WorldWideScience

Sample records for networked uninhabited air

  1. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  2. Autonomous Soaring for Improved Endurance of a Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A relatively unexplored method to improve the endurance of an autonomous aircraft is to use buoyant plumes of air found in the lower atmosphere called thermals or updrafts. Glider pilots and birds commonly use updrafts to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. This report presents a quantitative analysis of a small electric-powered uninhabited air vehicle using updrafts to extend its endurance over a target location. A three-degree-of-freedom simulation of the uninhabited air vehicle was used to determine the yearly effect of updrafts on performance. Surface radiation and rawinsonde balloon measurements taken at Desert Rock, Nevada, were used to determine updraft size, strength, spacing, shape, and maximum height for the simulation. A fixed-width spiral path was used to search for updrafts at the same time as maintaining line-of-sight to the surface target position. Power was used only when the aircraft was flying at the lower-altitude limit in search of updrafts. Results show that an uninhabited air vehicle with a nominal endurance of 2 hours can fly a maximum of 14 hours using updrafts during the summer and a maximum of 8 hours during the winter. The performance benefit and the chance of finding updrafts both depend on what time of day the uninhabited air vehicle is launched. Good endurance and probability of finding updrafts during the year was obtained when the uninhabited air vehicle was launched 30 percent into the daylight hours after sunrise each day. Yearly average endurance was found to be 8.6 hours with these launch times.

  3. Uninhabited Traffic Management System Evaluator (UTME), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Manager Evaluator (UTME) specifically targeted at evaluating...

  4. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  5. Prediction of indoor concentration of 0.5-4 µm particles of outdoor origin in an uninhabited apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Jensen, K.A.; Clausen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor particle size distributions, indoor-outdoor pressure difference, indoor air-exchange rate, and meteorological conditions were measured at an uninhabited apartment located in a busy street in Copenhagen during 1-month long fall, winter and spring campaigns. Particle penetration...... was estimated from concentration rebound measurements following HEPA filtering of the indoor air by fitting a simple deterministic model. The model included measured air exchange rates and published surface deposition loss rates. This model was then used to predict indoor particle concentration. The model...

  6. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  7. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  8. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  9. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  10. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  11. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  12. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  13. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  14. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  15. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  16. Group Centric Networking: Large Scale Over the Air Testing of Group Centric Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Large Scale Over-the-Air Testing of Group Centric Networking Logan Mercer, Greg Kuperman, Andrew Hunter, Brian Proulx MIT Lincoln Laboratory...performance of Group Centric Networking (GCN), a networking protocol developed for robust and scalable communications in lossy networks where users are...devices, and the ad-hoc nature of the network . Group Centric Networking (GCN) is a proposed networking protocol that addresses challenges specific to

  17. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  18. Outlier Detection in Urban Air Quality Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, V.M.; Stein, A.; Hoek, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly

  19. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force's Computer Network in the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courville, Shane P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the Air Force and the Department of Defense (DoD) in general, have numerous safeguards in effect to protect systems and their networks, DoD relies on a system that is "passive" when encountering cyber threats...

  20. Analysis of the Chinese air route network as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai-Quan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-02-01

    The air route network, which supports all the flight activities of the civil aviation, is the most fundamental infrastructure of air traffic management system. In this paper, we study the Chinese air route network (CARN) within the framework of complex networks. We find that CARN is a geographical network possessing exponential degree distribution, low clustering coefficient, large shortest path length and exponential spatial distance distribution that is obviously different from that of the Chinese airport network (CAN). Besides, via investigating the flight data from 2002 to 2010, we demonstrate that the topology structure of CARN is homogeneous, howbeit the distribution of flight flow on CARN is rather heterogeneous. In addition, the traffic on CARN keeps growing in an exponential form and the increasing speed of west China is remarkably larger than that of east China. Our work will be helpful to better understand Chinese air traffic systems.

  1. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  2. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  3. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANCED AIR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Udzhukhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach allowing one to predict the development of air-route network is proposed. It proceeds from the principle of increasing the accessibility of points of destination, that is to make available for passengers non-stop flights or flights with one transit landing in case of the largest number of routes. With comparative analysis of possible variants of extending the structure of air-route network, it is reasonable to take into account a generalized time parameter and a number of alternative routes for passenger delivery from departure point to point of destination.

  4. The GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vömel, H.; Berger, F. H.; Immler, F. J.; Seidel, D.; Thorne, P.

    2009-04-01

    While the global upper-air observing network has provided useful observations for operational weather forecasting for decades, its measurements lack the accuracy and long-term continuity needed for understanding climate change. Consequently, the scientific community faces uncertainty on such key issues as the trends of temperature in the upper troposphere and stratosphere or the variability and trends of stratospheric water vapour. To address these shortcomings, and to ensure that future climate records will be more useful than the records to date, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program initiated the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN). GRUAN will be a network of about 30-40 observatories with a representative sampling of geographic regions and surface types. These stations will provide upper-air reference observations of the essential climate variables, i.e. temperature, geopotential, humidity, wind, radiation and cloud properties using specialized radiosondes and complementary remote sensing profiling instrumentation. Long-term stability, quality assurance / quality control, and a detailed assessment of measurement uncertainties will be the key aspects of GRUAN observations. The network will not be globally complete but will serve to constrain and adjust data from more spatially comprehensive global observing systems including satellites and the current radiosonde networks. This paper outlines the scientific rationale for GRUAN, its role in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, network requirements and likely instrumentation, management structure, current status and future plans.

  5. WMO background air pollution monitoring network (BAPMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, A

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the network include the establishment of baseline measurements of the global troposphere against which subsequent changes can be measured. The minimum program includes analysis of wet precipitation, observation of the aerosol optical depth, and sampling of suspended particulates. Standardization efforts have resulted in accuracies in rainwater samples to within 10%. Pollutant levels are shown for regional, urban and continental stations. The possibility of establishing median values for different modes of operation at a station (background and nonbackground mode) is examined. The interference of water vapor with CO/sub 2/ measurements is discussed.

  6. Enhanced data validation strategy of air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Mohamed-Faouzi; Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem

    2018-01-01

    Quick validation and detection of faults in measured air quality data is a crucial step towards achieving the objectives of air quality networks. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are threefold: (i) to develop a modeling technique that can be used to predict the normal behavior of air quality variables and help provide accurate reference for monitoring purposes; (ii) to develop fault detection method that can effectively and quickly detect any anomalies in measured air quality data. For this purpose, a new fault detection method that is based on the combination of generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) will be developed. GLRT is a well-known statistical fault detection method that relies on maximizing the detection probability for a given false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose to develop GLRT-based EWMA fault detection method that will be able to detect the changes in the values of certain air quality variables; (iii) to develop fault isolation and identification method that allows defining the fault source(s) in order to properly apply appropriate corrective actions. In this paper, reconstruction approach that is based on Midpoint-Radii Principal Component Analysis (MRPCA) model will be developed to handle the types of data and models associated with air quality monitoring networks. All air quality modeling, fault detection, fault isolation and reconstruction methods developed in this paper will be validated using real air quality data (such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen and carbon oxides measurement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AIR POLLUITON INDEX PREDICTION USING MULTIPLE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring and forecasting tools are necessary for the purpose of taking precautionary measures against air pollution, such as reducing the effect of a predicted air pollution peak on the surrounding population and ecosystem. In this study a single Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (FANN is shown to be able to predict the Air Pollution Index (API with a Mean Squared Error (MSE and coefficient determination, R2, of 0.1856 and 0.7950 respectively. However, due to the non-robust nature of single FANN, a selective combination of Multiple Neural Networks (MNN is introduced using backward elimination and a forward selection method. The results show that both selective combination methods can improve the robustness and performance of the API prediction with the MSE and R2 of 0.1614 and 0.8210 respectively. This clearly shows that it is possible to reduce the number of networks combined in MNN for API prediction, without losses of any information in terms of the performance of the final API prediction model.

  8. Structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN). • We compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. • It is found that small-world property and rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by major airlines. - Abstract: Recently multilayer networks are attracting great attention because the properties of many real-world systems cannot be well understood without considering their different layers. In this paper, we investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN) by progressively merging layers together, where each commercial airline (company) defines a layer. The results show that the high clustering coefficient, short characteristic path length and large collection of reachable destinations of the Chinese ATMN can only emerge when several layers are merged together. Moreover, we compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. It is found that the small-world property and the rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by those layers corresponding to major airlines. Our work will highlight a better understanding of the Chinese air transportation network.

  9. Global thermal analysis of air-air cooled motor based on thermal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Leng, Xue; Shen, Li; Liu, Haidong

    2018-02-01

    The air-air cooled motors with high efficiency, large starting torque, strong overload capacity, low noise, small vibration and other characteristics, are widely used in different department of national industry, but its cooling structure is complex, it requires the motor thermal management technology should be high. The thermal network method is a common method to calculate the temperature field of the motor, it has the advantages of small computation time and short time consuming, it can save a lot of time in the initial design phase of the motor. The domain analysis of air-air cooled motor and its cooler was based on thermal network method, the combined thermal network model was based, the main components of motor internal and external cooler temperature were calculated and analyzed, and the temperature rise test results were compared to verify the correctness of the combined thermal network model, the calculation method can satisfy the need of engineering design, and provide a reference for the initial and optimum design of the motor.

  10. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  11. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  12. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Situational Awareness Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebalj, Derek

    2008-01-01

    ... > 1. The ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1...

  13. Operator State Estimation for Adaptive Aiding in Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    1992). Van Boxtel, A., W. Waterink, and I.J.T. Veldhuizen . “Tonic Facial EMG Activity As An Index of Mental Effort: Effects of Work Rate, Time-On...the ‘normal’ functioning of brain activity (Beaumont, Burov, Carter, Cheuvront, Sawka, Wilson, Van Orden, Hockey, Balkin and Gundel, 2004). For...by the sympathetic nervous system. Electromyographic activity has been shown to predict arousal accurately ( Veldhuizen , Gaillard, and de Vries, 2003

  14. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  15. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-02-05

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  16. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  17. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  18. The control network of air quality in the Lorraine steel industry country: an example of a specific steel industry network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncin, G.

    1991-01-01

    This specific (for steel industry region) network for the air quality control mainly measures the concentrations in sulfur dioxide, airborne dust and fall out particles. The recent automation of this network implied a preliminary optimization study which consisted of a statistical analysis of the numerous data collected by many hand operated sensors. The implementation and working conditions of the new equipment have required the use of air-conditioned monoblock metallic cabins

  19. Development of multiplexing network for air conditioner systems; Eakon yo LAN system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T; Nakazawa, Y; Nakase, M; Sato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, M; Okasato, Y; Sunaga, H [Calsonic Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Plural air flap actuators of the air conditioner system in a vehicle have been integrated into a single-type actuator using two newly developed technologies: super-low-cost multiplexing network technology and digital motor control technology with a 1-bit A/D converter. The number of harnesses and connectors and the handling load of the air conditioner control microcomputer are reduced, so that we succeeded in sharply reducing the cost of the air conditioner system. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  1. Quality assurance and quality control for Hydro-Quebec's ambient air monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.; Varfalvy, L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro Quebec has three ambient air monitoring networks to determine the contribution of some of its thermal plants to ambient air quality. They are located in Becancour (gas turbines), Iles-de-la-Madeleine (diesel), and Tracy (conventional oil-fired). To ensure good quality results and consistency between networks, a quality assurance/quality control program was set up. A description is presented of the ambient air quality monitoring network and the quality assurance/quality control program. A guide has been created for use by the network operators, discussing objectives of the individual network, a complete description of each network, field operation for each model of instrument in use, treatment of data for each data logger in use, global considerations regarding quality assurance and control, and reports. A brief overview is presented of the guide's purpose and contents, focusing on the field operation section and the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide monitors. 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Air radioactivity: to assess risks. Tools answer citizen questions. The Opera-Air network: the journey of a filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Damien; Gariel, Jean-Christophe; Bruno, Valerie; Debayle, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Very highly efficient filters containing a porous glass fibre fabric are used in industrial installations to trap radioactive or toxic particles in order to limit their release, notably in accidental situations. Thus this set of articles discusses various issues related to the use of such filters. A first one describes how air radioactivity is continuously monitored by two coexisting networks: Opera-Air and Teleray. It indicates where air radioactivity comes from, and how the origin of a release can be determined, and outlines the importance of modelling tools. Air monitoring about the Gravelines nuclear power plant is briefly presented with a drawing. A second article comments the existence of numerous tools which are used as information channels about the monitoring of air radioactivity: web sites, mobile application, and so on. The last article briefly describes the journey of a filter from its removal on a Monday to a complete and validated analysis which lasts between two and four weeks

  3. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  4. Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Hong Yang

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key challenge of exploiting wind energy in practical UAV operations lies in the availability of reliable and timely wind field information in the operational region. This thesis presents a practical onboard strategy that attempts to over-come this challenge, to enable UAVs in utilizing wind energy effectively during flights, and therefore to enhance performance. We propose and explore a strategy that combines wind measurement and optimal trajectory planning onboard UAVs. During a cycle of a loiter flight, a UAV can take measurements of wind velocity components over the flight region, use these measurements to estimate the local wind field through a model-based approach, and then compute a flight trajectory for the next flight cycle with the objective of optimizing fuel. As the UAV follows the planned trajectory, it continues to measure the wind components and repeats the process of updating the wind model with new estimations and planning optimal trajectories for the next flight cycle. Besides presenting an onboard trajectory planning strategy of wind energy exploration, estimation, and utilization, this research also develops a semi-analytical linearized solution to the formulated nonlinear optimal control problem. Simulations and numerical results indicate that the fuel savings of trajectories generated using the proposed scheme depend on wind speed, wind estimation errors, rates of change in wind speed, and the wind model structures. For a given wind field, the magnitude of potential fuel savings is also contingent upon UAVs' performance capabilities.

  5. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In January 1993 within the framework of the LIFE programme a project was financed which aim was to develop a deposition monitoring method for air pollution of Europe. This method should be used to extend existing European monitoring networks of air concentrations to provide deposition inputs on an

  6. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  7. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  8. Army Air and Missile Defense Network Design Facility (AAMDNDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides JTIDS network designs and platform initialization load files for all Joint and Army-only tests, exercises, operations, and contingency events...

  9. Modeling a cold-air drainage event with a wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Brian R. Zutta; Eric A. Graham; Philip W. Rundel

    2005-01-01

    A wireless network of sensors was used to characterize a cold-air drainage event in the canyon surrounding the James Reserve. The flow of cold air at night and the first hours of sunrise have major ecological consequences by limiting the vegetation types to those tolerant of freeze and thaw cycles. A network of wireless sensors provides the opportunity to track this event in real time and fully characterize the cold air flow down the canyon, which may last 1.5 hours, and the pooling of cold a...

  10. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  11. Security for the Mythical Air-Dropped Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamage, C.D.; Bicakci, K.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The research area of very large scale wireless sensor networks made of low-cost sensors is gaining a lot of interest as witnessed by the large number of published papers. The security aspects of such networks are addressed as well, and in particular many security papers investigating the security

  12. Identifying vital edges in Chinese air route network via memetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development in the past decade, air transportation system has attracted considerable research attention from diverse communities. While most of the previous studies focused on airline networks, here we systematically explore the robustness of the Chinese air route network, and identify the vital edges which form the backbone of Chinese air transportation system. Specifically, we employ a memetic algorithm to minimize the network robustness after removing certain edges, and hence the solution of this model is the set of vital edges. Counterintuitively, our results show that the most vital edges are not necessarily the edges of the highest topological importance, for which we provide an extensive explanation from the microscope view. Our findings also offer new insights to understanding and optimizing other real-world network systems.

  13. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  14. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  15. Annual report 1990/91 for the Hamburg air monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemer, D.; Hache, W.; Matzen, D.; Reich, T.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to measured results form the stationary air monitoring network from 1990 (detailed report) and 1991 (brief version), the annual report 1990/91 presents results form special measuring programs of the dynmao car area and from measurements made on the street dating from 1990/91. After a detailed presentation of the meteorological frame conditions in 1990, distinguishing by a relatively good air exchange, a detailed discussion of the air load during this period and a brief survey about the air quality in 1991 follows. (orig.) [de

  16. UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE STABILIZATION BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Andropov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.

