WorldWideScience

Sample records for networked infrastructure distribution

  1. Scalable infrastructure for distributed sensor networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Iyengar, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ... network application is inventory tracking in factory warehouses. A single sensor node can be attached to each item in the warehouse. These sensor nodes can then be used for tracking the location of the items as they are moved within the warehouse. They can also provide information on the location of nearby items as well as the history of movement...

  2. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  3. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  4. A novel infrastructure modularity index for the segmentation of water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolisi, O.; Ridolfi, L.

    2014-10-01

    The search for suitable segmentations is a challenging and urgent issue for the analysis, planning and management of complex water distribution networks (WDNs). In fact, complex and large size hydraulic systems require the division into modules in order to simplify the analysis and the management tasks. In the complex network theory, modularity index has been proposed as a measure of the strength of the network division into modules and its maximization is used in order to identify community of nodes (i.e., modules) which are characterized by strong interconnections. Nevertheless, modularity index needs to be revised considering the specificity of the hydraulic systems as infrastructure systems. To this aim, the classic modularity index has been recently modified and tailored for WDNs. Nevertheless, the WDN-oriented modularity is affected by the resolution limit stemming from classic modularity index. Such a limit hampers the identification/design of small modules and this is a major drawback for technical tasks requiring a detailed resolution of the network segmentation. In order to get over this problem, we propose a novel infrastructure modularity index that is not affected by the resolution limit of the classic one. The rationale and good features of the proposed index are theoretically demonstrated and discussed using two real hydraulic networks.

  5. Wireless Infrastructure M2M Network For Distributed Power Grid Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Hamid; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    With the massive integration of distributed renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power system, the demand for timely and reliable network quality monitoring, control, and fault analysis is rapidly growing. Following the successful deployment of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in transmission systems for power monitoring, a new opportunity to utilize PMU measurement data for power quality assessment in distribution grid systems is emerging. The main problem however, is that a distribution grid system does not normally have the support of an infrastructure network. Therefore, the main objective in this paper is to develop a Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication network that can support wide ranging sensory data, including high rate synchrophasor data for real-time communication. In particular, we evaluate the suitability of the emerging IEEE 802.11ah standard by exploiting its important features, such as classifying the power grid sensory data into different categories according to their traffic characteristics. For performance evaluation we use our hardware in the loop grid communication network testbed to access the performance of the network.

  6. dSDiVN: a distributed Software-Defined Networking architecture for Infrastructure-less Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alioua, Ahmed; Senouci, Sidi-Mohammed; Moussaoui, Samira

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, the emerging network architecture paradigm of Software-Defined Networking (SDN), has become one of the most important technology to manage large scale networks such as Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, several works have shown interest in the use of SDN paradigm in VANETs. SDN brings flexibility, scalability and management facility to current VANETs. However, almost all of proposed Software-Defined VANET (SDVN) architectures are infrastructure-based. This pa...

  7. Optimized distribution network work management by grid services of a rapid loading infrastructure; Optimierte Verteilnetzbetriebsfuehrung durch Netzdienstleistungen einer Schnellladeinfrastruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasselt, P.; Uhrig, M.; Leibfried, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektroenergiesysteme und Hochspannungstechnik (IEH)

    2012-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims to reach one million electric vehicles in 2020 and up to five million by 2030 under its National Electromobility Development Plan. The integration of the necessary charging infrastructure in the distribution grid is considered in many research approaches by regarding charging time slots controlled by information and communications technology (ICT). In this approach, strategies for reactive power management and gridsupporting functions in medium voltage networks through the integration of large charging stations such as those in parking garages and public parking lots are considered. An urban distribution network in 2030 is modelled to evaluate different centralized and decentralized reactive power control schemes. (orig.)

  8. Medical Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    researchers have been developing power-efficient security mechanisms for sensor networks. However, most of this work ignores the special usability demands from the clinical use-scenarios: set-up must be fast, and key pre-distribution is problematic if disposable sensors are discarded after being used for only...

  9. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the European Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modeling (IS-ENES), and the Australian National University (ANU). Support also comes from other U.S. federal and international agencies. The federation works across multiple worldwide data centers and spans seven international network organizations to provide users with the ability to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers, and software. Its architecture employs a series of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered and united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The full ESGF infrastructure has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP; output used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), multiple model intercomparison projects (MIPs; endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme [WCRP]), and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME; ESGF is included in the overarching ACME workflow process to store model output). ESGF is a successful example of integration of disparate open-source technologies into a cohesive functional system that serves the needs the global climate science community. Data served by ESGF includes not only model output but also observational data from satellites and instruments, reanalysis, and generated images.

  10. User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wagenknecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs.

  11. N2R vs. DR Network Infrastructure Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Roost, Lars Jessen; Toft, Per Nesager

    2007-01-01

    Recent development of Internet-based services has set higher requirements to network infrastructures in terms of more bandwidth, lower delays and more reliability. Theoretical research within the area of Structural Quality of Service (SQoS) has introduced a new type of infrastructure which meet...... these requirements: N2R infrastructures. This paper contributes to the ongoing research with a case study from North Jutland. An evaluation of three N2R infrastructures compared to a Double Ring (DR) infrastructure will provide valuable information of the practical applicability of N2R infrastructures. In order...... to study if N2R infrastructures perform better than the DR infrastructure, a distribution network was established based on geographical information system (GIS) data. Nodes were placed with respect to demographic and geographical factors. The established distribution network was investigated with respect...

  12. Welcome to NNIN | National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network Serving Nanoscale Science, Engineering & Technology Search form Search Search Home facilities feature over 1100 modern nanotechnology instruments such as these Reactive Ion Etch systems at the

  13. Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Narisa N.

    1996-01-01

    The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

  14. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  15. Distributed control in the electricity infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Mellstrand, P.; Gustavsson, R.

    2006-01-01

    Different driving forces push the electricity production towards decentralization. As a result, the current electricity infrastructure is expected to evolve into a network of networks, in which all system parts communicate with each other and influence each other. Multiagent systems and electronic markets form an appropriate technology needed for control and coordination tasks in the future electricity network. We present the PowerMatcher, a market-based control concept for supply demand matching (SDM) in electricity networks. In a simulation study we show the ability of this approach to raise the simultaneousness of electricity production and consumption within (local) control clusters. This control concept can be applied in different business cases like reduction of imbalance costs in commercial portfolios or virtual power plant operation of distributed generators. Two PowerMatcher-based field test configurations are described, one currently in operation, one currently under construction

  16. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  17. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneta Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER – DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of “case studies”, that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and “costs” of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  18. Enabling software defined networking experiments in networked critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Genge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fact that Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCI, e.g., power plants, water plants, oil and gas distribution infrastructures, and electricity grids, are targeted by significant cyber threats is well known. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that specific characteristics of NCI can be exploited in the enabling of more efficient mitigation techniques, while novel techniques from the field of IP networks can bring significant advantages. In this paper we explore the interconnection of NCI communication infrastructures with Software Defined Networking (SDN-enabled network topologies. SDN provides the means to create virtual networking services and to implement global networking decisions. It relies on OpenFlow to enable communication with remote devices and has been recently categorized as the “Next Big Technology”, which will revolutionize the way decisions are implemented in switches and routers. Therefore, the paper documents the first steps towards enabling an SDN-NCI and presents the impact of a Denial of Service experiment over traffic resulting from an XBee sensor network which is routed across an emulated SDN network.

  19. The TENCompetence Infrastructure: A Learning Network Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Lemmers, Ruud

    The TENCompetence project developed a first release of a Learning Network infrastructure to support individuals, groups and organisations in professional competence development. This infrastructure Learning Network infrastructure was released as open source to the community thereby allowing users and organisations to use and contribute to this development as they see fit. The infrastructure consists of client applications providing the user experience and server components that provide the services to these clients. These services implement the domain model (Koper 2006) by provisioning the entities of the domain model (see also Sect. 18.4) and henceforth will be referenced as domain entity services.

  20. Structural and Infrastructural Underpinnings of International R&D Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process of globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on the effects of network maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... to dispersed development. Drawing from case studies of two international R&D networks, it presents a capability maturity model and argues that understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks has become a key requirement for developing organizational...

  1. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  2. The BIRN Project: Distributed Information Infrastructure and Multi-scale Imaging of the Nervous System (BIRN = Biomedical Informatics Research Network)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with "complete" knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their ...

  3. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  4. Features of formation of a distributive infrastructure of e-commerce in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Article about objective laws of formation of a distributive infrastructure of e-commerce. The distributive infrastructure of e-commerce, according to the author, plays an important role in formation of network economy. The author opens strategic value of institutional regulation of distributive logistics for the decision problems of modernization of Russian economy.

  5. Network-Embedded Management and Applications Understanding Programmable Networking Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Despite the explosion of networking services and applications in the past decades, the basic technological underpinnings of the Internet have remained largely unchanged. At its heart are special-purpose appliances that connect us to the digital world, commonly known as switches and routers. Now, however, the traditional framework is being increasingly challenged by new methods that are jostling for a position in the next-generation Internet. The concept of a network that is becoming more programmable is one of the aspects that are taking center stage. This opens new possibilities to embed software applications inside the network itself and to manage networks and communications services with unprecedented ease and efficiency. In this edited volume, distinguished experts take the reader on a tour of different facets of programmable network infrastructure and application exploit it. Presenting the state of the art in network embedded management and applications and programmable network infrastructure, the book c...

  6. Managing IT infrastructure standardisation in the networked manufacturing firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Horst, van der H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses managerial aspects of information technology (IT) infrastructure standardisation in networked manufacturing firms. It shows that in these firms, where local initiative is very important and strict central hierarchical control is lacking, standardisation of IT infrastructure is

  7. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalil A. Bispo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks, which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  8. ORGANIZATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURE BASED ON SDN NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Efimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main approaches to cloud computing infrastructure based on the SDN network in present data processing centers (DPC. The main indexes of management effectiveness of network infrastructure of DPC are determined. The examples of solutions for the creation of virtual network devices are provided.

  9. Network and computing infrastructure for scientific applications in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvatadze, R.; Modebadze, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Status of network and computing infrastructure and available services for research and education community of Georgia are presented. Research and Educational Networking Association - GRENA provides the following network services: Internet connectivity, network services, cyber security, technical support, etc. Computing resources used by the research teams are located at GRENA and at major state universities. GE-01-GRENA site is included in European Grid infrastructure. Paper also contains information about programs of Learning Center and research and development projects in which GRENA is participating.

  10. The Impact of Distributed Generation on Distribution Networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their advantages are the ability to reduce or postpone the need for investment in the transmission and distribution infrastructure when optimally located; the ability to reduce technical losses within the transmission and distribution networks as well as general improvement in power quality and system reliability. This paper ...

