Sample records for networked storage system

  1. Data storage system for wireless sensor networks


    Sacramento, David


    Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Informática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are starting to have a high impact on our societies and, for next generation WSNs to become more integrated with the Internet, researchers recently proposed to embed Internet Protocol (IP) v6 into such very constrained networks. Also, Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and Observe have been proposed for RESTful services to be pr...

  2. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks (United States)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.


    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  3. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most crucial benefits of the computer system is its ability to manage data send to it for processing. An aspect of data management that all other aspects hinge upon is data storage and retrieval. Data loss has rendered many firms bankrupt. The primary cause of data loss is lack or non- existent of data backup.

  4. GraphStore: A Distributed Graph Storage System for Big Data Networks (United States)

    Martha, VenkataSwamy


    Networks, such as social networks, are a universal solution for modeling complex problems in real time, especially in the Big Data community. While previous studies have attempted to enhance network processing algorithms, none have paved a path for the development of a persistent storage system. The proposed solution, GraphStore, provides an…

  5. NAFFS: network attached flash file system for cloud storage on portable consumer electronics (United States)

    Han, Lin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng

    Cloud storage technology has become a research hotspot in recent years, while the existing cloud storage services are mainly designed for data storage needs with stable high speed Internet connection. Mobile Internet connections are often unstable and the speed is relatively low. These native features of mobile Internet limit the use of cloud storage in portable consumer electronics. The Network Attached Flash File System (NAFFS) presented the idea of taking the portable device built-in NAND flash memory as the front-end cache of virtualized cloud storage device. Modern portable devices with Internet connection have built-in more than 1GB NAND Flash, which is quite enough for daily data storage. The data transfer rate of NAND flash device is much higher than mobile Internet connections[1], and its non-volatile feature makes it very suitable as the cache device of Internet cloud storage on portable device, which often have unstable power supply and intermittent Internet connection. In the present work, NAFFS is evaluated with several benchmarks, and its performance is compared with traditional network attached file systems, such as NFS. Our evaluation results indicate that the NAFFS achieves an average accessing speed of 3.38MB/s, which is about 3 times faster than directly accessing cloud storage by mobile Internet connection, and offers a more stable interface than that of directly using cloud storage API. Unstable Internet connection and sudden power off condition are tolerable, and no data in cache will be lost in such situation.

  6. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo


    Full Text Available The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs, with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently. Consequently, distributed generators (DGs and storage units are increasingly called to provide stabilizing functions according to local voltage and frequency. This can be achieved by suitably controlling the electronic power converters interfacing small-scale generators and storage units to the network. The paper focuses on the regulating functions required to storage units by grid codes currently in force in the European area. Indeed, even if such regulating actions would enable local units in participating to network stability under normal steady-state operating conditions, it is shown through dynamic simulations that they may increase the risk of unintentional islanding occurrence. This means that dangerous operating conditions may arise in LV networks in case dispersed generators and storage systems are present, even if all the end-users are compliant with currently applied connection standards.

  7. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems (United States)

    Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.


    Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem

  8. Simulation models developed for voltage control in a distribution network using energy storage systems for PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Bindner, Henrik W.


    This paper presents the development of simulation models for DER components in a distribution network, with focus on voltage controllers using energy storage systems for PV penetration. The Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) system model, used as an energy storage system, was implemented in MATLAB...

  9. On Network Coded Distributed Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul


    This paper focuses on distributed fog storage solutions, where a number of unreliable devices organize themselves in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks with the purpose to store reliably their data and that of other devices and/or local users and provide lower delay and higher throughput. Cloud storage...... P2P system that achieves the predicted performance within 1 dB in measurement campaigns using commercial devices....

  10. Fuzzy-driven energy storage system for mitigating voltage unbalance factor on distribution network with photovoltaic system (United States)

    Wong, Jianhui; Lim, Yun Seng; Morris, Stella; Morris, Ezra; Chua, Kein Huat


    The amount of small-scaled renewable energy sources is anticipated to increase on the low-voltage distribution networks for the improvement of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. The growth of the PV systems on the low-voltage distribution networks can create voltage unbalance, voltage rise, and reverse-power flow. Usually these issues happen with little fluctuation. However, it tends to fluctuate severely as Malaysia is a region with low clear sky index. A large amount of clouds often passes over the country, hence making the solar irradiance to be highly scattered. Therefore, the PV power output fluctuates substantially. These issues can lead to the malfunction of the electronic based equipment, reduction in the network efficiency and improper operation of the power protection system. At the current practice, the amount of PV system installed on the distribution network is constraint by the utility company. As a result, this can limit the reduction of carbon footprint. Therefore, energy storage system is proposed as a solution for these power quality issues. To ensure an effective operation of the distribution network with PV system, a fuzzy control system is developed and implemented to govern the operation of an energy storage system. The fuzzy driven energy storage system is able to mitigate the fluctuating voltage rise and voltage unbalance on the electrical grid by actively manipulates the flow of real power between the grid and the batteries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy driven energy storage system, an experimental network integrated with 7.2kWp PV system was setup. Several case studies are performed to evaluate the response of the proposed solution to mitigate voltage rises, voltage unbalance and reduce the amount of reverse power flow under highly intermittent PV power output.

  11. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.


    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  12. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage System in Solar Energy Electric Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqiong; Kang, Longyun; Cheng, Miaomiao; Cao, Binggang

    Owing to sun's rays distributing randomly and discontinuously and load fluctuation, energy storage system is very important in Solar Energy Electric Vehicle (SEEV). The combinatorial optimization by genetic algorithm and neural network was used to optimize the energy storage system (including storage batteries and flywheel).In the optimization design, the operation strategy of the system was fixed and used to instruct the simulation about the system's operation. And the optimal objective was selected as minimizing the total capital cost of the energy storage system, subject to the main constraint of the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP). Studies have proved that the combinatorial optimization by genetic algorithm and neural network converges well, lessen calculation time and it is feasible.

  13. Requirements for a Network Storage Service in a supercomputer environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S.M.


    Sandia National Laboratories has completed a requirements study for a networked mass storage system. The areas of user functionality, network connectivity, and performance were analyzed to determine specifications for a Network Storage Service to operate in supercomputer environment. 4 refs.

  14. Intelligent Management System of Power Network Information Collection Under Big Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yingying


    Full Text Available With the development of economy and society, big data storage in enterprise management has become a problem that can’t be ignored. How to manage and optimize the allocation of tasks better is an important factor in the sustainable development of an enterprise. Now the enterprise information intelligent management has become a hot spot of management mode and concept in the information age. It presents information to the business managers in a more efficient, lower cost, and global form. The system uses the SG-UAP development tools, which is based on Eclipse development environment, and suits for Windows operating system, with Oracle as database development platform, Tomcat network information service for application server. The system uses SOA service-oriented architecture, provides RESTful style service, and HTTP(S as the communication protocol, and JSON as the data format. The system is divided into two parts, the front-end and the backs-end, achieved functions like user login, registration, password retrieving, enterprise internal personnel information management and internal data display and other functions.

  15. Geochemical implications of production and storage control by coupling a direct-use geothermal system with heat networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Scholten, Tjardo; Hooghiem, Joram; Persis, Claudio De; Herber, Rien


    This paper outlines a method in which the heat production of a geothermal system is controlled in relation to the demand from a district-heating network. A model predictive control strategy is designed, which uses volume measurements in the storage tank, and predictions of the demand, to regulate

  16. Top scientific research center deploys Zambeel Aztera (TM) network storage system in high performance environment

    CERN Multimedia


    " The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has implemented a Zambeel Aztera storage system and software to accelerate the productivity of scientists running high performance scientific simulations and computations" (1 page).

  17. Geochemical implications of production and storage control by coupling a direct-use geothermal system with heat networks


    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Scholten, Tjardo; Hooghiem, Joram; De Persis, Claudio; Herber, Rien


    This paper outlines a method in which the heat production of a geothermal system is controlled in relation to the demand from a district-heating network. A model predictive control strategy is designed, which uses volume measurements in the storage tank, and predictions of the demand, to regulate the production of the geothermal system in real time. The implications of such time-varying production for the reservoir are investigated using a 2D reactive transport reservoir model. As a case stud...

  18. GE networked mass storage solutions supporting IEEE network mass storage model (United States)

    Herzog, Donald


    The General Electric Government Communications Systems Department (GE/GCSD) has developed a near real time digital data storage and retrieval system that extends the capabilities currently available in today's marketplace. This system called DuraStore uses commercially available rotary tape drive technology with ANSI/IEEE standards for automated magnetic tape based data storage. It uses a nonproprietary approach to satisfy a wide range of data rates and storage capabilities requirements and is compliant with the IEEE Network Storage Model. Rotary tape drives, standard interfaces, application specific hardware/software, networked automated tape libraries, library administrator, write protection, volume/physical media linkages, and maximum resource utilization are addressed.

  19. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabio Bignucolo; Alberto Cerretti; Massimiliano Coppo; Andrea Savio; Roberto Turri


    ...), with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently...

  20. Memory Storage and Neural Systems. (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.


    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  1. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.


    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  2. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Tedeschi


    Full Text Available The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match the intermittent power generation from waves to the energy needs of the local community. In this paper real data from La Palma, in the Canary Islands, are used as a basis for the considered test case. As a first step the study quantifies the expected power production from Wave Energy Converter (WEC arrays, based on data from the Lifesaver point absorber developed by Fred. Olsen. Then, a stochastic optimization approach is applied to evaluate the convenience of energy storage introduction for reducing the final cost of energy and to define the corresponding optimal rating of the storage devices.

  3. Neural Network based Control of SG based Standalone Generating System with Energy Storage for Power Quality Enhancement (United States)

    Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar


    An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.

  4. Distributed Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmaeil Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.


    issues of distribution networks. In this paper, the battery energy storage (BES) systems are used in order to solve the voltage rise during the peak PV generation as well as the voltage drop while meeting the peak load. A coordinated control strategy is proposed to regulate the charge/discharge of BESs......The voltage rise problem in low voltage (LV) distribution networks with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) resources is one of the most important challenges in the development of these renewable resources since it may prevent the maximum PV penetration considering the reliability and security...... using a combination of the local droop based control method and a distributed control scheme which ensures the voltages of feeder remain within allowed limits. Therefore, two different consensus algorithms are used: The first algorithm determines the BESs participation in voltage regulation in terms...

  5. Logistical networking: a global storage network (United States)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry


    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it. This work is supported by the Department of Energy SciDAC Program (esp. Terascale Supernova Initiative) under grant #DE-FC02-01ER25465 and by the Center for Gyokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, under award #DE-FG02-04ER25651. Additional support was provided by the Center for Information Technology Research (CITR) of the University of Tennessee. The infrastructure used in this work was supported by the NSF CISE Research Infrastructure program, EIA-9972889 and Research Resources program EIA-022444.

  6. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang


    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  7. Requirements for a network storage service (United States)

    Kelly, Suzanne M.; Haynes, Rena A.


    Sandia National Laboratories provides a high performance classified computer network as a core capability in support of its mission of nuclear weapons design and engineering, physical sciences research, and energy research and development. The network, locally known as the Internal Secure Network (ISN), was designed in 1989 and comprises multiple distributed local area networks (LAN's) residing in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California. The TCP/IP protocol suite is used for inner-node communications. Scientific workstations and mid-range computers, running UNIX-based operating systems, compose most LAN's. One LAN, operated by the Sandia Corporate Computing Directorate, is a general purpose resource providing a supercomputer and a file server to the entire ISN. The current file server on the supercomputer LAN is an implementation of the Common File System (CFS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Subsequent to the design of the ISN, Sandia reviewed its mass storage requirements and chose to enter into a competitive procurement to replace the existing file server with one more adaptable to a UNIX/TCP/IP environment. The requirements study for the network was the starting point for the requirements study for the new file server. The file server is called the Network Storage Services (NSS) and is requirements are described in this paper. The next section gives an application or functional description of the NSS. The final section adds performance, capacity, and access constraints to the requirements.

  8. Low latency network and distributed storage for next generation HPC systems: the ExaNeSt project (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Pisani, F.; Simula, F.; Vicini, P.; Navaridas, J.; Chaix, F.; Chrysos, N.; Katevenis, M.; Papaeustathiou, V.


    With processor architecture evolution, the HPC market has undergone a paradigm shift. The adoption of low-cost, Linux-based clusters extended the reach of HPC from its roots in modelling and simulation of complex physical systems to a broader range of industries, from biotechnology, cloud computing, computer analytics and big data challenges to manufacturing sectors. In this perspective, the near future HPC systems can be envisioned as composed of millions of low-power computing cores, densely packed — meaning cooling by appropriate technology — with a tightly interconnected, low latency and high performance network and equipped with a distributed storage architecture. Each of these features — dense packing, distributed storage and high performance interconnect — represents a challenge, made all the harder by the need to solve them at the same time. These challenges lie as stumbling blocks along the road towards Exascale-class systems; the ExaNeSt project acknowledges them and tasks itself with investigating ways around them.

  9. A control model for district heating networks with storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjeert; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro


    In [1] pressure control of hydraulic networks is investigated. We extend this work to district heating systems with storage capabilities and derive a model taking the topology of the network into account. The goal for the derived model is that it should allow for control of the storage level and

  10. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network (United States)

    Giraud, Francois


    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  11. Energy storage connection system (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.


    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  12. A Hierarchical Optimal Operation Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Distribution Networks with High Photovoltaic Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a hierarchical optimal operation strategy for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS is proposed, which is suitable to be utilized in distribution networks (DNs with high photovoltaic (PV penetration to achieve PV power smoothing, voltage regulation and price arbitrage. Firstly, a fuzzy-logic based variable step-size control strategy for an ultracapacitor (UC with the improvement of the lifetime of UC and tracking performance is adopted to smooth PV power fluctuations. The impact of PV forecasting errors is eliminated by adjusting the UC power in real time. Secondly, a coordinated control strategy, which includes centralized and local controls, is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. The centralized control is structured to determine the optimal battery unit for voltage regulation or price arbitrage according to lithium-ion battery performance indices. A modified lithium-ion battery aging model with better accuracy is proposed and the coupling relationship between the lifetime and the effective capacity is also considered. Additionally, the local control of the selected lithium-ion battery unit determines the charging/discharging power. A case study is used to validate the operation strategy and the results show that the lifetime equilibrium among different lithium-ion battery units can be achieved using the proposed strategy.

  13. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  14. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks (United States)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.


    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  15. Energy Storage System (United States)


    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  16. High-speed interconnection for storage area networks (United States)

    Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin


    The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

  17. On the Feasibility of a Network Coded Mobile Storage Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton; H. P. Fitzek, Frank; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique


    Conventional cloud storage services offer relatively good reliability and performance in a cost-effective manner. However, they are typically structured in a centralized and highly controlled fashion. In more dynamic storage scenarios, these centralized approaches are unfeasible and developing...... decentralized storage approaches becomes critical. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of the highly dynamic distributed mobile cloud, which uses free resources on user devices to move storage to the edges of the network. At the core of our approach, lies the use of random linear network coding...... to provide an effective and flexible erasure correcting code. This paper identifies and answers key questions regarding the feasibility of such a system. We show that the mobile cloud has sufficient network resources to adapt to changes in node numbers and also study the redundancy level needed to maintain...

  18. Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Crop Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Pilegaard; Green, Ole; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg


    of a wireless sensor network based system that provides continuous, automatic, and up-to-date information on a crop storage, while presenting the data in an easily accessible manner, is also described. The design decisions, challenges, and practical experiences from real-world large scale deployment...... of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that the network works well for the intended application and that the intended users also see a value in the provided service....

  19. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  20. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuchardt Georg K.


    Full Text Available Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  1. Tribology of magnetic storage systems (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat


    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  2. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  3. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei


    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  4. Scheme for improving the performance of multimedia storage systems (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoyan; Dong, Yonggui; Wu, Jinglian; Jia, Huibo; Feng, Guanping


    On the commercial available server, the great workloads on CPU generally limit the performance of Input/Output (I/O) or delay the response time. A Network-Attached Storage Device (NASD) is developed to meet the scalability requirement of mass multimedia storage. The evaluating experiments in this paper indicate that the bottleneck of data transmission is not the capability of CPU, but the network and reading/recording speed of physical storage devices. To improve the performance of multimedia storage system, a scheme of NASD-based multi-port storage area network is presented. In the new system composed of one manager and several NASDs, the manager only assigns the task of data processing to the NASDs. The NASDs can dynamically generate the virtual files and sent them to clients directly. Act as a virtual server, the storage system can provide the multi-port service for the different clients and different requirements.

  5. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit. (United States)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López


    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Technology for national asset storage systems (United States)

    Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry; Watson, Richard


    An industry-led collaborative project, called the National Storage Laboratory, was organized to investigate technology for storage systems that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Industry participants are IBM Federal Systems Company, Ampex Recording Systems Corporation, General Atomics DISCOS Division, IBM ADSTAR, Maximum Strategy Corporation, Network Systems Corporation, and Zitel Corporation. Industry members of the collaborative project are funding their own participation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through its National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) will participate in the project as the operational site and the provider of applications. The expected result is an evaluation of a high performance storage architecture assembled from commercially available hardware and software, with some software enhancements to meet the project's goals. It is anticipated that the integrated testbed system will represent a significant advance in the technology for distributed storage systems capable of handling gigabyte class files at gigabit-per-second data rates. The National Storage Laboratory was officially launched on 27 May 1992.

  7. Cloud and virtual data storage networking

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Greg


    The amount of data being generated, processed, and stored has reached unprecedented levels. Even during the recent economic crisis, there has been no slow down or information recession. Instead, the need to process, move, and store data has only increased. Consequently, IT organizations are looking to do more with what they have while supporting growth along with new services without compromising on cost and service delivery. Cloud and Virtual Data Storage Networking, by savvy IT industry veteran Greg Schulz, looks at converging IT resources and management technologies for facilitating efficie

  8. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.


    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  9. myGRN: a database and visualisation system for the storage and analysis of developmental genetic regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Jamil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological processes are regulated by complex interactions between transcription factors and signalling molecules, collectively described as Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs. The characterisation of these networks to reveal regulatory mechanisms is a long-term goal of many laboratories. However compiling, visualising and interacting with such networks is non-trivial. Current tools and databases typically focus on GRNs within simple, single celled organisms. However, data is available within the literature describing regulatory interactions in multi-cellular organisms, although not in any systematic form. This is particularly true within the field of developmental biology, where regulatory interactions should also be tagged with information about the time and anatomical location of development in which they occur. Description We have developed myGRN (, a web application for storing and interrogating interaction data, with an emphasis on developmental processes. Users can submit interaction and gene expression data, either curated from published sources or derived from their own unpublished data. All interactions associated with publications are publicly visible, and unpublished interactions can only be shared between collaborating labs prior to publication. Users can group interactions into discrete networks based on specific biological processes. Various filters allow dynamic production of network diagrams based on a range of information including tissue location, developmental stage or basic topology. Individual networks can be viewed using myGRV, a tool focused on displaying developmental networks, or exported in a range of formats compatible with third party tools. Networks can also be analysed for the presence of common network motifs. We demonstrate the capabilities of myGRN using a network of zebrafish interactions integrated with expression data from the zebrafish database, ZFIN. Conclusion Here we

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald


    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  11. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, Ron A.


    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  12. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue


    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  13. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue


    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  14. RBF neural network-based online intelligent management of a battery energy storage system for stand-alone microgrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerdphol, Thongchart; Qudaih, Yaser; Watanabe, Masayuki; Mitani, Yasunori


    ...) in a short period of time.This paper presents a new method for the intelligent online management of both active and reactive power of a BESS based on a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN...

  15. Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.


    Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

  16. Hydrogen storage and generation system (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.


    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  17. Storage monitoring system -- 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, B.; Pollock, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B


    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  19. Energy Storage System Scheduling in Wind-Diesel Microgrids (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    This thesis proposes a knowledge based expert system tool that can be used as an online controller for the charging/discharging of an energy storage system in a wind-diesel microgrid. The wind-diesel microgrid is modelled, and a typical energy storage system is implemented to test the functionality of the controller using hourly-discrete power values. The results are compared against an offline optimization that was provided 24-hour lookahead wind values, as well as a controller that was implemented using artificial neural networks. The knowledge based expert system is then used to analyze the cost of energy, by means of a parametric analysis, consisting of varying the wind penetration, energy storage system power rating and energy rating to determine for which wind penetration values a storage system implementation would be technically and economically viable. Different storage technologies are tested in a one-year time frame to determine which would be best suited for this particular application. The energy storage systems are implemented as single-layer and dual-layer, in which the knowledge based expert system is modified for the latter analysis, in order to determine whether or not there are advantages to having a dual-layer storage system. Throughout these analyses, the flexibility of the knowledge based expert system controller to various energy storage systems and microgrid models is verified. It also demonstrates that, in a context of high base generation costs, energy storage can be a viable solution to managing wind power variations.

  20. Combined solar collector and energy storage system (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)


    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  1. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  2. Emerging Network Storage Management Standards for Intelligent Data Storage Subsystems (United States)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don


    This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices and subsystems that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks and techniques and metadata to verify stored data on optical tapes developed by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) Optical Tape Committee.

  3. Numerical study on criteria for design and operation of water curtain system in underground oil storage cavern using site descriptive fracture networks (United States)

    Moon, Jiwon; Yeo, In Wook


    Underground unlined caverns have been constructed in fractured rocks to stockpile oil and petroleum products, where they are hydraulically contained by natural groundwater pressure. However, for the case that natural groundwater pressure is not maintained at the required level, water curtain boreholes, through which water is injected, are often constructed above the cavern as engineering barrier to secure water pressure enough to overwhelm the operational pressure of the cavern. For secure containment of oil and petroleum products inside the cavern, it is essential to keep water pressure around the cavern higher than operational pressure of the cavern using either natural groundwater pressure or engineering barrier. In the Republic of Korea, a number of underground stockpile bases are being operated by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) and private companies, most of which have water curtain system. The criterion that KNOC adopts for water curtain system design and operation such as the vertical distance from the cavern and operational injection rate is based on the Åberg hypothesis that the vertical hydraulic gradient should be larger than one. The criterion has been used for maintaining oil storage cavern without its thorough review. In this study, systematic numerical works have been done for reviewing the Åberg criterion. As groundwater predominantly takes places through fractures in underground caverns, discrete fracture modeling approach is essential for this study. Fracture data, obtained from boreholes drilled at the stage of site investigation at the Yeosu stockpile base in Korea, were statistically analyzed in terms of orientation and intensity, which were used to generate the site descriptive three dimensional fracture networks. Then, groundwater flow modeling has been carried out for the fracture networks. Constant head boundaries were applied along the circumference of the cavern and water curtain boreholes. Main flow channel and hydraulic

  4. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.


