control • Latent Semantic Analysis – Team communication – Emergent team dynamics – Shared situation awareness • Dynamic Network...requirements – Information technology requirements 28 LSA Essentials of Latent Semantic Analysis 29 Communication Analysis • Goal: Automatically monitor and

  12. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  13. Research on University Network Teaching Platform (Blackboard in Teaching Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gou Zhao Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of online education; teaching platform based on the network, as a new instructional mode has become a hot topic in online teaching. In this paper, the he teaching situation and existing problems on online was analyzed by comparing the difference between network teaching platform and traditional classroom teaching. Then the strategies of network teaching management and the case, which is focusing on the characteristics of Blackboard with the application of network teaching management was presents.

  14. An Efficient Multibit Aggregation Scheme for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dey BikashK; Merchant SN; Desai UB; Jagyasi BhushanG

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A single-hop wireless sensor network for distributed detection has been considered in the majority of the existing literature. However, a wireless sensor network for an event detection application with cheap and short range sensors is likely to be a multihop network. Here we consider a distributed detection problem in a multihop wireless sensor network with tree topology. We propose an optimum multibit decision fusion rule derived from the previously known optimum likelihood ratio fo...

  15. Elastic regimes of sub-isostatic athermal fiber networks

    OpenAIRE

    Licup, Albert James; Sharma, Abhinav; MacKintosh, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    Athermal models of disordered fibrous networks are highly useful for studying the mechanics of elastic networks composed of stiff biopolymers. The underlying network architecture is a key aspect that can affect the elastic properties of these systems, which include rich linear and nonlinear elasticity. Existing computational approaches have focused on both lattice-based and off-lattice networks obtained from the random placement of rods. It is not obvious, a priori, whether the two architectu...

  16. Methods and applications for detecting structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Elizabeth A.

    The use of networks to represent systems of interacting components is now common in many fields including the biological, physical, and social sciences. Network models are widely applicable due to their relatively simple framework of vertices and edges. Network structure, patterns of connection between vertices, impacts both the functioning of networks and processes occurring on networks. However, many aspects of network structure are still poorly understood. This dissertation presents a set of network analysis methods and applications to real-world as well as simulated networks. The methods are divided into two main types: linear algebra formulations and probabilistic mixture model techniques. Network models lend themselves to compact mathematical representation as matrices, making linear algebra techniques useful probes of network structure. We present methods for the detection of two distinct, but related, network structural forms. First, we derive a measure of vertex similarity based upon network structure. The method builds on existing ideas concerning calculation of vertex similarity, but generalizes and extends the scope to large networks. Second, we address the detection of communities or modules in a specific class of networks, directed networks. We propose a method for detecting community structure in directed networks, which is an extension of a community detection method previously only known for undirected networks. Moving away from linear algebra formulations, we propose two methods for network structure detection based on probabilistic techniques. In the first method, we use the machinery of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to probe patterns of connection among vertices in static networks. The technique allows for the detection of a broad range of types of structure in networks. The second method focuses on time evolving networks. We propose an application of the EM algorithm to evolving networks that can reveal significant structural

  17. Introduction to neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    James, Frederick E

    1994-02-02

    1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.

  18. Constrained target controllability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan

    2017-06-01

    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  19. Network gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, John

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.