  11. Integrating Subjective Trust into Networked Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    architectural framework for hexperimenting wit trust. • Use of semantic technologies incorporated into h b id b d t t t ta y r - ase rus managemen ...Language for Operation PI Persistent Identifier PILOW P i t t Id tifi T blers s en en er a es PINL Persistent Identifier Networking Layer SBIR Small...Investigate and propose an architecture to determine/measure and convey th t t l l f th i l t ie rus eve o e var ous e emen s n a distributed or

  12. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    hydrological system changes, and to develop and implement tools and technologies for monitoring, prevention and mitigation of environmental risks and pressures. In addition, NOHA will provide long-term statistical series of hydrological state variables and fluxes for the analysis and prognosis of Global Change consequences using integrated model systems. These data will support the development and establishment of efficient prevention, mitigation and adaptation strategies (E.g. EU-Water Framework Directive) and spur the development and validation of hydrological theories and models. The second network, ALPS, - the Alpine Observing System - will create an unique infrastructure for environmental and climate research and observation for the whole Alpine region, providing a common platform for the benefit of the society in Europe as a whole. The initiative will build on existing infrastructure in the participating countries and on new and emerging technology, allowing an unprecedented coverage of observation systems at affordable cost. ALPS will create a new collaboration between scientists, engineers, monitoring agencies, public and decision makers, with the aim to gain an integrated understanding of complex environmental systems. The ALPS effort will be structured along three major axes: (i) harmonize and strengthen the backbone of permanent measurement infrastructures and complement these with dense deployments of intelligent networks, to improve the recording of environmental parameters overcoming disciplinary and national borders, (ii) link the main data centres to create a distributed cyber-infrastructure with the final aim to enable effective data access and retrieval to all science and society users, and (iii) invest in data assimilation and exploitation toward scientific and practical results in particular with respect to dealing with extreme events and natural hazards. In this presentation, we will focus on the motivation, the concept and the scientific and

  13. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  14. Electricity Networks: Infrastructure and Operations. Too complex for a resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Electricity security remains a priority of energy policy and continuous electrification will further enhance the importance in the years to come. Market liberalisation has brought substantial benefits to societies, including competition, innovation, more client-oriented services and the reduced needs for public expenditure. Further, the path of decarbonisation is a must but experiences with many new technologies and policies show their many implications on power systems. Electricity networks form the backbone of reliable and affordable power systems and also significantly support the inception of renewable generation. The importance of distribution and transmission networks has to be well understood by policy makers and regulators to maintain the sensitive balance within the policy triangle of reliability, affordability and sustainability as power systems rapidly change. Failures in choosing the right institutions and regulatory frameworks to operate and build networks will put the sensitive balance within the policy triangle at risk. ''Too complex for a resource?'' identifies the key challenges the electricity distribution and transmission networks face today and in the future. It further provides for best practice examples on institutional design choices and regulatory frameworks for sound network service provision but also highlights the importance of additional responses required. More market-based and dynamic frameworks for various system services, the growing need for active service participation of renewable generators and highly independent and transparent central operators seem to be at the heart of these responses. ''Too complex for a resource?'' finds that the answer to the challenges ahead is not always more infrastructure and that networks and the services they provide have to be regarded as equal part of the total power system. Thus, accurate and dynamic cost allocation can significantly support to transform

  15. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  16. Smart Control of Energy Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Silva, Nuno; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2018-01-01

    Off-the shelf wireless communication technologies reduce infrastructure deployment costs and are thus attractive for distribution system control. Wireless communication however may lead to variable network performance. Hence the impact of this variability on overall distribution system control be...

  17. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  18. On the Impact of using Public Network Communication Infrastructure for Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    voltage controlled distribution system. A cost effective way to connect the ReGen plants to the control center is to consider the existing public network infrastructure. This paper, therefore, illustrates the impact of using the existing public network communication infrastructure for online voltage...

  19. Intelligent distribution network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, F.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution networks (medium voltage and low voltage) are subject to changes caused by re-regulation of the energy supply, economical and environmental constraints more sensitive equipment, power quality requirements and the increasing penetration of distributed generation. The latter is seen as

  20. On Network Coded Distributed Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul

    2016-01-01

    systems typically rely on expensive infrastructure with centralized control to store, repair and access the data. This approach introduces a large delay for accessing and storing the data driven in part by a high RTT between users and the cloud. These characteristics are at odds with the massive increase......This paper focuses on distributed fog storage solutions, where a number of unreliable devices organize themselves in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks with the purpose to store reliably their data and that of other devices and/or local users and provide lower delay and higher throughput. Cloud storage...... of devices and generated data in coming years as well as the requirements of low latency in many applications. We focus on characterizing optimal solutions for maintaining data availability when nodes in the fog continuously leave the network. In contrast with state-of-the-art data repair formulations, which...

  1. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  2. A distribution network review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)

  3. A distribution network review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)

  4. Infrastructure of Taiwan photon source control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.T.; Kuo, C.H.; Cheng, Y.S.; Jenny Chen; Hsu, S.Y.; Wu, C.Y.; Hu, K.H.; Hsu, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable, flexible and secure network is essential for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) control system which is based upon the EPICS tool-kit framework. Subsystem sub-nets will connect to control system via EPICS based CA gateways for forwarding data and reducing network traffic. Combining cyber security technologies such as fire-wall, NAT and VLAN, control network is isolated to protect IOCs and accelerator components. Network management tools are used to improve network performance. Remote access mechanism will be constructed for maintenance and troubleshooting. The Ethernet is also used as field-bus for instruments such as power supplies. This paper will describe the system architecture for the TPS control network. Cabling topology, redundancy and maintainability are also discussed. (authors)

  5. CUMULVS: Collaborative infrastructure for developing distributed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J.A.; Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-03-01

    The CUMULVS software environment provides remote collaboration among scientists by allowing them to dynamically attach to, view, and steer a running simulation. Users can interactively examine intermediate results on demand, saving effort for long-running applications gone awry. In addition, it provides fault tolerance to distributed applications via user-directed checkpointing, heterogeneous task migration and automatic restart. This talk describes CUMULVS and how this tool benefits scientists developing large distributed applications.

  6. CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY - NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea DUMITRU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical Information Infrastructure security will always be difficult to ensure, just because of the features that make it irreplaceable tor other critical infrastructures normal operation. It is decentralized, interconnected interdependent, controlled by multiple actors (mainly private and incorporating diverse types of technologies. It is almost axiomatic that the disruption of the Critical Information Infrastructure affects systems located much farther away, and the cyber problems have direct consequences on the real world. Indeed the Internet can be used as a multiplier in order to amplify the effects of an attack on some critical infrastructures. Security challenges increase with the technological progress. One of the last lines of defense which comes to complete the overall security scheme of the Critical Information Infrastructure is represented by the Network Intrusion Detection Systems.

  7. A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eleutério

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

  8. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  9. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  10. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  11. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  12. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  13. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    Advancements in wireless communication and electronics improving form factor and hardware capabilities has expanded the applicability of wireless sensor networks. Despite these advancements, devices are still limited in terms of energy which creates the need for duty-cycling and low-power protocols...... peripherals need to by duty-cycled and the low-power wireless radios are severely influenced by the environmental effects causing bursty and unreliable wireless channels. This dissertation presents a communication stack providing services for low-power communication, secure communication, data collection......, and network management which enables construction of low-power wireless sensor network applications. More specifically, these services are designed with the extreme low-power scenarios of the SensoByg project in mind and are implemented as follows. First, low-power communication is implemented with Auto...

  14. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  15. Design of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Shepelev, Aleksey; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-09-04

    With an increased number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on the roads, charging infrastructure is gaining an ever-more important role in simultaneously meeting the needs of the local distribution grid and of EV users. This paper proposes a mesh network RFID system for user identification and charging authorization as part of a smart charging infrastructure providing charge monitoring and control. The Zigbee-based mesh network RFID provides a cost-efficient solution to identify and authorize vehicles for charging and would allow EV charging to be conducted effectively while observing grid constraints and meeting the needs of EV drivers

  16. Secure Infrastructure-Less Network (SINET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY IN MOBILE DEVICES ..................................................................................................18 1. 4G LTE ...System LOS Line of Sight LTE Long-Term Evolution MANET Mobile Ad-hoc Network MCP Mobility Capabilities Package MPR Multipoint Relays NFC...National Security Agency, 2003). CCI, while unclassified, still requires strict physical control measures to protect against loss or compromise

  17. Office of Aviation Safety Network Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The AVS LAN/WAN is physically and logically distributed across numerous AVS facilities throughout the United States such as Flight Standards District Offices (FSDO),...

  18. CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE OF GAS NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek URBANIK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology today is becoming increasingly important. Increasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions make the search for such fuels which will not have such a negative effect on the environment as the fuel use currently - mainly coal. At present it seems that the substitute fuel can be gaseous fuels (propane-butane, methane. Their combustion is less harmful to the environment and their transport is relatively not very complicated. As it turns out, the use of gas is increasing in industry, automotive, heating systems (power plants that operate in the so-called cogeneration. The increase in demand carries continuous development of gas infrastructure, which in turn may increase probability of failure. As a conclusion of this article, taking into account all the construction disasters induced by the gas, the number of such failures is relatively small. It should be remembered, that the disaster caused by gas explosion may cause very large material and human losses. Not without significance is the impact of gas leakage, eg. of the pipeline on the environment. An example is the methane which is a greenhouse gas, less persistent in the air, but much more active than CO2. The article presents selected disasters associated with natural gas or propane-butane and the impact of these gases on the environment because these fuels are most commonly used in most sectors of the economy.

  19. IPV6 Network Infrastructure and Stability Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the Too Big Trick ( TBT ) to induce the remote targets to return fragmented responses. By evaluating the responses, the uptime for approximately 35% of...Internet. Approximately 50,000 IPv6 addresses were probed continuously from March to June 2014, using the Too Big Trick ( TBT ) to induce the remote targets...SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol TSval Timestamp Value TCP Transmission Control Protocol TBT Too Big Trick USG U.S. government xiv

  20. Converged Optical Network and Data Center Virtual Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakilas, Konstantinos; Tzanakaki, Anna; Anastasopoulos, Markos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of planning virtual infrastructures (VIs) over a physical infrastructure comprising integrated optical network and data center resources with the aim of enabling sharing of physical resources among several virtual operators and services. Through the planning...... process, the VI topology and virtual resources are identified and mapped to the physical resources. Our study assumes a practical VI demand model without any in advance global knowledge of the VI requests that are handled sequentially. Through detailed integer linear program modeling, two objective...... functions—one that minimizes the overall power consumption of the infrastructure and one that minimizes the wavelength utilization—are compared. Both are evaluated for the virtual wavelength path and wavelength path optical network architectures. The first objective results in power consumption savings...

  1. Distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson

    2014-01-01

    An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...

  2. A Method for Automated Planning of FTTH Access Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a method for automated planning of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access networks is proposed. We introduced a systematic approach for planning access network infrastructure. The GIS data and a set of algorithms were employed to make the planning process more automatic. The method explains...... method. The method, however, does not fully automate the planning but make the planning process significantly fast. The results and discussion are presented and conclusion is given in the end....

  3. Robustness and Recovery of Lifeline Infrastructure and Ecosystem Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disruptive events, both natural and man-made, can have widespread impacts on both natural systems and lifeline infrastructure networks leading to the loss of biodiversity and essential functionality, respectively. Projected sea-level rise and climate change can further increase the frequency and severity of large-scale floods on urban-coastal megacities. Nevertheless, Failure in infrastructure systems can trigger cascading impacts on dependent ecosystems, and vice-versa. An important consideration in the behavior of the isolated networks and inter-connected networks following disruptive events is their resilience, or the ability of the network to "bounce back" to a pre-disaster state. Conventional risk analysis and subsequent risk management frameworks have focused on identifying the components' vulnerability and strengthening of the isolated components to withstand these disruptions. But high interconnectedness of these systems, and evolving nature of hazards, particularly in the context of climate extremes, make the component level analysis unrealistic. In this study, we discuss the complex network-based resilience framework to understand fragility and recovery strategies for infrastructure systems impacted by climate-related hazards. We extend the proposed framework to assess the response of ecological networks to multiple species loss and design the restoration management framework to identify the most efficient restoration sequence of species, which can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity.

  4. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical trial networks were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. Purpose In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network’s trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. Methods During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. Results We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%–1.0% before centralization to 0.01%–0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. Limitations A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. Conclusions The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial

  5. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  6. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  7. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  9. JACoW A new distributed control system for the consolidation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Scibile, Luigi; Villeton Pachot, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The operation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures is carried out via a series of control systems distributed over the CERN sites (Meyrin and Prevessin). The scope comprises: $\\sim$ 260 buildings, 2 large heating plants ($\\sim$ 50 MW overall capacity) with 27 km heating network and 200 radiators circuits, $\\sim$ 500 air handling units, $\\sim$ 52 chillers, $\\sim$ 300 split systems, $\\sim$ 3000 electric boards and $\\sim$ 100k light points. In the last five years and with the launch of major tertiary infrastructure consolidations, CERN is carrying out a migration and an extension of the old control systems dated back to the 70's, 80's and 90's to a new simplified, yet innovative, distributed control system aimed at minimizing the programming and implementation effort, standardizing equipment and methods and reducing lifecycle costs. This new methodology allows for a rapid development and simplified integration of the new controlled building/infrastructure processes. The basic principle is based on open standards...