    ISNet ( is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  5. Network operating system (United States)

    Perotto, E.


    The Network Operating System is an addition to CMS designed to allow multitasking operation, while conserving all the facilities of CMS: file system, interactivity, high level language environment. Multitasking is useful for server virtual machines, e.g. Network Transport Managers, File Managers, Disk space Managers, Tape Unit Managers, where the execution of a task involves long waits due to I/O completion, VCMF communication delays or human responses, during which the task status stays as a control block in memory, while the virtual machine serves other users executing the same lines of code. Multitasking is not only for multi-user service: a big data reduction program may run as a main task, while a side task, connected to the virtual console, gives reports on the ongoing work of the main task in response to user commands and steers the main task through common data. All the service routines (Wait, Create and Delete Task, Get and Release Buffer, VMCF Open and Close Link, Send and Receive, I/O and Console Routines) are FORTRAN callable, and may be used from any language environment consistent with the same parameter passing conventions. The outstanding feature of this system is efficiency, no user defined SVC are used, and the use of other privileged instructions as LPSW or SSM is the bare necessary, so that CP (with the associated overhead) is not too involved. System code and read-only data are write-protected with a different storage key from CMS and user program.

  6. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom


    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  7. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.


    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  8. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  9. Coping with the Upcoming Heterogeneity in 5G Communications and Storage Using Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus


    In this paper, Fulcrum network codes are introduced as a viable solution to cope with the heterogeneity of 5G communication and storage systems. Fulcrum network codes are an enhancement of random linear network codes (RLNC) offering high throughput performance at low overhead. This contrasts...... with state of the art solutions that only offer a trade-off between performance and overhead. Additionally, Fulcrum network codes allow any communication or storage node to choose its decoding parameters, e.g., field size, based on their individual computational power or available energy. This means...

  10. Multilayer PV-storage Microgrids Algorithm for the Dispatch of Distributed Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ping


    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the support of our country, PV-storage microgrid develops rapidly. However, the flexible network operation modes of PV-storage microgrid change flexibly and the operating characteristics with a large amout of sources is highly complicated. Based on the existing microgrid coordinate control methods, this paper proposes multilayer PV-storage microgrid algorithm for fitting dispatch of distributed network, which achieves maximum output of renewable energy when meeting the scheduling requirements of network, by building PV-storage microgrid type dynamic simulation system in a variety of conditions in PSCAD. Simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm proposed can achieve microgrid stable operation and satisfy the demands of the dispatch in distributed network.

  11. Network coded software defined networking: enabling 5G transmission and storage networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique


    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  12. Making the Most out of Direct-Access Network Attached Storage


    Fedorova, Alexandra; Magoutis, Kostas; Addetia, Salimah; Seltzer, Margo


    The performance of high-speed network-attached storage applications is often limited by end-system overhead, caused primarily by memory copying and network protocol processing. In this paper, we examine alternative strategies for reducing overhead in such systems. We consider optimizations to remote procedure call (RPC)-based data transfer using either remote direct memory access (RDMA) or network interface support for pre-posting of application receive buffers. We demonstrate that b...

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Storage Friendly TCP Performance in Distributed Storage Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Muknahallipatna


    Full Text Available Fibre channel storage area networks (SAN are widely implemented in production data center environments. Recently the storage industry has moved towards deployment of distributed SANs (DSAN, geographically dispersed across large physical distances. In a DSAN, specialized gateway devices interconnect the individual Fibre Channel (FC fabrics over IP networks using TCP/IP based protocols (iFCP or FCIP or over metro to long distance optical networks such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM based networks that utilize native FC ports supporting large numbers of link credits. When using TCP/IP based storage networking protocols to interconnect local FC fabrics in a DSAN, the sustained throughput achievable depends upon the link characteristics and TCP/IP stack implementation. Sustaining maximum possible storage traffic throughput across the wide area network enables practical DSAN deployments by maintaining the required site to site service level agreements.This study explores the effects of several TCP/IP modifications on sustained traffic throughput for a DSAN interconnected via iFCP gateways across an impaired network. The TCP/IP stack modifications, known as storage friendly, include changes to the window scaling, congestion avoidance, and fast recovery algorithms. The theoretical background and experimental results are presented to explain and illustrate these modifications.

  14. Conflict free network coding for distributed storage networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.


    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we design a conflict free instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) solution for file download from distributed storage servers. Considering previously downloaded files at the clients from these servers as side information, IDNC can speed up the current download process. However, transmission conflicts can occur since multiple servers can simultaneously send IDNC combinations of files to the same client, which can tune to only one of them at a time. To avoid such conflicts and design more efficient coded download patterns, we propose a dual conflict IDNC graph model, which extends the conventional IDNC graph model in order to guarantee conflict free server transmissions to each of the clients. We then formulate the download time minimization problem as a stochastic shortest path problem whose action space is defined by the independent sets of this new graph. Given the intractability of the solution, we design a channel-aware heuristic algorithm and show that it achieves a considerable reduction in the file download time, compared to applying the conventional IDNC approach separately at each of the servers.

  15. Computer network defense system (United States)

    Urias, Vincent; Stout, William M. S.; Loverro, Caleb


    A method and apparatus for protecting virtual machines. A computer system creates a copy of a group of the virtual machines in an operating network in a deception network to form a group of cloned virtual machines in the deception network when the group of the virtual machines is accessed by an adversary. The computer system creates an emulation of components from the operating network in the deception network. The components are accessible by the group of the cloned virtual machines as if the group of the cloned virtual machines was in the operating network. The computer system moves network connections for the group of the virtual machines in the operating network used by the adversary from the group of the virtual machines in the operating network to the group of the cloned virtual machines, enabling protecting the group of the virtual machines from actions performed by the adversary.

  16. High-performance mass storage system for workstations (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.


    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  17. Free-space optical switching core for storage area network (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Collings, Neil; Crossland, William A.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Fan, Mark; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.; Waddie, Andrew


    Storage Area Network (SAN) has gradually developed as the demand for storage capacity and fast access has increased. The traditional way of attaching storage directly to the servers over a SCSI bus has limited scalability. Several drawbacks and limitations have turned up. Switched Fibre Channel SAN resolves all of these issues. In this paper, the architecture of the switch fabric for the SAN is discussed. The complete design of the free-space optical switching core based on the diffractive element and the PLZT shutter is proposed.

  18. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  19. Erasure Coded Storage on a Changing Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Venkat, Narayan; Oran, David


    a fixed repair mechanism or are constrained in the choice of repair strategies, therefore in theory benefit less from being network aware. We propose a general mechanism that explores the space of possible repairs and examine how much different types of erasure codes benefit by being network aware. We...... show significant gains for three erasure codes using both theoretical modeling and simulation results. We also consider the practical applicability of our proposed mechanism by limiting the search space to repairs that have the potential to be minimal cost and present a case study for RLNC, a class...

  20. Redox storage systems for solar applications (United States)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.


    It is noted that the worldwide development of solar photovoltaic and wind turbine systems to meet a range of terrestrial electrical energy requirements has underscored the need for inexpensive and reliable electrical energy storage. The NASA Redox Energy Storage System, based on soluble aqueous iron and chromium chloride redox couples, has exhibited many system-related features which for the most part are unique to this storage system. The technology advances required in the two elements (electrodes and membranes), which are the key to its technological feasibility, have been attained and system development has begun. The design, construction, and testing of a 1-kW system integrated with a solar photovoltaic array is underway to provide early demonstration of the attractive system-related features of the NASA Redox Storage System. Also demonstrated will be its versatility and compatibility with a terrestrial solar photovoltaic electric power system.

  1. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)


    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  2. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David


    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  3. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  4. Network operating system (United States)


    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  5. FPGA-based prototype storage system with phase change memory (United States)

    Li, Gezi; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Bomy; Li, Shunfen; Zhou, Mi; Han, Wenbing; Song, Zhitang


    With the ever-increasing amount of data being stored via social media, mobile telephony base stations, and network devices etc. the database systems face severe bandwidth bottlenecks when moving vast amounts of data from storage to the processing nodes. At the same time, Storage Class Memory (SCM) technologies such as Phase Change Memory (PCM) with unique features like fast read access, high density, non-volatility, byte-addressability, positive response to increasing temperature, superior scalability, and zero standby leakage have changed the landscape of modern computing and storage systems. In such a scenario, we present a storage system called FLEET which can off-load partial or whole SQL queries to the storage engine from CPU. FLEET uses an FPGA rather than conventional CPUs to implement the off-load engine due to its highly parallel nature. We have implemented an initial prototype of FLEET with PCM-based storage. The results demonstrate that significant performance and CPU utilization gains can be achieved by pushing selected query processing components inside in PCM-based storage.

  6. A novel HBase data storage in wireless sensor networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiang; Li, Zhuo; Ma, Xirong; Liu, Can


    .... Under the circumstances that the storage space is insufficient or the storage space of the cluster text system is too massive, the HBase database cluster dynamic updating and optimizing the database space are also the research direction of this paper. Finally, the article carries on the experiment and concludes the appraisal through simulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stanisław Tutak


    The final stage of the project was to verify the activities of the designed solutions based on tests on a prototype of the storage device. More precisely, it was tested on a machine prepared for a particular customer and a chosen configuration system, which is a combination of the triune manipulator of vertical storage controlled in an open loop.

  8. Data Storage for Social Networks A Socially Aware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Duc A


    Evidenced by the success of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, online social networks (OSNs) have become ubiquitous, offering novel ways for people to access information and communicate with each other. As the increasing popularity of social networking is undeniable, scalability is an important issue for any OSN that wants to serve a large number of users. Storing user data for the entire network on a single server can quickly lead to a bottleneck, and, consequently, more servers are needed to expand storage capacity and lower data request traffic per server. Adding more servers is just one step

  9. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.


    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  10. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems


    Ai Niwa; Noriyuki Kobayashi


    A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the...

  11. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks. (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam


    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  12. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.


    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  13. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  14. Operation Optimization Based on the Power Supply and Storage Capacity of an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Yu


    Full Text Available Due to the interconnection and active management of Distributed Generation (DG and Energy Storage Systems (ESSs, the traditional electrical distribution network has become an Active Distribution Network (ADN, posing challenges to the operation optimization of the network. The power supply and storage capacity indexes of a Local Autonomy Control Region (LACR, which consists of DGs, ESSs and the network, are proposed in this paper to quantify the power regulating range of a LACR. DG/ESS and the network are considered as a whole in the model of the indexes, considering both network constraints and power constraints of the DG/ESS. The index quantifies the maximum LACR power supplied to or received from ADN lines. Similarly, power supply and storage capacity indexes of the ADN line are also proposed to quantify the maximum power exchanged between ADN lines. Then a practical algorithm to calculate the indexes is presented, and an operation optimization model is proposed based on the indexes to maximum the economic benefit of DG/ESS. In the optimization model, the power supply reliability of the ADN line is also considered. Finally, the indexes of power supply and storage capacity and the optimization are demonstrated in a case study.

  15. International Network Performance and Security Testing Based on Distributed Abyss Storage Cluster and Draft of Data Lake Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ByungRae Cha


    Full Text Available The megatrends and Industry 4.0 in ICT (Information Communication & Technology are concentrated in IoT (Internet of Things, BigData, CPS (Cyber Physical System, and AI (Artificial Intelligence. These megatrends do not operate independently, and mass storage technology is essential as large computing technology is needed in the background to support them. In order to evaluate the performance of high-capacity storage based on open source Ceph, we carry out the network performance test of Abyss storage with domestic and overseas sites using KOREN (Korea Advanced Research Network. And storage media and network bonding are tested to evaluate the performance of the storage itself. Additionally, the security test is demonstrated by Cuckoo sandbox and Yara malware detection among Abyss storage cluster and oversea sites. Lastly, we have proposed the draft design of Data Lake framework in order to solve garbage dump problem.

  16. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.


    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  17. Storage system architectures and their characteristics (United States)

    Sarandrea, Bryan M.


    Not all users storage requirements call for 20 MBS data transfer rates, multi-tier file or data migration schemes, or even automated retrieval of data. The number of available storage solutions reflects the broad range of user requirements. It is foolish to think that any one solution can address the complete range of requirements. For users with simple off-line storage requirements, the cost and complexity of high end solutions would provide no advantage over a more simple solution. The correct answer is to match the requirements of a particular storage need to the various attributes of the available solutions. The goal of this paper is to introduce basic concepts of archiving and storage management in combination with the most common architectures and to provide some insight into how these concepts and architectures address various storage problems. The intent is to provide potential consumers of storage technology with a framework within which to begin the hunt for a solution which meets their particular needs. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive study or to address all possible solutions or new technologies, but is intended to be a more practical treatment of todays storage system alternatives. Since most commercial storage systems today are built on Open Systems concepts, the majority of these solutions are hosted on the UNIX operating system. For this reason, some of the architectural issues discussed focus around specific UNIX architectural concepts. However, most of the architectures are operating system independent and the conclusions are applicable to such architectures on any operating system.

  18. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  19. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails:; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails:,; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails:,,


    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  20. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.


    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  1. Modeling of District Heating Networks for the Purpose of Operational Optimization with Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśko Michał


    Full Text Available The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a difficult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way - allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.

  2. Modeling of District Heating Networks for the Purpose of Operational Optimization with Thermal Energy Storage (United States)

    Leśko, Michał; Bujalski, Wojciech


    The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a difficult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way - allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.

  3. Material handling robot system for flow-through storage applications (United States)

    Dill, James F.; Candiloro, Brian; Downer, James; Wiesman, Richard; Fallin, Larry; Smith, Ron


    This paper describes the design, development and planned implementation of a system of mobile robots for use in flow through storage applications. The robots are being designed with on-board embedded controls so that they can perform their tasks as semi-autonomous workers distributed within a centrally controlled network. On the storage input side, boxes will be identified by bar-codes and placed into preassigned flow through bins. On the shipping side, orders will be forwarded to the robots from a central order processing station and boxes will be picked from designated storage bins following proper sequencing to permit direct loading into trucks for shipping. Because of the need to maintain high system availability, a distributed control strategy has been selected. When completed, the system will permit robots to be dynamically reassigned responsibilities if an individual unit fails. On-board health diagnostics and condition monitoring will be used to maintain high reliability of the units.

  4. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward


    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  5. Mass storage system reference model, Version 4 (United States)

    Coleman, Sam (Editor); Miller, Steve (Editor)


    The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

  6. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska


    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  7. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.


    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  8. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan


    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  9. A mass storage system for supercomputers based on Unix (United States)

    Richards, J.; Kummell, T.; Zarlengo, D. G.


    The authors present the design, implementation, and utilization of a large mass storage subsystem (MSS) for the numerical aerodynamics simulation. The MSS supports a large networked, multivendor Unix-based supercomputing facility. The MSS at Ames Research Center provides all processors on the numerical aerodynamics system processing network, from workstations to supercomputers, the ability to store large amounts of data in a highly accessible, long-term repository. The MSS uses Unix System V and is capable of storing hundreds of thousands of files ranging from a few bytes to 2 Gb in size.

  10. Storage and distribution system for multimedia information (United States)

    Murakami, Tokumichi


    Recent advances in technologies such as digital signal processing, LSI devices and storage media have led to an explosive growth in multimedia environment. Multimedia information services are expected to provide an information-oriented infrastructure which will integrate visual communication, broadcasting and computer services. International standardizations in video/audio coding accelerate permeation of these services into society. In this paper, from trends of R & D and international standardization in video coding techniques, an outline is given of a storage and distribution system for multimedia information, and a summary of the requirements of digital storage media.

  11. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios


    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  12. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)


    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon


    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  14. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems. (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  15. On Network Coded Distributed Storage: How to Repair in a Fog of Unreliable Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Juan A.; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Fitzek, Frank H P


    This paper focuses on distributed fog storage solutions, where a number of unreliable devices organize themselves in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks with the purpose to store reliably their data and that of other devices and/or local users and provide lower delay and higher throughput. Cloud storage...... systems typically rely on expensive infrastructure with centralized control to store, repair and access the data. This approach introduces a large delay for accessing and storing the data driven in part by a high RTT between users and the cloud. These characteristics are at odds with the massive increase...... assume that additional nodes will be available, we focus on an unaddressed problem: performing a repair within the pool of surviving nodes because no new/alternative nodes are available. We provide a mathematical characterization under different storage and network use conditions and develop a practical...

  16. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  17. Modernizing the monitoring of Mass Storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Alexandre


    The monitoring of a system is essential to ensure its efficiency. On a computer system, this monitoring is partly done via the analysis of log messages. The monitoring of CASTOR, a mass-storage system responsible for the storage of 150Pb of scientific data at CERN, was being done with tools developed by the IT-ST-FDO section. Those tools recently encountered some performance limitations due to the increase in the quantity of data produced by CERN's experiments. In this paper, I will describe how I managed to modernize CASTOR's monitoring tools by leveraging services centrally managed by CERN's IT department.

  18. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  19. Seasonal heat storage in cogeneration systems; Saesongvaermelager i kraftvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu


    There is a rising interest in Sweden for the use of cogeneration power plants in district heating networks, generating both electricity and heat in a coupled operation. This type of cogeneration needs, however, the existence of suitable heat loads. In this study we investigate the use of large long-term heat storages for the cases that the DH-load is not sufficient. For this purpose, the technology of long-term storages is also reviewed based on the know-how developed for solar heating plants at the end of 20th century. Long-term storages have been developed around the 1980s and 1990s. The storages have been built as pits in the ground or as caverns for the storage of hot water or as borehole storages and aquifers for heat storages in rock or ground material. In this report, the different techniques are described and operational experiences from Sweden and Germany are summarised. Furthermore, the storage costs for the different techniques are presented. In order to be of interest for application in cogeneration systems, it is necessary that the storage allows charging and discharging with high heat capacities. The most suitable storage type for that purpose is a rock cavern, which can be constructed in volumes up to millions of m3 water with reasonable costs, as demonstrated in the 1970s with strategic oil storages. Another interesting storage type is the borehole ground storage, as used in solar heating plants. However, in the application for cogeneration, this storage type must be further developed towards higher heat transfer rates. For the analysis of storage applications in cogeneration systems, a number of operational cases from real cogeneration systems in Enkoeping and in Linkoeping have been studied. Models have been developed for calculation in Excel and operational years have been simulated and economically evaluated with different storage sizes. The following basic systems have been analysed: a) System with biofuel-fired cogeneration and biofuel top

  20. Enhanced storage capacity with errors in scale-free Hopfield neural networks: An analytical study. (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jinha; Kahng, Byungnam


    The Hopfield model is a pioneering neural network model with associative memory retrieval. The analytical solution of the model in mean field limit revealed that memories can be retrieved without any error up to a finite storage capacity of O(N), where N is the system size. Beyond the threshold, they are completely lost. Since the introduction of the Hopfield model, the theory of neural networks has been further developed toward realistic neural networks using analog neurons, spiking neurons, etc. Nevertheless, those advances are based on fully connected networks, which are inconsistent with recent experimental discovery that the number of connections of each neuron seems to be heterogeneous, following a heavy-tailed distribution. Motivated by this observation, we consider the Hopfield model on scale-free networks and obtain a different pattern of associative memory retrieval from that obtained on the fully connected network: the storage capacity becomes tremendously enhanced but with some error in the memory retrieval, which appears as the heterogeneity of the connections is increased. Moreover, the error rates are also obtained on several real neural networks and are indeed similar to that on scale-free model networks.

  1. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper


    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  2. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System (United States)

    Brewer, A. C.


    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  3. Clean energy storage technology in the making: An innovation systems perspective on flywheel energy storage. (United States)

    Wicki, Samuel; Hansen, Erik G


    The emergence and diffusion of green and sustainable technologies is full of obstacles and has therefore become an important area of research. We are interested in further understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurial experimentation, market formation, and institutional contexts, together playing a decisive role for successful diffusion of such technologies. Accordingly, we study these processes by adopting a technological innovation system perspective focusing on actors, networks, and institutions as well as the functions provided by them. Using a qualitative case study research design, we focus on the high-speed flywheel energy storage technology. As flywheels are based on a rotating mass allowing short-term storage of energy in kinetic form, they represent an environmentally-friendly alternative to electrochemical batteries and therefore can play an important role in sustainable energy transitions. Our contribution is threefold: First, regarding the flywheel energy storage technology, our findings reveal two subsystems and related markets in which development took different courses. In the automotive sector, flywheels are developing well as a braking energy recovery technology under the influence of two motors of innovation. In the electricity sector, they are stagnating at the stage of demonstration projects because of two important system weaknesses that counteract demand for storage. Second, we contribute to the theory of technological innovation systems by better understanding the internal dynamics between different functions of an innovation system as well as between the innovation system and its (external) contextual structures. Our third contribution is methodological. According to our best knowledge, we are the first to use system dynamics to (qualitatively) analyze and visualize dynamics between the diverse functions of innovation systems with the aim of enabling a better understanding of complex and iterative system processes. The paper also

  4. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan


    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  5. Distributed storage healthcare - the basis of a planet-wide public health care network. (United States)

    Kakouros, Nikolaos


    As health providers move towards higher levels of information technology (IT) integration, they become increasingly dependent on the availability of the electronic health record (EHR). Current solutions of individually managed storage by each healthcare provider focus on efforts to ensure data security, availability and redundancy. Such models, however, scale poorly to a future of a planet-wide public health-care network (PWPHN). Our aim was to review the research literature on distributed storage systems and propose methods that may aid the implementation of a PWPHN. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with distributed storage systems and EHR. A literature search was conducted on five electronic databases: Pubmed/Medline, Cinalh, EMBASE, Web of Science (ISI) and Google Scholar and then expanded to include non-authoritative sources. The English National Health Service Spine represents the most established country-wide PHN but is limited in deployment and remains underused. Other, literature identified and established distributed EHR attempts are more limited in scope. We discuss the currently available distributed file storage solutions and propose a schema of how one of these technologies can be used to deploy a distributed storage of EHR with benefits in terms of enhanced fault tolerance and global availability within the PWPHN. We conclude that a PWPHN distributed health care record storage system is technically feasible over current Internet infrastructure. Nonetheless, the socioeconomic viability of PWPHN implementations remains to be determined.