  20. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  1. Effects of Active Subsidence Vs. Existing Basin Geometry on Fluviodeltaic Channels and Stratal Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M.; Kim, W.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence and basin topography, both determining the accommodation, are fundamental controls on the basin filling processes. Their effects on the fluvial organization and the resultant subsurface patterns remain difficult to predict due to the lack of understanding about interaction between internal dynamics and external controls. Despite the intensive studies on tectonic steering effects on alluvial architecture, how the self-organization of deltaic channels, especially the distributary channel network, respond to tectonics and basin geometry is mostly unknown. Recently physical experiments and field studies have hinted dramatic differences in fluviodeltaic evolution between ones associated with active differential subsidence and existing basin depth. In this work we designed a series of numerical experiments using a reduced-complexity channel-resolving model for delta formation, and tested over a range of localized subsidence rates and topographic depression in basin geometry. We also used a set of robust delta metrics to analyze: i) shoreline planform asymmetry, ii) channel and lobe geometry, iii) channel network pattern, iv) autogenic timescales, and v) subsurface structure. The modeling results show that given a similar final thickness, active subsidence enhances channel branching with smaller channel sand bodies that are both laterally and vertically connected, whereas existing topographic depression causes more large-scale channel avulsions with larger channel sand bodies. In general, both subsidence and existing basin geometry could steer channels and/or lock channels in place but develop distinct channel patterns and thus stratal architecture.

  2. Improving Control Mechanism at Routers in TCP/IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing control mechanisms at the network nodes have a good active and very effective at each local router, but they do not still strong enough to control nonlinear and dynamical behaviour of the network. Therefore, the control system requirements must be designed to be flexible to fully grasp the important status information of the variation and intelligent control methods to control network congestion in nonlinear network. To solve this problem, we propose a solution combined fuzzy reasoning with neural network control put on active queue management mechanisms at the network nodes.

  3. Detecting P2P Botnet in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chiuan Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network separates the control plane from network equipment and has great advantage in network management as compared with traditional approaches. With this paradigm, the security issues persist to exist and could become even worse because of the flexibility on handling the packets. In this paper we propose an effective framework by integrating SDN and machine learning to detect and categorize P2P network traffics. This work provides experimental evidence showing that our approach can automatically analyze network traffic and flexibly change flow entries in OpenFlow switches through the SDN controller. This can effectively help the network administrators manage related security problems.

  4. Applying weighted network measures to microarray distance matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Garlaschelli, D.; Fink, T. M. A.; Caldarelli, G.

    2008-06-01

    In recent work we presented a new approach to the analysis of weighted networks, by providing a straightforward generalization of any network measure defined on unweighted networks. This approach is based on the translation of a weighted network into an ensemble of edges, and is particularly suited to the analysis of fully connected weighted networks. Here we apply our method to several such networks including distance matrices, and show that the clustering coefficient, constructed by using the ensemble approach, provides meaningful insights into the systems studied. In the particular case of two datasets from microarray experiments the clustering coefficient identifies a number of biologically significant genes, outperforming existing identification approaches.

  5. Applying weighted network measures to microarray distance matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnert, S E [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Garlaschelli, D [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Fink, T M A [Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 144, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris (France); Caldarelli, G [INFM-CNR Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi and Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' Piazzale Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2008-06-06

    In recent work we presented a new approach to the analysis of weighted networks, by providing a straightforward generalization of any network measure defined on unweighted networks. This approach is based on the translation of a weighted network into an ensemble of edges, and is particularly suited to the analysis of fully connected weighted networks. Here we apply our method to several such networks including distance matrices, and show that the clustering coefficient, constructed by using the ensemble approach, provides meaningful insights into the systems studied. In the particular case of two datasets from microarray experiments the clustering coefficient identifies a number of biologically significant genes, outperforming existing identification approaches.

  6. Network Frontier Workshop 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-11

    networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks and social networks. This field has received a major boost caused by the availability of huge...networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal...structures in a wide range of examples—including road networks in large urban areas, a rabbit warren, a dolphin social network, a European interbank network

  7. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  8. Surface Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrikov, Ilya; Bruna, Joan; Panozzo, Daniele; Zorin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    We study data-driven representations for three-dimensional triangle meshes, which are one of the prevalent objects used to represent 3D geometry. Recent works have developed models that exploit the intrinsic geometry of manifolds and graphs, namely the Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and its spectral variants, which learn from the local metric tensor via the Laplacian operator. Despite offering excellent sample complexity and built-in invariances, intrinsic geometry alone is invariant to isometr...