  17. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  18. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  19. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen; He, Hong-Di; Dong, Li-yun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  20. Zenith-100 Microcomputer Network for Air Command and Staff College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34 AD-A182 495 ZENI T-ipo ml CROCOMFUT E NET WOR( FOR AIR COMAND AND h SAFF CoLLG (U) AIl COMMAND ANDCSTAFF COLL MAX(WELL AFS "CAL W L GALWAY El AL...processing of documents by eliminating the time required to physically move the documents from one office to the next. Reproduction Savings. Information

  1. Research on the Topological Properties of Air Quality Index Based on a Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the dynamic characteristics of air quality for enforcing effective measures to prevent and evade air pollution harm, air quality index (AQI time series data was selected and transformed into a symbol sequence consisting of characters (H, M, L through the coarse graining process; then each 6-symbols series was treated as one vertex by time sequence to construct the AQI directed-weighted network; finally the centrality, clusterability, and ranking of the AQI network were analyzed. The results indicated that vertex strength and cumulative strength distribution, vertex strength and strength rank presented power law distributions, and the AQI network is a scale-free network. Only 17 vertices possessed a higher weighted clustering coefficient; meanwhile weighted clustering coefficient and vertex strength didn’t show a strong correlation. The AQI network did not have an obvious central tendency towards intermediaries in general, but 20.55% of vertices accounted for nearly 1/2 of the intermediaries, and the varieties still existed. The mean distance of 68.4932% of vertices was 6.120–9.973, the AQI network did not have obvious small-world phenomena, the conversion of AQI patterns presented the characteristics of periodicity and regularity, and 20.2055% of vertices had high proximity prestige. The vertices fell into six islands, the AQI pattern indicating heavy or serious air pollution lasting six days always lingered for a long time. The number of triads 2-012 was the largest, and the AQI network followed the transitivity model. The study has instructional significance in understanding time change regulation of air quality in Beijing, opening a new way for time series prediction research. Additionally, the factors causing the change of topological properties should be analyzed in the future research.

  2. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  3. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Network-Centric Operations Case Study: Air-to-Air Combat With and Without Link 16

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Daniel; Hollywood, John; Kingston, Gina; Signori, David

    2005-01-01

    ...) Operational Special Project. In this exercise, the capabilities of F-15 air superiority aircraft equipped with voice-only communications were compared with F-15s equipped with voice and JTIDS Link 16 data link communications...

  5. On the feasibility of measuring urban air pollution by wireless distributed sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltchanov, Sharon; Levy, Ilan; Etzion, Yael; Lerner, Uri; Broday, David M; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of air pollution on human-wellbeing requires high-resolution measurements. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate pollution levels but due to their sparse distribution they cannot capture the highly resolved spatial variations within cities. Similarly, dedicated field campaigns can use tens of measurement devices and obtain highly dense spatial coverage but normally deployment has been limited to short periods of no more than few weeks. Nowadays, advances in communication and sensory technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of wireless distributed air monitoring nodes, yet their sensor ability to capture the spatiotemporal pollutant variability at the sub-neighborhood scale has never been thoroughly tested. This study reports ambient measurements of gaseous air pollutants by a network of six wireless multi-sensor miniature nodes that have been deployed in three urban sites, about 150 m apart. We demonstrate the network's capability to capture spatiotemporal concentration variations at an exceptional fine resolution but highlight the need for a frequent in-situ calibration to maintain the consistency of some sensors. Accordingly, a procedure for a field calibration is proposed and shown to improve the system's performance. Overall, our results support the compatibility of wireless distributed sensor networks for measuring urban air pollution at a sub-neighborhood spatial resolution, which suits the requirement for highly spatiotemporal resolved measurements at the breathing-height when assessing exposure to urban air pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  7. Optimal redistribution of an urban air quality monitoring network using atmospheric dispersion model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong

    2018-03-01

    Air quality monitoring networks play a significant role in identifying the spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution, and they need to be deployed efficiently, with a minimum number of sites. The revision and optimal adjustment of existing monitoring networks is crucial for cities that have undergone rapid urban expansion and experience temporal variations in pollution patterns. The approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting-California PUFF (WRF-CALPUFF) model and genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to design an optimal monitoring network. The maximization of coverage with minimum overlap and the ability to detect violations of standards were developed as the design objectives for redistributed networks. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the network size and site locations simultaneously for Shijiazhuang city, one of the most polluted cities in China. The assessment on the current network identified the insufficient spatial coverage of SO2 and NO2 monitoring for the expanding city. The optimization results showed that significant improvements were achieved in multiple objectives by redistributing the original network. Efficient coverage of the resulting designs improved to 60.99% and 76.06% of the urban area for SO2 and NO2, respectively. The redistributing design for multi-pollutant including 8 sites was also proposed, with the spatial representation covered 52.30% of the urban area and the overlapped areas decreased by 85.87% compared with the original network. The abilities to detect violations of standards were not improved as much as the other two objectives due to the conflicting nature between the multiple objectives. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the algorithm was slightly sensitive to the parameter settings, with the number of generations presented the most significant effect. Overall, our study presents an effective and feasible procedure for air quality network optimization at a city scale.

  8. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  9. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 werd vanuit het LIFE project van de Europese Commissie DG XI het project 'Towards the development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe' gefinancierd. Het doel van dit project was het ontwikkelen en implementeren van een depositiemonitoring-methode voor

  10. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  11. An Empirical Assessment of Temporal Decorrelation Using the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar over Forested Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hofton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical assessment of the impact of temporal decorrelation on interferometric coherence measured over a forested landscape. A series of repeat-pass interferometric radar images with a zero spatial baseline were collected with UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar, a fully polarimetric airborne L-band radar system. The dataset provided temporal separations of 45 minutes, 2, 7 and 9 days. Coincident airborne lidar and weather data were collected. We theoretically demonstrate that UAVSAR measurement accuracy enables accurate quantification of temporal decorrelation. Data analysis revealed precipitation events to be the main driver of temporal decorrelation over the acquisition period. The experiment also shows temporal decorrelation increases with canopy height, and this pattern was found consistent across forest types and polarization.

  12. Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.

  13. Analysis of 7Be behaviour in the air by using a multilayer perceptron neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samolov, A.; Dragović, S.; Daković, M.; Bačić, G.

    2014-01-01

    A multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of the 7 Be behaviour in the air as the function of meteorological parameters was developed. The model was optimized and tested using 7 Be activity concentrations obtained by standard gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air samples collected in Belgrade (Serbia) during 2009–2011 and meteorological data for the same period. Good correlation (r = 0.91) between experimental values of 7 Be activity concentrations and those predicted by ANN was obtained. The good performance of the model in prediction of 7 Be activity concentrations could provide basis for construction of models which would forecast behaviour of other airborne radionuclides. - Highlights: • Neural network analysis was used to predict airborne 7 Be activity using meteorological parameters as inputs. • Strong correlation between calculated and measured activities was found. • Obtained results can help in construction of a general model of 7 Be activity variation in air

  14. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  15. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  16. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B; Ferraiolo, A; Solisio, C; Ruaro, R

    1996-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  17. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  18. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  19. Architecture for an integrated real-time air combat and sensor network simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Evans A.; Rushing, John; Lin, Hong; Graves, Sara

    2007-04-01

    An architecture for an integrated air combat and sensor network simulation is presented. The architecture integrates two components: a parallel real-time sensor fusion and target tracking simulation, and an air combat simulation. By integrating these two simulations, it becomes possible to experiment with scenarios in which one or both sides in a battle have very large numbers of primitive passive sensors, and to assess the likely effects of those sensors on the outcome of the battle. Modern Air Power is a real-time theater-level air combat simulation that is currently being used as a part of the USAF Air and Space Basic Course (ASBC). The simulation includes a variety of scenarios from the Vietnam war to the present day, and also includes several hypothetical future scenarios. Modern Air Power includes a scenario editor, an order of battle editor, and full AI customization features that make it possible to quickly construct scenarios for any conflict of interest. The scenario editor makes it possible to place a wide variety of sensors including both high fidelity sensors such as radars, and primitive passive sensors that provide only very limited information. The parallel real-time sensor network simulation is capable of handling very large numbers of sensors on a computing cluster of modest size. It can fuse information provided by disparate sensors to detect and track targets, and produce target tracks.

  20. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  1. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  2. Constructing a generalized network design model to study air distribution in ventilation networks in subway with a single-track tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugin, IV

    2018-03-01

    In focus are the features of construction of the generalized design model for the network method to study air distribution in ventilation system in subway with the single-track tunnel. The generalizations, assumptions and simplifications included in the model are specified. The air distribution is calculated with regard to the influence of topology and air resistances of the ventilation network sections. The author studies two variants of the subway line: half-open and closed with dead end on the both sides. It is found that the total air exchange at a subway station depends on the station location within the line. The operating mode of fans remains unaltered in this case. The article shows that elimination of air leakage in the station ventilation room allows an increase in the air flow rate by 7–8% at the same energy consumption by fans. The influence of the stop of a train in the tunnel on the air distribution is illustrated.

  3. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  4. Air fuel ratio detector corrector for combustion engines using adaptive neurofuzzy networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Arora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A perfect mix of the air and fuel in internal combustion engines is desirable for proper combustion of fuel with air. The vehicles running on road emit harmful gases due to improper combustion. This problem is severe in heavy vehicles like locomotive engines. To overcome this problem, generally an operator opens or closes the valve of fuel injection pump of locomotive engines to control amount of air going inside the combustion chamber, which requires constant monitoring. A model is proposed in this paper to alleviate combustion process. The method involves recording the time-varying flow of fuel components in combustion chamber. A Fuzzy Neural Network is trained for around 40 fuels to ascertain the required amount of air to form a standard mix to produce non-harmful gases and about 12 fuels are used for testing the network’s performance. The network then adaptively determines the additional/subtractive amount of air required for proper combustion. Mean square error calculation ensures the effectiveness of the network’s performance.

  5. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  6. INFLUENCE OF APPLYING ADDITIONAL FORCING FANS FOR THE AIR DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem SZLĄZAK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining progress in underground mines cause the ongoing movement of working areas. Consequently, it becomes neces-sary to adapt the ventilation network of a mine to direct airflow into newly-opened districts. For economic reasons, opening new fields is often achieved via underground workings. Length of primary intake and return routes increases and also increases the total resistance of a complex ventilation network. The development of a subsurface structure can make it necessary to change the air distribution in a ventilation network. Increasing airflow into newly-opened districts is necessary. In mines where extraction does not entail gas-related hazards, there is possibility of implementing a push-pull ventilation system in order to supplement airflows to newly developed mining fields. This is achieved by installing sub-surface fan stations with forcing fans at the bottom of downcast shaft. In push-pull systems with multiple main fans, it is vital to select forcing fans with characteristic curves matching those of the existing exhaust fans to prevent undesirable mutual interaction. In complex ventilation networks it is necessary to calculate distribution of airflow (especially in net-works with a large number of installed fans. In the article the influence of applying additional forcing fans for the air distribution in ventilation network for underground mine were considered. There are also analysed the extent of over-pressure caused by the additional forcing fan in branches of the ventilation network (the operating range of additional forcing fan. Possibilities of increasing airflow rate in working areas were conducted.

  7. [Management of Uninhabitable Homes - Investigation of 186 Cases of Hoarding, Domestic Neglect and Squalor in Dortmund (Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, T; Kuster, J; Bispinck, R

    2015-12-01

    To develop an intervention concept for the management of uninhabitable homes. Retrospective analysis of 186 cases of the community mental health service in Dortmund (Germany) presenting with a destitute situation of the domestic environment as core problem. All patients suffered from psychiatric illnesses, mainly from addiction (F1: 41 %), psychosis (F2: 17 %), depression (F3: 17 %), and hoarding disorder (F63.8: 12 %). Main socio-demographic characteristics of our sample are: middle age (45-65 years, 48 %), male gender (73 %), isolated situation (only 7 % married, 84 % living alone), normal schooling (only 4 % without completion of schooling, 7 % attended a school for special needs), after initial integration into employment nearly all patients suffered vocational disintegration (5 % employed, 44 % unemployment benefit, 7 % welfare, 39 % pension or invalidity benefit).Psychosocial interventions differed between the 4 main diagnostic groups: F1: treatment of dependence (rehab) and treatment of concomitant somatic diseases; F2: admission to a psychiatric hospital and implementation of guardianship; F3: mediation of conflicts with neighbours/landlords and implementation of guardianship; F63.8: direct practical help by members of the community mental health team and organisation of home help/waste disposal. In all diagnostic groups, acceptance of help was impaired due to social withdrawal, resistance and psychiatric symptoms. At 13 %, compliance with help and interventions was lowest in the hoarder group (F1: 27 %, F2: 26 %, F3: 38 %). Consequently, in this group the poor outcome categories "nothing accomplished" and "lost flat/eviction" were more frequent (44 %, F1: 27 %, F2: 26 %, F3: 38 %). Concurrent to the deterioration of the domestic situation, patients suffer vocational disintegration as well as family and social isolation. Uninhabitable homes occur in the course of various severe and chronic psychiatric diseases

  8. A metric of influential spreading during contagion dynamics through the air transportation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nicolaides

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious diseases at the global scale is mediated by long-range human travel. Our ability to predict the impact of an outbreak on human health requires understanding the spatiotemporal signature of early-time spreading from a specific location. Here, we show that network topology, geography, traffic structure and individual mobility patterns are all essential for accurate predictions of disease spreading. Specifically, we study contagion dynamics through the air transportation network by means of a stochastic agent-tracking model that accounts for the spatial distribution of airports, detailed air traffic and the correlated nature of mobility patterns and waiting-time distributions of individual agents. From the simulation results and the empirical air-travel data, we formulate a metric of influential spreading--the geographic spreading centrality--which accounts for spatial organization and the hierarchical structure of the network traffic, and provides an accurate measure of the early-time spreading power of individual nodes.

  9. Wireless air monitoring network with new AMIZ-2004G dust monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Machaj, B.; Pienkos, P.; Swistowski, E.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of operation of the dust monitors is based on determination of dust mass deposited on air filters from known volumes of air samples. The dust mass is determined from radiation attenuation of a Pm-147 beta source. MIZA and AMIZ monitors produced in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland) additionally measure relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and temperature of the air. In case the measurements are made in a few different places, direct collection of the results requires that personnel of the environment protection units has to go frequently to the monitors and collect the data. To improve the data transmission, a new version of the AMIZ-2004G monitor was developed which is equipped with a GSM modem enabling communication with a central computer. Thanks to the new construction not only a remote wireless communication with AMIZ is possible, but also a monitoring network containing a higher number of dust monitors can be made. The measuring data from all the monitors in the network can now be collected in one central computer equipped with the GSM modem and a proper acquisition program. In 2005, two such monitoring networks were put into operation

  10. Long short-term memory neural network for air pollutant concentration predictions: Method development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Yao, Xiaojing; Cui, Shaolong; Hu, Yuan; You, Chengzeng; Chi, Tianhe

    2017-01-01

    Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance. Hourly PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) concentration data collected at 12 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing City from Jan/01/2014 to May/28/2016 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed LSTME model. Experiments were performed using the spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL) model, the time delay neural network (TDNN) model, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, the support vector regression (SVR) model, and the traditional LSTM NN model, and a comparison of the results demonstrated that the LSTME model is superior to the other statistics-based models. Additionally, the use of auxiliary data improved model performance. For the one-hour prediction tasks, the proposed model performed well and exhibited a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.93%. In addition, we conducted multiscale predictions over different time spans and achieved satisfactory performance, even for 13–24 h prediction tasks (MAPE = 31.47%). - Highlights: • Regional air pollutant concentration shows an obvious spatiotemporal correlation. • Our prediction model presents superior performance. • Climate data and metadata can significantly

  11. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharil Mad Saad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC, base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  12. Long short-term memory neural network for air pollutant concentration predictions: Method development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Yao, Xiaojing; Cui, Shaolong; Hu, Yuan; You, Chengzeng; Chi, Tianhe

    2017-12-01

    Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance. Hourly PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) concentration data collected at 12 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing City from Jan/01/2014 to May/28/2016 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed LSTME model. Experiments were performed using the spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL) model, the time delay neural network (TDNN) model, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, the support vector regression (SVR) model, and the traditional LSTM NN model, and a comparison of the results demonstrated that the LSTME model is superior to the other statistics-based models. Additionally, the use of auxiliary data improved model performance. For the one-hour prediction tasks, the proposed model performed well and exhibited a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.93%. In addition, we conducted multiscale predictions over different time spans and achieved satisfactory performance, even for 13-24 h prediction tasks (MAPE = 31.47%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  14. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  15. Seluge++: a secure over-the-air programming scheme in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Farzan; Abdur Razzaque, Mohammad; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2014-03-11

    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  16. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  17. Spatial and temporal trends from an air quality sensor network near a heavily trafficked intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P.; Vo, D.; Giossi, C.; George, L.

    2017-12-01

    With the world-wide increase in urbanization and the increasing usage of combustion vehicles in urban areas, traffic-related air pollution is a growing health hazard. However, there are limited studies that examine the spatial and temporal impacts of traffic-related pollutants within cities. In particular, there are few studies that look at traffic management and its potential for pollution mitigation. In a previous study we examined roadway pollution and traffic parameters with one roadway station instrumented with standard measurement instruments. With the advent of low-cost air pollution sensors, we have expanded our work by observing multiple sites within a neighborhood to understand spatial and temporal exposures. We have deployed a high-density sensor network around urban arterial corridors in SE Portland, Oregon. This network consisted of ten nodes measuring CO, NO, NO2 and O3, and ten nodes measuring CO, CO2, VOC and PM2.5. The co-location of standard measurement instruments provided insight towards the utility of our low-cost sensor network, as the different nodes varied in cost, and potentially in quality. We have identified near-real-time temporal trends and local-scale spatial patterns during the summer of 2017. Meteorological and traffic data were included to further characterize these patterns, exploring the potential for pollution mitigation.