  6. Unbreakable distributed storage with quantum key distribution network and password-authenticated secret sharing (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Waseda, A.; Nojima, R.; Moriai, S.; Ogata, W.; Sasaki, M.


    Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km).

  7. Network systems security analysis (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail


    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  8. Transport and Storage Economics of CCS Networks in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A team from the Rotterdam Climate Initiative, CATO-2 (the Dutch national R and D programme on CCS) and the Clinton Climate Initiative, developed a financial model to assess the economics of alternative CO2 transport and storage options in the North Sea, based on common user infrastructure. The purpose of the financial model is to introduce a simple planning tool relating to the transport and storage components of an integrated CCS project using readily available, non-confidential data. A steering group of major emitters with advanced plans for CCS projects in the Netherlands and Belgium guided the project. Although the report focusses on potential projects in the Netherlands (Rotterdam and Eemshaven) and Belgium (Antwerp) in the short to medium term, the analysis and lessons could be useful to other regions considering CO2 network solutions.

  9. [Digital photograph storage systems in clinical dermatology]. (United States)

    Taberner, R; Contestí, T


    In recent years, digital photography has consolidated its role in clinical dermatology. In view of the quality and low cost of current equipment and the simplicity of digital storage, almost all dermatologists now use digital photography, which is also extremely versatile and readily applicable to teaching. However, to maximize its full potential, image retrieval must be available at any time and with the patient present. This requires a suitable storage system that may vary according to the characteristics of each center. Dermatologists must also find time to maintain and organize the digital archives. The present article describes current options in digital image storage and retrieval, ranging from multidepartmental picture archiving and communication systems at one end to image management freeware at the other, and also including dedicated dermatology software.

  10. Estimation of storage time of yogurt with artificial neural network modeling. (United States)

    Sofu, A; Ekinci, F Y


    Changes in the physical, chemical, and microbiological structure of yogurt determine the storage and shelf life of the product. In this study, microbial counts and pH values of yogurt during storage were determined at d 1, 7, and 14. Simultaneously, image processing of yogurt was digitized by using a machine vision system (MVS) to determine color changes during storage, and the obtained data were modeled with an artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction of shelf life of set-type whole-fat and low-fat yogurts. The ANN models were developed using back-propagation networks with a single hidden layer and sigmoid activation functions. The input variables of the network were pH; total aerobic, yeast, mold, and coliform counts; and color analysis values measured by the machine vision system. The output variable was the storage time of the yogurt. The modeling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the experimental data and predicted values, with a high determination coefficient (R2 = 0.9996) showing that the developed model was able to analyze nonlinear multivariant data with very good performance, fewer parameters, and shorter calculation time. The model might be an alternative method to control the expiration date of yogurt shown in labeling and provide consumers with a safer food supply.

  11. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Niwa


    Full Text Available A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the object that requires heat. The exothermic heat produced from the solid–liquid reaction was measured, and the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the reaction heat was evaluated. The heat output and heat recovered by the heat storage system, which comprised a reaction vessel and a heat exchanger, were measured. We selected solid CaBr2 because it was the best metal halide for a hydration reaction and had a high heat yield from the dissolution reaction. With this system, we were able to achieve a heat recovery rate of 582 kJ/L-H2O. We found no degradation in the chemical composition of CaBr2 after it being recycled 100 times.

  12. Advanced Shipboard Energy Storage System (United States)


    risk single generator operations on DDG-51 Class ships.. While designed for DDG 51, the modular system is potentially adaptable to all Navy and... Curricular Officer at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey. He returned to NAVSEA as Director of the Machinery Group responsible for all non

  13. QNAP 1263U Network Attached Storage (NAS)/ Storage Area Network (SAN) Device Users Guide (United States)


    speed of the network itself. Many standards are in place for transferring data, including more standard ones such as File Transfer Protocol and Server ...Mapping the Network Drive 4 5.1 Windows 7 4 5.2 Windows 10 6 6. Connecting to the iSCSI on the NAS 6 7. Adding a New IQN to iSCSI ACL 7 8... Adding a New LUN 9 9. Finding an Initiator IQN for ACL 11 10. Virtualization Station 12 11. Code 12 11.1 iscsi setup.bat 13 11.2 reconnect

  14. A data acquisition system with mass storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, P.B.J. van; Engmann, R.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Wit, P. de


    data handling system consisting of a small computer with disk storage and magnetic tape has been developed for various kinds of nuclear spectroscopy experiments. The operator can specify the data structure and parameters of the experiment in a suitable code to the computer.

  15. Evolution of a high-performance storage system based on magnetic tape instrumentation recorders (United States)

    Peters, Bruce


    In order to provide transparent access to data in network computing environments, high performance storage systems are getting smarter as well as faster. Magnetic tape instrumentation recorders contain an increasing amount of intelligence in the form of software and firmware that manages the processes of capturing input signals and data, putting them on media and then reproducing or playing them back. Such intelligence makes them better recorders, ideally suited for applications requiring the high-speed capture and playback of large streams of signals or data. In order to make recorders better storage systems, intelligence is also being added to provide appropriate computer and network interfaces along with services that enable them to interoperate with host computers or network client and server entities. Thus, recorders are evolving into high-performance storage systems that become an integral part of a shared information system. Data tape has embarked on a program with the Caltech sponsored Concurrent Supercomputer Consortium to develop a smart mass storage system. Working within the framework of the emerging IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, a high-performance storage system that works with the STX File Server to provide storage services for the Intel Touchstone Delta Supercomputer is being built. Our objective is to provide the required high storage capacity and transfer rate to support grand challenge applications, such as global climate modeling.

  16. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Distributed Cloud Storage Solutions using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Toth, Tamas; Szabados, Aron


    Distributed storage is usually considered within a cloud provider to ensure availability and reliability of the data. However, the user is still directly dependent on the quality of a single system. It is also entrusting the service provider with large amounts of private data, which may be accessed...... by a successful attack to that cloud system or even be inspected by government agencies in some countries. This paper advocates a general framework for network coding enabled distributed storage over multiple commercial cloud solutions, such as, Dropbox, Box, Skydrive, and Google Drive, as a way to address...... these reliability and privacy issues. By means of theoretical analysis and real– life implementations, we show not only that our framework constitutes a viable solution to increase the reliability of stored data and to ensure data privacy, but it also provides a way to reduce the storage costs and to increase...

  17. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher


    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  18. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S


    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  19. An emerging network storage management standard: Media error monitoring and reporting information (MEMRI) - to determine optical tape data integrity (United States)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don


    Sophisticated network storage management applications are rapidly evolving to satisfy a market demand for highly reliable data storage systems with large data storage capacities and performance requirements. To preserve a high degree of data integrity, these applications must rely on intelligent data storage devices that can provide reliable indicators of data degradation. Error correction activity generally occurs within storage devices without notification to the host. Early indicators of degradation and media error monitoring 333 and reporting (MEMR) techniques implemented in data storage devices allow network storage management applications to notify system administrators of these events and to take appropriate corrective actions before catastrophic errors occur. Although MEMR techniques have been implemented in data storage devices for many years, until 1996 no MEMR standards existed. In 1996 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved the only known (world-wide) industry standard specifying MEMR techniques to verify stored data on optical disks. This industry standard was developed under the auspices of the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM). A recently formed AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee initiated the development of another data integrity standard specifying a set of media error monitoring tools and media error monitoring information (MEMRI) to verify stored data on optical tape media. This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks, and the content of the MEMRI standard being developed by the AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee.

  20. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  1. On the effectiveness of recoding-based repair in network coded distributed storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Braun, Patrik J.; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani


    High capacity storage systems distribute less across several storage devices (nodes) and apply an erasure code to meet availability and reliability requirements. Since devices can lose network connectivity or fail permanently, a dynamic repair mechanism must be put in place. In such cases a new...... recovery node gets connected to a given subset of the operating nodes and receives a part of the stored data. The objective of this paper is to investigate data survival for Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) as a function of topology and communication overhead, dened by the number of connections...... and the number of transmitted packets to the recovery node, respectively. The paper includes two main contributions. First, a sufficient set of conditions for quasi-infinite longevity of the stored data is derived. Second, a comparison using experimental results shows that RLNC can be up to 50% more effective...

  2. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman


    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  3. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.


    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

  4. A Network-Aware Distributed Storage Cache for Data Intensive Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, B.L.; Lee, J.R.; Johnston, W.E.; Crowley, B.; Holding, M.


    Modern scientific computing involves organizing, moving, visualizing, and analyzing massive amounts of data at multiple sites around the world. The technologies, the middleware services, and the architectures that are used to build useful high-speed, wide area distributed systems, constitute the field of data intensive computing. In this paper the authors describe an architecture for data intensive applications where they use a high-speed distributed data cache as a common element for all of the sources and sinks of data. This cache-based approach provides standard interfaces to a large, application-oriented, distributed, on-line, transient storage system. They describe their implementation of this cache, how they have made it network aware, and how they do dynamic load balancing based on the current network conditions. They also show large increases in application throughput by access to knowledge of the network conditions.

  5. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.


    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  6. Regenerative flywheel storage system, volume 2 (United States)


    A vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  7. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian


    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.



    Florin TUDOR; Andrei Bogdan BUDICA; Ilie BUDICA; Adrian Florin BUDICA


    A very important objective of logistics is the storage of material goods necessary to ensure the uninterrupted operation of activities to achieve successful missions . The typical definition of the concept of filing emphasizes that it is a space storage of stocks of goods. This paper aims to show the role and importance of storage in the logistics system. Storage related field has become a comprehensive economic category includes sizing issues, reducing expenditure and storage issues related ...

  9. Plane deformation monitoring network and computational method of the NSRL storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoye, He; Guicheng, Wang; Shengkuan, Lu [National Synchrotron Radiation Lab., USTC, Hefei, P.R. (China); Xingzhou, Wang [Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping, Wuhan, P.R. (China)


    The NSRL (National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, China) accelerator consists of 3 major parts: the 800 MeV electron storage ring, the transport line and the 200 MeV electron linac. The storage ring contains 12 dipoles, 32 quadrupoles, 14 sextupoles, some kickers and septums, etc. During the installation of the storage ring, an alignment network was established, which is called the Construction Control Network (CCN). This network is a trilateration network. Dipoles were chosen as the primary reference for the alignment and installation. All other components were easily aligned from the 2 adjacent dipoles by means of optical instrumentation and other techniques. Differing from CCN, the purpose of Deformation Monitoring Network (DMN) is to monitor the displacement of the components in the storage ring, DMN requires high precision and being able to repeat positions. This article presents both networks and the method used to calculate the plane deformation monitoring network.

  10. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (United States)


    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  11. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan


    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  12. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet......  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...

  13. Optical Computing-Optical Components and Storage Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems ... Keywords. Advanced materials. optical switching. pulse shaping. optical storage device. high-performance computing. imaging; nanotechnology. photonics. telecommunications ...

  14. Second law optimization of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system with a distributed storage element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.J.


    This numerical study defined the behavior of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system whose physical design and operation had been optimized to minimize the production of thermodynamic irreversibilities. It included the effects of transient conduction within the storage material. A dimensionless set of governing equations was defined for a complete storage-removal cycle that included the effects of entropy generation due to convection and viscous effects in the flowing fluid, two-dimensional transient conduction within the storage material, and to convection due to the discharged hot fluid coming to equilibrium with the environment during the storage period. A computer program was written to solve this equation set and this program was in turn controlled by a sophisticated optimization routine to determine a dimensionless storage time, flow channel half-height, and heat transfer coefficient that resulted in a minimum amount of availability destruction. The results of this analysis showed that entropy generation within the storage material due to transient conduction was a major contributor to the total thermal irreversibilities associated with the operation of a sensible heat thermal energy storage system. For the counterflow configuration and over the range of design variables examined, material entropy generation accounted for between 26% and 60% of the total thermal availability destruction that occurred during a complete storage-removal cycle. It was also shown that the storage material aspect ratio had a significant impact on the optimum design of a storage system. Its influence was second only to the fluid mass velocity.


    Logistics Management Information System . The procedures are applicable to manual storage and retrieval of all data used in the Logistics Management ... Information System (LMIS) and include the following: (1) Action Officer data source file. (2) Action Officer presentation format file. (3) LMI Coordination

  16. Computer Networks A Systems Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Larry L


    This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

  17. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power (United States)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.


    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  18. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.


    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  19. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello


    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  20. Enhanced Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Performance on the Porous Graphene Network Immobilizing Cobalt Metal Nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myunggoo; Lee, Dong Heon; Jung, Hyun [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we attempted to apply Co metal nanoparticles decorated on the surface of the porous graphene (Co-PG) as the electrochemical hydrogen storage system. Co-PG was successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. To determine the synthetic strategy of porous graphene and Co nanoparticles, we compare the obtained Co-PG with two different materials such as Co nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide without soft-template (Co-RGO) and porous graphene without Co nanoparticle (PG). The experimental details regarding the synthesis and characterization of the Co-PG, Co-RGO, and PG samples are provided in Supporting Information. Co-PG with interpenetrating porous networks and immobilized Co metal nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. The obtained Co-PG exhibited high-surface area with ink-bottle open pores owing to the homogeneous dispersion of P123 micellar rods. The XRD and FE-SEM analyses clearly confirm that Co nanoparticles were immobilized on to the surface of porous graphene without any significant aggregation. The as-obtained Co-PG showed good electrochemical performance such as capacity and cycle stability for hydrogen storage. Based on these results, we believe that the Co-PG with a high-specific surface area could be worthwhile to investigate as not only electrochemical hydrogen storage materials but also other energy storage applications.

  1. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)


    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  2. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob


    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...

  4. Network of networks in Linux operating system (United States)

    Wang, Haoqin; Chen, Zhen; Xiao, Guanping; Zheng, Zheng


    Operating system represents one of the most complex man-made systems. In this paper, we analyze Linux Operating System (LOS) as a complex network via modeling functions as nodes and function calls as edges. It is found that for the LOS network and modularized components within it, the out-degree follows an exponential distribution and the in-degree follows a power-law distribution. For better understanding the underlying design principles of LOS, we explore the coupling correlations of components in LOS from aspects of topology and function. The result shows that the component for device drivers has a strong manifestation in topology while a weak manifestation in function. However, the component for process management shows the contrary phenomenon. Moreover, in an effort to investigate the impact of system failures on networks, we make a comparison between the networks traced from normal and failure status of LOS. This leads to a conclusion that the failure will change function calls which should be executed in normal status and introduce new function calls in the meanwhile.

  5. Object-based Storage Integration within the ATLAS DDM system

    CERN Document Server

    Garonne, Vincent; The ATLAS collaboration


    In this paper, we'll talk about our experiences with different data storage technologies within the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, and in particular about object-based storage. Object-based storage differs in many points from traditional file system storage and offers a highly scalable, simple and most common storage solution for the cloud. First, we describe the needed changes in the Rucio software to integrate this technology, then we present for which use cases we have evaluated them. Finally, we conclude by reporting the results, performances and the potential future by exploiting more of their specificities and features, like metadata support.

  6. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    demonstrate our operational-planning framework and economic justification for different storage applications. A new reliability model is proposed for security and adequacy assessment of power networks containing renewable resources and energy storage systems. The proposed model is used in combination with the operational-planning framework to enhance the reliability and operability of wind integration. The proposed framework optimally utilizes the storage capacity for reliability applications of wind integration. This is essential for justification of storage deployment within regulated utilities where the absence of market opportunities limits the economic advantage of storage technologies over gas-fired generators. A control strategy is also proposed to achieve the maximum reliability using energy storage systems. A cost-benefit analysis compares storage technologies and conventional alternatives to reliably and efficiently integrate different wind penetrations and determines the most economical design. Our simulation results demonstrate the necessity of optimal storage placement for different wind applications. This dissertation also proposes a new stochastic framework to optimally charge and discharge electric vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the effects of wind power uncertainties. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service for hedging against wind power imbalances is introduced as a novel application for EVs. This application enhances the predictability of wind power and reduces the power imbalances between the scheduled output and actual power. An Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) wind speed model is developed to forecast the wind power output. Driving patterns of EVs are stochastically modeled and the EVs are clustered in the fleets of similar daily driving patterns. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) simulates the system behavior by generating samples of system states using the wind ARMA model and EVs driving patterns. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used in combination with MCS to optimally

  7. Views of wireless network systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick


    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena


    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  9. Archiving and retrieval of experimental data using SAN based centralized storage system for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandarkar, Manisha, E-mail:; Masand, Harish; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, Kirit; Dhongde, Jasraj; Gulati, Hitesh; Mahajan, Kirti; Chudasama, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata


    Highlights: • SAN (Storage Area Network) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 has envisaged to address the need of centrally availability of SST-1 storage system to archive/retrieve experimental data for the authenticated users for 24 × 7. • The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS cluster file system with multipath support. • The adopted SAN based data storage for SST-1 is a modular, robust, and allows future expandability. • Important considerations has been taken like, Handling of varied Data writing speed from different subsystems to central storage, Simultaneous read access of the bulk experimental and as well as essential diagnostic data, The life expectancy of data, How often data will be retrieved and how fast it will be needed, How much historical data should be maintained at storage. - Abstract: SAN (Storage Area Network, a high-speed, block level storage device) based centralized data storage system of SST-1 (Steady State superconducting Tokamak) has envisaged to address the need of availability of SST-1 operation & experimental data centrally for archival as well as retrieval [2]. Considering the initial data volume requirement, ∼10 TB (Terabytes) capacity of SAN based data storage system has configured/installed with optical fiber backbone with compatibility considerations of existing Ethernet network of SST-1. The SAN based data storage system has been designed/configured with 3-tiered architecture and GFS (Global File System) cluster file system with multipath support. Tier-1 is of ∼3 TB (frequent access and low data storage capacity) comprises of Fiber channel (FC) based hard disks for optimum throughput. Tier-2 is of ∼6 TB (less frequent access and high data storage capacity) comprises of SATA based hard disks. Tier-3 will be planned later to store offline historical data. In the SAN configuration two tightly coupled storage servers (with cluster configuration) are

  10. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred


    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  11. Investigation of a working fluid for cryogenic energy storage systems (United States)

    Wojcieszak, P.; Poliński, J.; Chorowski, M.


    Cryogenic energy storage (CES) systems are promising alternatives to existing electrical energy storage technologies such as a pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). In CES systems, excess electrical energy is used to liquefy a cryogenic fluid. The liquid can be stored in large cryogenic tanks for a long time. When a demand for the electricity is high, the liquid cryogen is pumped to high pressure and then warmed in a heat exchanger using ambient temperature or an available waste heat source. The vaporized cryogen is then used to drive a turbine and generate the electricity. Most research on cryogenic energy storage focuses on liquid air energy storage, as atmospheric air is widely available and therefore it does not limit a location of the energy storage plant. Nevertheless, CES with other gases as the working fluids can exhibit a higher efficiency. In this research a performance analysis of simple CES systems with several working fluids was performed.

  12. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  13. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  14. A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

  15. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  16. Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

  17. Risks in Networked Computer Systems


    Klingsheim, André N.


    Networked computer systems yield great value to businesses and governments, but also create risks. The eight papers in this thesis highlight vulnerabilities in computer systems that lead to security and privacy risks. A broad range of systems is discussed in this thesis: Norwegian online banking systems, the Norwegian Automated Teller Machine (ATM) system during the 90's, mobile phones, web applications, and wireless networks. One paper also comments on legal risks to bank cust...

  18. [Network structures in biological systems]. (United States)

    Oleskin, A V


    Network structures (networks) that have been extensively studied in the humanities are characterized by cohesion, a lack of a central control unit, and predominantly fractal properties. They are contrasted with structures that contain a single centre (hierarchies) as well as with those whose elements predominantly compete with one another (market-type structures). As far as biological systems are concerned, their network structures can be subdivided into a number of types involving different organizational mechanisms. Network organization is characteristic of various structural levels of biological systems ranging from single cells to integrated societies. These networks can be classified into two main subgroups: (i) flat (leaderless) network structures typical of systems that are composed of uniform elements and represent modular organisms or at least possess manifest integral properties and (ii) three-dimensional, partly hierarchical structures characterized by significant individual and/or intergroup (intercaste) differences between their elements. All network structures include an element that performs structural, protective, and communication-promoting functions. By analogy to cell structures, this element is denoted as the matrix of a network structure. The matrix includes a material and an immaterial component. The material component comprises various structures that belong to the whole structure and not to any of its elements per se. The immaterial (ideal) component of the matrix includes social norms and rules regulating network elements' behavior. These behavioral rules can be described in terms of algorithms. Algorithmization enables modeling the behavior of various network structures, particularly of neuron networks and their artificial analogs.

  19. Sequencing dynamic storage systems with multiple lifts and shuttles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.


    New types of Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) able to achieve high throughput are continuously being developed and require new control polices to take full advantage of the developed system. In this paper, a dynamic storage system has been studied as developed by Vanderlande

  20. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.


    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  1. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain


    Full Text Available Integration of demand response (DR programs and battery energy storage system (BESS in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC of battery energy storage system (BESS units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf


    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  3. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies (United States)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike


    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  4. Language Networks as Complex Systems (United States)

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen


    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  5. Financial Network Systemic Risk Contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautsch, N.; Schaumburg, J.; Schienle, M.


    We propose the realized systemic risk beta as a measure of financial companies' contribution to systemic risk, given network interdependence between firms' tail risk exposures. Conditional on statistically pre-identified network spillover effects and market and balance sheet information, we define

  6. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław


    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  7. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.


    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  8. Hot Thermal Storage in a Variable Power, Renewable Energy System (United States)


    commercially proven and available energy collection, conversion , and storage systems and equipment. Chapter IV presents a method for innovative integration of...molten salt. On a grid scale, off-peak electricity, converted by ohmic heating, and thermal energy from a concentrated solar power ( CSP ) plant...renewable generation system with heat storage. It reviews the available energy sources as well as methods for energy conversion and storage. A

  9. Content Sharing Graphs for Deduplication-Enabled Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Sarkar


    Full Text Available Deduplication in storage systems has gained momentum recently for its capability in reducing data footprint. However, deduplication introduces challenges to storage management as storage objects (e.g., files are no longer independent from each other due to content sharing between these storage objects. In this paper, we present a graph-based framework to address the challenges of storage management due to deduplication. Specifically, we model content sharing among storage objects by content sharing graphs (CSG, and apply graph-based algorithms to two real-world storage management use cases for deduplication-enabled storage systems. First, a quasi-linear algorithm was developed to partition deduplication domains with a minimal amount of deduplication loss (i.e., data replicated across partitioned domains in commercial deduplication-enabled storage systems, whereas in general the partitioning problem is NP-complete. For a real-world trace of 3 TB data with 978 GB of removable duplicates, the proposed algorithm can partition the data into 15 balanced partitions with only 54 GB of deduplication loss, that is, a 5% deduplication loss. Second, a quick and accurate method to query the deduplicated size for a subset of objects in deduplicated storage systems was developed. For the same trace of 3 TB data, the optimized graph-based algorithm can complete the query in 2.6 s, which is less than 1% of that of the traditional algorithm based on the deduplication metadata.