  9. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  10. A Bi-Projection Neural Network for Solving Constrained Quadratic Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youshen; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a bi-projection neural network for solving a class of constrained quadratic optimization problems is proposed. It is proved that the proposed neural network is globally stable in the sense of Lyapunov, and the output trajectory of the proposed neural network will converge globally to an optimal solution. Compared with existing projection neural networks (PNNs), the proposed neural network has a very small model size owing to its bi-projection structure. Furthermore, an application to data fusion shows that the proposed neural network is very effective. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed neural network is much faster than the existing PNNs.

  11. A network model of the interbank market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouwei; He, Jianmin; Zhuang, Yaming

    2010-12-01

    This work introduces a network model of an interbank market based on interbank credit lending relationships. It generates some network features identified through empirical analysis. The critical issue to construct an interbank network is to decide the edges among banks, which is realized in this paper based on the interbank’s degree of trust. Through simulation analysis of the interbank network model, some typical structural features are identified in our interbank network, which are also proved to exist in real interbank networks. They are namely, a low clustering coefficient and a relatively short average path length, community structures, and a two-power-law distribution of out-degree and in-degree.

  12. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  13. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  14. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    Full Text Available Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  15. Strategies for optical transport network recovery under epidemic network failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kosteas, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    manner under different failure scenarios. This work evaluates two rerouting strategies and proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under generalized multiprotocol label switching control plane. The performance of the strategies and the policies...... are evaluated under multiple correlated large-scale failures. We employ the Susceptible–Infected– Disabled epidemic failure spreading model and look into possible trade-offs between resiliency and resource effi- ciency. Via extensive simulations, we show that source rerouting outperforms on-site rerouting......, and that there exist a clear trade-off between policy performance and network resource consumption, which must be addressed by network operators for improved robustness of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections...

  16. Existence of minimizers in restricted Hartree-Fock theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hantsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we establish the existence of ground states for atoms within several restricted Hartree-Fock theories. It is shown, for example, that there exists a ground state for closed shell atoms with N electrons and nuclear charge $Z \\geq N-1$. This has to be compared with the general Hartree-Fock theory where the existence of a minimizer is known for $Z >N-1$ only.

  17. Pre-existing Antibody: Biotherapeutic Modality-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gorovits, Boris; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Birchler, Mary; Liang, Meina; Myler, Heather; Peng, Kun; Purushothama, Shobha; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Salazar-Fontana, Laura; Sung, Crystal; Xue, Li

    2016-01-01

    Pre-existing antibodies to biotherapeutic drugs have been detected in drug-naïve subjects for a variety of biotherapeutic modalities. Pre-existing antibodies are immunoglobulins that are either specific or cross-reacting with a protein or glycan epitopes on a biotherapeutic compound. Although the exact cause for pre-existing antibodies is often unknown, environmental exposures to non-human proteins, glycans, and structurally similar products are frequently proposed as factors. Clinical conseq...

  18. What Can We Learn About Blazars With Exist Mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2010-01-01

    The EXIST mission provides a great opportunity to study blazars. Recent Fermi results confirmed the spectral differences between two classes of blazars in the gamma-ray band, e.g. BL Lacs and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars. EXIST will provide data in the the lower energy band where the origin of the gamma-rays in these two classes can be constrained. We will discuss model constraints that can be placed with the new data from EXIST.