  18. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  19. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  20. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  1. Dynamic Sleep Scheduling on Air Pollution Levels Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gezaq Abror; Rusminto Tjatur Widodo; M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2018-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be applied for Air Pollution Level Monitoring System that have been determined by the Environmental Impact Management Agency which is  PM10, SO2, O3, NO2 and CO. In WSN, node system is constrained to a limited power supply, so that the node system has a lifetime. To doing lifetime maximization, power management scheme is required and sensor nodes should use energy efficiently. This paper proposes dynamic sleep scheduling using Time Category-Fuzzy Logic (Time-...

  2. Neural network modeling of air pollution in tunnels according to indirect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaverzneva, T; Lazovskaya, T; Tarkhov, D; Vasilyev, A

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of providing the necessary parameters of air of the working area in dead-end tunnels in the case of ventilation systems powered off. An ill-posed initialboundary problem for the diffusion equation is used as a mathematical model for a description and analysis of mass transfer processes in the tunnel. The neural network approach is applied to construct an approximate solution (regularization) of the identification problem in the case of the approximate measurement data and the set of interval parameters of the modeled system. Two types of model measurements included binary data are considered. The direct problem solution and the inverse problem regularization for the offered neural network approach are constructed uniformly. (paper)

  3. Circularly Polarized Antenna Array Fed by Air-Bridge Free CPW-Slotline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of 1×2 and 2×2 circularly polarized (CP microstrip patch antenna arrays is presented in this paper. The two CP antenna arrays are fed by sequentially rotated coplanar waveguide (CPW to slotline networks and are processed on 1 mm thick single-layer FR4 substrates. Both of the two arrays are low-profile and lightweight. An air-bridge free CPW-slotline power splitter is appropriately designed to form the feeding networks and realize the two CP antenna arrays. The mechanism of circular polarization in this design is explained. The simulated and measured impedance bandwidths as well as the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths and the radiation patterns of the two proposed antenna arrays are presented. This proposed design can be easily extended to form a larger plane array with good performance owing to its simple structure.

  4. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise and the Current Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, David M

    2017-10-02

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented.

  5. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  6. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  7. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  8. What Does It Take to Establish that a World Is Uninhabited Prior to Exploitation? A Question of Ethics as well as Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Persson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available If we find life on another world, it will be an extremely important discovery and we will have to take great care not to do anything that might endanger that life. If the life we find is sentient we will have moral obligations to that life. Whether it is sentient or not, we have a duty to ourselves to preserve it as a study object, and also because it would be commonly seen as valuable in its own right. In addition to this we would also have a duty to our fellow humans and other earthly life forms not to expose them to danger by advertently or inadvertently exposing them to potentially harmful space organisms. When space exploration turns into exploitation it will therefore be important to be able to show that a world that is up for exploitation is uninhabited before the exploitation starts. Showing that a world is uninhabited is, however, a different kind of task than showing that it is inhabited. The latter task can be accomplished through one positive finding but it is not clear how to go about the former task. In this paper I suggest that it is a gradual process asymptotically approaching certainty rather than a discovery in the traditional sense of the word. It has to be handled in two steps. The first is to connect degree of certainty with research setup. The second is to decide how certain we need to be. The first step is about the number, diversity and quality of observations. The second step is a decision we have to make based on the purpose of the investigation. The purpose and therefore the degree of certainty needed to establish that a world is uninhabited will be different for a world that is up for exploitation than for a world that is not. In the latter case it is only a matter of epistemic values. In the former case also ethical values have to be considered.

  9. Coupling Network Computing Applications in Air-cooled Turbine Blades Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Yan, Peigang; Xie, Ming; Han, Wanjin

    2018-05-01

    Through establishing control parameters from blade outside to inside, the parametric design of air-cooled turbine blade based on airfoil has been implemented. On the basis of fast updating structure features and generating solid model, a complex cooling system has been created. Different flow units are modeled into a complex network topology with parallel and serial connection. Applying one-dimensional flow theory, programs have been composed to get pipeline network physical quantities along flow path, including flow rate, pressure, temperature and other parameters. These inner units parameters set as inner boundary conditions for external flow field calculation program HIT-3D by interpolation, thus to achieve full field thermal coupling simulation. Referring the studies in literatures to verify the effectiveness of pipeline network program and coupling algorithm. After that, on the basis of a modified design, and with the help of iSIGHT-FD, an optimization platform had been established. Through MIGA mechanism, the target of enhancing cooling efficiency has been reached, and the thermal stress has been effectively reduced. Research work in this paper has significance for rapid deploying the cooling structure design.

  10. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  11. Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can

  12. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  13. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, P.; Artinano, B.

    2000-01-01

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  14. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  15. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2018-02-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network. (paper)

  17. Forecasting Urban Air Quality via a Back-Propagation Neural Network and a Selection Sample Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on a sample selection rule and a Back Propagation (BP neural network, a new model of forecasting daily SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentration in seven sites of Guangzhou was developed using data from January 2006 to April 2012. A meteorological similarity principle was applied in the development of the sample selection rule. The key meteorological factors influencing SO2, NO2, and PM10 daily concentrations as well as weight matrices and threshold matrices were determined. A basic model was then developed based on the improved BP neural network. Improving the basic model, identification of the factor variation consistency was added in the rule, and seven sets of sensitivity experiments in one of the seven sites were conducted to obtain the selected model. A comparison of the basic model from May 2011 to April 2012 in one site showed that the selected model for PM10 displayed better forecasting performance, with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE values decreasing by 4% and R2 values increasing from 0.53 to 0.68. Evaluations conducted at the six other sites revealed a similar performance. On the whole, the analysis showed that the models presented here could provide local authorities with reliable and precise predictions and alarms about air quality if used at an operational scale.

  18. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  19. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  1. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  2. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  3. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (AT is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR. Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  4. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of the integrated water vapour (IWV and water vapour mixing ratio profiles provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS, Global Climate Observing System, Reference Upper-Air Network stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties on the IWV measured with radiosondes, global positioning system, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy with the IWV time series measured by radiosondes and therefore the highest potential to reduce the random uncertainty of the radiosondes time series. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument can be reduced by ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty is achieved by conditioning Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapour measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  5. Dynamic Sleep Scheduling on Air Pollution Levels Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezaq Abror

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN can be applied for Air Pollution Level Monitoring System that have been determined by the Environmental Impact Management Agency which is  PM10, SO2, O3, NO2 and CO. In WSN, node system is constrained to a limited power supply, so that the node system has a lifetime. To doing lifetime maximization, power management scheme is required and sensor nodes should use energy efficiently. This paper proposes dynamic sleep scheduling using Time Category-Fuzzy Logic (Time-Fuzzy Scheduling as a reference for calculating time interval for sleep and activated node system to support power management scheme. This research contributed in power management design to be applied to the WSN system to reduce energy expenditure. From the test result in real hardware node system, it can be seen that Time-Fuzzy Scheduling is better in terms of using the battery and it is better in terms of energy consumption too because it is more efficient 51.85% when it is compared with Fuzzy Scheduling, it is more efficient 68.81% when it is compared with Standard Scheduling and it is more efficient 85.03% when compared with No Scheduling.

  6. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  7. An Optimization of the Maintenance Assets Distribution Network in the Argentine Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Air Force (2010). Manual de Conduccion Logistica . Buenos Aires: HQ Argentine Air Force. Argentine Air Force (2012). El vuelo del condor: 1912-2012...recommendation was made to consider organic or private transportation and reduce transportation time in order to improve responsiveness and drive down...determine overall transportation demand and capacity required for a defined level of service, and to evaluate the tradeoffs between costs and service

  8. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Combining Community Engagement and Scientific Approaches in Next-Generation Monitor Siting: The Case of the Imperial County Community Air Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities. By engaging community residents in the project design, monitor siting processes, data dissemination, and other key activities, the resulting air monitoring network data are relevant, trusted, understandable, and used by community residents. Integration of spatial analysis and air monitoring best practices into the network development process ensures that the data are reliable and appropriate for use in research activities. This combined approach results in a community air monitoring network that is better able to inform community residents, support research activities, guide public policy, and improve public health. Here we detail the monitor siting process and outline the advantages and challenges of this approach.

  10. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  11. Indoor-air microbiome in an urban subway network: diversity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Wilkins, David; Li, Ellen K T; Kong, Fred K F; Lee, Patrick K H

    2014-11-01

    Subway systems are indispensable for urban societies, but microbiological characteristics of subway aerosols are relatively unknown. Previous studies investigating microbial compositions in subways employed methodologies that underestimated the diversity of microbial exposure for commuters, with little focus on factors governing subway air microbiology, which may have public health implications. Here, a culture-independent approach unraveling the bacterial diversity within the urban subway network in Hong Kong is presented. Aerosol samples from multiple subway lines and outdoor locations were collected. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V4 region, extensive taxonomic diversity was found, with the most common bacterial genera in the subway environment among those associated with skin. Overall, subway lines harbored different phylogenetic communities based on α- and β-diversity comparisons, and closer inspection suggests that each community within a line is dependent on architectural characteristics, nearby outdoor microbiomes, and connectedness with other lines. Microbial diversities and assemblages also varied depending on the day sampled, as well as the time of day, and changes in microbial communities between peak and nonpeak commuting hours were attributed largely to increases in skin-associated genera in peak samples. Microbial diversities within the subway were influenced by temperature and relative humidity, while carbon dioxide levels showed a positive correlation with abundances of commuter-associated genera. This Hong Kong data set and communities from previous studies conducted in the United States formed distinct community clusters, indicating that additional work is required to unravel the mechanisms that shape subway microbiomes around the globe. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  13. Analysis of the Connectivity and Centralization of Regional Air Freight Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    economic efficiency. Pegrum char- acterized the CAB’s ratemaking policy as thirty years of in- decision. In surveys comparing regulated and unregulated b...cipants in the air freight system are basically the shippers, the surface carriers, and the air carriers. Air freight forwarders are "indirect carriers...aircraft characteristics which I will raise the break-even load factor are its shape and design density. Aircraft fuselages are basically cylindrical

  14. Potential assessment of a neural network model with PCA/RBF approach for forecasting pollutant trends in Mong Kok urban air, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-Z.; Wang, W.-J.; Wang, X.-K.; Yan, S.-H.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    The forecasting of air pollutant trends has received much attention in recent years. It is an important and popular topic in environmental science, as concerns have been raised about the health impacts caused by unacceptable ambient air pollutant levels. Of greatest concern are metropolitan cities like Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, respirable suspended particulates (RSP), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are major air pollutants due to the dominant usage of diesel fuel by commercial vehicles and buses. Hence, the study of the influence and the trends relating to these pollutants is extremely significant to the public health and the image of the city. The use of neural network techniques to predict trends relating to air pollutants is regarded as a reliable and cost-effective method for the task of prediction. The works reported here involve developing an improved neural network model that combines both the principal component analysis technique and the radial basis function network and forecasts pollutant tendencies based on a recorded database. Compared with general neural network models, the proposed model features a more simple network architecture, a faster training speed, and a more satisfactory prediction performance. The improved model was evaluated with hourly time series of RSP, NO x and NO 2 concentrations monitored at the Mong Kok Roadside Gaseous Monitory Station in Hong Kong during the year 2000 and proved to be effective. The model developed is a potential tool for forecasting air quality parameters and is superior to traditional neural network methods

  15. Comparison for air kerma from radiation protection gamma-ray beams with Brazilian network: 2016/2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Silva, C.N.M. da, E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, C.M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silveira, R.R. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Khoury, H.; Saito, V. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernandes, E. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas; Cardoso, W.F.; Oliveira, H.P.S. de [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (Eletronuclear), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, J.C.; Pires, M.A. [MRA Comércio de Instrumentos Eletrônicos Ltda, SP (Brazil); Amorim, A.S. de; Balthar, M. [Centro Tecnológico do Exercito (CTEx), RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for {sup 137}Cs and 0.7% for {sup 60}Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO / IEC 17025. (author)

  16. Comparison for Air Kerma from Radiation Protection Gamma-ray Beams with Brazilian Network - 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, TS; da Silva, CNM; Potiens, MPA; Soares, CMA; Silveira, RR; Khoury, H.; Saito, V.; Fernandes, E.; Cardoso, WF; de Oliveira, HPS; Pires, MA; de Amorim, AS; Balthar, M.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the comparison involving 9 laboratories in Brazil are reported. The measured quantity was the air kerma in 137Cs and 60Co, at the level of radioprotection. The comparison was conducted by the National Laboratory Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD) from October 2016 to March 2017. The largest deviation between the calibration coefficients was 0.8% for 137Cs and 0.7% for 60Co. This proficiency exercise proved the technical capacity of the Brazilian calibration network in radiation monitors and the results were used by some in the implementation of the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  17. Prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds using genetic algorithm and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoz, Elahe; Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed and trained for the prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds. The inputs of this neural network are theoretically derived descriptors that were chosen by genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) features selection techniques. These descriptors are: R maximal autocorrelation of lag 1 weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities (R1E+), electron density on the most negative atom in molecule (EDNA), maximum partial charge for C atom (MXPCC), surface weighted charge partial surface area (WNSA1), fractional charge partial surface area (FNSA2) and atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (PPSA3). The standard errors of training, test and validation sets for the ANN model are 0.095, 0.148 and 0.120, respectively. Result obtained showed that nonlinear model can simulate the relationship between structural descriptors and the partition coefficients of the molecules in data set accurately

  18. Most atolls will be uninhabitable by the mid-21st century because of sea-level rise exacerbating wave-driven flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; Gingerich, Stephen B.; van Dongeren, Ap; Cheriton, Olivia; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Quataert, Ellen; Voss, Clifford I.; Field, Donald W.; Annamalai, Hariharasubramanian; Piniak, Greg A.; McCall, Robert T.

    2018-01-01

    Sea levels are rising, with the highest rates in the tropics, where thousands of low-lying coral atoll islands are located. Most studies on the resilience of these islands to sea-level rise have projected that they will experience minimal inundation impacts until at least the end of the 21st century. However, these have not taken into account the additional hazard of wave-driven overwash or its impact on freshwater availability. We project the impact of sea-level rise and wave-driven flooding on atoll infrastructure and freshwater availability under a variety of climate change scenarios. We show that, on the basis of current greenhouse gas emission rates, the nonlinear interactions between sea-level rise and wave dynamics over reefs will lead to the annual wave-driven overwash of most atoll islands by the mid-21st century. This annual flooding will result in the islands becoming uninhabitable because of frequent damage to infrastructure and the inability of their freshwater aquifers to recover between overwash events. This study provides critical information for understanding the timing and magnitude of climate change impacts on atoll islands that will result in significant, unavoidable geopolitical issues if it becomes necessary to abandon and relocate low-lying island states.

  19. Improving Air Force Active Network Defense Systems through an Analysis of Intrusion Detection Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunklee, David R

    2007-01-01

    .... The research then presents four recommendations to improve DCC operations. These include: Transition or improve the current signature-based IDS systems to include the capability to query and visualize network flows to detect malicious traffic...

  20. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  1. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L

    2011-10-18

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODS: We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. RESULTS: Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. CONCLUSIONS: For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed.

  2. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  3. Calibration of low-cost gas sensors for an urban air quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; He, C.; Ghugare, P.; Lehman, A.; Benish, S.; Stratton, P.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zuidema, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    In a warming world, environmental pollution may be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as climate change and the urban heat island effect, as well as natural phenomena such as heat waves. However, monitoring air pollution at federal reference standards (approximately 1 part per billion or ppb for ambient ozone) is cost-prohibitive in heterogeneous urban areas as many expensive devices are required to fully capture a region's geo-spatial variability. Innovation in low-cost sensors provide a potential solution, yet technical challenges remain to overcome possible imprecision in the data. We present the calibrations of ozone and nitrous dioxide from a low-cost air quality monitoring device designed for the Baltimore Open Air Project. The sensors used in this study are commercially available thin film electrochemical sensors from SPEC Sensor, which are amperometric, meaning they generate current proportional to volumetric fraction of gas. The results of sensor calibrations in the laboratory and field are presented.