  10. Infrastructure and distributed learning methodology for privacy-preserving multi-centric rapid learning health care: euroCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo M. Deist

    2017-06-01

    The euroCAT infrastructure has been successfully implemented in five radiation clinics across three countries. SVM models can be learned on data distributed over all five clinics. Furthermore, the infrastructure provides a general framework to execute learning algorithms on distributed data. The ongoing expansion of the euroCAT network will facilitate machine learning in radiation oncology. The resulting access to larger datasets with sufficient variation will pave the way for generalizable prediction models and personalized medicine.

  11. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    We will present our motivations for deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States and describe our experience in using it. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. USATLAS has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  12. A Distributed Computational Infrastructure for Science and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam K. Bazarov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have lately been paying increasingly more attention to parallel and distributed algorithms for solving high-dimensionality problems. In this regard, the issue of acquiring or renting computational resources becomes a topical one for employees of scientific and educational institutions. This article examines technology and methods for organizing a distributed computational infrastructure. The author addresses the experience of creating a high-performance system powered by existing clusterization and grid computing technology. The approach examined in the article helps minimize financial costs, aggregate territorially distributed computational resources and ensures a more rational use of available computer equipment, eliminating its downtimes.

  13. Assessment of the biodiesel distribution infrastructure in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagace, C.

    2007-08-01

    Canada's biodiesel industry is in its infancy, and must work to achieve the demand needed to ensure its development. This assessment of Canada's biodiesel distribution infrastructure was conducted to recommend the most efficient infrastructure pathway for effective biodiesel distribution. The study focused on the establishment of a link between biodiesel supplies and end-users. The current Canadian biodiesel industry was discussed, and future market potentials were outlined. The Canadian distillate product distribution infrastructure was discussed. Technical considerations and compliance issues were reviewed. The following 2 scenarios were used to estimate adaptations and costs for the Canadian market: (1) the use of primary terminals to ensure quality control of biodiesel, and (2) storage in secondary terminals where biodiesel blends are prepared before being transported to retail outlets. The study showed that relevant laboratory training programs are needed as well as proficiency testing programs in order to ensure adequate quality control of biodiesel. Standards for biodiesel distribution are needed, as well as specifications for the heating oil market. It was concluded that this document may prove useful in developing government policy objectives and identifying further research needs. 21 refs., 12 tabs., 13 figs

  14. Communication infrastructure and data management for operating smart distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Buchholz, B.M.; Gelfand, A.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Naumann, A.

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of distribution networks into smart grids is based on three pillars: • Energy management on distribution level, • Distribution system automation, • Involvement of the consumers into the market for electricity by smart metering All these functions require an intensive exchange of

  15. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  16. A Survey on Infrastructure-Based Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infrastructure of vehicular networks plays a major role in realizing the full potential of vehicular communications. More and more vehicles are connected to the Internet and to each other, driving new technological transformations in a multidisciplinary way. Researchers in automotive/telecom industries and academia are joining their effort to provide their visions and solutions to increasingly complex transportation systems, also envisioning a myriad of applications to improve the driving experience and the mobility. These trends pose significant challenges to the communication systems: low latency, higher throughput, and increased reliability have to be granted by the wireless access technologies and by a suitable (possibly dedicated infrastructure. This paper presents an in-depth survey of more than ten years of research on infrastructures, wireless access technologies and techniques, and deployment that make vehicular connectivity available. In addition, we identify the limitations of present technologies and infrastructures and the challenges associated with such infrastructure-based vehicular communications, also highlighting potential solutions.

  17. Network computing infrastructure to share tools and data in global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer - Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic production and distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraisse, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of photovoltaics boosted by attractive feed-in tariffs caused a sharp increase in requests for connection to public distribution grids, which were originally designed to serve consumers. ERDF, main distribution network operator in France, is facing a challenge in terms of capacity for handling requests for connection and in terms of public distribution network operation and management. (author)

  19. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  20. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  1. Structures and Infrastructures of International R&D Networks: A Capability Maturity Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Purpose: This paper explores the process towards globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on organizational maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... to dispersed development. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is a qualitative study of the process of distributing R&D. By comparing selected firms, the researchers identify a pattern of dispersion of R&D activities in three Danish firms. Findings and Discussion: Drawing from the case studies, the researchers...... present a capability maturity model. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks is viewed as a key requirement for developing organizational capabilities and formulating adequate strategies that leverage dispersed R&D. Organizational...

  2. Distributed Monitoring Infrastructure for Worldwide LHC Computing Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro; Bhatt, Kislay; Chand, Phool; Collados, David; Duggal, Vibhuti; Fuente, Paloma; Hayashi, Soichi; Imamagic, Emir; Joshi, Pradyumna; Kalmady, Rajesh; Karnani, Urvashi; Kumar, Vaibhav; Lapka, Wojciech; Quick, Robert; Tarragon, Jacobo; Teige, Scott; Triantafyllidis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The journey of a monitoring probe from its development phase to the moment its execution result is presented in an availability report is a complex process. It goes through multiple phases such as development, testing, integration, release, deployment, execution, data aggregation, computation, and reporting. Further, it involves people with different roles (developers, site managers, VO managers, service managers, management), from different middleware providers (ARC, dCache, gLite, UNICORE and VDT), consortiums (WLCG, EMI, EGI, OSG), and operational teams (GOC, OMB, OTAG, CSIRT). The seamless harmonization of these distributed actors is in daily use for monitoring of the WLCG infrastructure. In this paper we describe the monitoring of the WLCG infrastructure from the operational perspective. We explain the complexity of the journey of a monitoring probe from its execution on a grid node to the visualization on the MyWLCG portal where it is exposed to other clients. This monitoring workflow profits from the i...

  3. Adaptive intelligent power systems: Active distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Electricity networks are extensive and well established. They form a key part of the infrastructure that supports industrialised society. These networks are moving from a period of stability to a time of potentially major transition, driven by a need for old equipment to be replaced, by government policy commitments to cleaner and renewable sources of electricity generation, and by change in the power industry. This paper looks at moves towards active distribution networks. The novel transmission and distribution systems of the future will challenge today's system designs. They will cope with variable voltages and frequencies, and will offer more flexible, sustainable options. Intelligent power networks will need innovation in several key areas of information technology. Active control of flexible, large-scale electrical power systems is required. Protection and control systems will have to react to faults and unusual transient behaviour and ensure recovery after such events. Real-time network simulation and performance analysis will be needed to provide decision support for system operators, and the inputs to energy and distribution management systems. Advanced sensors and measurement will be used to achieve higher degrees of network automation and better system control, while pervasive communications will allow networks to be reconfigured by intelligent systems

  4. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)—Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinuso; L. Trani; S. Rives; P. Thomy; F. Euchner; Danijel Schorlemmer; Joachim Saul; Andres Heinloo; R. Bossu; T. van Eck

    2009-01-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach bas...

  5. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  10. A prototype Infrastructure for Cloud-based distributed services in High Availability over WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfon, C.; Carlino, G.; De Salvo, A.; Doria, A.; Graziosi, C.; Pardi, S.; Sanchez, A.; Carboni, M.; Bolletta, P.; Puccio, L.; Capone, V.; Merola, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the architectural and performance studies concerning a prototype of a distributed Tier2 infrastructure for HEP, instantiated between the two Italian sites of INFN-Romal and INFN-Napoli. The network infrastructure is based on a Layer-2 geographical link, provided by the Italian NREN (GARR), directly connecting the two remote LANs of the named sites. By exploiting the possibilities offered by the new distributed file systems, a shared storage area with synchronous copy has been set up. The computing infrastructure, based on an OpenStack facility, is using a set of distributed Hypervisors installed in both sites. The main parameter to be taken into account when managing two remote sites with a single framework is the effect of the latency, due to the distance and the end-to-end service overhead. In order to understand the capabilities and limits of our setup, the impact of latency has been investigated by means of a set of stress tests, including data I/O throughput, metadata access performance evaluation and network occupancy, during the life cycle of a Virtual Machine. A set of resilience tests has also been performed, in order to verify the stability of the system on the event of hardware or software faults. The results of this work show that the reliability and robustness of the chosen architecture are effective enough to build a production system and to provide common services. This prototype can also be extended to multiple sites with small changes of the network topology, thus creating a National Network of Cloud-based distributed services, in HA over WAN.

  11. A prototype Infrastructure for Cloud-based distributed services in High Availability over WAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulfon, C.; De Salvo, A.; Graziosi, C.; Carlino, G.; Doria, A; Pardi, S; Sanchez, A.; Carboni, M; Bolletta, P; Puccio, L.; Capone, V; Merola, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the architectural and performance studies concerning a prototype of a distributed Tier2 infrastructure for HEP, instantiated between the two Italian sites of INFN-Romal and INFN-Napoli. The network infrastructure is based on a Layer-2 geographical link, provided by the Italian NREN (GARR), directly connecting the two remote LANs of the named sites. By exploiting the possibilities offered by the new distributed file systems, a shared storage area with synchronous copy has been set up. The computing infrastructure, based on an OpenStack facility, is using a set of distributed Hypervisors installed in both sites. The main parameter to be taken into account when managing two remote sites with a single framework is the effect of the latency, due to the distance and the end-to-end service overhead. In order to understand the capabilities and limits of our setup, the impact of latency has been investigated by means of a set of stress tests, including data I/O throughput, metadata access performance evaluation and network occupancy, during the life cycle of a Virtual Machine. A set of resilience tests has also been performed, in order to verify the stability of the system on the event of hardware or software faults.The results of this work show that the reliability and robustness of the chosen architecture are effective enough to build a production system and to provide common services. This prototype can also be extended to multiple sites with small changes of the network topology, thus creating a National Network of Cloud-based distributed services, in HA over WAN. (paper)

  12. Wealth distribution on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinomiya, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    We study the wealth distribution of the Bouchaud-Mézard model on complex networks. It is known from numerical simulations that this distribution depends on the topology of the network; however, no one has succeeded in explaining it. Using “adiabatic” and “independent” assumptions along with the central-limit theorem, we derive equations that determine the probability distribution function. The results are compared to those of simulations for various networks. We find good agreement between our theory and the simulations, except for the case of Watts-Strogatz networks with a low rewiring rate due to the breakdown of independent assumption.

  13. Protecting infrastructure networks from cost-based attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingang; Guan Shuguang; Lai, Choy Heng

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that heterogeneous networks are vulnerable to the intentional removal of a small fraction of highly connected or loaded nodes, implying that to protect the network effectively, the important nodes should be allocated more defense resource than the others. However, if too much resource is allocated to the few important nodes, the numerous less-important nodes will be less protected, which if attacked together can still lead to devastating damage. A natural question is therefore how to efficiently distribute the limited defense resource among the network nodes such that the network damage is minimized against any attack strategy. In this paper, taking into account the factor of attack cost, the problem of network security is reconsidered in terms of efficient network defense against cost-based attacks. The results show that, for a general complex network, there exists an optimal distribution of the defense resource with which the network is best protected from cost-based attacks. Furthermore, it is found that the configuration of the optimal defense is dependent on the network parameters. Specifically, networks of larger size, sparser connection and more heterogeneous structure will more likely benefit from the defense optimization.