  19. Statistical physics of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huafeng

    We live in a connected world. It is of great practical importance and intellectual appeal to understand the networks surrounding us. In this work we study ranking of the nodes in complex networks. In large networks such as World Wide Web (WWW) and citation networks of scientific literature, searching by keywords is a common practice to retrieve useful information. On the WWW, apart from the contents of webpages, the topology of the network itself can be a rich source of information about their relative importance and relevancy to the search query. It is the effective utilization of this topological information [50] which advanced the Google search engine to its present position of the most popular tool on the WWW. The World-Wide Web (WWW) is characterized by a strong community structure in which communities of webpages are densely interconnected by hyperlinks. We study how such network architecture affects the average Google ranking of individual webpages in the community. Using a mean-field approximation, we quantify how the average Google rank of community's webpages depends on the degree to which it is isolated from the rest of the world in both incoming and outgoing directions, and alpha -- the only intrinsic parameter of Google's PageRank algorithm. We proceed with numerical study of simulated networks and empirical study of several internal web-communities within two US universities. The predictions of our mean-field treatment were qualitatively verified in those real-life networks. Furthermore, the value alpha = 0.15 used by Google seems to be optimized for the degree of isolation of communities as they exist in the actual WWW. We then extend Google's PageRank algorithm to citation networks of scientific literature. Unlike hyperlinks, citations cannot be updated after the point of publication. This results in strong aging characteristics of citation networks that affect the performance of the PageRank algorithm. To rectify this we modify the Page

  20. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  1. Expandable External Payload Carrier for Existing Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous existing launch vehicles have excess performance that is not being optimized. By taking advantage of excess, unused, performance, additional NASA...

  2. Complex Network Simulation of Forest Network Spatial Pattern in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network's power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network's degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network's main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc.) for networking a standard and base datum.

  3. Realistic computer network simulation for network intrusion detection dataset generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Garrett

    2015-05-01

    The KDD-99 Cup dataset is dead. While it can continue to be used as a toy example, the age of this dataset makes it all but useless for intrusion detection research and data mining. Many of the attacks used within the dataset are obsolete and do not reflect the features important for intrusion detection in today's networks. Creating a new dataset encompassing a large cross section of the attacks found on the Internet today could be useful, but would eventually fall to the same problem as the KDD-99 Cup; its usefulness would diminish after a period of time. To continue research into intrusion detection, the generation of new datasets needs to be as dynamic and as quick as the attacker. Simply examining existing network traffic and using domain experts such as intrusion analysts to label traffic is inefficient, expensive, and not scalable. The only viable methodology is simulation using technologies including virtualization, attack-toolsets such as Metasploit and Armitage, and sophisticated emulation of threat and user behavior. Simulating actual user behavior and network intrusion events dynamically not only allows researchers to vary scenarios quickly, but enables online testing of intrusion detection mechanisms by interacting with data as it is generated. As new threat behaviors are identified, they can be added to the simulation to make quicker determinations as to the effectiveness of existing and ongoing network intrusion technology, methodology and models.

  4. Research trends in existing technologies that are building blocks to the internet of things

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dlodlo3_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48014 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dlodlo3_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Research trends in existing... organisations that are involved in sensor and embedded systems research are the South African Earth Observation network (SEON), the South African National Space Agency (SANSA), and the CSIR’s units such as MSM, DPSS, Central Analytic Services (CAS), ESKOM...

  5. Obtaining Acoustic Cue Rate Estimates for Some Mysticete Species Using Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Blainville’s beaked whales ,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(4), 1982-1994. Moore, S.E., W.A. Watkins, M.A. Daher, J.R. Davies and M.E. Dahlheim (2002)”. Blue ...several species of endangered mysticete whales on and near U.S. Navy ranges, using existing recordings from both the SCORE and PMRF hydrophone...networks. One primary focus is to obtain cue rates for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off the California coast and on the PMRF range. To our

  6. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  7. Electrical Network Supervisor Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2001-01-01

    During year 2000 CERN has installed the Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS) for the monitoring and control of the equipment of the electrical distribution network located in about 100 substations throughout the different sites. In the first phase the system has been installed in parallel with the original CERN-developed system and databases and mimic diagrams have been prepared to cover parts of the distribution network. The system has been integrated with the general ST supervision systems for alarms monitoring and measurement logging, and the data from the ENS are gradually being integrated. In the second phase an extension of the system has been tested to include a direct industrial interface with the electrical equipment without the need for the existing CERN equipment interfaces. During the 2000-2001 shutdown the supervision will be renovated in a number of zones to operate a complete industrial system covering all aspects of the supervision from equipment interfaces to end-user applications.