  4. Calibration of an air monitor prototype for a radiation surveillance network based on gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Caballero, J.M.; Corbacho, J.Á.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M.Á.; Vasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the improvements that have been made in quasi-real-time air radioactivity concentration monitors which were initially based on overall activity determinations, by incorporating gamma spectrometry into the current prototype. To this end it was necessary to develop a careful efficiency calibration procedure for both the particulate and the gaseous fractions of the air being sampled. The work also reports the values of the minimum detectable activity calculated for different isotopes and acquisition times. - Highlights: • Deficiencies of a commercial air monitoring system are detailed. • Gamma spectrometry introduction is the basis of the new prototype. • Efficiency calibration procedure is described for aerosol and gaseous fractions. • MDA is evaluated for different isotopes and acquisition times

  5. Sistem Pemantauan Kadar pH, Suhu dan Warna pada Air Sungai Melalui Web Berbasis Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sabiq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is a very important natural resource for human life and other living things. Water pollution, especially in river water, should be controlled because of the rapid development. One technology to monitor multiple physical quantities scattered in a region is the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. WSN technology has the ability to transmit data from sensor readings and forward data received from other nodes. In this study, prototype monitoring system of pH level, temperature, and color based on WSN that can be monitored through the developed web. The sensors at each node are connected to Arduino Uno as a processing unit, data read from the sensor is sent to the sync node via XBee wireless device. In the sink, the PC also serves as a database server and a web server is used. Test results with two different dispersion indicate that sensor readings can be read by all nodes and received by the sync node and can be displayed on web pages that have been built. Air merupakan sumber daya alam yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia dan mahluk hidup lainnya. Pencemaran air khususnya air sungai perlu dikendalikan seiring makin cepatnya pembangunan. Salah satu teknologi untuk melakukan pemantauan besaran fisik dalam wilayah yang tersebar adalah Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, yang memiliki kemampuan untuk mengirimkan data hasil pembacaan sensor serta meneruskan data yang diterima dari node lain. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan purwarupa sistem pemantauan kadar pH, suhu dan warna berbasis WSN yang dapat dipantau melalui web. Sensor pada setiap node dihubungkan ke Arduino Uno sebagai unit pemroses, data yang dibaca dari sensor dikirimkan ke node sink melalui perangkat XBee nirkabel. Pada sink digunakan PC yang berfungsi juga sebagai database server dan web server. Hasil dari pengujian dengan dua penyebaran yang berbeda didapatkan hasil bahwa pembacaan sensor dapat dibaca oleh seluruh node dan diterima oleh sink serta dapat ditampilkan melalui laman web yang

  6. IMT-2000 Satellite Standards with Applications to Mobile Air Traffic Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000) standard and more specifically the Satellite component of it, is investigated as a potential alternative for communications to aircraft mobile users en-route and in terminal area. Its application to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs is considered. A summary of the specifications of IMT-2000 satellite standards are outlined. It is shown via a system research analysis that it is possible to support most air traffic communication needs via an IMT-2000 infrastructure. This technology can compliment existing, or future digital aeronautical communications technologies such as VDL2, VDL3, Mode S, and UAT.

  7. Optimization of an FPGA Trigger Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Detection of Neutrino-Induced Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz; Pytel, Krzysztof; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. Air showers initiated by protons and muon neutrinos at various altitudes, angles, and energies were simulated in CORSIKA and the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platforms, giving analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) patterns in Auger water Cherenkov detectors on the ground. The proton interaction cross section is high, so proton “old” showers start their development early in the atmosphere. In contrast to this, neutrinos can generate “young” showers deeply in the atmosphere relatively close to the detectors. Differences between “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers are visible in attenuation factors of ADC waveforms. For the separation of “old” proton and “young” neutrino ADC traces, many three-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) were tested. They were trained in MATLAB (in a dedicated way -only “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers as patterns) by simulated ADC traces according to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Unexpectedly, the recognition efficiency is found to be almost independent of the size of the networks. The ANN trigger based on a selected 8-6-1 network was tested in the Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7, the heart of prototype front-end boards developed for testing new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors.

  8. Wireless distributed environmental sensor networks for air pollution measurement-the promise and the current reality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Broday, D. M.; Arpaci, A.; Bartoňová, A.; Castell-Balaguer, N.; Cole-Hunter, T.; Dauge, F.R.; Fishbain, B.; Jones, R.L.; Galea, K.; Jovasevic-Stojanovic, M.; Kocman, D.; Martinez-Iniguez, T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Robinson, J.; Švecová, Vlasta; Thai, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2017), s. 2263 ISSN 1424-8220 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * in situ field calibration * micro sensing units Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  9. First results from the oil sands passive air monitoring network for polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Mihele, Cristian; Eng, Anita

    2015-03-03

    Results are reported from an ongoing passive air monitoring study for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed for consecutive 2-month periods from November 2010 to June 2012 at 17 sites. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, dibenzothiophene and its alkylated derivatives (DBTs). Relative to parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs and DBTs are enriched in bitumen and therefore considered to be petrogenic markers. Concentrations in air were in the range 0.03-210 ng/m(3), 0.15-230 ng/m(3) and 0.01-61 ng/m(3) for ∑PAHs, ∑alkylated PAHs and ΣDBTs, respectively. An exponential decline of the PAC concentrations in air with distance from mining areas and related petrogenic sources was observed. The most significant exponential declines were for the alkylated PAHs and DBTs and attributed to their association with mining-related emissions and near-source deposition, due to their lower volatility and greater association with depositing particles. Seasonal trends in concentrations in air for PACs were not observed for any of the compound classes. However, a forest fire episode during April to July 2011 resulted in greatly elevated PAH levels at all passive sampling locations. Alkylated PAHs and DBTs were not elevated during the forest fire period, supporting their association with petrogenic sources. Based on the results of this study, an "Athabasca PAC profile" is proposed as a potential source marker for the oil sands region. The profile is characterized by ∑PAHs/∑Alkylated PAHs = ∼0.2 and ∑PAHs/∑DBTs = ∼5.

  10. Artificial Neural Networks: A New Approach for Predicting Application Behavior. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Julie M. Byers; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    This paper examines how predictive modeling can be used to study application behavior. A relatively new technique, artificial neural networks (ANNs), was applied to help predict which students were likely to get into a large Research I university. Data were obtained from a university in Iowa. Two cohorts were used, each containing approximately…

  11. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Satus of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled ZoroufchiBenis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availabil­ity of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. Methods: A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program was explored for configur­ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids according to their ability to represent the ambient concentra­tion. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta­tion’s dosage to the total dosage in the network. Results: Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network effi­ciency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. Conclusion: The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  12. Assessment of an air pollution monitoring network to generate urban air pollution maps using Shannon information index, fuzzy overlay, and Dempster-Shafer theory, A case study: Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, Parham; Sheikhian, Hossein; Bigdeli, Behnaz

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution assessment is an imperative part of megacities planning and control. Hence, a new comprehensive approach for air pollution monitoring and assessment was introduced in this research. It comprises of three main sections: optimizing the existing air pollutant monitoring network, locating new stations to complete the coverage of the existing network, and finally, generating an air pollution map. In the first section, Shannon information index was used to find less informative stations to be candidate for removal. Then, a methodology was proposed to determine the areas which are not sufficiently covered by the current network. These areas are candidates for establishing new monitoring stations. The current air pollution monitoring network of Tehran was used as a case study, where the air pollution issue has been worsened due to the huge population, considerable commuters' absorption and topographic barriers. In this regard, O3, NO, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 were considered as the main pollutants of Tehran. Optimization step concluded that all the 16 active monitoring stations should be preserved. Analysis showed that about 35% of the Tehran's area is not properly covered by monitoring stations and about 30% of the area needs additional stations. The winter period in Tehran always faces the most severe air pollution in the year. Hence, to produce the air pollution map of Tehran, three-month of winter measurements of the mentioned pollutants, repeated for five years in the same period, were selected and extended to the entire area using the kriging method. Experts specified the contribution of each pollutant in overall air pollution. Experts' rankings aggregated by a fuzzy-overlay process. Resulted maps characterized the study area with crucial air pollution situation. According to the maps, more than 45% of the city area faced high pollution in the study period, while only less than 10% of the area showed low pollution. This situation confirms the need

  13. Thermal behavior studies in building using artificial neural network for non air conditioned terrace house in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainazlan Md Zain; Mohd Nasir Taib; Shahrizam Mohd Shah Baki

    2006-01-01

    Strategies to improve energy efficiency in buildings have continuously being improved and becoming more effective as new knowledge on the building behavior and technology continue to develop. Nevertheless, effort to explore for further improvement must continuously undertake to seek more energy efficient and cost effective systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is currently one of the most popular mechanisms to forecast any form of behavior and phenomena. Building thermal behavior can be studied and potential for energy utilization improvement without compromising thermal comfort can be explored using ANN. This paper explores the possibility of monitoring, predicting and forecasting the thermal behavior inside a building space and the optimization of building design. Typical result of experimental data and simulated data is presented. The sample house used adopted various thermal comfort strategies like cross ventilation and space air flow consideration

  14. Fabricating Ir/C Nanofiber Networks as Free-Standing Air Cathodes for Rechargeable Li-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xin-Gai; Xie, Zhaojun; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-07

    Li-CO 2 batteries are promising energy storage systems by utilizing CO 2 at the same time, though there are still some critical barriers before its practical applications such as high charging overpotential and poor cycling stability. In this work, iridium/carbon nanofibers (Ir/CNFs) are prepared via electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment, and are used as cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-CO 2 batteries. Benefitting from the unique porous network structure and the high activity of ultrasmall Ir nanoparticles, Ir/CNFs exhibit excellent CO 2 reduction and evolution activities. The Li-CO 2 batteries present extremely large discharge capacity, high coulombic efficiency, and long cycling life. Moreover, free-standing Ir/CNF films are used directly as air cathodes to assemble Li-CO 2 batteries, which show high energy density and ultralong operation time, demonstrating great potential for practical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    Full Text Available The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  16. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Air Flowfield at Urban Environment: the Case of Road Network at the Historical Centre of Kifissia's Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical analysis of air flowfield at urban environments and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an urban environment (a road network) at Kifissia (a Municipality of north Athens), trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's users. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This simulation procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing urban environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  18. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, David E; Henshaw, Geoff S; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution. (paper)

  19. Strengthening the Network for Monitoring Air Quality in the Valle de Aburra with Passive Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata S, Carmen; Quijano, Ricardo; Vasquez Eliana

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made by the National University of Colombia in agreement with the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. The principal objective was to enforcing the monitoring of the quality of the air of the Aburra valley by means of the passive testers of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (BTX) and the rate of particle sedimentation in main road routes. Testers were settled in 15 Stations of the Metropolitan Area for a year. In gas measurement passive tubes of diffusion were used. Settle able particle measurement uses the principle of the gravity and the samples are analyzed by means of total solids. The results of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen do not exceed the Annual Colombian Norm, but in 12 stations of testing the value is surpassed guides of the WHO for nitrogen dioxide. The ozone levels show formation of this one polluting agent in the zones of slope. In 9 stations the Annual Colombian Norm for benzene is exceeded and all the stations the WHO Norm was not fulfilled. The greater rates of particle sedimentation are obtained in the sites of testing influenced by activities of construction and maintenance of ways. The use of passive measurers allows to identify critic zones and to evaluate of simple way the tendencies of atmospheric contamination. We suggest that in Colombia this technique for the measurement of the quality of the air is approved.

  20. The BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network: field calibration and evaluation of low-cost air quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsol; Shusterman, Alexis A.; Lieschke, Kaitlyn J.; Newman, Catherine; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2018-04-01

    The newest generation of air quality sensors is small, low cost, and easy to deploy. These sensors are an attractive option for developing dense observation networks in support of regulatory activities and scientific research. They are also of interest for use by individuals to characterize their home environment and for citizen science. However, these sensors are difficult to interpret. Although some have an approximately linear response to the target analyte, that response may vary with time, temperature, and/or humidity, and the cross-sensitivity to non-target analytes can be large enough to be confounding. Standard approaches to calibration that are sufficient to account for these variations require a quantity of equipment and labor that negates the attractiveness of the sensors' low cost. Here we describe a novel calibration strategy for a set of sensors, including CO, NO, NO2, and O3, that makes use of (1) multiple co-located sensors, (2) a priori knowledge about the chemistry of NO, NO2, and O3, (3) an estimate of mean emission factors for CO, and (4) the global background of CO. The strategy requires one or more well calibrated anchor points within the network domain, but it does not require direct calibration of any of the individual low-cost sensors. The procedure nonetheless accounts for temperature and drift, in both the sensitivity and zero offset. We demonstrate this calibration on a subset of the sensors comprising BEACO2N, a distributed network of approximately 50 sensor nodes, each measuring CO2, CO, NO, NO2, O3 and particulate matter at 10 s time resolution and approximately 2 km spacing within the San Francisco Bay Area.

  1. Pengembangan Wireless Sensor Network Berbasis Internet of Things untuk Sistem Pemantauan Kualitas Air dan Tanah Pertanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Syafiqoh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water and soil quality is very important in agriculture. The level of acidity (pH and soil temperature is one of the things that affect the fertility of plants. Therefore the quality of water and soil on agricultural land is one of the important things that need special attention in its management. One solution to water and soil quality can be monitored and managed efficiently is by utilizing the Wireless Sensor Network based on the Internet of Things (IoT. Use of ESP8266 Module as a WIFI module, widely used by Internet-based applications of Things because the price is cheap, thus reducing many costs and have a pretty good speed of 80 MHz. This research aims to develop the concept of Wireless Sensor Network by utilizing ESP8266 module to monitor pH value using pH Meter Analog Kit sensor and temperature of agricultural land using DS18B20 Waterproof sensor. The result of temperature measurement accuracy using DS18B20 Waterproof sensor of the designed system is 99.09% while the pH measurement using pH Meter Analog Kit sensor is 91.33%.

  2. Journal Article: Atmospheric Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Rural and Remote Locations of the U.S. for the Years 1998-2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine background air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cp-PCBs in rural and remote areas of the United States. Background is defined as average ambient air concentrations inferred from long-term a...

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  4. Topologically protected one-way edge mode in networks of acoustic resonators with circulating air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Recent explorations of topology in physical systems have led to a new paradigm of condensed matters characterized by topologically protected states and phase transition, for example, topologically protected photonic crystals enabled by magneto-optical effects. However, in other wave systems such as acoustics, topological states cannot be simply reproduced due to the absence of similar magnetics-related sound–matter interactions in naturally available materials. Here, we propose an acoustic topological structure by creating an effective gauge magnetic field for sound using circularly flowing air in the designed acoustic ring resonators. The created gauge magnetic field breaks the time-reversal symmetry, and therefore topological properties can be designed to be nontrivial with non-zero Chern numbers and thus to enable a topological sonic crystal, in which the topologically protected acoustic edge-state transport is observed, featuring robust one-way propagation characteristics against a variety of topological defects and impurities. Our results open a new venue to non-magnetic topological structures and promise a unique approach to effective manipulation of acoustic interfacial transport at will. (paper)

  5. Intraregional links between the trends in air pollutants observed at the EANET network sites for 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent changes in economic development tendencies and environmental protection policies in the East Asian countries raise hopes for improvement of regional air quality in this vast region populated by more than 3 billion people. To recognize anticipated changes in atmospheric pollutants levels, deposition rates and impact on the environment, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) is regularly operating region-wide since 2000 in 13 countries. The network provides continuous monitoring data on the air quality and precipitation (including gas-phase and particulate chemistry) at 55 monitoring sites, including 20 remote and 14 rural sites. Observation of soil and inland water environments are performed at more than 30 monitoring sites [1]. In this study we focus on 1) the data quality assessment and preparation and 2) analysis of temporal trends of compositions observed at selected 26 non-urban EANET stations. Speciation includes gas-phase (SO2, HNO3, HCl, NH3) and particulate matter (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) abundances analysed in samples collected using filterpack technique with sampling duration/frequency of one-two weeks. Data quality assessment (distribution test and manual inspection) allowed us to remove/repair random and operator errors. Wrong sample timing was found for 0.37% (severe) and 34% (mild inconsistency) of the total of 7630 samples regarded. Erroneous data flagging (e.g. missing or below the detection limit) was repaired for 9.3%, respectively. Some 1.8% of severely affected data were corrected (where possible) or removed. Thus refined 15-year dataset is made available for the scientific community. For convenience, we also provide data in netCDF format (per station or in an assembly). Based on this refined dataset, we performed trend analysis using several statistical approaches including quantile regression which provides robust results against outliers and better understanding of trend

  6. A multi-objective assessment of an air quality monitoring network using environmental, economic, and social indicators and GIS-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators was created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMNs' objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the

  7. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  8. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  9. Design and application of air-conditioning suit based on eddy current cooling principle for distribution network working with power uninterrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Lanlan; Niu, Jie; Tang, Li; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Zhanfan; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Qi; Yi, Ziqi; Guo, Hao; Long, Yang; Fu, Yanyi

    2017-05-01

    As social requirement of power supply reliability keeps rising, distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been widely carried out, while the high - temperature operating environment in summer can easily lead to physical discomfort for the operators, and then lead to safety incidents. Aiming at above problem, air-conditioning suit for distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been putted forward in this paper, and the structure composition and cooling principle of which has been explained, and it has been ultimately put to on-site application. The results showed that, cooling effect of air-conditioning suits was remarkable, and improved the working environment for the operators effectively, which is of great significance to improve Chinese level of working with power uninterrupted, reduce the probability of accidents and enhance the reliability of power supply.