  14. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, Shawn; Lake, Andrew; Laurens, Philippe; Severini, Horst; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wolff, Stephen; Zurawski, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multi-domain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. The US ATLAS collaboration has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  15. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  16. The framework for simulation of bioinspired security mechanisms against network infrastructure attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorov, Andrey; Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named "network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed procedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine necessary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  17. Hazard tolerance of spatially distributed complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Sarah; Wilkinson, Sean

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for quantifying the reliability of complex systems, using techniques from network graph theory. In recent years, network theory has been applied to many areas of research and has allowed us to gain insight into the behaviour of real systems that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to analyse, for example increasingly complex infrastructure systems. Although this work has made great advances in understanding complex systems, the vast majority of these studies only consider a systems topological reliability and largely ignore their spatial component. It has been shown that the omission of this spatial component can have potentially devastating consequences. In this paper, we propose a number of algorithms for generating a range of synthetic spatial networks with different topological and spatial characteristics and identify real-world networks that share the same characteristics. We assess the influence of nodal location and the spatial distribution of highly connected nodes on hazard tolerance by comparing our generic networks to benchmark networks. We discuss the relevance of these findings for real world networks and show that the combination of topological and spatial configurations renders many real world networks vulnerable to certain spatial hazards. - Highlights: • We develop a method for quantifying the reliability of real-world systems. • We assess the spatial resilience of synthetic spatially distributed networks. • We form algorithms to generate spatial scale-free and exponential networks. • We show how these “synthetic” networks are proxies for real world systems. • Conclude that many real world systems are vulnerable to spatially coherent hazard.

  18. Data Distribution Service-Based Interoperability Framework for Smart Grid Testbed Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Youssef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a communication and control infrastructure for smart grid operation. The proposed infrastructure enhances the reliability of the measurements and control network. The advantages of utilizing the data-centric over message-centric communication approach are discussed in the context of smart grid applications. The data distribution service (DDS is used to implement a data-centric common data bus for the smart grid. This common data bus improves the communication reliability, enabling distributed control and smart load management. These enhancements are achieved by avoiding a single point of failure while enabling peer-to-peer communication and an automatic discovery feature for dynamic participating nodes. The infrastructure and ideas presented in this paper were implemented and tested on the smart grid testbed. A toolbox and application programing interface for the testbed infrastructure are developed in order to facilitate interoperability and remote access to the testbed. This interface allows control, monitoring, and performing of experiments remotely. Furthermore, it could be used to integrate multidisciplinary testbeds to study complex cyber-physical systems (CPS.

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  1. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3-22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically exceed

  2. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirault, D.

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  3. TEODOOR, a blueprint for distributed terrestrial observation data infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Ralf; Sorg, Jürgen; Abbrent, Martin; Borg, Erik; Gasche, Rainer; Kolditz, Olaf; Neidl, Frank; Priesack, Eckart; Stender, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    the dis-tributed spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data RepOsitORry) has been build-up. The individual observatories are connected via OGC-compliant web-services, while the TERENO Data Discovery Portal (DDP) enables data discovery, visualization and data ac-cess. Currently, free access to data from more than 900 monitoring stations is provided.

  4. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  5. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  6. Incorporating Human Movement Behavior into the Analysis of Spatially Distributed Infrastructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wu

    Full Text Available For the first time in human history, the majority of the world's population resides in urban areas. Therefore, city managers are faced with new challenges related to the efficiency, equity and quality of the supply of resources, such as water, food and energy. Infrastructure in a city can be viewed as service points providing resources. These service points function together as a spatially collaborative system to serve an increasing population. To study the spatial collaboration among service points, we propose a shared network according to human's collective movement and resource usage based on data usage detail records (UDRs from the cellular network in a city in western China. This network is shown to be not scale-free, but exhibits an interesting triangular property governed by two types of nodes with very different link patterns. Surprisingly, this feature is consistent with the urban-rural dualistic context of the city. Another feature of the shared network is that it consists of several spatially separated communities that characterize local people's active zones but do not completely overlap with administrative areas. According to these features, we propose the incorporation of human movement into infrastructure classification. The presence of well-defined spatially separated clusters confirms the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, our findings reveal the spatial structure inside a city, and the proposed approach provides a new perspective on integrating human movement into the study of a spatially distributed system.

  7. Incorporating Human Movement Behavior into the Analysis of Spatially Distributed Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Leung, Henry; Jiang, Hao; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in human history, the majority of the world's population resides in urban areas. Therefore, city managers are faced with new challenges related to the efficiency, equity and quality of the supply of resources, such as water, food and energy. Infrastructure in a city can be viewed as service points providing resources. These service points function together as a spatially collaborative system to serve an increasing population. To study the spatial collaboration among service points, we propose a shared network according to human's collective movement and resource usage based on data usage detail records (UDRs) from the cellular network in a city in western China. This network is shown to be not scale-free, but exhibits an interesting triangular property governed by two types of nodes with very different link patterns. Surprisingly, this feature is consistent with the urban-rural dualistic context of the city. Another feature of the shared network is that it consists of several spatially separated communities that characterize local people's active zones but do not completely overlap with administrative areas. According to these features, we propose the incorporation of human movement into infrastructure classification. The presence of well-defined spatially separated clusters confirms the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, our findings reveal the spatial structure inside a city, and the proposed approach provides a new perspective on integrating human movement into the study of a spatially distributed system.

  8. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  9. Reliability assessment of power pole infrastructure incorporating deterioration and network maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Paraic C.; Stewart, Mark G.; Spencer, Nathan; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable investment in timber utility poles worldwide, and there is a need to examine the structural reliability and probability based management optimisation of these power distribution infrastructure elements. The work presented in this paper builds on the existing studies in this area through assessment of both treated and untreated timber power poles, with the effects of deterioration and network maintenance incorporated in the analysis. This more realistic assessment approach, with deterioration and maintenance considered, was achieved using event-based Monte Carlo simulation. The output from the probabilistic model is used to illustrate the importance of considering network maintenance in the time-dependent structural reliability assessment of timber power poles. Under wind load, treated and untreated poles designed and maintained in accordance with existing Australian standards were found to have similar failure rates. However, untreated pole networks required approximately twice as many maintenance based pole replacements to sustain the same level of reliability. The effect of four different network maintenance strategies on infrastructure performance was also investigated herein. This assessment highlighted the fact that slight alterations to network maintenance practices can lead to significant changes in performance of timber power pole networks. - Highlights: • A time-dependent structural reliability model was developed for timber power poles. • Deterioration and network maintenance were incorporated into this event based model. • Network maintenance had a significant impact on power pole wind vulnerability. • Treated and untreated poles designed to Australian standards had similar reliability. • Minor alterations to maintenance strategies had large effects on network performance

  10. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  11. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  12. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  13. MmWave Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication :Analysis of Urban Microcellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication may provide high data rates to vehicles via millimeterwave (mmWave) microcellular networks. This report uses stochastic geometry to analyze the coverage of urban mmWave microcellular networks. Prior work ...

  14. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multidomain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit[8] at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software cr...

  15. Spatio-temporal model based optimization framework to design future hydrogen infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konda, N.V.S.; Shah, N.; Brandon, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    A mixed integer programming (MIP) spatio-temporal model was used to design hydrogen infrastructure networks for the Netherlands. The detailed economic analysis was conducted using a multi-echelon model of the entire hydrogen supply chain, including feed, production, storage, and transmission-distribution systems. The study considered various near-future and commercially available technologies. A multi-period model was used to design evolutionary hydrogen supply networks in coherence with growing demand. A scenario-based analysis was conducted in order to account for uncertainties in future demand. The study showed that competitive hydrogen networks can be designed for any conceivable scenario. It was concluded that the multi-period model presented significant advantages in relation to decision-making over long time-horizons

  16. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  17. Distributed Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1976). 14. R. L. Kirby, "ULISP for PDP-11s with Memory Management ," Report MCS-76-23763, University of Maryland...teletVpe or 9 raphIc S output. The recor iuL, po , uitist il so mon itot its owvn ( Onmand queue and a( knowlede commands Sent to It hN the UsCtr interfa I...kernel. By a net- work kernel we mean a multicomputer distributed operating system kernel that includes proces- sor schedulers, "core" memory managers , and

  18. Infrastructure data in the Internet: network statements and infrastructure register; Infrastrukturdaten im INTERNET: Schienennetz-Benutzungsbedingungen und Infrastrukturregister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A.; Kuntze, P [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoefler, A. [Fichtner Consulting und IT AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Faced with European Community directives on the liberalization of railway traffic and their transposition into national legal requirements, DB Netz AG, the German infrastructure manager, considers that it has no alternative to using the Internet to publish numerous items of information as regards its railway network and infrastructure facilities. The company took the decision to seek synergies in combining these requirements with achieving internal benefits and so it chose a modern technical architecture that is going to be able to keep pace with the growing demands as regards data complexity, range of functions and number of users. The architecture that first came into being for publishing network statements now also forms the basis for DB Netz' infrastructure register and, in parallel with that, for around twenty intranet solutions, used by more than 5000 users. (orig.)

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  20. MANAGING WITHIN DISTRIBUTED INNOVATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    LAWRENCE DOOLEY; DAVID O'SULLIVAN

    2007-01-01

    Business competitiveness and sustainability depends on the effective management of innovation. To be effective, innovation needs to take place within every area of an organisation and by association within organisational networks that include key suppliers, customers and other strategic partners. Distributed innovation management is the process of managing innovation both within and across networks of organisations that have come together to co-design, co-produce and co-service the needs of c...

  1. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  2. Distributed Cross-layer Monitoring in Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Panmin, Ye; Yong,

    2009-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks has rapid development over the last few years. However, due to properties such as distributed infrastructure and interference, which strongly affect the performance of wireless mesh networks, developing technology has to face the challenge of architecture and protocol design issues. Traditional layered protocols do not function efficiently in multi-hop wireless environments. To get deeper understanding on interaction of the layered protocols and optimize the performance...

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  5. Distributed analysis using GANGA on the EGEE/LCG infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, J; Brochu, F; Harrison, K; Egede, U; Gaidioz, B; Liko, D; Maier, A; Moscicki, J; Muraru, A; Lee, H-C; Romanovsky, V; Soroko, A; Tan, C L

    2008-01-01

    The distributed data analysis using Grid resources is one of the fundamental applications in high energy physics to be addressed and realized before the start of LHC data taking. The need to facilitate the access to the resources is very high. In every experiment up to a thousand physicist will be submitting analysis jobs into the Grid. Appropriate user interfaces and helper applications have to be made available to assure that all users can use the Grid without too much expertise in Grid technology. These tools enlarge the number of grid users from a few production administrators to potentially all participating physicists. The GANGA job management system (http://cern.ch/ganga), developed as a common project between the ATLAS and LHCb experiments provides and integrates these kind of tools. GANGA provides a simple and consistent way of preparing, organizing and executing analysis tasks within the experiment analysis framework, implemented through a plug-in system. It allows trivial switching between running test jobs on a local batch system and running large-scale analyzes on the Grid, hiding Grid technicalities. We will be reporting on the plug-ins and our experiences of distributed data analysis using GANGA within the ATLAS experiment and the EGEE/LCG infrastructure. The integration with the ATLAS data management system DQ2 into GANGA is a key functionality. In combination with the job splitting mechanism large amounts of jobs can be sent to the locations of data following the ATLAS computing model. GANGA supports tasks of user analysis with reconstructed data and small scale production of Monte Carlo data

  6. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Woong Go; Jin Kawk

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted in...

  7. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-02-25

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  8. Life cycle assessment of the Danish electricity distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Simonsen, Christian G.; Byriel, Inger P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This article provides life cycle inventory data for electricity distribution networks and a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the Danish transmission and distribution networks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential importance of environmental impacts associated with distribution...... complexity and material consumption. Infrastructure provided important contributions to metal depletion and freshwater eutrophication (copper and aluminum for manufacturing of the cables and associated recycling being the most important). Underground 50-kV lines had larger impacts than overhead lines, and 0...

  9. Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  12. A systems approach to risk reduction of transportation infrastructure networks subject to multiple hazards : final report, December 31, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Integrity, robustness, reliability, and resiliency of infrastructure networks are vital to the economy, : security and well-being of any country. Faced with threats caused by natural and man-made hazards, : transportation infrastructure network manag...