  8. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  9. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed...

  10. Networked SIS Epidemics With Awareness

    KAUST Repository

    Paarporn, Keith

    2017-07-20

    We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic process over a static contact network where the nodes have partial information about the epidemic state. They react by limiting their interactions with their neighbors when they believe the epidemic is currently prevalent. A node\\'s awareness is weighted by the fraction of infected neighbors in their social network, and a global broadcast of the fraction of infected nodes in the entire network. The dynamics of the benchmark (no awareness) and awareness models are described by discrete-time Markov chains, from which mean-field approximations (MFAs) are derived. The states of the MFA are interpreted as the nodes\\' probabilities of being infected. We show a sufficient condition for the existence of a

  11. Tension and robustness in multitasking cellular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Wong

    Full Text Available Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of "tension" between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between "one-size-fits-all" solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks.

  12. Tension and Robustness in Multitasking Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey V.; Li, Bochong; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters) that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of “tension” between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between “one-size-fits-all” solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks. PMID:22577355

  13. Entrepreneurial networks as culturally embedded phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Skokic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship research concerning networks has largely focused on network structure, content and governance. We believe that further research is required in order to gain a richer understanding of why specific network forms and types originated. The purpose of this paper is to explore the existence, importance, values and meanings of both the informal and formal networks and networking behaviours of small-scale hotel owner-managers embedded in the socio-economic context of Croatia. In order to gain richer and more detailed understanding of entrepreneurial networks and to understand the influence of socio-economic setting on entrepreneurial networking, we have employed qualitative, in-depth study with small hotel owners. Results suggest that entrepreneurs do not establish strong personal and firm-to-firm ties, but rather focus on formal associations. Reported findings identify socio-cultural factors apparently unique to the context of former socialist economy which have the potential to explain the reported networking behaviour. The adopted research approach brings another dimension to existing theoretical underpinnings, which can encourage researchers to extend or revise theories with new contextual variables.

  14. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-09-05

    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( https://cran.r-project.org/package=neat ).

  15. Reconstruction of LGT networks from tri-LGT-nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Pons, Joan Carles

    2017-12-01

    Phylogenetic networks have gained attention from the scientific community due to the evidence of the existence of evolutionary events that cannot be represented using trees. A variant of phylogenetic networks, called LGT networks, models specifically lateral gene transfer events, which cannot be properly represented with generic phylogenetic networks. In this paper we treat the problem of the reconstruction of LGT networks from substructures induced by three leaves, which we call tri-LGT-nets. We first restrict ourselves to a class of LGT networks that are both mathematically treatable and biologically significant, called BAN-LGT networks. Then, we study the decomposition of such networks in subnetworks with three leaves and ask whether or not this decomposition determines the network. The answer to this question is negative, but if we further impose time-consistency (species involved in a later gene transfer must coexist) the answer is affirmative, up to some redundancy that can never be recovered but is fully characterized.

  16. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    fingerprinting tools include QueSO [10] (literally translates to “what OS”) and nmap [11], however there are a number of additional tools available for...Network Attack Reference Data Set J. McKenna and J. Treurniet Defence R&D Canada √ Ottawa TECHNICAL...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources

  17. Semantic mining of social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The first kinds of questions we try to answer are: What are the fundamental factors that form the different categories of social ties? How have reciprocal relationships been developed fro parasocial relationships? How do connected users further form groups? Another theme addressed in this book is the study of social influence. Social influence occurs when one's opinions, emotions, or behaviors are affected by others, intentionally or unintentionally. Considerable research has been conducted to verify the existence of social influence in various networks.

  18. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  19. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  20. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...