  10. Data storage as a service




    The purpose of the thesis was comparison of interfaces to network attached file systems and object storage. The thesis describes network file system and mounting procedure in Linux operating system. Object storage and distributed storage systems are explained with examples of usage. Amazon S3 is an example of object store with access trough REST interface. Ceph, a system for distributed object storage, is explained in detail, and a Ceph cluster was deployed for the purpose of this thesis. Cep...

  11. Networking systems design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee


    Effectively integrating theory and hands-on practice, Networking Systems Design and Development provides students and IT professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement, and manage fully functioning network systems using readily available Linux networking tools. Recognizing that most students are beginners in the field of networking, the text provides step-by-step instruction for setting up a virtual lab environment at home. Grounded in real-world applications, this book provides the ideal blend of conceptual instruction and lab work to give students and IT professional

  12. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  13. Optimization of a solar hydrogen storage system: Exergetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.; Isorna, F.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. S. Juan-Matalascanas, km.34, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)


    From production to end-users, the choice of suitable hydrogen delivery and storage systems will be essential to assure the adequate introduction and development of these facilities. This article describes the main options for hydrogen storage when produced from renewable energy, and explains different criteria to be considered in the design and building-up of stationary hydrogen storage systems, with special attention to exergy issues. An example of exergy analysis is done using data from the solar hydrogen storage facility of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). As expected, the main conclusions of this analysis show the advantage of low pressure hydrogen in comparison with other available methods to store hydrogen. Another interesting option, from the exergy efficiency point of view, is the storage of hydrogen in metal hydride systems. The last option, and the most inefficient, is the high pressure hydrogen storage. (author)

  14. Communicating embedded systems networks applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine


    Embedded systems become more and more complex and require having some knowledge in various disciplines such as electronics, data processing, telecommunications and networks. Without detailing all the aspects related to the design of embedded systems, this book, which was written by specialists in electronics, data processing and telecommunications and networks, gives an interesting point of view of communication techniques and problems in embedded systems. This choice is easily justified by the fact that embedded systems are today massively communicating and that telecommunications and network

  15. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.


    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  16. Digital wavelength-multiplexed holographic data storage system (United States)

    Lande, David; Heanue, John F.; Bashaw, Matthew C.; Hesselink, Lambertus


    We present a novel digital holographic data storage system based on wavelength multiplexing in 90 degrees geometry, using an automated tunable diode laser and a lithium niobate crystal. The automatic storage and retrieval of a 60-kbyte data file, as well as the limitations and future implementations of the system, are discussed.

  17. A survey of literature on automated storage and retrieval systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodbergen, K.J.; Vis, I.F.A.


    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RSs) are warehousing systems that are used for the storage and retrieval of products in both distribution and production environments. This paper provides an overview of literature from the past 30 years. A comprehensive explanation of the current state of

  18. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  19. The CMS event builder and storage system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Fortes Rodrigues, Fabiana; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Klute, Markus; Laurens, Jean-François; Loizides, Constantin; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Zanetti, Marco


    The CMS event builder assembles events accepted by the first level trigger and makes them available to the high-level trigger. The event builder needs to handle a maximum input rate of 100\\,kHz and an aggregated throughput of 100\\,GB/s originating from approximately 500 sources. This paper presents the chosen hardware and software architecture. The system consists of 2 stages: an initial pre-assembly reducing the number of fragments by one order of magnitude and a final assembly by several independent readout builder (RU-builder) slices. The RU-builder is based on 3 separate services: the buffering of event fragments during the assembly, the event assembly, and the data flow manager. A further component is responsible for handling events accepted by the high-level trigger: the storage manager (SM) temporarily stores the events on disk at a peak rate of 2\\,GB/s until they are permanently archived offline. In addition, events and data-quality histograms are served by the SM to online monitoring clients. We disc...

  20. A solar heating system with annual storage (United States)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.


    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  1. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl


    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  2. Calcium-decorated carbyne networks as hydrogen storage media. (United States)

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Lee, Hoonkyung; Antipina, Lyubov Yu; Singh, Abhishek K; Yakobson, Boris I


    Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function.

  3. Interorganizational Innovation in Systemic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Janne; Dinesen, Birthe; Gustafsson, Jeppe


    that linear n-stage models by reducing complexity and flux end up focusing only on the surface of the network and are thus unable to grasp important aspects of network dynamics. The paper suggests that there is a need for a more dynamic innovation model able to grasp the whole picture of dynamics in systemic...... patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to avoid readmission, perform self monitoring and to maintain rehabilitation in their homes. The aim of the paper is to identify, analyze and discuss innovation dynamics in the COPD network and on a preliminary basis to identify implications...... for managing innovations in systemic networks. The main argument of this paper is that innovation dynamics in systemic networks should be understood as a complex interplay of four logics: 1) Fragmented innovation, 2) Interface innovation, 3) Competing innovation, 4) Co-innovation. The findings indicate...

  4. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián


    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  5. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  6. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi


    Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology...... with a reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC...

  7. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu


    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  8. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage......-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two...

  9. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  10. A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Li, Jun


    In this paper, A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system is presented. Simulated/experimental results are given. Combined with sub-page based data format, the system is simple and robust.

  11. Systems biology of seeds: deciphering the molecular mechanisms of seed storage, dormancy and onset of germination. (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Nese


    Seeds are heterogeneous storage reserves with wide array of storage compounds that include various soluble carbohydrates, starch polymer, storage proteins and lipids. These stored reserves comprise 70% of the world's caloric intake in the form of food and animal feed produced through sustainable agriculture, which contributes to food and nutritional security. Seed systems biology remains an enigmatic subject in understanding seed storage processes, maturation and pre-germinative metabolism. The reviews and research articles covered in this special issue of Plant Cell Reports highlight recent advances made in the area of seed biology that cover various systems biology applications such as gene regulatory networks, metabolomics, epigenetics and the role of micro-RNA in seed development.

  12. The network control system of high-bay warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka Julian


    Full Text Available Presentation of developing a method of automation of the storage process using electric drives with frequency converters, logic control and communication in industrial networks was the main purpose of this article. A connection structure was proposed to exchange information between devices that are part of a high-storage warehouse. It was assumed that modern communication protocols are used to synchronize the drives and to create a central control and information center in the PLC. The results of theoretical considerations were applied in practice by performing a laboratory model of a high storage warehouse with a developed automatic control system. Benefits of the proposed solutions was shown in the conclusions.

  13. Induction Motors Most Efficient Operation Points in Pumped Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca-Forcos, Andreea; Marinescu, Corneliu; Busca, Cristian


    efficiency is desired especially when operating with renewable energy systems, which present low energy conversion factor (up to 50% - performance coefficient for wind turbines, and efficiency up to 40% for photovoltaic systems). In this paper the most efficient operation points of the induction motors...... in pumped storage systems are established. The variable speed operation of the pumped storage systems and motor loading conditions for pump applications have been the key factors for achieving the purpose of the paper....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr


    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  15. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System


    S. Gope; Goswami, A. K.; P.K. Tiwari


    Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM) technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES) system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF) and the Bus Sensi...

  16. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus


    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented......, and the comparison of the system efficiencies highlights the improvement of the proposed control method....

  17. Hybrid swarm intelligence optimization approach for optimal data storage position identification in wireless sensor networks. (United States)

    Mohanasundaram, Ranganathan; Periasamy, Pappampalayam Sanmugam


    The current high profile debate with regard to data storage and its growth have become strategic task in the world of networking. It mainly depends on the sensor nodes called producers, base stations, and also the consumers (users and sensor nodes) to retrieve and use the data. The main concern dealt here is to find an optimal data storage position in wireless sensor networks. The works that have been carried out earlier did not utilize swarm intelligence based optimization approaches to find the optimal data storage positions. To achieve this goal, an efficient swam intelligence approach is used to choose suitable positions for a storage node. Thus, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used to find the suitable positions for storage nodes while the total energy cost of data transmission is minimized. Clustering-based distributed data storage is utilized to solve clustering problem using fuzzy-C-means algorithm. This research work also considers the data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to find optimal data storage positions. The algorithm is implemented in a network simulator and the experimental results show that the proposed clustering and swarm intelligence based ODS strategy is more effective than the earlier approaches.

  18. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss


    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  19. Enabling data-intensive science with Tactical Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Marquina, Miguel Angel


    Large scale scientific computing requires the ability to share and consume data and storage in complex ways across multiple systems. However, conventional systems constrain users to the fixed abstractions selected by the local system administrator. The result is that users must either move data manually over the wide area or simply be satisfied with the resources of a single cluster. To remedy this situation, we introduce the concept of a tactical storage system (TSS) that allows users to create, reconfigure, and destroy distributed storage systems without special privileges or complex configuration. We have deployed a prototype TSS of 200 disks and 8 TB of storage at the University of Notre Dame and applied it to several problems in astrophysics, high energy physics, and bioinformatics. This talk will focus on novel system structures that support data-intensive science. About the speaker: Douglas Thain is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. He received ...

  20. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem...

  1. Multilevel Complex Networks and Systems (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido


    Network theory has been a powerful tool to model isolated complex systems. However, the classical approach does not take into account the interactions often present among different systems. Hence, the scientific community is nowadays concentrating the efforts on the foundations of new mathematical tools for understanding what happens when multiple networks interact. The case of economic and financial networks represents a paramount example of multilevel networks. In the case of trade, trade among countries the different levels can be described by the different granularity of the trading relations. Indeed, we have now data from the scale of consumers to that of the country level. In the case of financial institutions, we have a variety of levels at the same scale. For example one bank can appear in the interbank networks, ownership network and cds networks in which the same institution can take place. In both cases the systemically important vertices need to be determined by different procedures of centrality definition and community detection. In this talk I will present some specific cases of study related to these topics and present the regularities found. Acknowledged support from EU FET Project ``Multiplex'' 317532.

  2. Thermochemical heat storage - system design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Trausel, F.; Finck, C.J.; Vliet, L.D. van; Cuypers, R.


    Thermochemical materials (TCMs) are a promising solution for seasonal heat storage, providing the possibility to store excess solar energy from the warm season for later use during the cold season, and with that all year long sustainable energy. With our fixed bed, vacuum reactors using zeolite as

  3. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  5. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  6. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  7. The architecture of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teaff, D.; Coyne, B. [IBM Federal, Houston, TX (United States); Watson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The rapid growth in the size of datasets has caused a serious imbalance in I/O and storage system performance and functionality relative to application requirements and the capabilities of other system components. The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a scalable, next-generation storage system that will meet the functionality and performance requirements of large-scale scientific and commercial computing environments. Our goal is to improve the performance and capacity of storage systems by two orders of magnitude or more over what is available in the general or mass marketplace today. We are also providing corresponding improvements in architecture and functionality. This paper describes the architecture and functionality of HPSS.

  8. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)


    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  9. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus


    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  10. Optimal Energy Reduction Schedules for Ice Storage Air-Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm to solve the optimal energy dispatch of an ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on a real air-conditioning system, the data, including the return temperature of chilled water, the supply temperature of chilled water, the return temperature of ice storage water, and the supply temperature of ice storage water, are measured. The least-squares regression (LSR is used to obtain the input-output (I/O curve for the cooling load and power consumption of chillers and ice storage tank. The objective is to minimize overall cost in a daily schedule while satisfying all constraints, including cooling loading under the time-of-use (TOU rate. Based on the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN and Ant Colony Optimization, an Ant-Based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN is constructed in the searching process. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the economic dispatch of ice storage air-conditioning systems, and offering greater energy efficiency in dispatching chillers.

  11. PIMS Data Storage, Access, and Neural Network Processing (United States)

    McPherson, Kevin M.; Moskowitz, Milton E.


    The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at NASA's Lewis Research Center has supported microgravity science Principal Investigator's (PIs) by processing, analyzing, and storing the acceleration environment data recorded on the NASA Space Shuttles and the Russian Mir space station. The acceleration data recorded in support of the microgravity science investigated on these platforms has been generated in discrete blocks totaling approximately 48 gigabytes for the Orbiter missions and 50 gigabytes for the Mir increments. Based on the anticipated volume of acceleration data resulting from continuous or nearly continuous operations, the International Space Station (ISS) presents a unique set of challenges regarding the storage of and access to microgravity acceleration environment data. This paper presents potential microgravity environment data storage, access, and analysis concepts for the ISS era.

  12. Evaluating dedicated and shared storage policies in robot-based compact storage and retrieval systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Zou (Bipan); M.B.M. de Koster (René); X. Xu (Xianhao)


    textabstractRobot-based compact storage and retrieval systems (RCSRS) have seen many implementations over the last few years. In such a system, the inventory items are stored in bins, organized in a grid. In each cell of the grid, a certain number of bins are stored on top of each other. Robots with

  13. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions. (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L


    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  14. Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Storage in Advanced EVA Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate prototype multifunctional EVA system power patches that integrate energy storage into advanced space...

  15. Data Resilience in the dCache Storage System (United States)

    Rossi, A. L.; Adeyemi, F.; Ashish, A.; Behrmann, G.; Fuhrmann, P.; Litvintsev, D.; Millar, P.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohiuddin, A.; Sahakyan, M.; Starek, J.; Yasar, S.


    In this paper we discuss design, implementation considerations, and performance of a new Resilience Service in the dCache storage system responsible for file availability and durability functionality.

  16. Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhiying; Bruck, Jehoshua


    In distributed storage systems that use coding, the issue of minimizing the communication required to rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. We consider the problem of repairing an erased node in a distributed storage system that uses an EVENODD code. EVENODD codes are maximum distance separable (MDS) array codes that are used to protect against erasures, and only require XOR operations for encoding and decoding. We show that when there are two redundancy nodes, to rebuild one erased systematic node, only 3/4 of the information needs to be transmitted. Interestingly, in many cases, the required disk I/O is also minimized.

  17. Composition and Realization of Source-to-Sink High-Performance Flows: File Systems, Storage, Hosts, LAN and WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase Qishi [Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)


    A number of Department of Energy (DOE) science applications, involving exascale computing systems and large experimental facilities, are expected to generate large volumes of data, in the range of petabytes to exabytes, which will be transported over wide-area networks for the purpose of storage, visualization, and analysis. To support such capabilities, significant progress has been made in various components including the deployment of 100 Gbps networks with future 1 Tbps bandwidth, increases in end-host capabilities with multiple cores and buses, capacity improvements in large disk arrays, and deployment of parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS. High-performance source-to-sink data flows must be composed of these component systems, which requires significant optimizations of the storage-to-host data and execution paths to match the edge and long-haul network connections. In particular, end systems are currently supported by 10-40 Gbps Network Interface Cards (NIC) and 8-32 Gbps storage Host Channel Adapters (HCAs), which carry the individual flows that collectively must reach network speeds of 100 Gbps and higher. Indeed, such data flows must be synthesized using multicore, multibus hosts connected to high-performance storage systems on one side and to the network on the other side. Current experimental results show that the constituent flows must be optimally composed and preserved from storage systems, across the hosts and the networks with minimal interference. Furthermore, such a capability must be made available transparently to the science users without placing undue demands on them to account for the details of underlying systems and networks. And, this task is expected to become even more complex in the future due to the increasing sophistication of hosts, storage systems, and networks that constitute the high-performance flows. The objectives of this proposal are to (1) develop and test the component technologies and their synthesis methods to

  18. A distributed storage system with dCache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fuhrmann, Patrick; Grønager, Michael


    The LCG collaboration is encompassed by a number of Tier 1 centers. The Nordic LCG Tier 1, operated by NDGF, is in contrast to many other Tier 1 centers distributed over the Nordic countries. A distributed setup was chosen for both political and technical reasons, but also provides a number...... of unique challenges. dCache is well known and respected as a powerful distributed storage resource manager, and was chosen for implementing the storage aspects of the Nordic Tier 1. In contrast to classic dCache deployments, we deploy dCache over a WAN with limited bandwidth, high latency, frequent network...

  19. submitter Simulation-Based Performance Analysis of the ALICE Mass Storage System

    CERN Document Server

    Vickovic, L; Celar, S


    CERN – the European Organization for Nuclear Research today, in the era of big data, is one of the biggest data generators in the world. Especially interesting is transient data storage system in the ALICE experiment. With the goal to optimize its performance this paper discusses a dynamic, discrete event simulation model of disk based Storage Area Network (SAN) and its usage for the performance analyses. Storage system model is based on modular, bottom up approach and the differences between measured and simulated values vary between 1.5 % and 4 % depending on the simulated component. Once finished, simulation model was used for detailed performance analyses. Among other findings it showed that system performances can be seriously affected if the array stripe size is larger than the size of cache on individual disks in the array, which so far has been completely ignored in the literature.

  20. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin


    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  1. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.


    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  2. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  3. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas


    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  4. Application of geographic information system in distribution power network automation (United States)

    Wei, Xianmin


    Geographic information system (GIS) is the computer system in support of computer software with collection, storage, management, retrieval and comprehensive analysis of a variety of geospatial information, with various forms output data and graphics products. This paper introduced GIS data organization and its main applications in distribution power network automation, including both offline and online, and proposed component-based system development model and the need to establish WEBGIS and reliability.

  5. A Review of Flywheel Energy Storage System Technologies and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar


    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS provide a means for improving the efficiency of electrical systems when there are imbalances between supply and demand. Additionally, they are a key element for improving the stability and quality of electrical networks. They add flexibility into the electrical system by mitigating the supply intermittency, recently made worse by an increased penetration of renewable generation. One energy storage technology now arousing great interest is the flywheel energy storage systems (FESS, since this technology can offer many advantages as an energy storage solution over the alternatives. Flywheels have attributes of a high cycle life, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency, high power density, low environmental impact, and can store megajoule (MJ levels of energy with no upper limit when configured in banks. This paper presents a critical review of FESS in regards to its main components and applications, an approach not captured in earlier reviews. Additionally, earlier reviews do not include the most recent literature in this fast-moving field. A description of the flywheel structure and its main components is provided, and different types of electric machines, power electronics converter topologies, and bearing systems for use in flywheel storage systems are discussed. The main applications of FESS are explained and commercially available flywheel prototypes for each application are described. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.

  6. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases (United States)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.


    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  7. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems


    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  8. Scenery Storage Technology Application in Power Station System (United States)

    Shi, Hong; Geng, Hao; Feng, Lei; Xu, Xing

    Scenery storage technology can effectively utilize wind power and photovoltaic power generation in the natural complementary of energy and time, improve the reliability of power supply, has attracted more and more attention. At present, the scenery storage research in the field application of the technology is relatively small, based on the actual substation as the research object, put forward the scenery storage technology as substation load power supply three applications of lighting power, standby power station and DC system, and through the detailed implementation of the program design, investment analysis, research the scenery with the feasibility of electrical energy storage technology system application in station. To solve the weak power grid, substation remote and backward areas should not be from the outside to obtain reliable power supply problems, the station area electric system design provides a new way of thinking, which has important practical engineering value.

  9. Storage assignment optimization in a multi-tier shuttle warehousing system (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Mou, Shandong; Wu, Yaohua


    The current mathematical models for the storage assignment problem are generally established based on the traveling salesman problem(TSP), which has been widely applied in the conventional automated storage and retrieval system(AS/RS). However, the previous mathematical models in conventional AS/RS do not match multi-tier shuttle warehousing systems(MSWS) because the characteristics of parallel retrieval in multiple tiers and progressive vertical movement destroy the foundation of TSP. In this study, a two-stage open queuing network model in which shuttles and a lift are regarded as servers at different stages is proposed to analyze system performance in the terms of shuttle waiting period (SWP) and lift idle period (LIP) during transaction cycle time. A mean arrival time difference matrix for pairwise stock keeping units(SKUs) is presented to determine the mean waiting time and queue length to optimize the storage assignment problem on the basis of SKU correlation. The decomposition method is applied to analyze the interactions among outbound task time, SWP, and LIP. The ant colony clustering algorithm is designed to determine storage partitions using clustering items. In addition, goods are assigned for storage according to the rearranging permutation and the combination of storage partitions in a 2D plane. This combination is derived based on the analysis results of the queuing network model and on three basic principles. The storage assignment method and its entire optimization algorithm method as applied in a MSWS are verified through a practical engineering project conducted in the tobacco industry. The applying results show that the total SWP and LIP can be reduced effectively to improve the utilization rates of all devices and to increase the throughput of the distribution center.

  10. Plant systems biology: network matters. (United States)

    Lucas, Mikaël; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J


    Systems biology is all about networks. A recent trend has been to associate systems biology exclusively with the study of gene regulatory or protein-interaction networks. However, systems biology approaches can be applied at many other scales, from the subatomic to the ecosystem scales. In this review, we describe studies at the sub-cellular, tissue, whole plant and crop scales and highlight how these studies can be related to systems biology. We discuss the properties of system approaches at each scale as well as their current limits, and pinpoint in each case advances unique to the considered scale but representing potential for the other scales. We conclude by examining plant models bridging different scales and considering the future prospects of plant systems biology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA


    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.


    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  13. Networks, linkages, and migration systems. (United States)

    Fawcett, J T


    Recent theoretical interest in migration systems calls attention to the functions of diverse linkages between countries in stimulating, directing,and maintaining international flows of people. This article proposes a conceptual framework for the non-people linkages in international migration systems and discusses the implications for population movement of the 4 categories and 3 types of linkages that define the network. The 4 categories include 1) state to state relations, 2) mass culture connections, 3) family and personal networks, and 4) migrant agency activities. The 3 types of linkages are 1) tangible linkages, 2) regulatory linkages, and 3) relational linkages.

  14. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.


    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  15. Network operating system focus technology (United States)


    An activity structured to provide specific design requirements and specifications for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS) Network Operating System (NOS) is outlined. Examples are given of the types of supporting studies and implementation tasks presently underway to realize a DMS test bed capability to develop hands-on understanding of NOS requirements as driven by actual subsystem test beds participating in the overall Johnson Space Center test bed program. Classical operating system elements and principal NOS functions are listed.

  16. Intelligent networks and energy storage; Intelligente netten en energieopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongkiehong, O.; Van den Berg, P.