  13. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  14. Network integration of distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Peter; Bayoumi, Deia; Haederli, Christoph; Julian, Danny; Suter, Marco

    The world-wide move to deregulation of the electricity and other energy markets, concerns about the environment, and advances in renewable and high efficiency technologies has led to major emphasis being placed on the use of small power generation units in a variety of forms. The paper reviews the position of distributed generation (DG, as these small units are called in comparison with central power plants) with respect to the installation and interconnection of such units with the classical grid infrastructure. In particular, the status of technical standards both in Europe and USA, possible ways to improve the interconnection situation, and also the need for decisions that provide a satisfactory position for the network operator (who remains responsible for the grid, its operation, maintenance and investment plans) are addressed.

  15. Sustainable support for WLCG through the EGI distributed infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Torsten; Bozic, Stefan; Reisser, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Grid computing is now in a transition phase from development in research projects to routine usage in a sustainable infrastructure. This is mirrored in Europe by the transition from the series of EGEE projects to the European Grid Initiative (EGI). EGI aims at establishing a self-sustained grid infrastructure across Europe. The main building blocks of EGI are the national grid initiatives in the participating countries and a central coordinating institution (EGI.eu). The middleware used is provided by consortia outside of EGI. Also the user communities are organized separately from EGI. The transition to a self-sustained grid infrastructure is aided by the EGI-InSPIRE project, aiming at reducing the project-funding needed to run EGI over the course of its four year duration. Providing user support in this framework poses new technical and organisational challenges as it has to cross the boundaries of various projects and infrastructures. The EGI user support infrastructure is built around the Gobal Grid User Support system (GGUS) that was also the basis of user support in EGEE. Utmost care was taken that during the transition from EGEE to EGI support services which are already used in production were not perturbed. A year into the EGI-InSPIRE project, in this paper we would like to present the current status of the user support infrastructure provided by EGI for WLCG, new features that were needed to match the new infrastructure, issues and challenges that occurred during the transition and give an outlook on future plans and developments.

  16. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic

  17. Making Infrastructure Visible: A Case Study of Home Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Marshini

    2011-01-01

    Technological infrastructure is often taken for granted in our day to day lives until it breaks down, usually because it invisibly supports tasks otherwise. Previous work in HCI has focused on how people react and deal with breaks in infrastructure as well as how to help people to fix or exploit these breaks. However, few have sought to understand…

  18. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The annual maintenance of detector services took place from mid November to mid January as planned. This involved a full stoppage of water-cooling circuits on November 24th with a gradual restarting from mid-January 09. The annual maintenance service included the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers and the service of the chiller plants on surface. The cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet was shut-down as well to perform the annual maintenance. In addition to that, the overall site power has been reduced from 8 to 2 MW, in order to cope with the switching to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power was reinstated at the end of January. The cooling network has seen the installation of a bypass for the endcap circuit, in order to limit pressure surges when one endcap is shut-off. In addition, filters have been added on most of the cooling loops in UXC55 to better protect the muon chambers. At the same time a global cleaning campaign of all the filters (more than 500 pieces) has been completed. As expe...

  20. Cold-Chain Logistics: A Study of the Department of the Defense OCONUS Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Distribution Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Daniel; Tecmire, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, no DoD pre-pandemic vaccine distribution plan exists. This project identifies the essential infrastructure assets needed to develop a cold-chain distribution network for vaccine in a military application...

  1. Progress and Challenges in Developing Reference Data Layers for Human Population Distribution and Built Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Yetman, G.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the interactions between environmental and human systems, and in particular supporting the applications of Earth science data and knowledge in place-based decision making, requires systematic assessment of the distribution and dynamics of human population and the built human infrastructure in conjunction with environmental variability and change. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) operated by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University has had a long track record in developing reference data layers for human population and settlements and is expanding its efforts on topics such as intercity roads, reservoirs and dams, and energy infrastructure. SEDAC has set as a strategic priority the acquisition, development, and dissemination of data resources derived from remote sensing and socioeconomic data on urban land use change, including temporally and spatially disaggregated data on urban change and rates of change, the built infrastructure, and critical facilities. We report here on a range of past and ongoing activities, including the Global Human Settlements Layer effort led by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), the Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM) project, the Global Roads Open Access Data Working Group (gROADS) of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), and recent work with ImageCat, Inc. to improve estimates of the exposure and fragility of buildings, road and rail infrastructure, and other facilities with respect to selected natural hazards. New efforts such as the proposed Global Human Settlement indicators initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) could help fill critical gaps and link potential reference data layers with user needs. We highlight key sectors and themes that require further attention, and the many significant challenges that remain in developing comprehensive, high quality

  2. Research infrastructure, networks of science and regional development - the case of Oskarshamn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folke Valfrid Snickars

    2017-10-01

    Our results indicate that research infrastructures as the ones in Oskarshamn are powerful creators of international research networks. It is possible although somewhat difficult in view of scattered systems for data provision to assess their academic and societal impacts. Engineering research has its own networks of university-industry and industry-university interaction where value is cogenerated dynamically. In the study we have come some way towards empirically analyzing the networks of research cooperation between industry and university using methods of infrastructure theory and network analysis.

  3. Realtime Gas Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a Distributed Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed point-source monitoring platform for gas level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant’s critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events. PMID:26805832

  4. Realtime Gas Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a Distributed Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Manes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a distributed point-source monitoring platform for gas level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant’s critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events.

  5. Realtime Gas Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a Distributed Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco

    2016-01-20

    This paper describes a distributed point-source monitoring platform for gas level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant's critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events.

  6. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) heterogeneous networking infrastructure for energy efficient building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Leila; Chauvenet, Cedric; Tourancheau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing developments of home, building and city automation, Power Line Communication (PLC) networking is called for unprecedented usage, especially for energy efficiency improvement. Our view of the future building networking infrastructure places PLC as the central point. We point that while Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is necessary in the sensor and actuator networking infrastructure, PLC is mandatory for the smart-grid metering and command infrastructure. PLC will also serve the sensor/actuator infrastructure when the energy requirement of the probing system itself cannot be fulfilled by autonomous battery and harvesting based nodes. PLC may also provide the numerous bridges necessary to sustain a long lifetime (years) with the battery based WSN part of the infrastructure. This new role of PLC networking will be possible only if the interoperability between all media and technology is made possible. Thanks to the converging design of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networking layers, we show that such a full inter-interoperability is already possible even in very tiny constrained networking devices. Moreover, the low power PLC technology used in our experiments will be able to provide this smart grid monitoring without impacting noticeably the overall energy balance of the monitored system.

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the May 31st to June 2nd LHC Technical Stop, a major step was made towards upgrading the endcap cooling circuit. The chilled-water regulation valve on the primary side of the heat-exchanger was changed. This now allows reduction of the set-value of the water temperature cooling the RPCs and CSCs of the CMS endcaps. At the same time, the bypass re-circulating valve on the secondary circuit of the heat-exchanger was also changed to allow better regulation of this set-value. A project has been launched with the objective of improving the distribution of the chilled water to the different users. This was triggered by evidence that the Tracker compressors in USC55 receive insufficient flow. The chilled water is shared with the HVAC system and experts are now looking at how to better balance the flow between these two main users. The cooling loop filters located in UXC55 have been inspected and cleaned. Samples were sent to CERN Radioprotection Service to check for activation and to the Material Analysis...

  10. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  11. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-04-15

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  12. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  13. DIESIS : An Interoperable European Federated Simulation Network for Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rome, E.; Bologna, S.; Gelenbe, E.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Masucci, V.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Infrastructures (CI) that are vital for a society and an economy, such as telecommunication systems, energy supply systems, transport systems and others, are getting more and more complex. Dependencies emerge in various ways, due to the use of information and communication technologies,

  14. Optimizing End-to-End Big Data Transfers over Terabits Network Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjae; Vallee, Geoffroy R.; Lee, Sangkeun; Shipman, Galen M.

    2016-01-01

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of significantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today's 100 gigabit networks to realize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink, for instance, the data storage infrastructure at both the source and sink and its interplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this study, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network environment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework for terabit networks, called LADS. LADS exploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to benefit from hardware-level zero-copy, and operating system bypass capabilities when available. It can further improve data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared storage resource, improving input/output bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks. We also investigate the performance degradation problems of LADS due to I/O contention on the parallel file system (PFS), when multiple LADS tools share the PFS. We design and evaluate a meta-scheduler to coordinate multiple I/O streams while sharing the PFS, to minimize the I/O contention on the PFS. Finally, with our evaluations, we observe that LADS with meta-scheduling can further improve the performance by up to 14 percent relative to LADS without meta-scheduling.

  15. Integration of 100% Micro-Distributed Energy Resources in the Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2014-01-01

    of heat pumps (HPs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at 100% penetration level on a representative urban residential low voltage (LV) distribution network of Denmark are investigated by performing a steady-state load flow analysis through an integrated simulation setup. Three DERs integration...... oriented integration strategies, having 100% integration of DER in the provided LV network is feasible.......The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of the micro-sized Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), due to the physical bottlenecks, e.g. thermal capacitates of cables, transformers and the voltage limitations. In this study, the integration impacts...

  16. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Xu Jin; Zhang Zai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The distributed wireless quantum communication network (DWQCN) has a distributed network topology and transmits information by quantum states. In this paper, we present the concept of the DWQCN and propose a system scheme to transfer quantum states in the DWQCN. The system scheme for transmitting information between any two nodes in the DWQCN includes a routing protocol and a scheme for transferring quantum states. The routing protocol is on-demand and the routing metric is selected based on the number of entangled particle pairs. After setting up a route, quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping are used for transferring quantum states. Entanglement swapping is achieved along with the process of routing set up and the acknowledgment packet transmission. The measurement results of each entanglement swapping are piggybacked with route reply packets or acknowledgment packets. After entanglement swapping, a direct quantum link between source and destination is set up and quantum states are transferred by quantum teleportation. Adopting this scheme, the measurement results of entanglement swapping do not need to be transmitted specially, which decreases the wireless transmission cost and transmission delay. (general)

  17. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Frasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat’s law for the rates of city growth (by population size, in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008.]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  18. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasco, Gerald F.; Sun, Jie; Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities) and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat's law for the rates of city growth (by population size), in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008).]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  19. Load Segmentation for Convergence of Distribution Automation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamulaparthy, Balakrishna; KS, Swarup; Kommu, Rajagopal

    2014-12-01

    Distribution automation (DA) applications are limited to feeder level today and have zero visibility outside of the substation feeder and reaching down to the low-voltage distribution network level. This has become a major obstacle in realizing many automated functions and enhancing existing DA capabilities. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) systems are being widely deployed by utilities across the world creating system-wide communications access to every monitoring and service point, which collects data from smart meters and sensors in short time intervals, in response to utility needs. DA and AMI systems convergence provides unique opportunities and capabilities for distribution grid modernization with the DA system acting as a controller and AMI system acting as feedback to DA system, for which DA applications have to understand and use the AMI data selectively and effectively. In this paper, we propose a load segmentation method that helps the DA system to accurately understand and use the AMI data for various automation applications with a suitable case study on power restoration.

  20. Distributed Sensor Network Software Development Testing through Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Sean M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The distributed sensor network (DSN) presents a novel and highly complex computing platform with dif culties and opportunities that are just beginning to be explored. The potential of sensor networks extends from monitoring for threat reduction, to conducting instant and remote inventories, to ecological surveys. Developing and testing for robust and scalable applications is currently practiced almost exclusively in hardware. The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for DSNs independent of hardware constraints. The exibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness and scaling issues, to explore arbitrary algorithms for distributed sensors, and to defeat those algorithms through simulated failure. The user speci es the topology, the environment, the application, and any number of arbitrary failures; DSS provides the virtual environmental embedding.