  10. [Yeast urinary tract infections. Multicentre study in 14 hospitals belonging to the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Relloso, Silvia; Garbasz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a frequent ailment in patients in intensive care units. Candida and other yeasts cause 5-12% of these infections. The value of the finding of any yeast is controversial, and there is no consensus about which parameters are adequate for differentiating urinary infections from colonization or contamination. To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of patients with funguria, to determine potential cut-off points in cultures (to distinguish an infection from other conditions), to identify the prevalent yeast species, and to determine the value of a second urine sample. A multicentre study was conducted in intensive care units of 14 hospitals in the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network. The first and second samples of urine from every patient were cultured. The presence of white cells and yeasts in direct examination, colony counts, and the identification of the isolated species, were evaluated. Yeasts grew in 12.2% of the samples. There was no statistical correlation between the number of white cells and the fungal colony-forming units. Eighty five percent of the patients had indwelling catheters. Funguria was not prevalent in women or in patients over the age of 65. Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis, were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata appeared less frequently. The same species were isolated in 70% of second samples, and in 23% of the cases the second culture was negative. It was not possible to determine a useful cut-off point for colony counts to help in the diagnosis of urinary infections. As in other publications, C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, were the most prevalent species. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring

  12. Development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks using regression trees for modeling air quality inside a public transportation bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Akhil; Kaur, Devinder; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The present study developed a novel approach to modeling indoor air quality (IAQ) of a public transportation bus by the development of hybrid genetic-algorithm-based neural networks (also known as evolutionary neural networks) with input variables optimized from using the regression trees, referred as the GART approach. This study validated the applicability of the GART modeling approach in solving complex nonlinear systems by accurately predicting the monitored contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), 0.3-0.4 microm sized particle numbers, 0.4-0.5 microm sized particle numbers, particulate matter (PM) concentrations less than 1.0 microm (PM10), and PM concentrations less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) inside a public transportation bus operating on 20% grade biodiesel in Toledo, OH. First, the important variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant were determined using regression trees. Second, the analysis of variance was used as a complimentary sensitivity analysis to the regression tree results to determine a subset of statistically significant variables affecting each monitored in-bus contaminant. Finally, the identified subsets of statistically significant variables were used as inputs to develop three artificial neural network (ANN) models. The models developed were regression tree-based back-propagation network (BPN-RT), regression tree-based radial basis function network (RBFN-RT), and GART models. Performance measures were used to validate the predictive capacity of the developed IAQ models. The results from this approach were compared with the results obtained from using a theoretical approach and a generalized practicable approach to modeling IAQ that included the consideration of additional independent variables when developing the aforementioned ANN models. The hybrid GART models were able to capture majority of the variance in the monitored in-bus contaminants. The genetic

  13. 2D-HB-Network at the air-water interface: A structural and dynamical characterization by means of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Simone; Serva, Alessandra; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Following our previous work where the existence of a special 2-Dimensional H-Bond (2D-HB)-Network was revealed at the air-water interface [S. Pezzotti et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 3133 (2017)], we provide here a full structural and dynamical characterization of this specific arrangement by means of both Density Functional Theory based and Force Field based molecular dynamics simulations. We show in particular that water at the interface with air reconstructs to maximize H-Bonds formed between interfacial molecules, which leads to the formation of an extended and non-interrupted 2-Dimensional H-Bond structure involving on average ˜90% of water molecules at the interface. We also show that the existence of such an extended structure, composed of H-Bonds all oriented parallel to the surface, constrains the reorientional dynamics of water that is hence slower at the interface than in the bulk. The structure and dynamics of the 2D-HB-Network provide new elements to possibly rationalize several specific properties of the air-water interface, such as water surface tension, anisotropic reorientation of interfacial water under an external field, and proton hopping.

  14. Annual report 1999 of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency; Jahresbericht 1999 aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, S.; Uhse, K. [comps.

    2000-12-01

    In this annual report the results of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) are presented for the year 1999. The network consists of 23 stations (9 stations with personnel and 14 automatically working container stations) which are situated in rural areas. As the data set was thoroughly quality controlled reliable statements on trends can be made. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Jahresbericht werden die Ergebnisse aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes fuer das Jahr 1999 vorgestellt, interpretiert und mit den Messungen aus frueheren Jahren verglichen. Das UBA-Messnetz besteht heute aus insgesamt 23 in laendlichen Regionen gelegenen Stationen, wovon 9 Messstellen personell besetzt und 14 automatisch arbeitende Containerstationen sind. Die Datensaetze sind in sich homogen, d.h. es wurden im Verlauf der Jahre keine gravierenden Veraenderungen an den Messbedingungen vorgenommen, weder bei der Probenahme noch bei der Analytik. Die Daten wurden einer eingehenden Qualitaetspruefung unterzogen, sowohl intern als auch bei internationalen Ringvergleichen der Analysenverfahren. (orig.)

  15. Hourly air pollution concentrations and their important predictors over Houston, Texas using deep neural networks: case study of DISCOVER-AQ time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Choi, Y.; Roy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality forecasting carried out by chemical transport models often show significant error. This study uses a deep-learning approach over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area to overcome this forecasting challenge, for the DISCOVER-AQ period (September 2013). Two approaches, deep neural network (DNN) using a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) were utilized. The proposed approaches analyzed input data by identifying features abstracted from its previous layer using a stepwise method. The approaches predicted hourly ozone and PM in September 2013 using several predictors of prior three days, including wind fields, temperature, relative humidity, cloud fraction, precipitation along with PM, ozone, and NOx concentrations. Model-measurement comparisons for available monitoring sites reported Indexes of Agreement (IOA) of around 0.95 for both DNN and RBM. A standard artificial neural network (ANN) (IOA=0.90) with similar architecture showed poorer performance than the deep networks, clearly demonstrating the superiority of the deep approaches. Additionally, each network (both deep and standard) performed significantly better than a previous CMAQ study, which showed an IOA of less than 0.80. The most influential input variables were identified using their associated weights, which represented the sensitivity of ozone to input parameters. The results indicate deep learning approaches can achieve more accurate ozone forecasting and identify the important input variables for ozone predictions in metropolitan areas.

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of atmospheric pollution based on observations provided by an air quality monitoring network at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the spatio-temporal modelling of air pollution at a regional scale using a set of statistical methods in order to treat the measurements of pollutant concentrations (NO 2 , O 3 ) provided by an air quality monitoring network (AIRPARIF). The main objective is the improvement of the pollutant fields mapping using either interpolation methods based on the spatial or spatio-temporal structure of the data (spatial or spatio-temporal kriging) or some algorithms taking into account the observations, in order to correct the concentrations simulated by a deterministic model (Ensemble Kalman Filter). The results show that nitrogen dioxide mapping based only on spatial interpolation (kriging) gives the best results, while the spatial repartition of the monitoring sites is good. For the ozone mapping it is the sequential data assimilation that leads us to a better reconstruction of the plume's form and position for the analyzed cases. Complementary to the pollutant mapping, another objective was to perform a local prediction of ozone concentrations on a 24-hour horizon; this task was performed using Artificial Neural Networks. The performance indices obtained using two types of neural architectures indicate a fair accuracy especially for the first 8 hours of prediction horizon. (author)

  17. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  18. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks; Evaluacion de la Contaminacion Atmosferica producida por Particulas en Suspension en las Redes de Calidad del Aire de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, P; Artinano, B

    2000-07-01

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physico-chemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 {mu}m are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the stablishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs.

  19. Network planning for scheduling operations in air cargo handling : a tool in medium term goods flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, M.A.A.P.; Tilanus, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the hub of a hub-and-spokes network for airfreight transportation, the main part of the incoming and outgoing goodsflow is in special loading units for airfreight. These loading units are metal pallets and containers up to eighteen cubic meters in size. The key part of operations in the hub is

  20. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  1. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  2. Exploring the potential relationship between indoor air quality and the concentration of airborne culturable fungi: a combined experimental and neural network modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Cheng, Kewei; Li, Hao; Cao, Guoqing; Wu, Di; Shi, Yunjie

    2018-02-01

    Indoor airborne culturable fungi exposure has been closely linked to occupants' health. However, conventional measurement of indoor airborne fungal concentration is complicated and usually requires around one week for fungi incubation in laboratory. To provide an ultra-fast solution, here, for the first time, a knowledge-based machine learning model is developed with the inputs of indoor air quality data for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi. To construct a database for statistical analysis and model training, 249 data groups of air quality indicators (concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi, indoor/outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations, indoor temperature, indoor relative humidity, and indoor CO 2 concentration) were measured from 85 residential buildings of Baoding (China) during the period of 2016.11.15-2017.03.15. Our results show that artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer has good prediction performances, compared to a support vector machine (SVM). With the tolerance of ± 30%, the prediction accuracy of the ANN model with ten hidden nodes can at highest reach 83.33% in the testing set. Most importantly, we here provide a quick method for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne fungi that can be applied to real-time evaluation.

  3. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  4. A 3D Dynamic Lumped Parameter Thermal Network of Air-Cooled YASA Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Hussein Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To find the temperature rise for high power density yokeless and segmented armature (YASA axial flux permanent magnet synchronous (AFPMSM machines quickly and accurately, a 3D lumped parameter thermal model is developed and validated experimentally and by finite element (FE simulations on a 4 kW YASA machine. Additionally, to get insight in the thermal transient response of the machine, the model accounts for the thermal capacitance of different machine components. The model considers the stator, bearing, and windage losses, as well as eddy current losses in the magnets on the rotors. The new contribution of this work is that the thermal model takes cooling via air channels between the magnets on the rotor discs into account. The model is parametrized with respect to the permanent magnet (PM angle ratio, the PM thickness ratio, the air gap length, and the rotor speed. The effect of the channels is incorporated via convection equations based on many computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations. The model accuracy is validated at different values of parameters by FE simulations in both transient and steady state. The model takes less than 1 s to solve for the temperature distribution.

  5. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Measurements of CDDs, CDFs and Coplanar PCBs at 15 Rural and 6 National Park Areas of the U.S.: June 1998-December 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling st...

  6. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to help characterize the ubiquitous presence of dioxins in the environment. This final report represents the 2013 update to NDAMN.

  7. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs at 18 Rural, 8 National Parks, and 2 Suburban Areas of the U.S.: Results for the Year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United Stat...

  8. Journal Article: Average Method Blank Quantities of Dioxin-Like Congeners and Their Relationship to the Detection Limits of the U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs throughout the United States. Currently operating at 33 stations, NDAMN has, as one of its tasks, the dete...

  9. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  10. Violence in social networks: an exploration of the online expressions of teens from marginalized areas of Greater Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las expresiones online de violencia ejercida o padecida por las y los adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indagan cuatro fenómenos específicos: las amenazas, los “bondis”, el cyberbullying y los duelos, para lo cual se realizaron veinte entrevistas en profundidad y 3.000 observaciones virtuales de perfiles de la red social Facebook entre 2013 y 2014. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que la mayoría de las expresiones de violencia se enmarcan en una dinámica offline-online. Asimismo, se ofrece evidencia empírica a partir de la cual es posible afirmar que las expresiones de violencia de estos adolescentes se despliegan en torno a la cultura del “aguante”. El artículo se pregunta si en la plataforma icónica del “me gusta” estas expresiones resultan implícitamente funcionales a la red social o si, por el contrario, permiten desplazamientos y reapropiaciones significativas de los usuarios. En definitiva, se abren nuevos interrogantes acerca de la utilización de estas herramientas por parte de adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados y se propone complejizar los enfoques en torno a estos fenómenos.

  11. Imputation of spatial air quality data using gis-spline and the index of agreement in sparse urban monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Antonio Londoño-Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un procedimiento para abordar la falta de datos espacialesde calidad del aire en zonas urbanas, con base en el uso de Sistemas de InformaciónGeográfi ca (SIG y las técnicas de interpolación espacial como una alternativa a los métodosconvencionales de imputación estadística. Se comparan dos algoritmos de interpolaciónespacial: IDW y spline. El procedimiento considera el proceso de interpolación espacial, lavalidación cruzada con el índice de (IOA, y el análisis de la densidad de muestreo y delcoefi ciente de variación utilizando diferentes estadísticos de error. Los mapas de interpolaciónse complementan con los mapas de gradiente y de gradiente direccional que pueden servircomo complementos en la defi nición de puntos de muestreo críticos. El procedimiento seaplica a la imputación de datos de tres contaminantes: NO2, PM10 (partículas de 10 micrasde diámetro y SST (sólidos suspendidos totales a partir de muestras de datos observadosen la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia.

  12. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  13. Modeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2017-12-01

    The static energy content of the atmosphere is increasing on a global scale, but exhibits important subglobal and subregional scales of variability and is a useful parameter for integrating the net effect of changes in the partitioning of energy at the surface and for improving understanding of the causes of so-called warming holes (i.e., locations with decreasing daily maximum air temperatures (T) or increasing trends of lower magnitude than the global mean). Further, measures of the static energy content (herein the equivalent potential temperature, θe) are more strongly linked to excess human mortality and morbidity than air temperature alone, and have great relevance in understanding causes of past heat-related excess mortality and making projections of possible future events that are likely to be associated with negative human health and economic consequences. New nonlinear statistical models for summertime daily maximum and minimum θe are developed and used to advance understanding of drivers of historical change and variability over the eastern USA. The predictor variables are an index of the daily global mean temperature, daily indices of the synoptic-scale meteorology derived from T and specific humidity (Q) at 850 and 500 hPa geopotential heights (Z), and spatiotemporally averaged soil moisture (text">SM). text">SM is particularly important in determining the magnitude of θe over regions that have previously been identified as exhibiting warming holes, confirming the key importance of text">SM in dictating the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat and dictating trends in near-surface T and θe. Consistent with our a priori expectations, models built using artificial neural networks (ANNs) out-perform linear models that do not permit interaction of the predictor variables (global T, synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and text">SM). This is particularly marked in regions with high variability in minimum and maximum θe, where

  14. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  17. The monitoring network for radioactivity in air in Norway. Annual report 2000; Nettverket for overvaaking av radioaktivitet i luft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Thor Chr.

    2002-06-01

    On the instruction of the Radiation Monitoring Authority (SSV), NILU has assumed responsibility for the operation of a monitoring network for radioactivity. This report describes this network. None of the 29 stations of the network detected radiation in 2000 that cannot be attributed to the natural variation of the radiation levels or to normal technical irregularities. However, much of the equipment was acquired in the years following the Chernobyl accident of 1986 and is in need of replacement.

  18. RadNet Air Data From Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Sacramento, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Austin, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  2. RadNet Air Data From Mason City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mason City, IA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  4. RadNet Air Data From Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Houston, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. RadNet Air Data From Fort Smith, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Smith, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  6. RadNet Air Data From Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Orlando, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  8. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  9. A national-scale review of air pollutant concentrations measured in the U.S. near-road monitoring network during 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWinter, Jennifer L.; Brown, Steven G.; Seagram, Annie F.; Landsberg, Karin; Eisinger, Douglas S.

    2018-06-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for NO2 to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2, and required air quality monitoring next to major roadways in urban areas in the U.S. Requirements for near-road measurements also include carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). We performed a national-scale assessment of air pollutants measured at 81 sites in the near-road environment during the first two years (2014 and 2015) of the new measurement program. We evaluated how concentrations at these locations compared to the NAAQS, to concentrations measured at other sites within the same urban areas, and when considering their site characteristics (distance of monitor to road, traffic volume, and meteorology). We also estimated the contribution of emissions from adjacent roadways at each near-road site to the PM2.5 concentrations above the local urban background concentrations, i.e., the near-road "increment." Hourly values of CO reached a maximum of 4.8 ppm across 31 sites in 2014 and 9.6 ppm across 47 sites in 2015, and were well below the NAAQS levels for both the 1-hr (35 ppm) and 8-hr (9 ppm) standards. Hourly concentrations of near-road NO2 reached 258 ppb across 40 sites in 2014; however, there were only two occurrences of a daily 1-hr maximum NO2 concentration above 100 ppb (the level of the hourly NO2 standard). In 2015, hourly concentrations of near-road NO2, monitored at 61 sites in 55 urban areas, reached 154 ppb. Only 0.0015% (n = 5) of hourly NO2 observations in 2015 exceeded 100 ppb. The highest annual NO2 average recorded in 2015 (29.9 ppb) occurred at the Ontario site located along I-10 in the Los Angeles, California, area and was below the level of the NO2 annual standard (53 ppb); in 2014, the highest annual mean NO2 was also observed in Los Angeles at the Anaheim site (27.1 ppb). In 2014, sites in Cincinnati

  10. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations.

  11. Air Force Global Weather Central System Architecture Study. Final System/Subsystem Summary Report. Volume 2. Requirements Compilation and Analysis. Part 3. Characteristics Summaries and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    DB DC DCT DDB DET DF DFS DML DMS DMSP DOD DS DSARC DT EDB EDS EG ESSA ETAC EWO Control and Reporting Post Cathode Ray Tube...National and Aviation Meteorological Facsimile Network NC - Network Control NCA - National Command Authority NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric

  12. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  13. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  14. Flexible Tube-Based Network Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc. builds a control system which controls the topology of an air traffic flow network and the network flow properties which enables Air...