    The emergence of decentralized generators cause electricity networks to become more complex and technically difficult to control. This article highlights the role of ICT [Dutch] Door de opkomst van decentrale opwekkers worden elektriciteitsnetten steeds complexer en moeilijker om technisch te beheersen. In dit artikel wordt de rol van ICT belicht.

  17. CAPES: Unsupervised Storage Performance Tuning Using Neural Network-Based Deep Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Parameter tuning is an important task of storage performance optimization. Current practice usually involves numerous tweak-benchmark cycles that are slow and costly. To address this issue, we developed CAPES, a model-less deep reinforcement learning-based unsupervised parameter tuning system driven by a deep neural network (DNN). It is designed to nd the optimal values of tunable parameters in computer systems, from a simple client-server system to a large data center, where human tuning can be costly and often cannot achieve optimal performance. CAPES takes periodic measurements of a target computer system’s state, and trains a DNN which uses Q-learning to suggest changes to the system’s current parameter values. CAPES is minimally intrusive, and can be deployed into a production system to collect training data and suggest tuning actions during the system’s daily operation. Evaluation of a prototype on a Lustre system demonstrates an increase in I/O throughput up to 45% at saturation point. About the...

  18. Optimizing Storage and Renewable Energy Systems with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Under the right conditions, behind the meter (BTM) storage combined with renewable energy (RE) technologies can provide both cost savings and resiliency. Storage economics depend not only on technology costs and avoided utility rates, but also on how the technology is operated. REopt, a model developed at NREL, can be used to determine the optimal size and dispatch strategy for BTM or off-grid applications. This poster gives an overview of three applications of REopt: Optimizing BTM Storage and RE to Extend Probability of Surviving Outage, Optimizing Off-Grid Energy System Operation, and Optimizing Residential BTM Solar 'Plus'.

  19. DICOM implementation on online tape library storage system (United States)

    Komo, Darmadi; Dai, Hailei L.; Elghammer, David; Levine, Betty A.; Mun, Seong K.


    The main purpose of this project is to implement a Digital Image and Communications (DICOM) compliant online tape library system over the Internet. Once finished, the system will be used to store medical exams generated from U.S. ARMY Mobile ARMY Surgical Hospital (MASH) in Tuzla, Bosnia. A modified UC Davis implementation of DICOM storage class is used for this project. DICOM storage class user and provider are implemented as the system's interface to the Internet. The DICOM software provides flexible configuration options such as types of modalities and trusted remote DICOM hosts. Metadata is extracted from each exam and indexed in a relational database for query and retrieve purposes. The medical images are stored inside the Wolfcreek-9360 tape library system from StorageTek Corporation. The tape library system has nearline access to more than 1000 tapes. Each tape has a capacity of 800 megabytes making the total nearline tape access of around 1 terabyte. The tape library uses the Application Storage Manager (ASM) which provides cost-effective file management, storage, archival, and retrieval services. ASM automatically and transparently copies files from expensive magnetic disk to less expensive nearline tape library, and restores the files back when they are needed. The ASM also provides a crash recovery tool, which enable an entire file system restore in a short time. A graphical user interface (GUI) function is used to view the contents of the storage systems. This GUI also allows user to retrieve the stored exams and send the exams to anywhere on the Internet using DICOM protocols. With the integration of different components of the system, we have implemented a high capacity online tape library storage system that is flexible and easy to use. Using tape as an alternative storage media as opposed to the magnetic disk has the great potential of cost savings in terms of dollars per megabyte of storage. As this system matures, the Hospital Information Systems

  20. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff


    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  1. Ceph, a distributed storage system for scientific computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Ceph is a distributed storage system designed to providing high performance and reliability at scales of up to thousands of storage nodes. The system is based on a distributed object storage layer call RADOS that provides durability, availability, efficient data distribution, and rich object semantics. This storage can be consumed directly via an object-based interface, or via file, block, or REST-based object services that are built on top of it. Clusters are composed of commodity components to provide a reliable storage service serving multiple use-cases. This seminar will cover the basic architecture of Ceph, with a focus on how each service can be consumed in a research and infrastructure environment. About the speaker Sage Weil, Founder and current CTO of Inktank Inc, is the creator of the Ceph project. He originally designed it as part of his PhD research in Storage Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Since graduating, he has continued to refine the system with the goal of providi...

  2. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)


    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  3. Networked control of microgrid system of systems (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.


    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  5. Parallel file system performances in fusion data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannone, F., E-mail: [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R.ENEA Frascati, via E.Fermi, 45 - 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Podda, S.; Bracco, G. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Manduchi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 - 35127 Padua (Italy); Maslennikov, A. [CASPUR Inter-University Consortium for the Application of Super-Computing for Research, via dei Tizii, 6b - 00185 Rome (Italy); Migliori, S. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Wolkersdorfer, K. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre-FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)


    High I/O flow rates, up to 10 GB/s, are required in large fusion Tokamak experiments like ITER where hundreds of nodes store simultaneously large amounts of data acquired during the plasma discharges. Typical network topologies such as linear arrays (systolic), rings, meshes (2-D arrays), tori (3-D arrays), trees, butterfly, hypercube in combination with high speed data transports like Infiniband or 10G-Ethernet, are the main areas in which the effort to overcome the so-called parallel I/O bottlenecks is most focused. The high I/O flow rates were modelled in an emulated testbed based on the parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS, commonly used in High Performance Computing. The test runs on High Performance Computing-For Fusion (8640 cores) and ENEA CRESCO (3392 cores) supercomputers. Message Passing Interface based applications were developed to emulate parallel I/O on Lustre and GPFS using data archival and access solutions like MDSPLUS and Universal Access Layer. These methods of data storage organization are widely diffused in nuclear fusion experiments and are being developed within the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling - Task Force; the authors tried to evaluate their behaviour in a realistic emulation setup.

  6. Evaluation of software based redundancy algorithms for the EOS storage system at CERN (United States)

    Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Alin Sindrilaru, Elvin; Zigann, Philipp


    EOS is a new disk based storage system used in production at CERN since autumn 2011. It is implemented using the plug-in architecture of the XRootD software framework and allows remote file access via XRootD protocol or POSIX-like file access via FUSE mounting. EOS was designed to fulfill specific requirements of disk storage scalability and IO scheduling performance for LHC analysis use cases. This is achieved by following a strategy of decoupling disk and tape storage as individual storage systems. A key point of the EOS design is to provide high availability and redundancy of files via a software implementation which uses disk-only storage systems without hardware RAID arrays. All this is aimed at reducing the overall cost of the system and also simplifying the operational procedures. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of redundancy by hardware (most classical storage installations) in comparison to redundancy by software. The latter is implemented in the EOS system and achieves its goal by spawning data and parity stripes via remote file access over nodes. The gain in redundancy and reliability comes with a trade-off in the following areas: • Increased complexity of the network connectivity • CPU intensive parity computations during file creation and recovery • Performance loss through remote disk coupling An evaluation and performance figures of several redundancy algorithms are presented for dual parity RAID and Reed-Solomon codecs. Moreover, the characteristics and applicability of these algorithms are discussed in the context of reliable data storage systems.

  7. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  8. Architecting Communication Network of Networks for Space System of Systems (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are planning Space System of Systems (SoS) to address the new challenges of space exploration, defense, communications, navigation, Earth observation, and science. In addition, these complex systems must provide interoperability, enhanced reliability, common interfaces, dynamic operations, and autonomy in system management. Both NASA and the DoD have chosen to meet the new demands with high data rate communication systems and space Internet technologies that bring Internet Protocols (IP), routers, servers, software, and interfaces to space networks to enable as much autonomous operation of those networks as possible. These technologies reduce the cost of operations and, with higher bandwidths, support the expected voice, video, and data needed to coordinate activities at each stage of an exploration mission. In this paper, we discuss, in a generic fashion, how the architectural approaches and processes are being developed and used for defining a hypothetical communication and navigation networks infrastructure to support lunar exploration. Examples are given of the products generated by the architecture development process.

  9. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  10. Dot Hill's SANnet storage solutions excel at CERN's High Performance Networking Forum

    CERN Multimedia


    Dot Hill Systems Corp. demonstrated its latest storage technolgies at the 4th HPN Forum hosted by CERN. These will be used to support CERN's ongoing high-end computing and storage requirements and to provide a gateway that will enable the next-generation DataGRID project to get off the ground.

  11. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  12. Systems engineering technology for networks (United States)


    The report summarizes research pursued within the Systems Engineering Design Laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University between May 16, 1993 and January 31, 1994. The project was proposed in cooperation with the Computational Science and Engineering Research Center at Howard University. Its purpose was to investigate emerging systems engineering tools and their applicability in analyzing the NASA Network Control Center (NCC) on the basis of metrics and measures.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis for Optimal Energy Storage Systems Placement Considering Stacked Grid Services




    The increasing penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and generation uncertainties, brought to the fore new challenges and problems regarding efficient Distribution Networks (DNs) operation. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can play a significant role in more reliable, secure and flexible DN operation since they can deal with difficult-to-predict changes. This study provides a detailed methodology among the corresponding mathematical formulation for the optimal sizing and allocation of ESS...

  14. The LILARTI neural network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.D. Jr.; Schell, F.M.; Dodd, C.V.


    The material of this Technical Memorandum is intended to provide the reader with conceptual and technical background information on the LILARTI neural network system of detail sufficient to confer an understanding of the LILARTI method as it is presently allied and to facilitate application of the method to problems beyond the scope of this document. Of particular importance in this regard are the descriptive sections and the Appendices which include operating instructions, partial listings of program output and data files, and network construction information.

  15. Mechanisms of memory storage in a model perirhinal network. (United States)

    Samarth, Pranit; Ball, John M; Unal, Gunes; Paré, Denis; Nair, Satish S


    The perirhinal cortex supports recognition and associative memory. Prior unit recording studies revealed that recognition memory involves a reduced responsiveness of perirhinal cells to familiar stimuli whereas associative memory formation is linked to increasing perirhinal responses to paired stimuli. Both effects are thought to depend on perirhinal plasticity but it is unclear how the same network could support these opposite forms of plasticity. However, a recent study showed that when neocortical inputs are repeatedly activated, depression or potentiation could develop, depending on the extent to which the stimulated neocortical activity recruited intrinsic longitudinal connections. We developed a biophysically realistic perirhinal model that reproduced these phenomena and used it to investigate perirhinal mechanisms of associative memory. These analyzes revealed that associative plasticity is critically dependent on a specific subset of neurons, termed conjunctive cells (CCs). When the model network was trained with spatially distributed but coincident neocortical inputs, CCs acquired excitatory responses to the paired inputs and conveyed them to distributed perirhinal sites via longitudinal projections. CC ablation during recall abolished expression of the associative memory. However, CC ablation during training did not prevent memory formation because new CCs emerged, revealing that competitive synaptic interactions governs the formation of CC assemblies.

  16. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  17. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.


    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull


    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  19. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.


    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  20. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  1. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)


    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  2. Hierarchical transport networks optimizing dynamic response of permeable energy-storage materials. (United States)

    Nilson, Robert H; Griffiths, Stewart K


    Channel widths and spacing in latticelike hierarchical transport networks are optimized to achieve maximum extraction of gas or electrical charge from nanoporous energy-storage materials during charge and discharge cycles of specified duration. To address a range of physics, the effective transport diffusivity is taken to vary as a power, m , of channel width. Optimal channel widths and spacing in all levels of the hierarchy are found to increase in a power-law manner with normalized system size, facilitating the derivation of closed-form approximations for the optimal dimensions. Characteristic response times and ratios of channel width to spacing are both shown to vary by the factor 2/m between successive levels of any optimal hierarchy. This leads to fractal-like self-similar geometry, but only for m=2 . For this case of quadratic dependence of diffusivity on channel width, the introduction of transport channels permits increases in system size on the order of 10;{4} , 10;{8} , and 10;{10} , without any reduction in extraction efficiency, for hierarchies having 1, 2 and, 8 levels, respectively. However, we also find that for a given system size there is an optimum number of hierarchical levels that maximizes extraction efficiency.

  3. Experimental validation of control strategies for a microgrid test facility including a storage system and renewable generation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico


    network and is fully controllable by the SCADA system. The control strategies, implemented on a local pc interfaced to the SCADA, are realized in Matlab-Simulink. The main purpose is to control the charge/discharge action of the storage system in order to present at the point of common coupling...

  4. McPhy-Energy’s proposal for solid state hydrogen storage materials and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehan, Michel, E-mail: [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Fruchart, Daniel, E-mail: [McPhy Energy SA, ZA Retière, 26190 La Motte-Fanjas (France); Institut Néel and CRETA, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    Highlights: •Mechanical alloying with nano-structurizing highly reactive magnesium metal hydrides particles. •Solid reversible hydrogen storage at scale of kg to tons of hydrogen using MgH{sub 2} composite discs. •Natural Expanded Graphite draining heat of reaction during sorption. •Change Phase Material storing reversibly heat of reaction within tank storage as adiabatic system. •Technology fully adapted for renewable energy storage and network energy peak shavings through H{sub 2}. -- Abstract: The renewable resources related, for instance, to solar energies exhibit two main characteristics. They have no practical limits in regards to the efficiency and their various capture methods. However, their intermittence prevents any direct and immediate use of the resulting power. McPhy-Energy proposes solutions based on water electrolysis for hydrogen generation and storage on reversible metal hydrides to efficiently cover various energy generation ranges from MW h to GW h. Large stationary storage units, based on MgH{sub 2}, are presently developed, including both the advanced materials and systems for a total energy storage from ∼70 to more than 90% efficient. Various designs of MgH{sub 2}-based tanks are proposed, allowing the optional storage of the heat of the Mg–MgH{sub 2} reaction in an adjacent phase changing material. The combination of these operations leads to the storage of huge amounts of hydrogen and heat in our so-called adiabatic-tanks. Adapted to intermittent energy production and consumption from renewable sources (wind, sun, tide, etc.), nuclear over-production at night, or others, tanks distribute energy on demand for local applications (on-site domestic needs, refueling stations, etc.) via turbine or fuel cell electricity production.

  5. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.


    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  6. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage. (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia


    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  7. Optical Disk for Digital Storage and Retrieval Systems. (United States)

    Rose, Denis A.


    Availability of low-cost digital optical disks will revolutionize storage and retrieval systems over next decade. Three major factors will effect this change: availability of disks and controllers at low-cost and in plentiful supply; availability of low-cost and better output means for system users; and more flexible, less expensive communication…

  8. STAIRS: A Storage and Retrieval System Applied in Online Cataloging. (United States)

    Poor, William


    Describes the use of IBM's Storage and Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) in the development of an online catalog for the Business and Technical Library of the Cummins Engine Company. The functions, advantages, and disadvantages of the system are outlined. A reference list and three sample searches are attached. (JL)

  9. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel


    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  10. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography. (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  11. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.


    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  12. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies (United States)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.


    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  13. Deep Space Network information system architecture study (United States)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.


    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  14. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system (United States)

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.


    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  15. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  16. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)


    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  17. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun


    to perform arbitrage and to alleviate wind power deviations from day-ahead contracts. The strategy is developed with two-price balancing markets in mind. A mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation is built to determine optimal offers by taking into account expected wind power forecasting errors......Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...... profit, regardless of the temporal dependence of wind power forecasting errors....

  18. Analysis of multipass laser amplifier systems for storage laser media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, J.F.


    The performance characteristics of single pass and multipass storage laser amplifiers are presented and compared. The effects of the multipass amplifier parameters on the extraction characteristics are examined. For a wide range of conditions the multipass amplifier is found to provide high energy gain and high efficiency simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over the single pass laser amplifier. Finally, three specific storage laser amplifier systems, flashlamp pumped V:MgF/sub 2/, XeF laser pumped Tm:Glass, and photolytically pumped Selenium, are examined. The performance characteristics for each of the three systems are calculated and compared.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Biagi


    Full Text Available In recent years the technological evolution of terrestrial, aerial and satellite surveying, has considerably increased the measurement accuracy and, consequently, the quality of the derived information. At the same time, the smaller and smaller limitations on data storage devices, in terms of capacity and cost, has allowed the storage and the elaboration of a bigger number of instrumental observations. A significant example is the terrain height surveyed by LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging technology where several height measurements for each square meter of land can be obtained. The availability of such a large quantity of observations is an essential requisite for an in-depth knowledge of the phenomena under study. But, at the same time, the most common Geographical Information Systems (GISs show latency in visualizing and analyzing these kind of data. This problem becomes more evident in case of Internet GIS. These systems are based on the very frequent flow of geographical information over the internet and, for this reason, the band-width of the network and the size of the data to be transmitted are two fundamental factors to be considered in order to guarantee the actual usability of these technologies. In this paper we focus our attention on digital terrain models (DTM's and we briefly analyse the problems about the definition of the minimal necessary information to store and transmit DTM's over network, with a fixed tolerance, starting from a huge number of observations. Then we propose an innovative compression approach for sparse observations by means of multi-resolution spline functions approximation. The method is able to provide metrical accuracy at least comparable to that provided by the most common deterministic interpolation algorithms (inverse distance weighting, local polynomial, radial basis functions. At the same time it dramatically reduces the number of information required for storing or for transmitting and rebuilding a

  20. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  1. Facsimile Network System in RCP (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kazuya

    Recruit Computer Print Corp. has compiled Weekly Housing Magazine by use of its own CTS (Computerized Type Setting) resulting in the real estate database as byproduct. Based on the database it has made the network linking with sponsors, real estate companies. It has transmitted lists for data cleaning directly from computer enabling to save manpower and reduce time in the compilation process. The author describes the objectives, details, functions and promise of the system.

  2. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  3. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios


    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  4. Network Centrality of Metro Systems (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil


    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  5. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  6. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheideler Marcel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS, a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at

  7. Operations and maintenance manual for the LDUA supervisory control and data acquisition system (LDUA System 4200) and control network (LDUA System 4400)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.


    This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation, maintenance and storage of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADAS) and Control Network in support of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) operations.

  8. Engineering Support for Handling Controller Conflicts in Energy Storage Systems Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zanabria


    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a major role in the decarbonization of future sustainable electric power systems, allowing a high penetration of distributed renewable energy sources and contributing to the distribution network stability and reliability. To accomplish this, a storage system is required to provide multiple services such as self-consumption, grid support, peak-shaving, etc. The simultaneous activation of controllers operation may lead to conflicts, as a consequence the execution of committed services is not guaranteed. This paper presents and discusses a solution to the exposed issue by developing an engineering support approach to semi-automatically detect and handle conflicts for multi-usage storage systems applications. To accomplish that an ontology is developed and exploited by model-driven engineering mechanisms. The proposed approach is evaluated by implementing a use case example, where detection of conflicts is automatically done at an early design stage. Besides this, exploitable source code for conflicts resolution is generated and used during the design and prototype stages of controllers development. Thus, the proposed engineering support enhances the design and development of storage system controllers, especially for multi-usage applications.

  9. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe (United States)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir


    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  10. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage


    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu


    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  11. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems. (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou


    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  12. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid


    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  13. Current state of the mass storage system reference model (United States)

    Coyne, Robert


    IEEE SSSWG was chartered in May 1990 to abstract the hardware and software components of existing and emerging storage systems and to define the software interfaces between these components. The immediate goal is the decomposition of a storage system into interoperable functional modules which vendors can offer as separate commercial products. The ultimate goal is to develop interoperable standards which define the software interfaces, and in the distributed case, the associated protocols to each of the architectural modules in the model. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: IEEE SSSWG organization; IEEE SSSWG subcommittees & chairs; IEEE standards activity board; layered view of the reference model; layered access to storage services; IEEE SSSWG emphasis; and features for MSSRM version 5.

  14. Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail:; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))


    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  15. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa


    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  16. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.


    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  17. Intelligent Storage System Based on Automatic Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarovszki Peter


    Full Text Available This article describes RFID technology in conjunction with warehouse management systems. Article also deals with automatic identification and data capture technologies and each processes, which are used in warehouse management system. It describes processes from entering goods into production to identification of goods and also palletizing, storing, bin transferring and removing goods from warehouse. Article focuses on utilizing AMP middleware in WMS processes in Nowadays, the identification of goods in most warehouses is carried through barcodes. In this article we want to specify, how can be processes described above identified through RFID technology. All results are verified by measurement in our AIDC laboratory, which is located at the University of Žilina, and also in Laboratory of Automatic Identification Goods and Services located in GS1 Slovakia. The results of our research bring the new point of view and indicate the ways using of RFID technology in warehouse management system.

  18. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, T.


    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

  19. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang


    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  20. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Energy Storage Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of high specific energy devices will enable NASA’s future robotic and human-exploration missions.  The need for advances in energy storage...

  1. Distributed Generation Integration in the Electric Grid: Energy Storage System for Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Delfanti


    Full Text Available During the last few years generation from renewable energy sources (RESs has grown considerably in European electrical networks. Transmission system operators are greatly concerned about the impact of RESs on the operational security and efficiency of their networks and more in general of the ENTSO-E interconnected system. Grid codes are to be revised in order to harmonise the rules regarding the connection of RES power plants. A main issue concerns frequency control: frequency is greatly affected by RESs intermittency and its deviations must be limited as much as possible in order to guarantee a suitable level of power quality. To improve frequency stability, in the future, Grid codes could extend frequency control requirements also to RES units, whereas today they are applied only to conventional power plants. Energy storage systems can be a possible solution to increase the flexibility and performance of RES power plants: they allow generators to modulate their power injections without wasting renewable energy. In this paper, the authors studied the suitability of extending frequency control to RES units integrating them with energy storage systems. In particular, the paper focuses on the impact of frequency control on the storage lifetime by analysing the power charge/discharge in response to real frequency oscillations.

  2. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse


    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  3. Optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.


    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) power systems are currently being considered by various electric utilities for load-leveling applications. Models of CAES systems which employ natural underground aquifer formations, and present an optimal design methodology which demonstrates their economic viability are developed. This approach is based upon a decomposition of the CAES plant and utility grid system into three partially-decoupled subsystems. Numerical results are given for a plant employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer formation.

  4. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage


    Bakić Vukman V.; Pezo Milada L.; Jovanović Marina P.; Turanjanin Valentina M.; Vučićević Biljana S.


    The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized usin...