  1. Distributed One Time Password Infrastructure for Linux Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benito Peral

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a lot of critical information and services hosted on computer systems. The proper access control to these resources is essential to avoid malicious actions that could cause huge losses to home and professional users. The access control systems have evolved from the first password based systems to the modern mechanisms using smart cards, certificates, tokens, biometric systems, etc. However, when designing a system, it is necessary to take into account their particular limitations, such as connectivity, infrastructure or budget. In addition, one of the main objectives must be to ensure the system usability, but this property is usually orthogonal to the security. Thus, the use of password is still common. In this paper, we expose a new password based access control system that aims to improve password security with the minimum impact in the system usability.

  2. A Distributed, Open Source based Data Infrastructure for the Megacities Carbon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R.; Crichton, D. J.; Duren, R. M.; Salameh, P.; Sparks, A.; Sloop, C.

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of assessing the anthropogenic carbon-emission impact of urban centers on local and global climates, the Megacities Carbon Project has been building carbon-monitoring capabilities for the past two years around the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Hundreds of megabytes (MB) of data are generated daily, and distributed among data centers local to the sensor networks involved. We automatically pull this remotely generated data into a centralized data infrastructure local to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), seeking to (1) provide collaboration opportunities on the data, and (2) generate refined data products through community-requested centralized data processing pipelines. The goal of this informatics effort is to ensure near real-time access to generated data products across the Los Angeles carbon monitoring sensor network and meet the data analysis needs of carbon researchers through the production of customized products. We discuss the goals of the informatics effort, its uniqueness, and assess its effectiveness in providing an insight into the carbon sphere of Los Angeles.

  3. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  4. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  5. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...... through of the meter data management system (MDMS), and so forming the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) stage of smart grids. We consider a multi-hop system, where information is routed through several nodes which act as DAP. Wireless mesh networks are known to extend coverage and increase...... deployment efficiency, so they could be an alternative for the connection between Home Area Network (HAN) and the Neighborhood Area Network (NAN). However, the NAN data must be send through wider area cabled networks to Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), and based on the WDM-PON architecture. We consider...

  6. Voltage regulation in distribution networks with distributed generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažič, B.; Uljanić, B.; Papič, I.

    2012-11-01

    The paper deals with the topic of voltage regulation in distribution networks with relatively high distributed energy resources (DER) penetration. The problem of voltage rise is described and different options for voltage regulation are given. The influence of DER on voltage profile and the effectiveness of the investigated solutions are evaluated by means of simulation in DIgSILENT. The simulated network is an actual distribution network in Slovenia with a relatively high penetration of distributed generation. Recommendations for voltage control in networks with DER penetration are given at the end.

  7. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions in a Dynamic Human-Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    community behavior as part of a game-theoretical model , and (c) evaluates the cascading propagation of disruptions (due to interdependencies) and... businesses . The conceptual model represents this by placing a generator at each of 137 commercial locations identified by the UTP across the city, each...layered network model , addressing mechanisms of community behavior, mechanisms of disruption propagation, representations of system equilib- rium, and

  8. Probabilistic modelling of security of supply in gas networks and evaluation of new infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praks, Pavel; Kopustinskas, Vytis; Masera, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a probabilistic model to study security of supply in a gas network. The model is based on Monte-Carlo simulations with graph theory, and is implemented in the software tool ProGasNet. The software allows studying gas networks in various aspects including identification of weakest links and nodes, vulnerability analysis, bottleneck analysis, evaluation of new infrastructure etc. In this paper ProGasNet is applied to a benchmark network based on a real EU gas transmission network of several countries with the purpose of evaluating the security of supply effects of new infrastructure, either under construction, recently completed or under planning. The probabilistic model enables quantitative evaluations by comparing the reliability of gas supply in each consuming node of the network. - Highlights: • A Monte-Carlo algorithm for stochastic flow networks is presented. • Network elements can fail according to a given probabilistic model. • Priority supply pattern of gas transmission networks is assumed. • A real-world EU gas transmission network is presented and analyzed. • A risk ratio is used for security of supply quantification of a new infrastructure.

  9. Getting to Gender Equality in Energy Infrastructure : Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Maria Beatriz; Janik, Vanessa Lopes; Vaidya, Pranav; Angelou, Nicolina; Zumbyte, Ieva; Adams, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Getting to Gender Equality in Electricity Infrastructure: Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects examines the social and gender footprint of large-scale electricity generation, transmission, and distribution projects to establish a foundation on which further research and replication of good practices can be built. The main impact pathways analyzed are...

  10. Deployment IPv6 over IPv4 network infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Tien Dung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is doing the research about IPv6, concentrate in how to deploy an IPv6 network based on IPv4 network without making any interruption to IPv4 network. This thesis is made for Financing and Promoting Technology Corporation (FPT) in Vietnam. This thesis is completed in two main parts. The theoretical part is making research about IPv4 and IPv6 to have the point of view about IPv4 and IPv6 basically, and from those one, seeing the advantages of IPv6 comparing wit...

  11. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  12. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Vifor Bogdan; Cirlan, Florica; Mihailescu, Florentina

    2004-01-01

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of

  13. Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.; Read, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration into the analysis of public transport networks using space syntax approaches combined with concepts of sustainable accessibility. Present urban development policy aims to achieve sustainable mobility patterns, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes such as

  14. A probabilistic approach to combining smart meter and electric vehicle charging data to investigate distribution network impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neaimeh, Myriam; Wardle, Robin; Jenkins, Andrew M.; Yi, Jialiang; Hill, Graeme; Lyons, Padraig F.; Hübner, Yvonne; Blythe, Phil T.; Taylor, Phil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Working with unique datasets of EV charging and smart meter load demand. • Distribution networks are not a homogenous group with more capabilities to accommodate EVs than previously suggested. • Spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand alleviate the impacts on networks. • An extensive recharging infrastructure could enable connection of additional EVs on constrained distribution networks. • Electric utilities could increase the network capability to accommodate EVs by investing in recharging infrastructure. - Abstract: This work uses a probabilistic method to combine two unique datasets of real world electric vehicle charging profiles and residential smart meter load demand. The data was used to study the impact of the uptake of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on electricity distribution networks. Two real networks representing an urban and rural area, and a generic network representative of a heavily loaded UK distribution network were used. The findings show that distribution networks are not a homogeneous group with a variation of capabilities to accommodate EVs and there is a greater capability than previous studies have suggested. Consideration of the spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand has been demonstrated to reduce the estimated impacts on the distribution networks. It is suggested that distribution network operators could collaborate with new market players, such as charging infrastructure operators, to support the roll out of an extensive charging infrastructure in a way that makes the network more robust; create more opportunities for demand side management; and reduce planning uncertainties associated with the stochastic nature of EV charging demand.

  15. Modeling the effect of urban infrastructure on hydrologic processes within i-Tree Hydro, a statistically and spatially distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, T. P.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2014-12-01

    Gray and green infrastructure in urban environments alters many natural hydrologic processes, creating an urban water balance unique to the developed environment. A common way to assess the consequences of impervious cover and grey infrastructure is by measuring runoff hydrographs. This focus on the watershed outlet masks the spatial variation of hydrologic process alterations across the urban environment in response to localized landscape characteristics. We attempt to represent this spatial variation in the urban environment using the statistically and spatially distributed i-Tree Hydro model, a scoping level urban forest effects water balance model. i-Tree Hydro has undergone expansion and modification to include the effect of green infrastructure processes, road network attributes, and urban pipe system leakages. These additions to the model are intended to increase the understanding of the altered urban hydrologic cycle by examining the effects of the location of these structures on the water balance. Specifically, the effect of these additional structures and functions on the spatially varying properties of interception, soil moisture and runoff generation. Differences in predicted properties and optimized parameter sets between the two models are examined and related to the recent landscape modifications. Datasets used in this study consist of watersheds and sewersheds within the Syracuse, NY metropolitan area, an urban area that has integrated green and gray infrastructure practices to alleviate stormwater problems.

  16. Optimization of traffic distribution control in software-configurable infrastructure of virtual data center based on a simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bolodurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the proportion of use of cloud computing technology in today's business processes of companies is growing steadily. Despite the fact that it allows you to reduce the cost of ownership and operation of IT infrastructure, there are a number of problems related to the control of data centers. One such problem is the efficiency of the use of available companies compute and network resources. One of the directions of optimization is the process of traffic control of cloud applications and services in data centers. Given the multi-tier architecture of modern data center, this problem does not quite trivial. The advantage of modern virtual infrastructure is the ability to use software-configurable networks and software-configurable data storages. However, existing solutions with algorithmic optimization does not take into account a number of features forming network traffic with multiple classes of applications. Within the framework of the exploration solved the problem of optimizing the distribution of traffic cloud applications and services for the software-controlled virtual data center infrastructure. A simulation model describing the traffic in data center and software-configurable network segments involved in the processing of user requests for applications and services located network environment that includes a heterogeneous cloud platform and software-configurable data storages. The developed model has allowed to implement cloud applications traffic management algorithm and optimize access to the storage system through the effective use of the channel for data transmission. In experimental studies found that the application of the developed algorithm can reduce the response time of cloud applications and services, and as a result improve the performance of processing user requests and to reduce the number of failures.

  17. Interdependency control : compensation strategies for the inherent vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, D.; Sotoodeh, M.; Monu, K.; Marti, J.R.; Srivastava, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    Today's increasingly interacting national critical infrastructures (NCIs) can tolerate most stochastic local disturbances. However, they are extremely fragile under global disturbances, as the latter may either push the whole system into a critical state or reveal many unexpected hidden interdependencies, inducing or triggering cascading failures among all possible layers. This robust yet fragile duality is an inherent vulnerability of modern infrastructures. It is therefore expected that weather-related disasters will be more frequent under a changing climate. This paper proposed an interdependency control strategy (ICS) that would maintain the survival of the most critical services, and compensate for this inherent vulnerability during emergency states. The paper also proposed a generalized adjacency matrix (GAM) to represent the physical interdependencies intra/inter of various infrastructure networks. The vulnerable section in the network can be identified, based on computed results of GAM, number of islands in the network, and influence domain(s) of each component. These features render ICS more effective and convincing. Last, the paper proposed a survivability index for isolated sub-networks and described relevant measures for improving this index during the four phases of emergency management. It was concluded that the proposed strategy is an effective means to reduce the inherent vulnerability and increase the resiliency of these critical infrastructures networks. 20 refs., 5 figs

  18. Optimizing Virtual Network Functions Placement in Virtual Data Center Infrastructure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolodurina, I. P.; Parfenov, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    We have elaborated a neural network model of virtual network flow identification based on the statistical properties of flows circulating in the network of the data center and characteristics that describe the content of packets transmitted through network objects. This enabled us to establish the optimal set of attributes to identify virtual network functions. We have established an algorithm for optimizing the placement of virtual data functions using the data obtained in our research. Our approach uses a hybrid method of visualization using virtual machines and containers, which enables to reduce the infrastructure load and the response time in the network of the virtual data center. The algorithmic solution is based on neural networks, which enables to scale it at any number of the network function copies.

  19. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  20. Corrosion monitoring along infrastructures using distributed fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhandawi, Khalil B.; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia

    2016-04-01

    Pipeline Inspection Gauges (PIGs) are used for internal corrosion inspection of oil pipelines every 3-5 years. However, between inspection intervals, rapid corrosion may occur, potentially resulting in major accidents. The motivation behind this research project was to develop a safe distributed corrosion sensor placed inside oil pipelines continuously monitoring corrosion. The intrinsically safe nature of light provided motivation for researching fiber optic sensors as a solution. The sensing fiber's cladding features polymer plastic that is chemically sensitive to hydrocarbons within crude oil mixtures. A layer of metal, used in the oil pipeline's construction, is deposited on the polymer cladding, which upon corrosion, exposes the cladding to surrounding hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon's interaction with the cladding locally increases the cladding's refractive index in the radial direction. Light intensity of a traveling pulse is reduced due to local reduction in the modal capacity which is interrogated by Optical Time Domain Reflectometery. Backscattered light is captured in real-time while using time delay to resolve location, allowing real-time spatial monitoring of environmental internal corrosion within pipelines spanning large distances. Step index theoretical solutions were used to calculate the power loss due changes in the intensity profile. The power loss is translated into an attenuation coefficient characterizing the expected OTDR trace which was verified against similar experimental results from the literature. A laboratory scale experiment is being developed to assess the validity of the model and the practicality of the solution.