  15. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  16. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  17. Development and deployment of a low-cost, mobile-ready, air quality sensor system: progress toward distributed networks and autonomous aerial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; DiVerdi, R.; Gadtaula, P.; Sheneman, T.; Flores, K.; Chen, Y. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Cross, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the 2016-2017 academic year, a new partnership between Olin College of Engineering and Aerodyne Research, Inc. developed an affordable, self-contained air quality monitoring instrument called Modulair. The Modulair instrument is based on the same operating principles as Aerodyne's newly-developed ARISense integrated sensor system, employing electrochemical sensors for gas-phase measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 and an off-the-shelf optical particle counter for particle concentration, number, and size distribution information (0.4 backend with a mobile, cloud-based data management system for real-time data posting and analysis. Open source tools and software were utilized in the development of the instrument. All initial work was completed by a team of undergraduate students as part of the Senior Capstone Program in Engineering (SCOPE) at Olin College. Deployment strategies for Modulair include distributed, mobile measurements and drone-based aerial sampling. Design goals for the drone integration include maximizing airborne sampling time and laying the foundation for software integration with the drone's autopilot system to allow for autonomous plume sampling across concentration gradients. Modulair and its flexible deployments enable real-time mapping of air quality data at exposure-relevant spatial scales, as well as regular, autonomous characterization of sources and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. We will present an overview of the Modulair instrument and results from benchtop and field validation, including mobile and drone-based plume sampling in the Boston area.

  18. [Community mental health networks and doors at a Health and Community Center (CeSAC No 24) in the south of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corin, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Health and Community Center (CeSAC) No 24 began 21 years ago in the Ramón Carrillo district, in Villa Soldati neighborhood. This is a marginal urban area in the south of the CABA with a population with urgent needs. The work started with a group of professionals dealing with primary care practices, and it continues up to the present. The goal of our community mental health project is the creation of spaces for prevention and well-being including art in all its expressions, with the active participation of neighbors in the coordination of many activities. Through the symbolic opening of doors and making networks visible, we opened the CeSAC to universities, scientific societies, foundations, NGOs, neighbor committees, neighborhood boards, human rights organizations, formal and informal education centers, cultural centers, churches, community radios, in order to show the vital movements of the community, as we -as a team- are an integral part of it. Our spaces, workshops and programs are a collective socio-historical construction that achieves milestones such as thinking, thinking of us, getting together and achieving the participation from the community and the continuous training for everybody working and living in Soldati. The decentralization and democratization trend, and the heterarchical management of our organization favors the possibility of catalyzing the wishes, motivations and efforts of the healthcare team, neighbors and network nodes, thus benefiting the creative work that turns a dream into a hopeful reality.

  19. Deployment Considerations for Low-cost Air Quality Sensor Networks; Examining Spatial Variability of Gas-Phase Pollutants Around a Building in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Oxandale, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Casey, J. G.; Johnston, J.; Coffey, E.; Thorson, J.

    2017-12-01

    The field of low-cost air quality sensing technologies is growing rapidly through the continual development of new sensors, increased research into sensor performance, and more and more community groups utilizing sensors to investigate local issues. However, as this technology is still in an exploratory phase, there are few `best-practices' available to serve as guidelines for these projects and the standardization of some procedures could benefit the research community as a whole. For example, deployment considerations such as where and how to place a monitor at a given location are often determined by accessibility and safety, power-requirements, and what is an ideal for sampling the target pollutant. Using data from multiple gas-phase sensors, we will examine the importance of siting considerations for low-cost monitoring systems. During a sampling campaign in Los Angeles, a subset of monitors was deployed at one field site to explore the variability in air quality sensor data around a single building. The site is a three story, multi-family housing unit in a primarily residential neighborhood that is near two major roadways and other potential sources of pollution. Five low-cost monitors were co-located prior to and following the field deployment. During the approximately 2.5-month deployment, these monitors were placed at various heights above street level, on different sides of the building, and on the roof. In our analysis, we will examine how monitor placement affects a sensor's ability to detect local verses more regional trends and how this building-scale spatial variability changes over time. Additionally, examining data from VOC sensors (quantified for methane and total non-methane hydrocarbon signals) and O3 sensors will allow us to compare the variability of primary and secondary pollutants. An outcome of this analysis may include guidelines or `best practices' for siting sensors that could aid in ensuring the collection of high quality field data

  20. Final report of the study on heat networks in Ile-de-France, contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional scheme + Judicial aspect + Economic aspect + Assessment of development potential of urban heating in Ile-de-France - Analysis document based on the study on heat networks contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    A first report is a contribution to the elaboration of a plan aiming at the substitution of fossil energies, at the development of heat deliveries, while maintaining network economic profitability. Such a plan is based on the connection of buildings, the renovation, extension and interconnection of existing networks, and the creation of new heat networks. The study addressed technical, urban, financial, judicial and cartographic aspects. Public statistical data have been used and interviews of actors (network funders, representatives of delegating authorities, social landlords, administrations, and technical professions) have been performed. A guide of good practices is proposed regarding contract reviewing conditions, possibilities of revision of subscribed power. Prospective issues are discussed: strategic stakes and deposits, actions paths and tools, strategy and action plan. Appendices address methodologies, organisation of the geographical information system, judicial aspect with the circular of 1982, financial data and aspects. Then, a set of reports more precisely presents various aspects addressed as a contribution for the study of heat networks in Ile-de-France: the judicial aspect (present status, guide of good judicial practices), the economic aspect (present status of sale prices and costs, analysis of financing, of revision formula), and an assessment of urban heating development (context, technical aspect, analysis of the geographical information system)

  1. Risk Management in Air Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, according to the Air Protection Act, air pollution assessment is obligatory on the whole State territory. For individual regions and populated areas in the State a network has been established for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network consists of stations for measuring background pollution, regional and cross-border remote transfer and measurements as part of international government liabilities, then stations for measuring air quality in areas of cul...

  2. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  3. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  4. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  5. Optical Neural Network Classifier Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Getbehead, Mark

    1998-01-01

    We present an adaptive opto-electronic neural network hardware architecture capable of exploiting parallel optics to realize real-time processing and classification of high-dimensional data for Air...

  6. Some results of turbidity networks

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity networks to obtain daily values of haze attenuation from measurements of solar radiation, mostly by means of sun photometers, were established in 1961 in the USA by the National Center for Air Pollution Control, Cincinnati, Ohio, and in Western Europe from 1963 to 1967 by the author. The course of turbidity in the two networks during interesting periods is presented. Discussion of synoptic variations of turbidity is rather difficult, when referring to periods of rapid change of air ...

  7. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  8. Will Jakarta Be The Next Atlantis? Excessive Groundwater Use Resulting From A Failing Piped Water Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colbran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the connection between a failing piped water network and excessive groundwater use in Jakarta. It discusses the political history of the city's piped water network, which was privatised in 1998, and how privatisation was intended to increase access to clean, safe water for its residents. The article asserts that this has not eventuated, and that tap water remains costly, unreliable and does not provide noticeable benefits when compared with groundwater. The result is that households, industry, businesses, luxury apartment complexes and hotels choose alternative water sources and distribution methods, in particular groundwater. This is having an unsustainable impact on groundwater levels and Jakarta 's natural environment, causing significant land subsidence, pollution and salinisation of aquifers, and increased levels of flooding. The effect is so severe that the World Bank has predicted much of Jakarta will be inundated by seawater in 2025, rendering one third of the city uninhabitable and displacing millions. The article concludes by discussing and assessing the steps the government has taken to address excessive and unlicensed groundwater use. These steps include new regulations on groundwater, a public awareness campaign on the importance of groundwater and a commitment to improve the raw water supplied to the piped water network. However, the article observes that the government is yet to develop long term policies for improvement of the network itself. The question therefore remains, has the government done enough, or will groundwater use continue unabated making Jakarta the next lost city of Atlantis?

  9. Effectiveness of finish materials and room air-conditioner on the reduction of indoor radon concentration in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, A.K.; Man, C.K.; Ho, E.; Pang, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    Four different kinds of finish material were investigated: wallpaper, paint, plaster and tile. When applied to the bare concrete walls of uninhabited rooms in flats of a building under construction, all of them were found to reduce indoor radon concentration. The magnitude of reduction by these finish materials ranged from 20% to 80%. Wallpaper was found to provide the best protection against radon emission from bare concrete walls in a bedroom with a size of 19.3 m 3 . Wallpaper can reduce the indoor radon concentration about twice as much as paint (water-based) or plaster in this investigation. Tile was also found to be a good material against radon emission from concrete walls in a bathroom with a size of 6.3 m 3 . Indoor radon concentration was found to decrease with elevation from the ground level, and was affected strongly by mechanical ventilation. Another 30% to 50% reduction in indoor radon concentration in addition to finish material can be achieved by a room air-conditioner. It was also found that indoor radon concentrations were not affected by turning the fresh air shutter to the 'on' or 'off' position in the room air-conditioner. (author)

  10. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  11. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic and triadic configurations; as well...new metrics and ways to formulate team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic ...sensing, communication , information, and decision networks - Darryl Ahner (AFIT: Air Force Inst Tech) Panel Session: Mathematical Models of

  12. Airport Network Flow Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    The Airport Network Flow Simulator is a FORTRAN IV simulation of the flow of air traffic in the nation's 600 commercial airports. It calculates for any group of selected airports: (a) the landing and take-off (Type A) delays; and (b) the gate departu...

  13. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  14. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  15. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  16. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  17. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  19. Air quality modelling using chemometric techniques | Azid | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents that the chemometric techniques and modelling become an excellent tool in API assessment, air pollution source identification, apportionment and can be setbacks in designing an API monitoring network for effective air pollution resources management. Keywords: air pollutant index; chemometric; ANN; ...

  20. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  1. Implementations of Sensor Webs Utilizing Uninhabited Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the web services, processes, communication protocols and ad-hoc service chains utilized in the late summer and early fall 2007 Ikhana UAS response to the wildfires burning in southern California. Additionally, we describe the lessons learned that will be applied to the upcoming Global Hawk UAS Aura Satellite Validation Experiment planned for early 2009.

  2. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  3. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  4. Dynamic tensegrity based cooperative control of uninhabited vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Sook Yen; Naeem, Wasif [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2013-07-01

    A new formation control methodology is presented in this paper. The proposed technique is modelled by using the concept of cross-tensegrity structures. The main task is to regulate the desired formation of a group of vehicles and to perform point-to-point manoeuvring in the plane. The position of the controlled vehicles in the formation changes with respect to the admissible tendon forces by varying the lengths of bars in the dynamic tensegrity structure modelling. This change of bars' dimensions for geometric transformation is not possible in the application of tensegrity concept in the physical structural engineering. It has been demonstrated that this control method allows more flexibility over a wide range of different shape switching tasks using the predictable tendon control forces under the limited communication's range. The proposed approach is also scalable to any number of pairs of autonomous vehicles in the formation.

  5. Closely Supervised Reactive Control of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassco, Roy

    2000-01-01

    ...) or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This thesis proposes an alternative control method that incorporates some of the beneficial aspect of both fully manual and fully autonomous operation...

  6. Automation of Sensor Control in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    were otherwise performed manually reduces workload and mitigates high workload situations. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the...that automation may help mitigate high workload (Lee, 2008) it would have been interesting if both sets of authors additionally assessed when...frames would result in the sensor view flickering between two views. In support of this, VBS2 initialisation parameters were adjusted to prevent

  7. Air condition sensor on KNX network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecova, Katerina; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Walendziuk, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    One of the main goals of modern buildings in addition to the management environment is also attempt to save energy. For this reason, increased demands on the prevention of energy loss, which can be expressed for example as an inefficient use of the available functions as a building or heat leakage. Reducing heat loss as a perfect tightness of doors and windows in the building, however, restricts the natural ventilation, which leads to a gradual deterioration of the quality of the internal environment. This state then has a very significant impact on human health. In the closed, poorly ventilated area, the person staying at increasing the carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and humidity, which impacts the human thermoregulation system, increases fatigue and causes restlessness. It is therefore necessary to monitor these parameters and then control so as to ensure stable and optimal human values. The aim is to design and implementation Module sensors that will be able to measure different parameters, allowing the subsequent regulation of indoor environmental quality.

  8. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  9. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  11. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  12. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  13. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  14. Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden D; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2006-01-01

    .... This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles...

  15. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  16. EU-regulation for PM2.5. Consequences for the National Air Quality Monitoring network; EU-regeling voor PM2,5 bekend. Gevolgen voor het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Arkel, F.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Van der Meulen, T. [Laboratorium voor Milieumetingen, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    In the European Union an agreement has been reached on revision of the directive for air quality and cleaner air for Europe (Clean Air for Europe, CAFE). For the sake of clarity, simplicity and efficiency the current framework directive from 1996, including the first four subsidiary directives, have been combined in one single directive. (mk) [Dutch] In de Europese Unie is een akkoord bereikt over herziening van de richtlijn betreffende de luchtkwaliteit en schonere lucht voor Europa (Clean Air for Europe, CAFE). Ten behoeve van de duidelijkheid, eenvoud en efficientie zijn in het voorstel de huidige kaderrichtlijn uit 1996 en de daarbij behorende eerste vier dochterrichtlijnen samengevoegd in een enkele richtlijn.

  17. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  18. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  19. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  20. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  1. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  2. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  3. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  4. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  5. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  6. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  7. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  8. Networked ATM for Efficient Routing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed a EFB Data Communication Network (EDCN) concept that offers a more capable air-ground communications architecture. The solution takes full advantage of...

  9. 76 FR 53853 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Action Network (LEAN) v. EPA, No. 02-60991). The issues raised concerned EPA's decision to approve... Ambient Air Quality Standard,'' Memorandum from John S. Seitz, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning...

  10. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  11. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  12. Interference-robust Air Interface for 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    the existing wireless network infrastructure to the limit. Mobile network operators must invest in network expansion to deal with this problem, but the predicted network requirements show that a new Radio Access Technology (RAT) standard will be fundamental to reach the future target performance. This new 5th...... to the fundamental role of inter-cell interference in this type of networks, the inter-cell interference problem must be addressed since the beginning of the design of the new standard. This Ph.D. thesis deals with the design of an interference-robust air interface for 5G small cell networks. The interference...

  13. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  14. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  15. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  16. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  18. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  19. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  20. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  1. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  2. Network modeling of PM10 concentration in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, Muhammad Nazirul Aiman Abu; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Razak, Fatimah Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution is not a new phenomenon in Malaysia. The Department of Environment (DOE) monitors the country's ambient air quality through a network of 51 stations. The air quality is measured using the Air Pollution Index (API) which is mainly recorded based on the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 readings. The Continuous Air Quality Monitoring (CAQM) stations are located in various places across the country. In this study, a network model of air quality based on PM10 concen tration for selected CAQM stations in Malaysia has been developed. The model is built using a graph formulation, G = (V, E) where vertex, V is a set of CAQM stations and edges, E is a set of correlation values for each pair of vertices. The network measurements such as degree distributions, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are computed to analyse the behaviour of the network. As a result, a rank of CAQM stations has been produced based on their centrality characteristics.

  3. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  4. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  5. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...

  6. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  7. Advanced communication and network requirements in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Enemark, Rasmus

    The report address diffusion of new tele-application, focusing on potential use and potential tele-trafic genrated as a consequense. The applications investigated are: Teleworking, distance learning, research and university network, applications aimed at SMEs, health networks, a trans European pu...... public administation network, city information highway, road-trafic manegement, air traffic control and electronic quotation.......The report address diffusion of new tele-application, focusing on potential use and potential tele-trafic genrated as a consequense. The applications investigated are: Teleworking, distance learning, research and university network, applications aimed at SMEs, health networks, a trans European...

  8. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  9. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  10. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  11. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  12. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  13. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  14. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  15. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  16. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  18. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  19. Cooperative Electronic Attack using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mears, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    ... that are salient in the context of cooperative control. The utility of electronic attack is described in the context of integrated air defense systems that rely on RADAR sites that act as a network to gather information about potential airborne threats...

  20. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  1. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  2. Forecasting PM10 in metropolitan areas: Efficacy of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, H.J.S.; Mammarella, M.C.; Grandoni, G.; Fedele, P.; Di Marco, R.; Dimitrova, R.; Hyde, P.

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic photochemical air quality models are commonly used for regulatory management and planning of urban airsheds. These models are complex, computer intensive, and hence are prohibitively expensive for routine air quality predictions. Stochastic methods are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative, which relegate decision making to artificial intelligence based on Neural Networks that are made of artificial neurons or ‘nodes’ capable of ‘learning through training’ via historic data. A Neural Network was used to predict particulate matter concentration at a regulatory monitoring site in Phoenix, Arizona; its development, efficacy as a predictive tool and performance vis-à-vis a commonly used regulatory photochemical model are described in this paper. It is concluded that Neural Networks are much easier, quicker and economical to implement without compromising the accuracy of predictions. Neural Networks can be used to develop rapid air quality warning systems based on a network of automated monitoring stations.Highlights: ► Neural Network is an alternative technique to photochemical modelling. ► Neutral Networks can be as effective as traditional air photochemical modelling. ► Neural Networks are much easier and quicker to implement in health warning system. - Neutral networks are as effective as photochemical modelling for air quality predictions, but are much easier, quicker and economical to implement in air pollution (or health) warning systems.

  3. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  4. Sensor Data Air Pollution Prediction by Machine Learning Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidnerová, Petra; Neruda, Roman

    submitted 25. 1. (2018) ISSN 1530-437X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : machine learning * sensors * air pollution * deep neural networks * regularization networks Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2016

  5. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  7. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  8. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  9. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  10. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  11. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  12. Which energy networks for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, D.; Couturier, Ch.; Batot, Ph.; Jedliczka, M.; Belon, D.; Goy, E.; Bureau, L.