  5. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)


    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  6. A sample storage management system for biobanks. (United States)

    Voegele, C; Alteyrac, L; Caboux, E; Smans, M; Lesueur, F; Le Calvez-Kelm, F; Hainaut, P


    Establishment of large-scale biobanks of human specimens is essential to conduct molecular pathological or epidemiological studies. This requires automation of procedures for specimen cataloguing and tracking through complex analytical processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) develops a large portfolio of studies broadly aimed at cancer prevention and including cohort, case-control and case-only studies in various parts of the world. This diversity of study designs, structure, annotations and specimen collections is extremely difficult to accommodate into a single sample management system (SMS). Current commercial or academic SMS are often restricted to a few sample types and tailored to a limited number of analytic workflows [Voegele et al. (2007) A laboratory information management system (LIMS) for a high throughput genetic platform aimed at candidate gene mutation screening. Bioinformatics, 23, 2504-2506]. Thus, we developed a system based on a three-tier architecture and relying on an Oracle database and an Oracle Forms web application. Data are imported through forms or csv files, and information retrieval is enabled via multi-criteria queries that can generate different types of reports including tables, Excel files, trees, pictures and graphs. The system is easy to install, flexible, expandable and implemented with a high degree of data security and confidentiality. Both the database and the interface have been modeled to be compatible with and adaptable to almost all types of biobanks. The SMS source codes, which are under the GNU General Public License, and supplementary data are freely available at '' Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Passive Evaporative Cooling System for Fruits and Vegetables Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu


    Full Text Available A multipurpose passive evaporative cooler was designed, constructed and its performance evaluated by determining the adiabatic efficiency. The multi-purpose passive evaporative cooling system consists of three compartments whose outer and inner cooling chambers were made of galvanize steel. The interspace was filled with sandy loam. The cold storage system for fruits and vegetables was based on the water cooling system to cool the storage chamber. Water is supplied from the storage tank to a pipe with a gate valve attached to this pipe. As the valve is opened, water flows through the distribution pipe networks placed over the soil allow in a constant flow of water through into soil. The water leaves the system through the outlets created underneath the housing. This process is continuous; as the water moves out, it carries along the heat present inside the cooling chamber hence lowering the temperature and at the same time increasing the relative humidity in the storage chamber. During the test period with fresh bananas, the average temperatures of 24.5°C and 28.8°C were obtained; for the multi-purpose evaporative cooler and the ambient respectively. Also average relative humidity of 8-8.87% and 69.41% were obtained for the multi-purpose evaporative cooler and the ambient respectively. The cooling efficiency of the evaporative cooler was 55%.

  8. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna


    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC micro...

  9. Impact of indigenous storage systems and insect infestation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four storage systems of maize commonly used by farmers in Benin, West Africa, were tested to determine their impact on infection of maize by Fusarium and subsequent contamination with fumonisins. The study showed that Fusarium incidence was significantly higher when maize was stored on a cemented floor in a house ...

  10. Optical CDMA system using bacteriorhodopsin for optical data storage (United States)

    Bae; Yang; Jin; Lee; Park


    An optical CDMA (code division multiple access) system for the optical data storage using bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is reported as an application of the BR materials. The desired signal of multiple input can be recorded and reconstructed by use of orthogonal codes. An experimental setup is proposed and demonstrated.

  11. Implementation of Process Management for a Secure Archival Storage System. (United States)


    CPU MT Local Global i ,Secondary ---i --- IMemory IMemory Storage I I II I------------------ Figure 2. System Overview (Dual Host) 3e all segments...VADIABLES UTILIZED 27 TC ADVANCE AND TCAIAIT.! SA2S e OL70 TEMP RI; COPD [HANDLEPTR WORD EVENT NR WORD EVENT VAL LONG IDVP- WORD CPU NUM WORD HANDLE HIGH

  12. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.


    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable

  13. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo


    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  14. Object-oriented analysis and design of an ECG storage and retrieval system integrated with an HIS. (United States)

    Wang, C; Ohe, K; Sakurai, T; Nagase, T; Kaihara, S


    For a hospital information system, object-oriented methodology plays an increasingly important role, especially for the management of digitized data, e.g., the electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, electromyogram, spirogram, X-ray, CT and histopathological images, which are not yet computerized in most hospitals. As a first step in an object-oriented approach to hospital information management and storing medical data in an object-oriented database, we connected electrocardiographs to a hospital network and established the integration of ECG storage and retrieval systems with a hospital information system. In this paper, the object-oriented analysis and design of the ECG storage and retrieval systems is reported.

  15. Proceedings of the Conference on Image Storage and Transmission Systems for Libraries...December 1-2, 1969, National Bureau of Standards. (United States)

    Henderson, Madeline M., Comp.

    The challenge of networking is now being extended to cooperative library and information center systems. There are new demands for improved techniques for image storage and transmission, specifically including automated storage and retrieval of microforms and ultra-microforms and new developments in graphic and facsimile transmission. In this…

  16. Analyzing the Impact of Storage Shortage on Data Availability in Decentralized Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songling Fu


    Full Text Available Maintaining data availability is one of the biggest challenges in decentralized online social networks (DOSNs. The existing work often assumes that the friends of a user can always contribute to the sufficient storage capacity to store all data. However, this assumption is not always true in today’s online social networks (OSNs due to the fact that nowadays the users often use the smart mobile devices to access the OSNs. The limitation of the storage capacity in mobile devices may jeopardize the data availability. Therefore, it is desired to know the relation between the storage capacity contributed by the OSN users and the level of data availability that the OSNs can achieve. This paper addresses this issue. In this paper, the data availability model over storage capacity is established. Further, a novel method is proposed to predict the data availability on the fly. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the data availability model and the on-the-fly prediction.

  17. Analyzing the impact of storage shortage on data availability in decentralized online social networks. (United States)

    Fu, Songling; He, Ligang; Liao, Xiangke; Li, Kenli; Huang, Chenlin


    Maintaining data availability is one of the biggest challenges in decentralized online social networks (DOSNs). The existing work often assumes that the friends of a user can always contribute to the sufficient storage capacity to store all data. However, this assumption is not always true in today's online social networks (OSNs) due to the fact that nowadays the users often use the smart mobile devices to access the OSNs. The limitation of the storage capacity in mobile devices may jeopardize the data availability. Therefore, it is desired to know the relation between the storage capacity contributed by the OSN users and the level of data availability that the OSNs can achieve. This paper addresses this issue. In this paper, the data availability model over storage capacity is established. Further, a novel method is proposed to predict the data availability on the fly. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the data availability model and the on-the-fly prediction.

  18. Implementasi Network Attached Storage (NAS) Menggunakan NAS4Free untuk Media Backup File


    Kartika Imam Santoso; Muhamad Abdul Muin


    STMIK Bina Patria Magelang adalah sekolah tinggi yang berada di jalan Raden Saleh No.2 Magelang, yang membidangi dalam ilmu komputer. STMIK Bina Patria mempunyai file–file pekerjaan yang sangat penting dan privasi, sehingga perlu untuk adanya sistem yang berguna untuk backup file. Network Attached Storage (NAS) adalah sebuah server dengan sistem operasi yang dikhususkan untuk melayani kebutuhan berkas data. NAS dapat berbentuk perangkat yang siap pakai atau berupa sebuah software yang akan di...

  19. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo


    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  20. Efficient Supercapacitor Energy Storage Using Conjugated Microporous Polymer Networks Synthesized from Buchwald-Hartwig Coupling. (United States)

    Liao, Yaozu; Wang, Haige; Zhu, Meifang; Thomas, Arne


    Supercapacitors have received increasing interest as energy storage devices due to their rapid charge-discharge rates, high power densities, and high durability. In this work, novel conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) networks are presented for supercapacitor energy storage, namely 3D polyaminoanthraquinone (PAQ) networks synthesized via Buchwald-Hartwig coupling between 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone and aryl bromides. PAQs exhibit surface areas up to 600 m2 g-1 , good dispersibility in polar solvents, and can be processed to flexible electrodes. The PAQs exhibit a three-electrode specific capacitance of 576 F g-1 in 0.5 m H2 SO4 at a current of 1 A g-1 retaining 80-85% capacitances and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiencies (95-98%) upon 6000 cycles at a current density of 2 A g-1 . Asymmetric two-electrode supercapacitors assembled by PAQs show a capacitance of 168 F g-1 of total electrode materials, an energy density of 60 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 1300 W kg-1 , and a wide working potential window (0-1.6 V). The asymmetric supercapacitors show Coulombic efficiencies up to 97% and can retain 95.5% of initial capacitance undergo 2000 cycles. This work thus presents novel promising CMP networks for charge energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High Performance Storage System Scalability: Architecture, Implementation, and Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R W


    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) provides scalable hierarchical storage management (HSM), archive, and file system services. Its design, implementation and current dominant use are focused on HSM and archive services. It is also a general-purpose, global, shared, parallel file system, potentially useful in other application domains. When HPSS design and implementation began over a decade ago, scientific computing power and storage capabilities at a site, such as a DOE national laboratory, was measured in a few 10s of gigaops, data archived in HSMs in a few 10s of terabytes at most, data throughput rates to an HSM in a few megabytes/s, and daily throughput with the HSM in a few gigabytes/day. At that time, the DOE national laboratories and IBM HPSS design team recognized that we were headed for a data storage explosion driven by computing power rising to teraops/petaops requiring data stored in HSMs to rise to petabytes and beyond, data transfer rates with the HSM to rise to gigabytes/s and higher, and daily throughput with a HSM in 10s of terabytes/day. This paper discusses HPSS architectural, implementation and deployment experiences that contributed to its success in meeting the above orders of magnitude scaling targets. We also discuss areas that need additional attention as we continue significant scaling into the future.

  2. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany’s electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje; Benders, Reinerus; Dávila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon


    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  3. Image Storage and Transmission Systems for the Dissemination of Information, AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 92 (Oslo, Norway, September 9, 1971). (United States)

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Neuilly-sur-Seine (France). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development.

    The contents of this proceedings are: An experimental text-access system; Computer aided input of graphic information by keyboarding under visual control of display as applied to chemical structures; Packet switching network; Phototransmission and video storage; Planning and development of computer output on microfilm for a commercial application.…

  4. Performance Study of Salt Cavern Air Storage Based Non-Supplementary Fired Compressed Air Energy Storage System (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotao; Song, Jie; Liang, Lixiao; Si, Yang; Wang, Le; Xue, Xiaodai


    Large-scale energy storage system (ESS) plays an important role in the planning and operation of smart grid and energy internet. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of promising large-scale energy storage techniques. However, the high cost of the storage of compressed air and the low capacity remain to be solved. This paper proposes a novel non-supplementary fired compressed air energy storage system (NSF-CAES) based on salt cavern air storage to address the issues of air storage and the efficiency of CAES. Operating mechanisms of the proposed NSF-CAES are analysed based on thermodynamics principle. Key factors which has impact on the system storage efficiency are thoroughly explored. The energy storage efficiency of the proposed NSF-CAES system can be improved by reducing the maximum working pressure of the salt cavern and improving inlet air pressure of the turbine. Simulation results show that the electric-to-electric conversion efficiency of the proposed NSF-CAES can reach 63.29% with a maximum salt cavern working pressure of 9.5 MPa and 9 MPa inlet air pressure of the turbine, which is higher than the current commercial CAES plants.

  5. Integration of Energy Storage and Distributed Generation (DG) in Distribution Systems: Economic Analysis and Development Perspective


    Mohajeryami, Saeed; Jennings, Ronald; Alkhbbaz, Ghadeer


    This paper sheds light on distributed generation (DG) and energy storage and their impacts on electricity distribution networks. The purpose is to consider the various technologies of DG and energy storage and their financial and dynamic influence on the distribution network performance. In this paper, some different business cases in the U.S. related to energy storage and DG are investigated. One of these cases is related to Hawaiian Electric CO. One of the goals of Hawaiian Electric Co. for...

  6. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support


    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju; Xu, Honghua; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard


    With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging-discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. T...

  7. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island


    Ana Rodrigues; Denise Machado; Tomaz Dentinho


    The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective e...

  8. Developing a structural health monitoring system for nuclear dry cask storage canister (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Knight, Travis; Lam, Poh-Sang; Yu, Lingyu


    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. In total, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use at US plants, storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Nondestructive material condition monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health", and more importantly, to guarantee the safe operation of radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS) during their extended usage period. A state-of-the-art nuclear structural health monitoring (N-SHM) system based on in-situ sensing technologies that monitor material degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures is being developed. The N-SHM technology uses permanently installed low-profile piezoelectric wafer sensors to perform long-term health monitoring by strategically using a combined impedance (EMIS), acoustic emission (AE), and guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) approach, called "multimode sensing", which is conducted by the same network of installed sensors activated in a variety of ways. The system will detect AE events resulting from crack (case for study in this project) and evaluate the damage evolution; when significant AE is detected, the sensor network will switch to the GUW mode to perform damage localization, and quantification as well as probe "hot spots" that are prone to damage for material degradation evaluation using EMIS approach. The N-SHM is expected to eventually provide a systematic methodology for assessing and monitoring nuclear waste storage systems without incurring human radiation exposure.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Tool for Automating Cluster Configuration : For a Software Defined Storage System


    Marakani, Sindhusha


    Context Traditional storage systems are proving to be inefficient to handle the growing storage need of a modern IT organization. The need for a cost effective and scalable storage framework has led to the development of a Software Defined Storage (SDS) solution. SDS can be defined as an enterprise class distributed storage solution that uses standard hardware, with all the important storage and management functions performed by an intelligent software. Configuring and maintenance of these st...

  10. An information management system for a spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Robert J.; Chiu, Hsien-Lang (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei, 10016 Taiwan); Giles, Todd; Horak, Karl Emanuel; Jow, Hong-Nian (Jow International, Kirkland, WA)


    We describe an integrated information management system for an independent spent fuel dry-storage installation (ISFSI) that can provide for (1) secure and authenticated data collection, (2) data analysis, (3) dissemination of information to appropriate stakeholders via a secure network, and (4) increased public confidence and support of the facility licensing and operation through increased transparency. This information management system is part of a collaborative project between Sandia National Laboratories, Taiwan Power Co., and the Fuel Cycle Materials Administration of Taiwan's Atomic Energy Council, which is investigating how to implement this concept.

  11. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.


    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  12. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei


    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  13. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid


    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  14. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  15. Performance Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghedamsi


    Full Text Available The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. In this paper, a flywheel energy storage system associated to a grid connected variable speed wind generation (VSWG scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic, DFIG, matrix converter, converter control (algorithm of VENTURINI and power control is studied. This paper investigates also, the control method of the FESS with a classical squirrel-cage induction machine associated to a VSWG using back-to-back AC/AC converter. Simulation results of the dynamic models of the wind generator are presented, for different operating points, to show the good performance of the proposed system.

  16. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry


    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions.

  17. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom


    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  19. System and Network Security Acronyms and Abbreviations (United States)


    Systems Agency DLL dynamic link library DMA direct memory access DMZ demilitarized zone DN distinguished name DN domain name DNP Distributed...NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System NetBT NetBIOS over TCP/IP NFAT network forensic analysis tool NFC near field communication NFS network file...Software Reference Library NSS Network Security Services NSTB National SCADA Test Bed NSTISSC National Security Telecommunications and Information

  20. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Weast, T. E.; Ananth, K. P.


    The viability of using fluidized bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in applications with potential for waste heat recovery was investigated. Of the candidate applications screened, cement plant rotary kilns and steel plant electric arc furnaces were identified, via the chosen selection criteria, as having the best potential for successful use of FBHX/TES system. A computer model of the FBHX/TES systems was developed and the technical feasibility of the two selected applications was verified. Economic and tradeoff evaluations in progress for final optimization of the systems and selection of the most promising system for further concept validation are described.

  1. Photovoltaic System Test Platform with Integrated Battery Energy Storage Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan


    In this work, we present a hybrid simulation and a real-time test platform for developing control systems for photovoltaic (PV) inverters with integrated battery energy storage (BES). The platform consists of a dual-stage single-phase PV inverter system, DC coupled with a full-bridge grid connected...... or directly to a physical PV array. The platform enables real-time testing of PV+BES control systems, including battery (BMS) and energy management systems (EMS), for a variety of battery technologies, which can be modelled in detail and emulated by the full-bridge grid connected inverter. Such flexibility...

  2. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  3. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li


    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. networked systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  4. Efficient proof of ownership for cloud storage systems (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong


    Cloud storage system through the deduplication technology to save disk space and bandwidth, but the use of this technology has appeared targeted security attacks: the attacker can deceive the server to obtain ownership of the file by get the hash value of original file. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of the files in the cloud storage system, an efficient and information-theoretical secure proof of ownership sceme is proposed to support the file rating. Through the K-means algorithm to implement file rating, and use random seed technology and pre-calculation method to achieve safe and efficient proof of ownership scheme. Finally, the scheme is information-theoretical secure, and achieve better performance in the most sensitive areas of client-side I/O and computation.

  5. Dealing with the data deluge: file systems and storage technologies (United States)

    Denson, David H.


    As defense and intelligence agencies seek to use the increasing amount of available data to make mission critical decisions on the battlefield, there is heavy emphasis on smart data and imagery collection: the capture, storage, and analysis necessary to drive real-time intelligence. This reality leads to an inevitable challenge-warfighters are increasingly swimming in sensors and drowning in data. With the millions, if not billions, of sensors in place that provide all-seeing reports of the combat environment, managing and tackling the overload is critical. This session highlights the capabilities of file systems and storage technologies that can interactively manage 100M+ files and 1PB+ single directory file systems.

  6. An open, parallel I/O computer as the platform for high-performance, high-capacity mass storage systems (United States)

    Abineri, Adrian; Chen, Y. P.


    APTEC Computer Systems is a Portland, Oregon based manufacturer of I/O computers. APTEC's work in the context of high density storage media is on programs requiring real-time data capture with low latency processing and storage requirements. An example of APTEC's work in this area is the Loral/Space Telescope-Data Archival and Distribution System. This is an existing Loral AeroSys designed system, which utilizes an APTEC I/O computer. The key attributes of a system architecture that is suitable for this environment are as follows: (1) data acquisition alternatives; (2) a wide range of supported mass storage devices; (3) data processing options; (4) data availability through standard network connections; and (5) an overall system architecture (hardware and software designed for high bandwidth and low latency). APTEC's approach is outlined in this document.

  7. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja


    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  8. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo


    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  9. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.


    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  10. A Survey on Data Storage and Information Discovery in the WSANs-Based Edge Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpo Ma


    Full Text Available In the post-Cloud era, the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT has pushed the horizon of Edge computing, which is a new computing paradigm with data processed at the edge of the network. As the important systems of Edge computing, wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs play an important role in collecting and processing the sensing data from the surrounding environment as well as taking actions on the events happening in the environment. In WSANs, in-network data storage and information discovery schemes with high energy efficiency, high load balance and low latency are needed because of the limited resources of the sensor nodes and the real-time requirement of some specific applications, such as putting out a big fire in a forest. In this article, the existing schemes of WSANs on data storage and information discovery are surveyed with detailed analysis on their advancements and shortcomings, and possible solutions are proposed on how to achieve high efficiency, good load balance, and perfect real-time performances at the same time, hoping that it can provide a good reference for the future research of the WSANs-based Edge computing systems.

  11. Adaptive control of energy storage systems for power smoothing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.


    for systems with multiple ESS units to realize several objectives simultaneously including SoC limiting, SoC balancing and power smoothing. Experiment is conducted considering a pulsed load profile. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal concerning the mentioned control objectives.......Energy storage systems (ESSs) are desired and widely applied for power smoothing especially in systems with renewable generation and pulsed loads. High-pass-filter (HPF) is commonly applied in those applications in which the HPF extracts the high frequency fluctuating power and uses...

  12. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)


    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  13. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  14. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs


    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  15. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Day, K.; Brooker, A.


    This poster presentation demonstrates an approach to evaluate trade-offs among hydrogen storage system characteristic across several vehicle configurations and estimates the sensitivity of hydrogen storage system improvements on vehicle viability.

  17. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope


    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  18. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.


    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  19. Data systems and computer science space data systems: Onboard memory and storage (United States)

    Shull, Tom


    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: technical objectives; technology challenges; state-of-the-art assessment; mass storage comparison; SODR drive and system concepts; program description; vertical Bloch line (VBL) device concept; relationship to external programs; and backup charts for memory and storage.

  20. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor


    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  1. Mobile cloud networking: mobile network, compute, and storage as one service on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamakovic, Almerima; Bohnert, Thomas Michael; Karagiannis, Georgios; Galis, A.; Gavras, A.


    The Future Communication Architecture for Mobile Cloud Services: Mobile Cloud Networking (MCN)1 is a EU FP7 Large scale Integrating Project (IP) funded by the European Commission. MCN project was launched in November 2012 for the period of 36 month. In total top-tier 19 partners from industry and

  2. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)


    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  3. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A


    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  4. Application of voltage oriented control technique in a fully renewable, wind powered, autonomous system with storage capabilities (United States)

    Kondylis, Georgios P.; Vokas, Georgios A.; Anastasiadis, Anestis G.; Konstantinopoulos, Stavros A.


    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the technological feasibility of a small autonomous network, with electricity storage capability, which is completely electrified by wind energy. The excess energy produced, with respect to the load requirements, is sent to the batteries for storage. When the energy produced by the wind generator is not sufficient, load's energy requirement is covered by the battery system, ensuring, however, that voltage, frequency and other system characteristics are within the proper boundaries. For the purpose of this study, a Voltage Oriented Control system has been developed in order to monitor the autonomous operation and perform the energy management of the network. This system manages the power flows between the load and the storage system by properly controlling the Pulse Width Modulation pulses in the converter, thus ensuring power flows are adequate and frequency remains under control. The experimental results clearly indicate that a stand-alone wind energy system based on battery energy storage system is feasible and reliable. This paves the way for fully renewable and zero emission energy schemes.

  5. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina


    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  6. VMware vSphere performance designing CPU, memory, storage, and networking for performance-intensive workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Liebowitz, Matt; Spies, Rynardt


    Covering the latest VMware vSphere software, an essential book aimed at solving vSphere performance problems before they happen VMware vSphere is the industry's most widely deployed virtualization solution. However, if you improperly deploy vSphere, performance problems occur. Aimed at VMware administrators and engineers and written by a team of VMware experts, this resource provides guidance on common CPU, memory, storage, and network-related problems. Plus, step-by-step instructions walk you through techniques for solving problems and shed light on possible causes behind the problems. Divu

  7. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  8. Potential of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells as Electricity Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Giorgio


    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage (EES systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES, and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC working in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes could be a cost effective and highly efficient EES, but are not yet ready for the market. In fact, using the system in fuel cell mode produces high temperature heat that can be recovered during electrolysis, when a heat source is necessary. Before ReSOCs can be used as EES systems, many problems have to be solved. This paper presents a new ReSOC concept, where the thermal energy produced during fuel cell mode is stored as sensible or latent heat, respectively, in a high density and high specific heat material and in a phase change material (PCM and used during electrolysis operation. The study of two different storage concepts is performed using a lumped parameters ReSOC stack model coupled with a suitable balance of plant. The optimal roundtrip efficiency calculated for both of the configurations studied is not far from 70% and results from a trade-off between the stack roundtrip efficiency and the energy consumed by the auxiliary power systems.