  1. Computing shifts to monitor ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure and operations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Barberis, Dario; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine Chrystel; De, Kaushik; Fassi, Farida; Stradling, Alden; Svatos, Michal; Vartapetian, Armen; Wolters, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) group established a new Computing Run Coordinator (CRC) shift at the start of LHC Run 2 in 2015. The main goal was to rely on a person with a good overview of the ADC activities to ease the ADC experts’ workload. The CRC shifter keeps track of ADC tasks related to their fields of expertise and responsibility. At the same time, the shifter maintains a global view of the day-to-day operations of the ADC system. During Run 1, this task was accomplished by a person of the expert team called the ADC Manager on Duty (AMOD), a position that was removed during the shutdown period due to the reduced number and availability of ADC experts foreseen for Run 2. The CRC position was proposed to cover some of the AMODs former functions, while allowing more people involved in computing to participate. In this way, CRC shifters help with the training of future ADC experts. The CRC shifters coordinate daily ADC shift operations, including tracking open issues, reporting, and representing...

  2. Computing shifts to monitor ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) group established a new Computing Run Coordinator (CRC) shift at the start of LHC Run2 in 2015. The main goal was to rely on a person with a good overview of the ADC activities to ease the ADC experts' workload. The CRC shifter keeps track of ADC tasks related to their fields of expertise and responsibility. At the same time, the shifter maintains a global view of the day-to-day operations of the ADC system. During Run1, this task was accomplished by the ADC Manager on Duty (AMOD), a position that was removed during the shutdown period due to the reduced number and availability of ADC experts foreseen for Run2. The CRC position was proposed to cover some of the AMOD’s former functions, while allowing more people involved in computing to participate. In this way, CRC shifters help train future ADC experts. The CRC shifters coordinate daily ADC shift operations, including tracking open issues, reporting, and representing ADC in relevant meetings. The CRC also facilitates ...

  3. Fast, Distributed Algorithms in Deep Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    shallow networks, additional work will need to be done in order to allow for the application of ADMM to deep nets. The ADMM method allows for quick...Quock V Le, et al. Large scale distributed deep networks. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 1223–1231, 2012. [11] Ken-Ichi...A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 446 Fast, Distributed Algorithms in Deep Networks by Midshipman 1/C Ryan J. Burmeister, USN

  4. A smart monitoring infrastructure design for distributed renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A smart grid model for renewable energy sources is proposed in this study. • The renewable energy conversion system is constituted with solar plants and full bridge inverter. • The power line communication is performed with QPSK modulation. • The transmission line that has 25 km length is modelled with real-time parameters. • The efficiency of system is analysed by comparing transmitted and received data. - Abstract: The automatic meter reading is essentially required in renewable grids as in conventional grids. It is intended to propose a reliable measurement system that is validated in a photovoltaic power system to meet the requirement of a renewable grid. In the presented study, the photovoltaic plants are controlled by using a widely known maximum power point tracking algorithm that is named as “Perturb and Observe”. The distribution line at the output of inverter is modelled according to realistic parameters of 25 km line. Besides carrying the generated line voltage, the grid is used as a transmission medium for the generated power measurements of photovoltaic plants and power consumptions of load plants separately. The modem constituting the power line communication manages the dual-channel transfer and transmits the consumed energy ratios of the load plants. One of the modems is located at the output of voltage source inverter and the other one of the load plants. The power consumption values of each load plants are individually measured and successfully transmitted to monitoring section in the modelled system. The obtained data that is only used for monitoring in this application can also be evaluated for automatic meter reading applications

  5. Mathematical theories of distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iyengar, Sitharama S; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Distributed Sensor Networks demonstrates how mathematical theories can be used to provide distributed sensor modeling and to solve important problems such as coverage hole detection and repair. The book introduces the mathematical and computational structure by discussing what they are, their applications and how they differ from traditional systems. The text also explains how mathematics are utilized to provide efficient techniques implementing effective coverage, deployment, transmission, data processing, signal processing, and data protection within distributed sensor networks. Finally, the authors discuss some important challenges facing mathematics to get more incite to the multidisciplinary area of distributed sensor networks.

  6. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  7. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kurtz, Nolan Scot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  8. Path dependence and the geography of infrastructure networks: the case of the European fibre-optic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Frenken, K.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the path dependent dynamics in the formation of new infrastructure using an augmented gravity model. We observe that the formation of the pan-European telecommunication backbone has been dependent on pre-existent European transportation networks, particularly, the maritime and railway

  9. Planning of Distribution Networks in Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Abdul-Wahhab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of electrical distribution networks is considered of highest priority at the present time in Iraq, due to the huge increase in electrical demand and expansions imposed on distribution networks as a result of the great and rapid urban development. Distribution system planning simulates and studies the behavior of electrical distribution networks under different operating conditions. The study provide understanding of the existing system and to prepare a short term development plan or a long term plan used to guide system expansion and future investments needed for improved network performance. The objective of this research is the planning of Al_Bayaa 11 kV distribution network in Baghdad city based on the powerful and efficient CYMDist software as a tool for the simulation and analysis of the network. The planning method proposed in this thesis is to reach the optimum operating conditions of the network by combining the network reconfiguration in sequence with the insertion of capacitors with optimal sizing and locations. The optimum performance of the network is achieved by reducing losses, improving voltage profile and alleviating overload for transformers and cables.

  10. Latest generation interconnect technologies in APEnet+ networking infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Cretaro, Paolo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Vicini, Piero

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the status of the 3rd generation design of the APEnet board (V5) built upon the 28nm Altera Stratix V FPGA; it features a PCIe Gen3 x8 interface and enhanced embedded transceivers with a maximum capability of 12.5Gbps each. The network architecture is designed in accordance to the Remote DMA paradigm. The APEnet+ V5 prototype is built upon the Stratix V DevKit with the addition of a proprietary, third party IP core implementing multi-DMA engines. Support for zero-copy communication is assured by the possibility of DMA-accessing either host and GPU memory, offloading the CPU from the chore of data copying. The current implementation plateaus to a bandwidth for memory read of 4.8GB/s. Here we describe the hardware optimization to the memory write process which relies on the use of two independent DMA engines and an improved TLB.

  11. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  12. ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA FROM NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE MONITORING TO DETECT ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEM LOCAL SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Bazhayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method of information security monitoring for a wireless network segments of low-power devices, "smart house", "Internet of Things". We have carried out the analysis of characteristics of systems based on wireless technologies, resulting from passive surveillance and active polling of devices that make up the network infrastructure. We have considered a number of external signs of unauthorized access to a wireless network by the potential information security malefactor. The model for analysis of information security conditions is based on the identity, quantity, frequency, and time characteristics. Due to the main features of devices providing network infrastructure, estimation of information security state is directed to the analysis of the system normal operation, rather than the search for signatures and anomalies during performance of various kinds of information attacks. An experiment is disclosed that provides obtaining statistical information on the remote wireless devices, where the accumulation of data for decision-making is done by comparing the statistical information service messages from end nodes in passive and active modes. We present experiment results of the information influence on a typical system. The proposed approach to the analysis of network infrastructure statistical data based on naive Bayesian classifier can be used to determine the state of information security.

  13. Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings.

  14. Transient stability analysis of a distribution network with distributed generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xyngi, I.; Ishchenko, A.; Popov, M.; Sluis, van der L.

    2009-01-01

    This letter describes the transient stability analysis of a 10-kV distribution network with wind generators, microturbines, and CHP plants. The network being modeled in Matlab/Simulink takes into account detailed dynamic models of the generators. Fault simulations at various locations are

  15. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  16. Distributed medium access control in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    This brief investigates distributed medium access control (MAC) with QoS provisioning for both single- and multi-hop wireless networks including wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks. For WLANs, an efficient MAC scheme and a call admission control algorithm are presented to provide guaranteed QoS for voice traffic and, at the same time, increase the voice capacity significantly compared with the current WLAN standard. In addition, a novel token-based scheduling scheme is proposed to provide great flexibility and facility to the network servi

  17. Partnership effectiveness in primary community care networks: A national empirical analysis of partners' coordination infrastructure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and

  18. Distributed data networks: a blueprint for Big Data sharing and healthcare analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Jennifer R

    2017-01-01

    This paper defines the attributes of distributed data networks and outlines the data and analytic infrastructure needed to build and maintain a successful network. We use examples from one successful implementation of a large-scale, multisite, healthcare-related distributed data network, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-sponsored Sentinel Initiative. Analytic infrastructure-development concepts are discussed from the perspective of promoting six pillars of analytic infrastructure: consistency, reusability, flexibility, scalability, transparency, and reproducibility. This paper also introduces one use case for machine learning algorithm development to fully utilize and advance the portfolio of population health analytics, particularly those using multisite administrative data sources. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Distribution network topology identification based on synchrophasor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Conti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A distribution system upgrade moving towards Smart Grid implementation is necessary to face the proliferation of distributed generators and electric vehicles, in order to satisfy the increasing demand for high quality, efficient, secure, reliable energy supply. This perspective requires taking into account system vulnerability to cyber attacks. An effective attack could destroy stored information about network structure, historical data and so on. Countermeasures and network applications could be made impracticable since most of them are based on the knowledge of network topology. Usually, the location of each link between nodes in a network is known. Therefore, the methods used for topology identification determine if a link is open or closed. When no information on the location of the network links is available, these methods become totally unfeasible. This paper presents a method to identify the network topology using only nodal measures obtained by means of phasor measurement units.

  20. Conflict free network coding for distributed storage networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.; Sorour, Sameh; Aboutorab, Neda; Sadeghi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we design a conflict free instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) solution for file download from distributed storage servers. Considering previously downloaded files at the clients from these servers as side

  1. Effects of spatial configuration of imperviousness and green infrastructure networks on hydrologic response in a residential sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theodore C.; Welty, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is an approach to stormwater management that promotes natural processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration, reducing surface runoff to conventional stormwater drainage infrastructure. As more urban areas incorporate GI into their stormwater management plans, greater understanding is needed on the effects of spatial configuration of GI networks on hydrological performance, especially in the context of potential subsurface and lateral interactions between distributed facilities. In this research, we apply a three-dimensional, coupled surface-subsurface, land-atmosphere model, ParFlow.CLM, to a residential urban sewershed in Washington DC that was retrofitted with a network of GI installations between 2009 and 2015. The model was used to test nine additional GI and imperviousness spatial network configurations for the site and was compared with monitored pipe-flow data. Results from the simulations show that GI located in higher flow-accumulation areas of the site intercepted more surface runoff, even during wetter and multiday events. However, a comparison of the differences between scenarios and levels of variation and noise in monitored data suggests that the differences would only be detectable between the most and least optimal GI/imperviousness configurations.

  2. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  3. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  4. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  5. Distribution Network Design--literature study based

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ANG

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is companies' outbound distribution network design in supply chain management. Within the present competitive market, it is a fundamental importance for companies to achieve high level business performance with an effective supply chain. Outbound distribution network design as an important part in supply chain management, to a large extent decides whether companies can fulfill customers' requirement or not. Therefore, such a study is important for manufacturers and ...