    2010-01-01

    A set of brief articles outlines the importance of energy networks of all kinds for the future of energy conservation. Thus, all networks (communication, data, production command and control) will have a role to play to make all energy networks (electricity, gas, heat, cold, water, sewage, telecommunications) communicate with each other, and a new consumption/production model will have to be developed for each territory by taking into account its capacities to improve energy efficiency and valorize renewable energies. The authors also propose a historical perspective of network development and of their trend to become interconnected and complementary, comment the governance issue in terms of concession, evoke the supply of public networks with biogas (legal framework under development), discuss the value of the project of development of smart grids, suggest that a better electricity demand management could be an efficient alternative to grid development, comment the context and implications of the European directive Linky, outline that heat networks will contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact of buildings, evoke the issue of cold water networks and their impact on air conditioning, present the original heat network which is about to be built in Saint-Brieuc, etc.

  13. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  14. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  15. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  16. The Falcon Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  17. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  18. Air pollution and public health: a guidance document for risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lorraine; Brook, Jeffrey R; Chiotti, Quentin; Croes, Bart; Gower, Stephanie; Hedley, Anthony; Krewski, Daniel; Krupnick, Alan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Moran, Michael D; Pennell, William; Samet, Jonathan M; Schneider, Jurgen; Shortreed, John; Williams, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This guidance document is a reference for air quality policymakers and managers providing state-of-the-art, evidence-based information on key determinants of air quality management decisions. The document reflects the findings of five annual meetings of the NERAM (Network for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management) International Colloquium Series on Air Quality Management (2001-2006), as well as the results of supporting international research. The topics covered in the guidance document reflect critical science and policy aspects of air quality risk management including i) health effects, ii) air quality emissions, measurement and modeling, iii) air quality management interventions, and iv) clean air policy challenges and opportunities.

  19. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  20. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  1. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  2. Bipartite Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations

  3. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  4. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F Y.P.; Gervat, G P [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  5. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution control technology in use... relying on EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) to address these requirements. EPA is also taking...) monitoring network, show that visibility impairment caused by air pollution occurs virtually all the time at...

  6. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  7. Need to monitoring the particulate components and gaseous components of the I-131 in air, on Radiological monitoring networks. impact of the accident of Fukushima Dai-chi in Spain; Necesidad de monitorizar las componentes particulada y gaseosa del {sup 1}31I en aire, en redes de vigilancia radiologica. Impacto en Espana del accidente de Fukushima DAI-ICHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza Espasa, A.; Caballero Andrada, M.; Corbacho Merino, J. A.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Rodriguez Perulero, A.; Valencia Corrales, D.; Vasco Vargas, J.

    2013-07-01

    Following a nuclear accident with significant overseas evacuations, it should be accurately determined concentration radio iodines into the atmosphere, given its important contribution to the radiological impact produced. Automatic networks radiation monitoring aim to provide as quickly as possible, reliable information on these radiological changes, to take necessary countermeasures. (Author)

  8. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  9. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  10. Take control of your 802.11n airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Make your 802.11n-based AirPort network fast, reliable, and secure! Find real-world advice from Wi-Fi wizard Glenn Fleishman on setting up the 802.11n models of Apple's AirPort Express, AirPort Extreme, and Time Capsule, with full information about the simultaneous dual-band models introduced in early 2009. You'll get help with all the special networking details, such as how to set the best band and channel for your network, use pre-802.11n base stations and clients without hurting performance, set up complex Int

  11. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  12. Cordon Pricing Considering Air Pollutants Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of air pollutants emission for the optimal and sustainable determination of cordon location, toll level, and price of park and ride (P&R. Although air pollutants emission decreases within the cordon by the implementation of cordon pricing scheme, it may increase outside the cordon and the whole network. Hence, air pollutants emission may only transfer from inside of the cordon to its outside. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-objective bi-level optimization model is developed. A solution algorithm is also presented based on the second version of strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2. The results reveal that this multi-objective model can be a useful tool for the sustainable and optimal design of the cordon and P&R scheme. In addition, cordon pricing is a multi-objective problem. Therefore, it is necessary to consider air pollutants emission. By choosing another non-dominated result in the solution space, air pollutants emission outside the cordon and the whole network can be reduced without a significant reduction in social welfare.

  13. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  14. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  15. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  16. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  17. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  18. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  19. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  20. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  1. Neural network and its application to CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikravesh, M.; Kovscek, A.R.; Patzek, T.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    We present an integrated approach to imaging the progress of air displacement by spontaneous imbibition of oil into sandstone. We combine Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning and neural network image processing. The main aspects of our approach are (I) visualization of the distribution of oil and air saturation by CT, (II) interpretation of CT scans using neural networks, and (III) reconstruction of 3-D images of oil saturation from the CT scans with a neural network model. Excellent agreement between the actual images and the neural network predictions is found.

  2. Wireless sensor network adaptive cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T. [SynapSense Corp., Folsom, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Options for reducing data centre cooling energy requirements and their cost savings were discussed with particular reference to a wireless control solution developed by SynapSense Corporation. The wireless sensor network reduces cooling energy use at data centres by providing improved air flow management through the installation of cold aisle containment. The use of this low cost, non-invasive wireless sensor network has reduced the cooling energy use in a data center at BC Hydro by 30 per cent. The system also reduced the server and storage fan energy by 3 per cent by maintaining inlet air temperature below ASHRAE recommended operating range. The distribution of low power, low cost wireless sensors has enabled visualization tools that are changing the way that data centres are managed. The annual savings have been estimated at 4,560,000 kWh and the annual carbon dioxide abatement is approximately 1,400 metric tons. tabs., figs.

  3. Hydrogen application dynamics and networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E. [Air Liquide Large Industries, Champigny-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-12-30

    The Chemical Industry consumes large volumes of hydrogen as raw material for the manufacture of numerous products (e.g. polyamides and polyurethanes account for 60% of hydrogen demand). The hydrogen demand was in the recent past and will continue to be driven by the polyurethane family. China will host about 60% of new hydrogen needs over the period 2010-2015 becoming the first hydrogen market next year and reaching 25% of market share by 2015 (vs. only 4% in 2001). Air Liquide supplies large volumes of Hydrogen (and other Industrial Gases) to customers by on-site plants and through pipeline networks which offer significant benefits such as higher safety, reliability and flexibility of supply. Thanks to its long term strategy and heavy investment in large units and pipeline networks, Air Liquide is the Industrial Gas leader in most of the world class Petrochemical basins (Rotterdam, Antwerp, US Gulf Coast, Yosu, Caojing,..) (orig.)

  4. PM10 and gaseous pollutants trends from air quality monitoring networks in Bari province: principal component analysis and absolute principal component scores on a two years and half data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemical composition of aerosols and particle size distributions are the most significant factors affecting air quality. In particular, the exposure to finer particles can cause short and long-term effects on human health. In the present paper PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm), CO, NOx (NO and NO2), Benzene and Toluene trends monitored in six monitoring stations of Bari province are shown. The data set used was composed by bi-hourly means for all parameters (12 bi-hourly means per day for each parameter) and it’s referred to the period of time from January 2005 and May 2007. The main aim of the paper is to provide a clear illustration of how large data sets from monitoring stations can give information about the number and nature of the pollutant sources, and mainly to assess the contribution of the traffic source to PM10 concentration level by using multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS). Results Comparing the night and day mean concentrations (per day) for each parameter it has been pointed out that there is a different night and day behavior for some parameters such as CO, Benzene and Toluene than PM10. This suggests that CO, Benzene and Toluene concentrations are mainly connected with transport systems, whereas PM10 is mostly influenced by different factors. The statistical techniques identified three recurrent sources, associated with vehicular traffic and particulate transport, covering over 90% of variance. The contemporaneous analysis of gas and PM10 has allowed underlining the differences between the sources of these pollutants. Conclusions The analysis of the pollutant trends from large data set and the application of multivariate statistical techniques such as PCA and APCS can give useful information about air quality and pollutant’s sources. These knowledge can provide useful advices to environmental policies in

  5. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  6. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  7. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  8. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  10. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  11. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  12. Aeronautical telecommunications network advances, challenges, and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, Sarhan M

    2015-01-01

    Addresses the Challenges of Modern-Day Air Traffic Air traffic control (ATC) directs aircraft in the sky and on the ground to safety, while the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) comprises all systems and phases that assist in aircraft departure and landing. The Aeronautical Telecommunications Network: Advances, Challenges, and Modeling focuses on the development of ATN and examines the role of the various systems that link aircraft with the ground. The book places special emphasis on ATC-introducing the modern ATC system from the perspective of the user and the developer-and provides a thorough understanding of the operating mechanism of the ATC system. It discusses the evolution of ATC, explaining its structure and how it works; includes design examples; and describes all subsystems of the ATC system. In addition, the book covers relevant tools, techniques, protocols, and architectures in ATN, including MIPv6, air traffic control (ATC), security of air traffic management (ATM), very-high-frequenc...

  13. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  14. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...

  15. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  16. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  17. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  18. Diversity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    and professional growth of women through networking, mentoring and training. We strive to ensure that will be used. National Processing Center Seniors Leader: Jo Anne Hankins Champion: Eric Milliner NO

  19. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    , as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  20. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  1. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  2. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  3. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  4. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  5. Pintadas network

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.

    2006-01-01

    The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...

  6. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....

  7. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  8. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  9. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  10. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  11. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  12. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  13. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    served as a deputy maintenance group commander. Following Air War College he will take command of the 8th Maintenance Group, Kunsan Air Base, Korea ...discrimination in terms of 3 race, religion , sex, etc.: the demographics we have all heard about for years. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36

  14. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implem...

  15. Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Central Air-Conditioning Plant (CAP) and its associated chilled water network of BARC is one among the largest central plants in India for such application. The plant was planned in 1960s to cater to the air-conditioning and process water requirements of laboratories, workshops and buildings spread over a distance of 1.5 Km in three directions from CAP through underground network of chilled water pipelines. The plant was designed for a total capacity of 6600 TR. The present installed capacity of the plant is 7250 TR. The connected load at present is 9800 TR. After the XII plan capacity will be augmented to 7650 TR. The connected load is expected to cross 11,000 TR after the commissioning of new Engg. Halls 9, 10 and 11

  16. Air ambulance services--integrated emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, M

    1994-10-01

    In the name of cost-conscious care, air ambulance program directors and service contractors are seeing the dawn of integrated networks as a boon to their business. As integrated networks form, facilities will become increasingly specialized in the types of services they provide. Patients will need to be moved around the system, resulting in more frequent patient transport and more points of transfer. Many programs are considering aircraft replacement and additions, rather than leasing. Financial benefits could come on depreciation and the high resale value of aircraft. Unless reimbursement levels increase, more program mergers and affiliations may take place to spread and reduce cost. Air ambulance services will increasingly become part of a facility's strategic plan.

  17. A rebeldia dos Bragança no Rio da Prata: redes comerciais e laços parentais portugueses na Buenos Aires seiscentista = The rebelliousness of the Bragança at the River Plate: portuguese commercial networks and familiar ties in Buenos Aires (17 th Century = La rebeldía de los Braganza en el Río de la Plata: redes comerciales y lazos parentales portugueses en la Buenos Aires del Siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contém breve apresentação seguida de transcrição de trecho de processo judicial, presente no Arquivo Geral das Índias (Sevilha, em defesa dos lusitanos expulsos da cidade de Buenos Aires em 1643. No ano de 1641, logo após a Restauração portuguesa, marinheiros lusitanos fugiram para o Rio de Janeiro, levantando na região austral suspeitas de traição de moradores do Rio da Prata ao monarca espanhol

  18. Analysis of the airport network of India as a complex weighted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2008-05-01

    Transportation infrastructure of a country is one of the most important indicators of its economic growth. Here we study the Airport Network of India (ANI) which represents India’s domestic civil aviation infrastructure as a complex network. We find that ANI, a network of domestic airports connected by air links, is a small-world network characterized by a truncated power-law degree distribution and has a signature of hierarchy. We investigate ANI as a weighted network to explore its various properties and compare them with their topological counterparts. The traffic in ANI, as in the World-wide Airport Network (WAN), is found to be accumulated on interconnected groups of airports and is concentrated between large airports. In contrast to WAN, ANI is found to be having disassortative mixing which is offset by the traffic dynamics. The analysis indicates possible mechanism of formation of a national transportation network, which is different from that on a global scale.

  19. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  20. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  1. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  2. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  3. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  4. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  5. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol on earth and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2010-01-01

    Carefully coordinated, reliable, and accurate time synchronization is vital to a wide spectrum of fields-from air and ground traffic control, to buying and selling goods and services, to TV network programming. Ill-gotten time could even lead to the unimaginable and cause DNS caches to expire, leaving the entire Internet to implode on the root servers.Written by the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol on Earth and in Space, Second Edition addresses the technological infrastructure of time dissemination, distrib

  6. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  7. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  9. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  10. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  11. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  12. Advances in Air Quality Monitoring via Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle; Merhari, Lhadi

    2004-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an inescapable issue due to its serious consequences on public health and, therefore, needs more accurate tracking through denser networks of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations. A higher density of these networks can be afforded by cities only if the costs of future individual AQM stations decrease. We review here the outcome of two European projects where our objective was to provide an alternative approach consisting in the development of cost-effective mobile microstations based on semiconductor sensors and capable of complementing the expensive and bulky current AQM stations. Improvement of the sensor sensitivity to detect very low levels of pollutants (CO, NO, NO 2 , O 3 ) in air was the major challenge to take up. This was achieved by using metal oxide nanosized particles with both controlled size and surface chemistry, and by adapting the screen-printing process to the nanometer size specificity. The detection thresholds for NO 2 , NO and O 3 of our nanoparticles-based sensors have been decreased by a factor of 3-5 compared to currently commercialized sensors. The lowest detectable concentration of CO has been reduced from 5 to 3 ppm without affecting the selectivity. In terms of sensitivity performance, our sensor prototypes can now meet the criteria for outdoor AQM whereas the commercial semiconductor and electrochemical sensors still cannot. As for the implementation of the network as a whole, our technological approach is outlined

  13. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  14. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  15. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  16. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... threats to the critical infrastructure. Finally, before our conclusions and outlook, we give a brief overview of some key activities in the field and what research directions are currently investigated....

  17. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  18. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  19. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  20. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of networkbehaviour, knowing how to manage this relation becomes essential, especiallyduring the development of new strategies....

  1. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  2. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  3. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    Slovak air protection legislation is fully identical with the relevant EU legislation. The results of air pollution monitoring in Slovakia in 2004 are summarised in the presented report. The territory of Slovakia was partitioned into 8 zones (identical with administrative counties) and 2 agglomerations (the largest towns Bratislava and Kosice). In 2004 were specified 17 areas with controlled air quality, which totally include 2 774 km 2 and 1 460 000 inhabitants (27 % of population). The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) maintains national air pollution monitoring network in Slovakia. In 2004, it consisted of 29 real-time monitoring stations, 6 real-time ground level ozone monitoring stations only and 5 regional background stations. The monitoring network was built in accordance with the rules given in EU directives. Only reference or equivalence measuring methods are used. (authors))

  4. METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF DECISION MAKING IN AIR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the research of Air Navigation System as a complex socio-technical system the methodologyof analysis of human-operator's decision-making has been developed. The significance of individualpsychologicalfactors as well as the impact of socio-psychological factors on the professional activities of ahuman-operator during the flight situation development from normal to catastrophic were analyzed. On thebasis of the reflexive theory of bipolar choice the expected risks of decision-making by the Air NavigationSystem's operator influenced by external environment, previous experience and intentions were identified.The methods for analysis of decision-making by the human-operator of Air Navigation System usingstochastic networks have been developed.Keywords: Air Navigation System, bipolar choice, human operator, decision-making, expected risk, individualpsychologicalfactors, methodology of analysis, reflexive model, socio-psychological factors, stochastic network.

  5. Percolation of interdependent network of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Bashan, Amir; Gao, Jianxi; Kenett, Dror Y.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a Network Of Networks (NONs) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (first-order) phase transition, unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. Moreover, although networks with broader degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are more robust when analyzed as single networks, they become more vulnerable in a NON. We also review the effect of space embedding on network vulnerability. It is shown that for spatially embedded networks any finite fraction of dependency nodes will lead to abrupt transition

  6. Neuro-models for discharge air temperature system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer-uddin, M.; Tudoroiu, N.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear neuro-models for a discharge air temperature (DAT) system are developed. Experimental data gathered in a heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) test facility is used to develop multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and single-input single-output (SISO) neuro-models. Several different network architectures were explored to build the models. Results show that a three layer second order neural network structure is necessary to achieve good accuracy of the predictions. Results from the developed models are compared, and some observations on sensitivity and standard deviation errors are presented

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  8. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  9. Network Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…

  10. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  11. Global Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…

  12. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  13. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  14. The community takes charge : story and success of Clean Air Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.