  9. Final Project Report: Composition and Realization of Source-to-Sink High-Performance Flows: File Systems, Storage, Hosts, LAN and WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)


    A number of Department of Energy (DOE) science applications, involving exascale computing systems and large experimental facilities, are expected to generate large volumes of data, in the range of petabytes to exabytes, which will be transported over wide-area networks for the purpose of storage, visualization, and analysis. The objectives of this proposal are to (1) develop and test the component technologies and their synthesis methods to achieve source-to-sink high-performance flows, and (2) develop tools that provide these capabilities through simple interfaces to users and applications. In terms of the former, we propose to develop (1) optimization methods that align and transition multiple storage flows to multiple network flows on multicore, multibus hosts; and (2) edge and long-haul network path realization and maintenance using advanced provisioning methods including OSCARS and OpenFlow. We also propose synthesis methods that combine these individual technologies to compose high-performance flows using a collection of constituent storage-network flows, and realize them across the storage and local network connections as well as long-haul connections. We propose to develop automated user tools that profile the hosts, storage systems, and network connections; compose the source-to-sink complex flows; and set up and maintain the needed network connections.

  10. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility (United States)

    Holmes, R.


    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  11. Advanced concepts in ground thermal energy storage systems (United States)

    Woods, Kevin David

    In recent years, ground thermal energy storage has become a topic of interest in the energy community for solar thermal energy storage systems, ground sourced heat pump systems, and data center thermal management systems due to an increase in the energy efficiency of such systems utilizing the ground as a thermal reservoir. The most common method for transferring thermal energy to the ground formation is the geothermal borehole. This dissertation presents the state of the art in geothermal borehole modeling and derives novel analytical functions to model advanced concepts concerning their operation. The novel solutions derived allow a geothermal borehole designer to better understand and design ground energy storage systems. The state of the art in geothermal borehole modeling is the stationary line source solution which is limited to boreholes operating without groundwater flow. Novel solutions for modeling a geothermal borehole with groundwater advection are presented through derivation of a transient moving line source solution as well as a transient moving cylindrical surface source solution. These solutions are applied to model a specific type of open loop geothermal borehole called a standing column well with groundwater advection and are compared to empirical and numerical data for validation. The dissertation then moves into derivation of a property determination method for geothermal boreholes with groundwater advection. The traditional property determination method used to obtain ground formation properties is based on the stationary transient line source method and fails in the presence of groundwater flow. The proposed novel property determination method calculates the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and superficial flow velocity of groundwater within a ground formation. These methods and solutions are novel tools allowing for geothermal borehole designers to grasp a better understanding of the systems they are designing as well as open other

  12. Regenerative Energy Storage System for Space Exploration Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wærnhus Ivar


    The breadboard was operated for 1250 hours alternating between electrolyser mode and fuel cell mode with H2/H2O as reactants. During the tests, as long as the mechanical integrity of the system was maintained, no degradation effect was observed. At the end of the test period, the fuel cell was operated for three full cycles (approx. 50 hours with CO/CO2 as reactants. The performance on CO/CO2 was lower than for hydrogen, but sufficient to be used in a compact energy storage system for Mars exploration.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan


    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  14. Unified storage systems for distributed Tier-2 centres (United States)

    Cowan, G. A.; Stewart, G. A.; Elwell, A.


    The start of data taking at the Large Hadron Collider will herald a new era in data volumes and distributed processing in particle physics. Data volumes of hundreds of Terabytes will be shipped to Tier-2 centres for analysis by the LHC experiments using the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). In many countries Tier-2 centres are distributed between a number of institutes, e.g., the geographically spread Tier-2s of GridPP in the UK. This presents a number of challenges for experiments to utilise these centres efficaciously, as CPU and storage resources may be subdivided and exposed in smaller units than the experiment would ideally want to work with. In addition, unhelpful mismatches between storage and CPU at the individual centres may be seen, which make efficient exploitation of a Tier-2's resources difficult. One method of addressing this is to unify the storage across a distributed Tier-2, presenting the centres' aggregated storage as a single system. This greatly simplifies data management for the VO, which then can access a greater amount of data across the Tier-2. However, such an approach will lead to scenarios where analysis jobs on one site's batch system must access data hosted on another site. We investigate this situation using the Glasgow and Edinburgh clusters, which are part of the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2. In particular we look at how to mitigate the problems associated with 'distant' data access and discuss the security implications of having LAN access protocols traverse the WAN between centres.

  15. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh


    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  16. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.


    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  17. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao


    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  18. Smoothing of wind farm output power using prediction based flywheel energy storage system (United States)

    Islam, Farzana

    Being socially beneficial, economically competitive and environment friendly, wind energy is now considered to be the world's fastest growing renewable energy source. However, the stochastic nature of wind imposes a considerable challenge in the optimal management and operation of wind power system. Wind speed prediction is critical for wind energy conversion system since it greatly influences the issues related to effective energy management, dynamic control of wind turbine, and improvement of the overall efficiency of the power generation system. This thesis focuses on integration of energy storage system with wind farm, considering wind speed prediction in the control scheme to overcome the problems associated with wind power fluctuations. In this thesis, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with adjustable speed rotary machine has been considered for smoothing of output power in a wind farm composed of a fixed speed wind turbine generator (FSWTG). Since FESS has both active and reactive power compensation ability, it enhances the stability of the system effectively. An efficient energy management system combined with supervisory control unit (SCU) for FESS and wind speed prediction has been developed to improve the smoothing of the wind farm output effectively. Wind speed prediction model is developed by artificial neural network (ANN) which has advantages over the conventional prediction scheme including data error tolerance and ease in adaptability. The model for prediction with ANN is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and interfaced with PSCAD/EMTDC. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is illustrated using real wind speed data in various operating conditions.

  19. Implementasi Network Attached Storage (NAS Menggunakan NAS4Free untuk Media Backup File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso


    Full Text Available STMIK Bina Patria Magelang adalah sekolah tinggi yang berada di jalan Raden Saleh No.2 Magelang, yang membidangi dalam ilmu komputer. STMIK Bina Patria mempunyai file–file pekerjaan yang sangat penting dan privasi, sehingga perlu untuk adanya sistem yang berguna untuk backup file. Network Attached Storage (NAS adalah sebuah server dengan sistem operasi yang dikhususkan untuk melayani kebutuhan berkas data. NAS dapat berbentuk perangkat yang siap pakai atau berupa sebuah software yang akan di-install-kan pada sebuah komputer agar berubah fungsi menjadi server NAS. Untuk software ini menggunakan NAS4Free yang berbasis linux. Model pengembangan sistem menggunakan Network Development Life Cycle (NDLC, adapun siklus tahapannya berisi analysis, design, simulation, prototyping, implementation, monitoring sehingga perencanaan yang akan dilakukan diharapkan bisa maksimal. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian terhadap rata-rata upload-nya adalah 3,5 Mbps, sedangkan untuk rata-rata download-nya adalah 5,63Mbps. 

  20. Synaptic Plasticity, Engrams, and Network Oscillations in Amygdala Circuits for Storage and Retrieval of Emotional Memories. (United States)

    Bocchio, Marco; Nabavi, Sadegh; Capogna, Marco


    The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories. Understanding how these cellular and network phenomena interact is vital to decipher the roles of emotional memory formation and storage in the healthy and pathological brain. Here, we review data on synaptic plasticity, engrams, and network oscillations in the rodent BLA. We explore mechanisms through which synaptic plasticity, engrams, and long-range synchrony might be interconnected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh


    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  2. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station (United States)

    Delventhal, Rex A.


    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  3. Experimental analysis of Hybridised Energy Storage Systems for automotive applications (United States)

    Sarwar, Wasim; Engstrom, Timothy; Marinescu, Monica; Green, Nick; Taylor, Nigel; Offer, Gregory J.


    The requirements of the Energy Storage System (ESS) for an electrified vehicle portfolio consisting of a range of vehicles from micro Hybrid Electric Vehicle (mHEV) to a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) vary considerably. To reduce development cost of an electrified powertrain portfolio, a modular system would ideally be scaled across each vehicle; however, the conflicting requirements of a mHEV and BEV prevent this. This study investigates whether it is possible to combine supercapacitors suitable for an mHEV with high-energy batteries suitable for use in a BEV to create a Hybridised Energy Storage System (HESS) suitable for use in a HEV. A passive HESS is found to be capable of meeting the electrical demands of a HEV drive cycle; the operating principles of HESSs are discussed and factors limiting system performance are explored. The performance of the HESS is found to be significantly less temperature dependent than battery-only systems, however the heat generated suggests a requirement for thermal management. As the HESS degrades (at a similar rate to a specialised high-power-battery), battery resistance rises faster than supercapacitor resistance; as a result, the supercapacitor provides a greater current contribution, therefore the energy throughput, temperature rise and degradation of the batteries is reduced.

  4. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system (United States)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.


    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  5. Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lunze, Jan


    The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic

  6. Feasible utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (United States)

    Loyd, R. J.; Schoenung, S. M.; Nakamura, T.; Lieurance, D. W.; Hilal, M. A.; Rogers, J. D.; Purcell, J. R.; Hassenzahl, W. V.

    This paper presents the latest design features and estimated costs of a 5000 MWh/1000 MW Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) plant. SMES is proposed as a commercially viable technology for electric utility load leveling. The primary advantage of SMES over other electrical energy storage technologies is its high net roundtrip efficiency. Other features include rapid availability and low maintenance and operating costs. Economic comparisons are made with other energy storage options and with gas turbines. In a diurnal load leveling application, a superconducting coil can be charged from the utility grid during off-peak hours. The ac grid is connected to the dc magnetic coil through a power conversion system that includes an inverter/rectifier. Once charged, the superconducting coil conducts current, which supports an electromagnetic field, with virtually no losses. During hours of peak load, the stored energy is discharged to the grid by reversing the charging process. The principle of operation of a SMES unit is shown. For operation in the superconducting mode, the coil is maintained at extremely low temperature by immersion in a bath of liquid helium.

  7. An investigation of the storage capability of district heating networks. Consequences of heat production; Untersuchung der Speicherfaehigkeit von Fernwaermenetzen. Auswirkungen auf die Waermeerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Sebastian; Felsmann, Clemens [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung


    The storage of energy is a key issue in terms of the energy policy turnaround and the concomitant increase in decentralized power generation. District heating networks can be used as a heat storage. But is this reasonable energetically and economically? And what is the situation with the storage capacity of district heating networks? How does this storage capability impact on the use of heat sources? The authors of the contribution under consideration try to give an answer to these questions.

  8. Network management systems for active distribution networks. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A.


    A technical feasibility study on network management systems for active distribution networks is reported. The study investigated the potential for modifying a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) to give some degree of active management. Government incentives have encouraged more and more embedded generation being connected to the UK distribution networks and further acceleration of the process should support the 2010 target for a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide. The report lists the objectives of the study and summarises what has been achieved; it also discusses limitations, reliability and resilience of existing SCADA. Safety and operational communications are discussed under staff safety and operational safety. Recommendations that could facilitate active management through SCADA are listed, together with suggestions for further study. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  9. Network systems and groupware for public facilities; Network system to groupware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torimaru, K.; Kubo, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, K. [Osaki Computer Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper outlines solutions for network systems and groupware for the infrastructure of information systems in public facilities. With regard to network systems, Fuji Electric's network solutions including requirements of public facilities and application examples are described. With regard to groupware, the status of groupware used for raising efficiency in public facilities and groupware packages marketed by Fuji Electric. (author)

  10. Performance enhancement of a heat pump system with ice storage subcooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ming-Jer [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No.568 Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou, Taiwan 54243 (China); Kuo, Yu-Fu; Cheng, Chiao-Hung; Chen, Sih-Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec.4 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Shen, Chih-Chiu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, No.250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan 40227 (China)


    This article experimentally investigates the thermal performance of a heat pump system with an ice storage subcooler. The system supplies heating and cooling demands to two greenhouses with temperature ranging 308{proportional_to}323 K and 273{proportional_to}291 K respectively and utilizes an ice storage tank to subcool the condensed refrigerant, which can enhance the system coefficient of performance (COP). The ice storage tank charges for storing ice, when the cooling load is less than the nominal cooling capacity. While the cooling load is larger than the nominal cooling capacity, the ice storage tank discharges for subcooling. The results show that in the charge mode the heat pump COP of ice storage system is 12% higher than that without ice storage tank. Under the discharge mode, the ice storage system provides the refrigerator COP 15% higher than that without ice storage tank. (author)

  11. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network (United States)

    ... the UAB-SCIMS Contact the UAB-SCIMS UAB Spinal Cord Injury Model System Newly Injured Health Daily Living Consumer ... Information Network The University of Alabama at Birmingham Spinal Cord Injury Model System (UAB-SCIMS) maintains this Information Network ...

  12. Computer networks ISE a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Larry L


    Computer Networks, 4E is the only introductory computer networking book written by authors who have had first-hand experience with many of the protocols discussed in the book, who have actually designed some of them as well, and who are still actively designing the computer networks today. This newly revised edition continues to provide an enduring, practical understanding of networks and their building blocks through rich, example-based instruction. The authors' focus is on the why of network design, not just the specifications comprising today's systems but how key technologies and p

  13. Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon


    of a stable super cooling, i.e. the material is able to cool down below its freezing point (Tfusion) and still be liquid, the possibility exist for a storage with a very low heat loss. When energy is needed from the storage the solidification is activated and the temperature rises almost instantly...... to the melting point. The work within the IEA Task 32 project focuses on the phase change material Sodium Acetate with xanthan rubber. This material melts at 58 °C, which means that low temperature heating systems could make full use of such a storage system. Energy to a large extent can be withdrawn even when...

  14. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo


    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  15. Systemic risk on different interbank network topologies (United States)

    Lenzu, Simone; Tedeschi, Gabriele


    In this paper we develop an interbank market with heterogeneous financial institutions that enter into lending agreements on different network structures. Credit relationships (links) evolve endogenously via a fitness mechanism based on agents' performance. By changing the agent's trust on its neighbor's performance, interbank linkages self-organize themselves into very different network architectures, ranging from random to scale-free topologies. We study which network architecture can make the financial system more resilient to random attacks and how systemic risk spreads over the network. To perturb the system, we generate a random attack via a liquidity shock. The hit bank is not automatically eliminated, but its failure is endogenously driven by its incapacity to raise liquidity in the interbank network. Our analysis shows that a random financial network can be more resilient than a scale free one in case of agents' heterogeneity.

  16. Design and Management of Networked Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.


    -based IS. There are several reasons for this: (a) Networked IS are large and complex systems; (b) in most cases, one has to deal with a number of existing - probably heterogenous - technical hardware and software platforms and link them together in a network; (c) differences in organizational culture, work......In this paper, we present a newly started research project at the Center for Tele-Information at the Technical University of Denmark. The project focuses on the design and management of networked information systems, that is computer-based IS linked by a wide area network and supporting...... communication between geographically dispersed organizational units. Examples include logistics systems, airline booking systems, and CSCW systems. We assume that the design and implementation of networked IS is significantly more difficult and risky than the development of traditional "stand-alone" computer...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ... system.From this last point of view, we will emphasize on the attentional networks theory of Posner, thatproposes different systems to explain diverse aspects of attention, but they are related to each...

  18. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.


    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Computational Evaluation of a Latent Heat Energy Storage System (United States)


    terrestrial applications , or propellant heating for on-orbit applications ), a thermally-based energy storage system can offer significant advantages in... PCM Core - - 0.08 0.06 Silicon Inner Container 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.065 Silicon Carbide Outer Container 0.295 0.195 0.315 0.205 Graphite Insulation...represent the cooling load required to maintain the cells at the desired operating temperature. A volumetric heat sink with magnitude equal to the average

  20. Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system (United States)

    Blahnik, D.E.


    A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

  1. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.


    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  2. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  3. A new mobilized energy storage system for waste heat recovery: Case study in Aerla, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilong Wang; Jinyue Yan; Dahlquist, Erik (Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden)). E-mail:; Jenny Nystroem (Eskilstuna Energi och Miljoe AB, Eskilstuna (Sweden))


    This paper introduces a new mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) for the recovery of industrial waste heat for distributed heat supply to the distributed users which have not been connected to the district heating network. In the M-TES system, phase-change materials (PCM) are used as the energy storage and carrier to transport the waste heat from the industrial site to the end users by a lorry. A technical feasibility and economic viability of M-TES has been conducted with the comparison of the district heating system as a reference. Thermal performance and cost impacts by different PCM materials have been analyzed compared, aiming at determining the optimum operation conditions. A case study is investigated by utilizing the waste heat from a combine heat and power (CHP) plant for the distributed users which are located at over 30 kilometers away from the plant. The results show that the M-TES may offer a competitive solution compared to building or extending the existing district heating network

  4. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.


    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  5. Seamless integrated network system for wireless communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Gang; Mizuno, Mitsuhiko; Hase, Yoshihiro; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    To create a network that connects a plurality of wireless communication systems to create optimal systems for various environments, and that seamlessly integrates the resulting systems together in order to provide more efficient and advanced service in general. A network system that can seamlessly

  6. Seamless integrated network system for wireless communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Gang; Mizuno, Mitsuhiko; Hase, Yoshihiro; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    To create a network that connects a plurality of wireless communication systems to create optimal systems for various environments, and that seamlessly integrates the resulting systems together in order to provide more efficient and advanced service in general. A network system that can seamlessly

  7. The mathematics of networks of linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhrmann, Paul A


    This book provides the mathematical foundations of networks of linear control systems, developed from an algebraic systems theory perspective. This includes a thorough treatment of questions of controllability, observability, realization theory, as well as feedback control and observer theory. The potential of networks for linear systems in controlling large-scale networks of interconnected dynamical systems could provide insight into a diversity of scientific and technological disciplines. The scope of the book is quite extensive, ranging from introductory material to advanced topics of current research, making it a suitable reference for graduate students and researchers in the field of networks of linear systems. Part I can be used as the basis for a first course in algebraic system theory, while Part II serves for a second, advanced, course on linear systems. Finally, Part III, which is largely independent of the previous parts, is ideally suited for advanced research seminars aimed at preparing graduate ...

  8. Valuing the Resilience Provided by Solar and Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group


    This paper explores the impact of valuing resilience on the economics of photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems for commercial buildings. The analysis presented here illustrates that accounting for the cost of grid power outages can change the breakeven point for PV and storage system investment, and increase the size of systems designed to deliver the greatest economic benefit over time. In other words, valuing resilience can make PV and storage systems economical in cases where they would not be otherwise. As storage costs decrease, and outages occur more frequently, PV and storage are likely to play a larger role in building design and management considerations.

  9. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  10. Hybrid data storage system in an HPC exascale environment (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Gupta, Uday K.; Tzelnic, Percy; Ting, Dennis P. J.


    A computer-executable method, system, and computer program product for managing I/O requests from a compute node in communication with a data storage system, including a first burst buffer node and a second burst buffer node, the computer-executable method, system, and computer program product comprising striping data on the first burst buffer node and the second burst buffer node, wherein a first portion of the data is communicated to the first burst buffer node and a second portion of the data is communicated to the second burst buffer node, processing the first portion of the data at the first burst buffer node, and processing the second portion of the data at the second burst buffer node.

  11. Sun pipeline`s tensioned cover system saves storage costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisdell, J.R. [Sun Pipe Line Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Lydick, L. [National Seal Co., Aurora, IL (United States)


    Sun Pipe Line chose the Columbia tensioned floating cover (TFC) system from Columbia Geosystems for several reasons. First, capital costs for the TFC system are considerably lower than those for structural metal or concrete systems. Installation requires less time than fixed structures, and construction costs are about one-tenth as much. A second reason for the choice is its patented tower/tension cover design which easily accommodates fluctuating fluid levels in brine ponds, even in a rapid drawdown. When brine is pumped into the storage chambers, changes in brine ponds can be as great as ten feet. The tensioned design maintains folds of extra material on the outer perimeter of the cover above fluid level. As fluid levels fall, the curtain unfolds and adequate reservoir coverage is maintained.

  12. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny P Bartsch

    Full Text Available We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS, we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  13. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact. (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch


    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  14. Energy storage label : A method for comparing storage systems over all ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian van Someren; F. Pierie


    This report describes the creation and use of a database for energy storage technologies which was developed in conjunction with Netbeheer Nederland and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. This database can be used to make comparisons between a selection of storage technologies and will

  15. Differential network entropy reveals cancer system hallmarks (United States)

    West, James; Bianconi, Ginestra; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew E.


    The cellular phenotype is described by a complex network of molecular interactions. Elucidating network properties that distinguish disease from the healthy cellular state is therefore of critical importance for gaining systems-level insights into disease mechanisms and ultimately for developing improved therapies. By integrating gene expression data with a protein interaction network we here demonstrate that cancer cells are characterised by an increase in network entropy. In addition, we formally demonstrate that gene expression differences between normal and cancer tissue are anticorrelated with local network entropy changes, thus providing a systemic link between gene expression changes at the nodes and their local correlation patterns. In particular, we find that genes which drive cell-proliferation in cancer cells and which often encode oncogenes are associated with reductions in network entropy. These findings may have potential implications for identifying novel drug targets. PMID:23150773

  16. Seismic behavior of steel storage pallet racking systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglioni, Carlo Andrea


    This book presents the main outcomes of the first European research project on the seismic behavior of adjustable steel storage pallet racking systems. In particular, it describes a comprehensive and unique set of full-scale tests designed to assess such behavior. The tests performed include cyclic tests of full-scale rack components, namely beam-to-upright connections and column base connections; static and dynamic tests to assess the friction factor between pallets and rack beams; full-scale pushover and pseudodynamic tests of storage racks in down-aisle and cross-aisle directions; and full-scale dynamic tests on two-bay, three-level rack models. The implications of the findings of this extensive testing regime on the seismic behavior of racking systems are discussed in detail, highlighting e.g. the confirmation that under severe dynamic conditions “sliding” is the main factor influencing rack response. This work was conceived during the development of the SEISRACKS project. Its outcomes will contribute...

  17. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data (United States)

    Stalzer, Mark A.


    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  18. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  19. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi


    Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  20. Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Darrell E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Miller, Ethan L [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)


    This constitutes the final report for “Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage”. The ultimate goal of this project was to improve data management in scientific computing and high-end computing (HEC) applications, and to achieve this goal we proposed: to develop the first, HEC-targeted, file system featuring rich metadata and provenance collection, extreme scalability, and future storage hardware integration as core design goals, and to evaluate and develop a flexible non-hierarchical file system interface suitable for providing more powerful and intuitive data management interfaces to HEC and scientific computing users. Data management is swiftly becoming a serious problem in the scientific community – while copious amounts of data are good for obtaining results, finding the right data is often daunting and sometimes impossible. Scientists participating in a Department of Energy workshop noted that most of their time was spent “...finding, processing, organizing, and moving data and it’s going to get much worse”. Scientists should not be forced to become data mining experts in order to retrieve the data they want, nor should they be expected to remember the naming convention they used several years ago for a set of experiments they now wish to revisit. Ideally, locating the data you need would be as easy as browsing the web. Unfortunately, existing data management approaches are usually based on hierarchical naming, a 40 year-old technology designed to manage thousands of files, not exabytes of data. Today’s systems do not take advantage of the rich array of metadata that current high-end computing (HEC) file systems can gather, including content-based metadata and provenance1 information. As a result, current metadata search approaches are typically ad hoc and often work by providing a parallel management system to the “main” file system, as is done in Linux (the locate utility), personal computers, and enterprise search

  1. Robots in the Library: Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems. (United States)

    Kountz, John


    Describes automated storage and retrieval (AS/R) techniques and discusses benefits, conservation considerations, and costs of the AS/R approach to the storage of library books. Thirteen annotated references are listed. (MES)

  2. Process query systems for network security monitoring (United States)

    Berk, Vincent; Fox, Naomi


    In this paper we present the architecture of our network security monitoring infrastructure based on a Process Query System (PQS). PQS offers a new and powerful way of efficiently processing data streams, based on process descriptions that are submitted as queries. In this case the data streams are familiar network sensors, such as Snort, Netfilter, and Tripwire. The process queries describe the dynamics of network attacks and failures, such as worms, multistage attacks, and router failures. Using PQS the task of monitoring enterprise class networks is simplified, offering a priority-based GUI to the security administrator that clearly outlines events that require immediate attention. The PQS-Net system is deployed on an unsecured production network; the system has successfully detected many diverse attacks and failures.

  3. High-speed, intra-system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairbanks, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desgeorges, Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  4. General regression neural network model for behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage. (United States)

    Oscar, Thomas P


    A study was undertaken to investigate and model behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage at constant temperatures. Chicken meat (white, dark, or skin) portions (0.75 cm(3)) were inoculated with a single strain of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (2.8 log) followed by storage for 0 to 8 d at -8, 0, 8, 12, 14, or 16 °C for model development and at -4, 4, 10, or 14 °C for model validation. A general regression neural network model was developed with commercial software. Performance of the model was considered acceptable when the proportion of residuals (observed--predicted) in an acceptable prediction zone (pAPZ) from -1 log (fail-safe) to 0.5 logs (fail-dangerous) was ≥ 0.7. Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken meat was observed at 12, 14, and 16 °C and was highest on dark meat, intermediate on skin, and lowest on white meat. At lower temperatures (-8 to 10 °C) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 remained at initial levels throughout 8 d of storage except at 4 °C where there was a small (0.4 log) but significant decline. The model had acceptable performance (pAPZ = 0.929) for dependent data (n = 482) and acceptable performance (pAPZ = 0.923) for independent data (n = 235). Results indicated that it is important to include type of meat as an independent variable in the model and that the model provided valid predictions of the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin, white, and dark meat during storage for 0 to 8 d at constant temperatures from -8 to 16 °C. A model for predicting behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage was developed and validated. The model will help the chicken industry to better predict and manage this risk to public health. Journal of Food Science © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  5. Control of Energy Storage Systems for Aeronautic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Canciello


    Full Text Available Future aircraft will make more and more use of automated electric power system management onboard. Different solutions are currently being explored, and in particular the use of a supercapacitor as an intelligent energy storage device is addressed in this paper. The main task of the supercapacitor is to protect the electric generator from abrupt power changes resulting from sudden insertion or disconnection of loads or from loads with regenerative power capabilities, like electromagnetic actuators. A controller based on high-gain concepts is designed to drive a DC/DC converter connecting the supercapacitor to the main electric bus. Formal stability proofs are given for the resulting nonlinear system, and strong robustness results from the use of high-gain and variable structure control implementation. Moreover, detailed simulations including switching devices and electrical parasitic elements are provided for different working scenarios, showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  6. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.


    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  7. NASTRAN analysis of an air storage piping system (United States)

    Young, C. P., Jr.; Gerringer, A. H.; Faison, R. W.


    The application of NASTRAN to a complex piping design evaluation problem is summarized. Emphasis is placed on structural modeling aspects, problems encountered in modeling and analyzing curved pipe sections, principal results, and relative merits of using NASTRAN as a pipe analysis and design tool. In addition, the piping and manifolding system was analyzed with SNAP (Structural Network Analysis Program). The parallel SNAP study provides a basis for limited comparisons between NASTRAN and SNAP as to solution agreement and computer execution time and costs.

  8. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João


    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  9. Network model of security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Piotr


    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of building a network security model and its application in the process of risk analysis. It indicates the possibility of a new definition of the role of the network models in the safety analysis. Special attention was paid to the development of the use of an algorithm describing the process of identifying the assets, vulnerability and threats in a given context. The aim of the article is to present how this algorithm reduced the complexity of the problem by eliminating from the base model these components that have no links with others component and as a result and it was possible to build a real network model corresponding to reality.

  10. Application of energy storage devices in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The paper concentrates on performance benefits of adding energy storage to power electronic compensators for utility applications. The paper concerns on analysis of various energy storage devices on the basis of different parameters out of which. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology and Super capacitor ...

  11. Networked Microgrids for Self-healing Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bokan; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen


    This paper proposes a transformative architecture for the normal operation and self-healing of networked microgrids (MGs). MGs can support and interchange electricity with each other in the proposed infrastructure. The networked MGs are connected by a physical common bus and a designed two-layer cyber communication network. The lower layer is within each MG where the energy management system (EMS) schedules the MG operation; the upper layer links a number of EMSs for global optimization and communication. In the normal operation mode, the objective is to schedule dispatchable distributed generators (DGs), energy storage systems (ESs) and controllable loads to minimize the operation costs and maximize the supply adequacy of each MG. When a generation deficiency or fault happens in a MG, the model switches to the self-healing mode and the local generation capacities of other MGs can be used to support the on-emergency portion of the system. A consensus algorithm is used to distribute portions of the desired power support to each individual MG in a decentralized way. The allocated portion corresponds to each MG’s local power exchange target which is used by its EMS to perform the optimal schedule. The resultant aggregated power output of networked MGs will be used to provide the requested power support. Test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. The Networking of Interactive Bibliographic Retrieval Systems. (United States)

    Marcus, Richard S.; Reintjes, J. Francis

    Research in networking of heterogeneous interactive bibliographic retrieval systems is being conducted which centers on the concept of a virtual retrieval system. Such a virtual system would be created through a translating computer interface that would provide access to the different retrieval systems and data bases in a uniform and convenient…

  13. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems. Project 8981, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.


    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450/sup 0/ to 535/sup 0/C (850/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F) in the form of latent heat of fusion has been examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures are attractive as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. An equimolar mixture of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, which melts at 505/sup 0/C with a latent heat of 148 Btu/lb, was chosen for experimental study. The cyclic charge/discharge behavior of laboratory- and engineering-scale systems was determined and compared with predictions based on a mathematical heat-transfer model that was developed during this program. The thermal performance of one engineering-scale unit remained very stable during 1400 hours of cyclic operation. Several means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored. Areas requiring further investigation have been identified.

  14. High density collinear holographic data storage system (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Arai, Ryo; Ikeda, Junichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Ke; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Yong


    Collinear holography has been good candidate for a volumetric recording technology of holographic data storage system (HDSS), because of there are not only large storage capacities, high transfer rates, but also the unique configuration, in which the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same spatial light modulator, as a new read/write method for HDSS are very promising. The optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media (disc). In the disc structure, the preformatted reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and a dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density. As servo technologies are being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. In this paper, we introduced the principle of the collinear holography and its media structure of disc. Some results of experimental and theoretical studies suggest that it is a very effective method. We also discussed some methods to increase the recording density and data transfer rates of collinear holography using phase modulated page data format.

  15. Experimental investigation into a packed bed thermal storage solution for solar gas turbine systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available High temperature thermal storage in randomly packed beds of ceramic particles is proposed as an effective storage solution for Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) cycles in the near term. Numerical modelling of these systems allows for optimised thermal storage...

  16. Statement of Work Electrical Energy Storage System Installation at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia is seeking to procure a 1 MWh energy storage system. It will be installed at the existing Energy Storage Test Pad, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This energy storage system will be a daily operational system, but will also be used as a tool in our Research and development work. The system will be part of a showcase of Sandia distributed energy technologies viewed by many distinguished delegates.

  17. Modelling the Chemical and Microbial Changes of Saffron Flower during Storage Using Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azarpazhooh


    Full Text Available Saffron, as the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product of the world, has a special value among plants. Since the Saffron harvesting period is short, its storage for later processing requires understanding the most effective factors affecting the quality of saffron and its deterioration. Therefore the effects of reposition thickness, storage temperature and storage time of saffron flowers on its chemical parameters including crocin, safranal and picrocrocin values of saffron stigma and its microbial quality indicators including total count, coliform and mold contamination were modelled. This was done using multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN and its structure and the learning parameters were optimized using genetic algorithm technique. The optimized MLP neural networkwas capable to predict the saffron quality characteristics during storage with coefficient of determinations higher than %94 and low error values (RMSE lower than 3.5 for all responses. The ANN model showed that reposition thickness has the lowest impact on chemical and microbial parameters deterioration while increasing storage temperature and time drastically increased loss of quality although the effect of storage time is lower than that of storage temperature.  Overall, keeping fresh saffron flowers at a low temperature near zero degrees centigrade is necessary for maximum retention of valuable chemical compounds and minimum microbial contamination development during saffron flower storage for further processing.

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  19. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space (United States)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.


    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  20. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.


    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  1. Network Basic Language Translation System: Security Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittrick, Mark R


    .... The Network Basic Language Translation System (NetBLTS) was proposed and accepted as part of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's offering of initiatives within the Horizontal Fusion portfolio in 2003...

  2. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat


    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  3. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat


    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  4. Storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems; Speichersysteme fuer eine verbesserte Netzintegration von Photovoltaikanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Shaoqing [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). CEBra-Research


    Since the enactment of the Renewable Energy Law in the year 2000 Germany has seen a massive increase in capacity for energy production from renewable resources. Of these, wind power and photovoltaics show heavily fluctuating supply profiles, with significant impact on energy supply grids. One approach to lessening the load on power grids, aside from their expansion, is to install energy storage systems. Recent studies on the use of such storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems have shown the viability of this approach for ground-mounted plants connected to the medium or high voltage level as well as for roof-mounted plants for the low-voltage level.

  5. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne


    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  6. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi


    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  7. Network support for system initiated checkpoints (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip


    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  8. Application of thermal and flywheel energy storage in orbiting nuclear burst power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Olszewski, M.


    A survey was conducted of currently available thermal energy storage and flywheel energy storage technology and development programs as they may apply to nuclear-based, burst power systems. The manner in which such storage systems may be used in closed cycle, regenerable burst systems is described for a number of cases utilizing the Boiling Potassium Rankine and Dual Loop Lithium Cooled LMRs and the Direct Cycle Brayton HTGR. In general, energy storage devices for such systems enable use of smaller power system components by allowing continuous operation over the duration of both the bursts and the regeneration time. The degree of size reduction depends principally on the required regeneration time.

  9. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server


    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  10. Ethical Issues in Network System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Langford


    Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.

  11. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  12. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald


    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long......-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...... hypnorum, a species with multiple-mating queens, have longer sperm than males of B. terrestris and B. lucorum whose queens are single mated. Although the sample size on the species level was too small to perform a phylogenetic analysis, this finding supports the hypothesis that, all other things being...

  13. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju


    -discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects....... Firstly, the modern ESS technologies and their potential applications for wind power integration support are introduced. Secondly, the planning problem in relation to the ESS application for wind power integration is reviewed, including the selection of the ESS type, and the optimal sizing and siting...... of the ESS. Finally, the proposed operation and control strategies of the ESS for different application purposes in relation to the wind power integration support are summarized. The conclusion is drawn in the end....

  14. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.


    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  15. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage (United States)

    Meyer, C. F.


    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  16. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang


    Full Text Available The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation and installation cost, respectively. Then, proper mathematical models of the DC (direct current traction power supply system are established to simulate the electrical load-flow of the traction supply network, and the optimization objections are evaluated in the example of a Chinese metro line. Ultimately, a methodology for optimal ultra-capacitor energy storage system locating and sizing is put forward based on the improved genetic algorithm. The optimized result shows that certain preferable and compromised schemes of ESSs’ location and size can be obtained, acting as a compromise between satisfying better energy savings, voltage profile and lower installation cost.

  17. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.


    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  18. Exploring Solar System Origins With The Desert Fireball Network (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Bland, P.


    Fireball camera networks are designed to recover meteorites with orbits. A geological context is a prerequisite for understanding terrestrial rocks. An improved dynamical context would benefit our understanding of extraterrestrial geology. A dozen projects - professional and amateur - have pursued this goal over the years. The effort has yielded 10 meteorites with orbits. Why so few? All these projects were in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere: areas where meteorite recovery is marginal. Deserts are one of the few places on Earth where field searches for meteorites can be mounted with a realistic chance of success. This was the driver behind the Desert Fireball Network. The Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000×36Megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognise events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. We successfully recovered a meteorite from Lake Eyre on 31st December 2015, using this pipeline. By February 2016 we had reduced our complete fireball dataset, deriving precise orbits for >350 events: a dataset that provides a unique window on the dynamics of material in the inner solar system. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million km2. The fireball and meteorite orbital data that it can provide will deliver a new dynamical window on the inner solar system, and new insights into solar system origins. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  20. Smart Sensor Network System For Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch


    Full Text Available SSN (Smart Sensor Network systems could be used to monitor buildings with modern infrastructure, plant sites with chemical pollution, horticulture, natural habitat, wastewater management and modern transport system. To sense attributes of phenomena and make decisions on the basis of the sensed value is the primary goal of such systems. In this paper a Smart Spatially aware sensor system is presented. A smart system, which could continuously monitor the network to observe the functionality and trigger, alerts to the base station if a change in the system occurs and provide feedback periodically, on demand or even continuously depending on the nature of the application. The results of the simulation trials presented in this paper exhibit the performance of a Smart Spatially Aware Sensor Networks.

  1. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.


    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  2. 78 FR 48472 - Hewlett Packard Company; Enterprise Storage Servers and Networking (Tape) Group; Formerly D/B/A... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company; Enterprise Storage Servers and Networking... May 20, 2013 in response to a petition filed on behalf of workers of Hewlett Packard Company...



    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi


    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  4. Automated Analysis of Security in Networking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael


    It has for a long time been a challenge to built secure networking systems. One way to counter this problem is to provide developers of software applications for networking systems with easy-to-use tools that can check security properties before the applications ever reach the marked. These tools...... will both help raise the general level of awareness of the problems and prevent the most basic flaws from occurring. This thesis contributes to the development of such tools. Networking systems typically try to attain secure communication by applying standard cryptographic techniques. In this thesis...... attacks, and attacks launched by insiders. Finally, the perspectives for the application of the analysis techniques are discussed, thereby, coming a small step closer to providing developers with easy- to-use tools for validating the security of networking applications....

  5. [Renewal of NIHS computer network system]. (United States)

    Segawa, Katsunori; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Yoshiro


    Updated version of National Institute of Health Sciences Computer Network System (NIHS-NET) is described. In order to reduce its electric power consumption, the main server system was newly built using the virtual machine technology. The service that each machine provided in the previous network system should be maintained as much as possible. Thus, the individual server was constructed for each service, because a virtual server often show decrement in its performance as compared with a physical server. As a result, though the number of virtual servers was increased and the network communication became complicated among the servers, the conventional service was able to be maintained, and security level was able to be rather improved, along with saving electrical powers. The updated NIHS-NET bears multiple security countermeasures. To maximal use of these measures, awareness for the network security by all users is expected.

  6. Energy storage in drive systems of servo presses for reduction of peak power and energy recovery


    Putz, Matthias; Blau, Peter; Kolesnikov, Artem; Richter, Mark; Pierer, Alexander


    The development approach for energy storage systems focuses on optimally sized capacitor modules to reduce peak power and to avoid energy recovery of production machines. Using servo presses as an example, the application of two different energy storage systems in the DC link is practically examined. A simulation model in Matlab/Simulink and a test stand of a servo press are proposed for representing the power flows between the mains supply, the electric drives and the storage systems. The de...

  7. Redundancy and Aging of Efficient Multidimensional MDS-Parity Protected Distributed Storage Systems


    Arslan, Suayb S.


    The effect of redundancy on the aging of an efficient Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) parity--protected distributed storage system that consists of multidimensional arrays of storage units is explored. In light of the experimental evidences and survey data, this paper develops generalized expressions for the reliability of array storage systems based on more realistic time to failure distributions such as Weibull. For instance, a distributed disk array system is considered in which the array...

  8. Design and Realization of Network Teaching System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Shan Shan


    Full Text Available Since 21 century, with the wide spread in family and public, network has been applied in many new fields, and the application in classes is of no exception. In traditional education, teachers give lessons to students face to face. Hence, the teaching quality depends largely on the quality and initiative of the individual teacher. However, the serious disadvantages of this mode are that teachers completely dominate the classroom and may ignore the subjective cognition role of the students, which may be bad for the growth of creativity and the innovative thinking ability. Obviously, traditional education mode cannot meet the requirements of the this new era which leads to the booming developing tendency of the network. As a new teaching measure, scientifically combining modern information technology and teaching practice, network teaching not only changes the traditional education by the means and form, but even also gives new meanings to teaching concept, process, method as well as teacher-student role and other deep levels. With the help of network teaching system, on-line classroom learning, relevant information systematization, standardization and automation, this system provides students with an efficient online learning method with high quality. This also helps to solve the disadvantages of the traditional teaching mode and promote the teaching methods to a new stage. It improves the network teaching platform, enriches the network teaching resources, and establishes a network teaching system, so as to improve information quality of teachers and students and assist in improving teaching quality of schools.

  9. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.


    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  10. Spatial Models and Networks of Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jeppe Søgaard

    When studying the dynamics of living systems, insight can often be gained by developing a mathematical model that can predict future behaviour of the system or help classify system characteristics. However, in living cells, organisms, and especially groups of interacting individuals, a large number....... Such systems are known to be stabilized by spatial structure. Finally, I analyse data from a large mobile phone network and show that people who are topologically close in the network have similar communication patterns. This main part of the thesis is based on six different articles, which I have co...

  11. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella


    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  12. Deterministic System Identification Using RBF Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Batista de Almeida Rego


    Full Text Available This paper presents an artificial intelligence application using a nonconventional mathematical tool: the radial basis function (RBF networks, aiming to identify the current plant of an induction motor or other nonlinear systems. Here, the objective is to present the RBF response to different nonlinear systems and analyze the obtained results. A RBF network is trained and simulated in order to obtain the dynamical solution with basin of attraction and equilibrium point for known and unknown system and establish a relationship between these dynamical systems and the RBF response. On the basis of several examples, the results indicating the effectiveness of this approach are demonstrated.

  13. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse [Acadia Optronics LLC, Rockville, MD (United States)


    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  14. The Third NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (United States)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)


    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held in October 1993. The conference served as an informational exchange forum for topics primarily relating to the ingestion and management of massive amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. Discussion topics include the necessary use of computers in the solution of today's infinitely complex problems, the need for greatly increased storage densities in both optical and magnetic recording media, currently popular storage media and magnetic media storage risk factors, data archiving standards including a talk on the current status of the IEEE Storage Systems Reference Model (RM). Additional topics addressed System performance, data storage system concepts, communications technologies, data distribution systems, data compression, and error detection and correction.

  15. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai


    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  16. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun


    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  17. Generalized Storage-Yield-Reliability Relationships for Analysing Shopping Centre Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Ndiritu; Yashiren Moodley; Mondli Guliwe


    ...) systems of shopping centres in South Africa. A model consisting of three dimensionless relationships relating rainwater supply and demand to storage capacity, yield and reliability was formulated...

  18. Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Photovoltaic Plant by the Energy Management of a Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Sossan, Fabrizio; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn


    The paper discusses and describes a system for energy management of a 10 kW PV plant coupled with a 15 kW - 190 kWh storage system. The overall idea is, by knowing the meteorological forecast for the next 24h, to dispatch the PV system and to be able to grant the scheduled hourly energy profile...... by a proper management of the storage. Due to forecast inaccuracies, the energy manager controls the storage in order to ensure that the plan for hourly energy production is respected, minimizing the storage itself usage. The experimental study is carried out in SYSLAB, a distributed power system test...

  19. Quality Changes of N-3 PUFAs Enriched and Conventional Eggs under Different Home Storage Conditions with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkang Li


    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs are popular for their enrichment of PUFAs, but their freshness and quality are prone to decline with time, particularly if storage conditions are not well maintained. Home storage is the last but a neglected important tach in eggs supply chain, but few studies are available on the egg storage in the home stage. This study aimed to evaluate the internal quality change of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs by simulating eggs stored at consumers’ home in refrigeration and under room temperature. The egg quality indices (Haugh unit, yolk index, weight, and albumen pH were adopted and analyzed for both storage conditions. Wireless sensor network (WSN was used for real-time monitoring of the temperature and humidity during storage. The results showed that temperature, humidity and time of storage all have an influence on the freshness of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and there is no significant difference happened to n-3 PUFAs enriched eggs and conventional eggs. Refrigeration can decelerate the quality deterioration of both n-3 PUFAs enriched and conventional eggs and consumers should be educated about how to maintain the internal quality of eggs during home storage.

  20. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems. (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel


    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.