    2004-01-01

    Clean Air Hamilton was established in 2001 to identify priority air quality issues, pollution sources, and evaluate impacts and solutions for air quality issues. Clean Air Hamilton also assesses the human health effects of ambient air exposures in Hamilton. A 1997 survey of Hamilton residents showed that most citizens were extremely concerned about health effects, black fallout, smog visibility, and odours. Clean Air Hamilton has established an air monitoring network which includes 19 member companies and 22 industrial sites. The objective is to determine recent contaminant trends in upwind/downwind air quality. The timeline for establishing the Hamilton air monitoring network was presented. The network, which serves as a model for Ontario and Canada, monitors the impact of vehicular and industrial emissions and establishes ten-year air quality trends for benzo(a)pyrene, sulphur, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at industrial sites and the downtown core. Analysis of air quality trends shows that there has been improvement in levels of some locally-generated contaminants. The data has also been used for epidemiological studies to determine the health effects of industry on Hamiltonians. figs

  15. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  16. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  17. Air University Press Publications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Our publications program is designed primarily to help Air Force and other US war fighters, national leaders and policy makers, academicians, military historians, and other analysts understand...

  18. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Jaeger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  19. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  20. Urban air pollution in megacities of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, David; Ozolins, Guntis; Peterson, Peter; Webster, Anthony; Orthofer, Rudi; Vandeweerd, Veerle; Gwynne, Michael

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in the developing countries of the world. WHO and UNEP created an air pollution monitoring network as part of the Global Environment Monitoring System. This network now covers over 50 cities in 35 developing and developed countries throughout the world. The analyses of the data reported by the network over the past 15-20 yr indicate that the lessons of the prior experiences in the developed countries (U.S.A., U.K.) have not been learned. A study of air pollution in 20 of the 24 megacities of the world (over 10 million people by year 2000) shows that ambient air pollution concentrations are at levels where serious health effects are reported. The expected rise of population in the next century, mainly in the developing countries with a lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential that conditions will worsen in many more cities that will reach megacity status. This paper maps the potential for air pollution that cities will experience in the future unless control strategies are developed and implemented during the next several decades.

  1. Computer program for compressible flow network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.

  2. Complex networks from multivariate time series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paluš, Milan; Hartman, David; Vejmelka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), A-14382 ISSN 1607-7962. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complex network * surface air temperature * reanalysis data * global change Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but

  4. On Applicability of Network Coding Technique for 6LoWPAN-based Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanowicz, Marek; Krygier, Jaroslaw

    2018-05-26

    In this paper, the applicability of the network coding technique in 6LoWPAN-based sensor multihop networks is examined. The 6LoWPAN is one of the standards proposed for the Internet of Things architecture. Thus, we can expect the significant growth of traffic in such networks, which can lead to overload and decrease in the sensor network lifetime. The authors propose the inter-session network coding mechanism that can be implemented in resource-limited sensor motes. The solution reduces the overall traffic in the network, and in consequence, the energy consumption is decreased. Used procedures take into account deep header compressions of the native 6LoWPAN packets and the hop-by-hop changes of the header structure. Applied simplifications reduce signaling traffic that is typically occurring in network coding deployments, keeping the solution usefulness for the wireless sensor networks with limited resources. The authors validate the proposed procedures in terms of end-to-end packet delay, packet loss ratio, traffic in the air, total energy consumption, and network lifetime. The solution has been tested in a real wireless sensor network. The results confirm the efficiency of the proposed technique, mostly in delay-tolerant sensor networks.

  5. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The report deals with the EIMP (Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt). The programme is funded by Danida which is a cooperation project between Norway and Denmark. The programme covers the monitoring of air pollution, coastal water monitoring, and the monitoring of pollution sources and emissions. This report pays the attention to the Norwegian part of the programme executed by NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) which covers the development air quality monitoring network. 14 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. AIR QUALITY IN THE CITY OF TG JIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TĂTAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern age is the air pollution. Within this work I realized a description of Tgjiu City: geographic location, climate, hydrographical network, variations in temperature, terrain, sources of pollution. On the basis of registered values for the air quality indicator, sedimentable powders, and interpretation of results on the basis of the provisions of the standards in force, the comments were made in relation to particulate air pollution in the city area of sedimentableTg Jiu, identifying the polluters in the area, the proposed solutions for the reduction of pollution.

  7. The Value of Partial Resource Pooling: Should a Service Network Be Integrated or Product-Focused?

    OpenAIRE

    Bar{\\i}\\c{s} Ata; Jan A. Van Mieghem

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how dynamic resource substitution in service systems impacts capacity requirements and responsiveness. Inspired by the contrasting network strategies of FedEx and United Parcel Service (UPS), we study when two service classes (e.g., express or regular) should be served by dedicated resources (e.g., air or ground) or by an integrated network (e.g., air also serves regular). Using call center terminology, the question is whether to operate two independent queues or one N-network....

  8. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  9. Maxwell Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    most effective style of leadership. (Courtesy Photo, Air University Press) Air University Press Directory Maxwell Links Welcome Leadership Joint Land Use Study Heritage Pamphlet Maxwell Driving Tour (No releases 'A Discourse on Winning and Losing' "Developing Your Full Range of Leadership" focuses

  10. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  11. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Dioxin in Danish air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoe, J.; Andersen, H.V. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    To gain more knowledge about dioxin levels, sources and emissions in Denmark, the Danish government year 2001 initiated the Danish Dioxin Monitoring Program. The program is a series of investigations, comprising soil, compost, percolate, bio-ash, incineration of municipal and hazardous waste, deposition, air, lake and fjord sediment as well as cows milk and human milk. The present paper describes the preliminary results for the continued investigation of air. Deposition of dioxin over land or sea is of major importance for the human exposure, which takes place mainly from food intake. The dioxin are emitted mainly to the atmosphere, therefore air measurements are well suited for tracking the transport and fate of dioxin from sources to exposure. Whereas measurements from chimneys has been frequently used to estimate the industrial emission from point sources such as incinerators, air measurements also include emission from diffuse sources such as larger urban or industrial regions, residential quarters, and from evaporation. Furthermore, emission measurements must be done on known sources, whereas air measurements include contribution from unknown source. The major drawbacks of air measurements are the long duration required (years), and the results depends on meteorological conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction. The purpose of the present study has been to measure dioxins in Danish air, emphasizing - background concentrations and annual variation - difference between urban, rural and residential zones - influence from local sources and long range transport - connection between dioxin in air and deposition.

  13. Protective air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases is described. An enclosure is sealed by a surrounding air lock, and an automatic mechanism partially evacuates the enclosure and air lock. The enclosure ventilating mechanism can be disconnected so that a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in the enclosure

  14. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  17. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  18. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  19. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  20. Air Force Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  1. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  2. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  3. The mechanism of selective molecular capture in carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yu; Guan, Jun; Yang, Xudong; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-28

    Recently, air pollution issues have drawn significant attention to the development of efficient air filters, and one of the most promising materials for this purpose is nanofibers. We explore here the mechanism of selective molecular capture of volatile organic compounds in carbon nanotube networks by performing atomistic simulations. The results are discussed with respect to the two key parameters that define the performance of nanofiltration, i.e. the capture efficiency and flow resistance, which demonstrate the advantages of carbon nanotube networks with high surface-to-volume ratio and atomistically smooth surfaces. We also reveal the important roles of interfacial adhesion and diffusion that govern selective gas transport through the network.

  4. Feedback Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Amir R.; Wu, Te-Lin; Sun, Lin; Shen, William; Malik, Jitendra; Savarese, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most successful learning models in computer vision are based on learning successive representations followed by a decision layer. This is usually actualized through feedforward multilayer neural networks, e.g. ConvNets, where each layer forms one of such successive representations. However, an alternative that can achieve the same goal is a feedback based approach in which the representation is formed in an iterative manner based on a feedback received from previous iteration's...

  5. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  6. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Daily Minimum Air Temperature Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily air temperature (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Daily Maximum Air Temperature Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily air temperature (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...

  8. Miniaturized Air Dropped Sensors for Environmental Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Water, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR program would develop air-dropped wireless networked sensors using miniaturized chemical field effect transistors (ChemFET) for the detection and...

  9. 76 FR 70940 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...). Oklahoma's monitoring network includes the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS), which measure... and PM 2.5 monitor locations and current and historical data, including ozone design values for...

  10. Safety evaluation of large ventilation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrocas, M.; Pruchon, P.; Robin, J.P.; Rouyer, J.L.; Salmon, P.

    1981-01-01

    For large ventilation networks, it is necessary to make a safety evaluation of their responses to perturbations such as blower failure, unexpected transfers, local pressurization. This evaluation is not easy to perform because of the many interrelationships between the different parts of the networks, interrelationships coming from the circulations of workers and matetials between cells and rooms and from the usefulness of air transfers through zones of different classifications. This evaluation is all the more necessary since new imperatives in energy savings push for minimizing the air flows, which tends to render the network more sensitive to perturbations. A program to evaluate safety has been developed by the Service de Protection Technique in cooperation with operators and designers of big nuclear facilities and the first applications presented here show the weak points of the installation studied from the safety view point

  11. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  12. The airborne radioactivity and electrical properties of ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Matul, M.; Mikolajewski, S.; Trzaskowska, H.; Kubicki, M.

    2001-01-01

    The data presented in this work are the result of systematic measurements of radionuclide concentrations in air and density of vertical current. The airborne 7 Be concentration changes similar to the electrical conductivity of air, collected with an ASS-500 high volume air sampler of the ground atr monitoring network supervised by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. Sampling has been done since March 1991. Simultaneously, the routine complex meteorological observations were performed. In particular, the electrical properties of ground level atmospheric air were studied with measurements of electrical field intensity, positive and negative conductivity of the air,while other isotopes, anthropogenic or originating from the ground are correlated with dust and other meteorological factors like watering and wind. (author)

  13. Networks of networks – An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Perc, Matjaž; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Interdependent network reciprocity. Only those blue cooperative domains that are initially present on both networks survive. Abstract: This is an introduction to the special issue titled “Networks of networks” that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. Recent research and reviews attest to the fact that networks of networks are the next frontier in network science [1–7]. Not only are interactions limited and thus inadequately described by well-mixed models, it is also a fact that the networks that should be an integral part of such models are often interconnected, thus making the processes that are unfolding on them interdependent. From the World economy and transportation systems to social media, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might significantly affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has a certain relevance and meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Networks of networks, interdependent networks, or multilayer networks are therefore a much better and realistic description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, percolation, diffusion, synchronization, collective behavior, and evolutionary games on networks of networks. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of networks of networks, regardless of background and motivation, is very welcome.

  14. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  15. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We pr...

  16. An objective methodology for the evaluation of the air quality stations positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassi, A.; Marson, G.; Baraldo, E.; Dalan, F.; Lorenzet, K.; Bellasio, R.; Bianconi, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for the evaluation of the correct positioning of the monitoring stations of an air quality network. The methodology is based on the Italian legislation, the European Directives and on some technical documents used as guidelines at European level. The paper describes all the assumption on which the methodology is based and the results of its application to the air quality network of Region Veneto (Italy) [it

  17. Research on Electronic-nose Application Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A; Wang, L; Yao, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposed a structure of Wireless Sensor Networks based Electronic-nose system to monitors air quality in the building. In the study, the authors researched a data processing algorithm: fuzzy neural network based on RBF(Radial Basis Function) network model, to quantitatively analyze the gas ingredient and put forward a routing protocol for the system

  18. An expert system for configuring a network for a Milstar terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Melissa J.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a rule-based expert system which assists the user in configuring a network for Air Force terminals using the Milstar satellite system. The network configuration expert system approach uses CLIPS. The complexity of network configuration is discussed, and the methods used to model it are described.

  19. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  20. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  1. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  2. Green mobile networks a networking perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Nirwan

    2016-01-01

    Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.

  3. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  4. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  5. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  6. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  9. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  10. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  11. Appendicitis with Intraluminal Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Alfredo; Ramirez, Sandra M; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Uriza, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    The presentation of acute appendicitis with intraluminal air is an uncommon presentation. Ultrasound is a widely used and accepted to establish the diagnosis of appendicitis, but its performance is limited in situations where there is interposition of air. Inflamed appendix which presents with distension by gas can be source of error in ultrasound to establish a false negative diagnosis. In this article we present three patients with appendicitis where the interposition of intraluminal air hid their diagnostic by ultrasound. In all three cases the definitive diagnosis was established by computed tomography and surgical confirmation.

  12. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  13. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  14. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency......This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  15. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  16. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  17. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  18. climatology of air mass trajectories and aerosol optical thickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George

    We present in this paper a climatological study of back trajectories of air masses ... obtained by inversion of photometric measurements of AERONET network. ... the arid Sahel region adjacent in the north to the Sahara ... the city a strategic position in the study of the .... atmospheric emergencies, diagnostic case studies and.

  19. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PM10 and PM2.5 data from air-quality assessment studies in areas not covered by the network were also included. Population-attributable fractions calculated using risk coefficients presented in the WHO study were weighted by the proportion of the total population (33%) in urban environments, and applied to revised ...

  20. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunev, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  1. Air defense planning for an area with the use of very short range air defense sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pietkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method of planning the deployment of very short-range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD around an area (‘protected area’ in order to protect it. A function dependent on the distance between the earliest feasible points of destroying targets and the centre of the protected area was taken as an objective function. This is a different indicator from those commonly used in the literature, and based on the likelihood of a defense zone penetration by means of an air attack (MAA: the kill probability of the MAA and the probability of area losses. The model constraints resulted directly from the restrictions imposed by real air defense systems and the nature of the area being defended. This paper assumes that the VSHORAD system operates as a part of a general, superordinate air defense command and control system based on the idea of network-centric warfare, which provides the VSHORAD system with a recognized air picture, air defense plans, and combat mission specifications. The presented method has been implemented. The final part of the paper presents the computational results. Keywords: optimal planning, air defense system, area installation protection, deployment of very short range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD

  2. Monitoring air quality in Southeast Alaska’s National Parks and Forests: Linking atmospheric pollutants with ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Schirokauer; L. Geiser; A. Bytnerowicz; M. Fenn; K. Dillman

    2014-01-01

    Air quality and air quality related values are important resources to the National Park Service (NPS) units and Wilderness areas in northern Southeast Alaska. Air quality monitoring was prioritized as a high-priority Vital Sign at the Southeast Alaska Network’s (SEAN) Inventory and Monitoring Program’s terrestrial scoping workshop (Derr and Fastie 2006). Air quality...

  3. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable antennas and radomes, temporary shelters, pneumatic muscles and actuators, inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags...

  4. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  5. The role of the railways in the future of air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Banister, D.

    2007-01-01

    The role of the railways in the air transport industry is usually limited to provision of access to airports. However, the development of high-speed rail networks and the congestion and environmental problems faced by the air transport industry suggest the railways could have a greater role in

  6. A WEB API AND WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR DISSEMINATION OF AIR QUALITY INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Şahin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have been carried out since 2005 under the leadership of Ministry of Environment and Urbanism of Turkey, in order to observe the quality of air in Turkey, to develop new policies and to develop a sustainable air quality management strategy. For this reason, a national air quality monitoring network has been developed providing air quality indices. By this network, the quality of the air has been continuously monitored and an important information system has been constructed in order to take precautions for preventing a dangerous situation. The biggest handicap in the network is the data access problem for instant and time series data acquisition and processing because of its proprietary structure. Currently, there is no service offered by the current air quality monitoring system for exchanging information with third party applications. Within the context of this work, a web service has been developed to enable location based querying of the current/past air quality data in Turkey. This web service is equipped with up-todate and widely preferred technologies. In other words, an architecture is chosen in which applications can easily integrate. In the second phase of the study, a web-based application was developed to test the developed web service and this testing application can perform location based acquisition of air-quality data. This makes it possible to easily carry out operations such as screening and examination of the area in the given time-frame which cannot be done with the national monitoring network.

  7. a Web Api and Web Application Development for Dissemination of Air Quality Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, K.; Işıkdağ, U.

    2017-11-01

    Various studies have been carried out since 2005 under the leadership of Ministry of Environment and Urbanism of Turkey, in order to observe the quality of air in Turkey, to develop new policies and to develop a sustainable air quality management strategy. For this reason, a national air quality monitoring network has been developed providing air quality indices. By this network, the quality of the air has been continuously monitored and an important information system has been constructed in order to take precautions for preventing a dangerous situation. The biggest handicap in the network is the data access problem for instant and time series data acquisition and processing because of its proprietary structure. Currently, there is no service offered by the current air quality monitoring system for exchanging information with third party applications. Within the context of this work, a web service has been developed to enable location based querying of the current/past air quality data in Turkey. This web service is equipped with up-todate and widely preferred technologies. In other words, an architecture is chosen in which applications can easily integrate. In the second phase of the study, a web-based application was developed to test the developed web service and this testing application can perform location based acquisition of air-quality data. This makes it possible to easily carry out operations such as screening and examination of the area in the given time-frame which cannot be done with the national monitoring network.

  8. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  9. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  10. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  11. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  12. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few sources. Even natural sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more ... Walks Cycling Events Donate a Car Memorial & Honor Gifts Planned Giving Christmas Seals ABOUT THE LUNG ASSOCIATION ...

  13. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  14. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you touch anything in your seat back pocket. The air pressure in the plane can change ... counter Products Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Health Tools Dictionary Symptom Checker BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient ...

  15. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  17. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  18. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  19. Operational air sampling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products

  20. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...