  6. Current distribution in conducting nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankush; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2017-07-01

    Conducting nanowire networks find diverse applications in solar cells, touch-screens, transparent heaters, sensors, and various related transparent conducting electrode (TCE) devices. The performances of these devices depend on effective resistance, transmittance, and local current distribution in these networks. Although, there have been rigorous studies addressing resistance and transmittance in TCE, not much attention is paid on studying the distribution of current. Present work addresses this compelling issue of understanding current distribution in TCE networks using analytical as well as Monte-Carlo approaches. We quantified the current carrying backbone region against isolated and dangling regions as a function of wire density (ranging from percolation threshold to many multiples of threshold) and compared the wired connectivity with those obtained from template-based methods. Further, the current distribution in the obtained backbone is studied using Kirchhoff's law, which reveals that a significant fraction of the backbone (which is believed to be an active current component) may not be active for end-to-end current transport due to the formation of intervening circular loops. The study shows that conducting wire based networks possess hot spots (extremely high current carrying regions) which can be potential sources of failure. The fraction of these hot spots is found to decrease with increase in wire density, while they are completely absent in template based networks. Thus, the present work discusses unexplored issues related to current distribution in conducting networks, which are necessary to choose the optimum network for best TCE applications.

  7. Probability Distributome: A Web Computational Infrastructure for Exploring the Properties, Interrelations, and Applications of Probability Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Siegrist, Kyle; Pearl, Dennis K; Kalinin, Alexandr; Christou, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Probability distributions are useful for modeling, simulation, analysis, and inference on varieties of natural processes and physical phenomena. There are uncountably many probability distributions. However, a few dozen families of distributions are commonly defined and are frequently used in practice for problem solving, experimental applications, and theoretical studies. In this paper, we present a new computational and graphical infrastructure, the Distributome , which facilitates the discovery, exploration and application of diverse spectra of probability distributions. The extensible Distributome infrastructure provides interfaces for (human and machine) traversal, search, and navigation of all common probability distributions. It also enables distribution modeling, applications, investigation of inter-distribution relations, as well as their analytical representations and computational utilization. The entire Distributome framework is designed and implemented as an open-source, community-built, and Internet-accessible infrastructure. It is portable, extensible and compatible with HTML5 and Web2.0 standards (http://Distributome.org). We demonstrate two types of applications of the probability Distributome resources: computational research and science education. The Distributome tools may be employed to address five complementary computational modeling applications (simulation, data-analysis and inference, model-fitting, examination of the analytical, mathematical and computational properties of specific probability distributions, and exploration of the inter-distributional relations). Many high school and college science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses may be enriched by the use of modern pedagogical approaches and technology-enhanced methods. The Distributome resources provide enhancements for blended STEM education by improving student motivation, augmenting the classical curriculum with interactive webapps, and overhauling the

  8. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Nageswara S; Carter, Steven M; Wu Qishi; Wing, William R; Zhu Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts

  9. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carter, Steven M [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wu Qishi [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wing, William R [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu Mengxia [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Blondin, John M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  10. Loss optimization in distribution networks with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel power loss minimization approach in distribution grids considering network reconfiguration, distributed generation and storage installation. Identification of optimum configuration in such scenario is one of the main challenges faced by distribution system operators...... in highly active distribution grids. This issue is tackled by formulating a hybrid loss optimization problem and solved using the Interior Point Method. Sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimum location of storage units. Different scenarios of reconfiguration, storage and distributed generation...... penetration are created to test the proposed algorithm. It is tested in a benchmark medium voltage network to show the effectiveness and performance of the algorithm. Results obtained are found to be encouraging for radial distribution system. It shows that we can reduce the power loss by more than 30% using...

  11. Property relationships of the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ta; Zou, Sheng-Rong; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    We studied both empirically and analytically the correlation between the degrees or the clustering coefficients, respectively, of the networks in the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow layers in three Chinese transportation systems. The systems are bus transportation systems in Beijing and Hangzhou, and the railway system in the mainland. It is found that the correlation between the degrees obey a linear function; while the correlation between the clustering coefficients obey a power law. A possible dynamic explanation on the rules is presented.

  12. Effects of network topology on wealth distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Loffredo, Maria I

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the problem of how the wealth is distributed among the units of a networked economic system. We first review the empirical results documenting that in many economies the wealth distribution is described by a combination of the log-normal and power-law behaviours. We then focus on the Bouchaud-Mezard model of wealth exchange, describing an economy of interacting agents connected through an exchange network. We report analytical and numerical results showing that the system self-organizes towards a stationary state whose associated wealth distribution depends crucially on the underlying interaction network. In particular, we show that if the network displays a homogeneous density of links, the wealth distribution displays either the log-normal or the power-law form. This means that the first-order topological properties alone (such as the scale-free property) are not enough to explain the emergence of the empirically observed mixed form of the wealth distribution. In order to reproduce this nontrivial pattern, the network has to be heterogeneously divided into regions with a variable density of links. We show new results detailing how this effect is related to the higher-order correlation properties of the underlying network. In particular, we analyse assortativity by degree and the pairwise wealth correlations, and discuss the effects that these properties have on each other

  13. Reduction Method for Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    On-line security assessment is traditionally performed by Transmission System Operators at the transmission level, ignoring the effective response of distributed generators and small loads. On the other hand the required computation time and amount of real time data for including Distribution...... Networks also would be too large. In this paper an adaptive aggregation method for subsystems with power electronic interfaced generators and voltage dependant loads is proposed. With this tool may be relatively easier including distribution networks into security assessment. The method is validated...... by comparing the results obtained in PSCAD® with the detailed network model and with the reduced one. Moreover the control schemes of a wind turbine and a photovoltaic plant included in the detailed network model are described....

  14. Distribution network strengthens sales systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)

  15. Congestion management in Smart Distribution Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Bliek, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating use of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and new forms of loads connected in the Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) networks are posing a great challenge for the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) in the near future. The bidirectional and uncertain flow of power may result

  16. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  17. [Scale effect of Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern and connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya Ping; Yin, Hai Wei; Kong, Fan Hua; Wang, Jing Jing; Xu, Wen Bin

    2016-07-01

    Based on ArcGIS, Erdas, GuidosToolbox, Conefor and other software platforms, using morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis methods, this paper quantitatively analysed the scale effect, edge effect and distance effect of the Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern in 2013 by setting different pixel sizes (P) and edge widths in MSPA analysis, and setting different dispersal distance thresholds in landscape connectivity analysis. The results showed that the type of landscape acquired based on the MSPA had a clear scale effect and edge effect, and scale effects only slightly affected landscape types, whereas edge effects were more obvious. Different dispersal distances had a great impact on the landscape connectivity, 2 km or 2.5 km dispersal distance was a critical threshold for Nanjing. When selecting the pixel size 30 m of the input data and the edge wide 30 m used in the morphological model, we could get more detailed landscape information of Nanjing UGI network. Based on MSPA and landscape connectivity, analysis of the scale effect, edge effect, and distance effect on the landscape types of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) network was helpful for selecting the appropriate size, edge width, and dispersal distance when developing these networks, and for better understanding the spatial pattern of UGI networks and the effects of scale and distance on the ecology of a UGI network. This would facilitate a more scientifically valid set of design parameters for UGI network spatiotemporal pattern analysis. The results of this study provided an important reference for Nanjing UGI networks and a basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of medium-scale UGI landscape networks in other regions.

  18. Modelling Reliability of Supply and Infrastructural Dependency in Energy Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and models for assessing reliability of supply and infrastructural dependency in energy distribution systems with multiple energy carriers. The three energy carriers of electric power, natural gas and district heating are considered. Models and methods for assessing reliability of supply in electric power systems are well documented, frequently applied in the industry and continuously being subject to research and improvement. On the contrary, there are compar...

  19. Software defined networking applications in distributed datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides essential insights on the SDN application designing and deployment in distributed datacenters. In this book, three key problems are discussed: SDN application designing, SDN deployment and SDN management. This book demonstrates how to design the SDN-based request allocation application in distributed datacenters. It also presents solutions for SDN controller placement to deploy SDN in distributed datacenters. Finally, an SDN management system is proposed to guarantee the performance of datacenter networks which are covered and controlled by many heterogeneous controllers. Researchers and practitioners alike will find this book a valuable resource for further study on Software Defined Networking. .

  20. A complex network based model for detecting isolated communities in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Jia, Youwei; Xu, Zhao; Ho, Siu-Lau; Wai Kan, Chi

    2013-12-01

    Water distribution network (WDN) is a typical real-world complex network of major infrastructure that plays an important role in human's daily life. In this paper, we explore the formation of isolated communities in WDN based on complex network theory. A graph-algebraic model is proposed to effectively detect the potential communities due to pipeline failures. This model can properly illustrate the connectivity and evolution of WDN during different stages of contingency events, and identify the emerging isolated communities through spectral analysis on Laplacian matrix. A case study on a practical urban WDN in China is conducted, and the consistency between the simulation results and the historical data are reported to showcase the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  1. Secure Real-Time Monitoring and Management of Smart Distribution Grid using Shared Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Ganem, Hervé; Jorguseski, Ljupco

    2017-01-01

    capabilities. Thanks to the advanced measurement devices, management framework, and secure communication infrastructure developed in the FP7 SUNSEED project, the Distribution System Operator (DSO) now has full observability of the energy flows at the medium/low voltage grid. Furthermore, the prosumers are able......, where the smart grid ICT solutions are provided through shared cellular LTE networks....

  2. Tourism infrastructure development prioritization in Sabang Island using analytic network process methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Hafnidar A.; Afifuddin, Moch.; Akbar, Herry

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as an archipelago country, with its geographical location is at the equator, which make this country as a tropical country. It has the topography of diverse islands which consist of lakes, mountains, and one of countries which have the longest coastline. This condition cause Indonesia has various beautiful tourism objects and become the attraction to the international tourists to come. Indonesia still has the other islands which are as beautiful as Bali Island offering different beauties. One of them is an island located in the most western island of Indonesia, which becomes the zero point of the country. It is Sabang Island in Aceh Province. Sabang Island is the small volcanic island located in the most western island of Sumatra. Infrastructure becomes the basic device in supporting this tourism aspect, which the buildings and service institutions play the important role in appropriate managing of economic and community needs. The problem in this study is how to determine the priority of tourism infrastructure development in Sabang Island. The objective of this study is to determine the priority rank of tourism infrastructure development and the priority rank of the potential investment in Sabang Island to be developed. The ranking results of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) calculations of tourism locations/zones and tourism supporting infrastructure found that Teupin Layeu and Gapang, and Rubiah Island have the highest priority to be developed in the hotel/accommodation infrastructure which scores are 0.02589 and 0.02120. Then followed by parking infrastructure in Teupin Layeu and access road to Km 0 which became as the main priority determined by Sabang government which scores are 0.01750 and 0.01618.

  3. Energy, a networked Europe - Twelve proposals for a common energy infrastructure policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Just a few months before the next COP 21 in Paris, Europe has a particular responsibility to put forward proposals and to make this Conference a global success. The Europeans were the first to make the fight against climate change a large structural policy of this half-century. As pioneers, we therefore find ourselves in the front line in meeting the challenges that are technological (deployment of new means of production, massive renovation of building stock, the invention of new local energy models), societal (acceptability of changes to life styles) and economic (activation of funding channels and mobilisation of savings) that structure the energy transition. How these challenges can be met will depend on the choices made in each Member State (and even, increasingly in each region or community), but what the solutions found will have in common is that they will have to fit into energy systems whose networks, covering millions of kilometres, already provide the architecture. Continuing to 'provide a system', thanks to the networks for delivering energy (gas or electricity) under the best conditions of effectiveness and cost, is thus an absolute imperative for the security of supply for Europeans, their quality of life and the competitiveness of their businesses and therefore their jobs. Europe is the area of the world that offers the best quality energy services; this advantage must be reinforced. However, the role required of Europe's energy networks is being profoundly reshaped in this context of energy transition, since their organisation must now: - Accompany decentralisation, the means of renewable energy production being dispersed in hundreds of thousands of sites over all the territories. This requires radically reorganising the networks, in particular the distribution networks, which were not originally designed for this renewable energy collecting function. - Managing complexity of a new kind due to the variability of certain renewable

  4. Connectivity reliability and topological controllability of infrastructure networks: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Shi, Congling

    2016-01-01

    As infrastructure systems evolve, their design, maintenance, and optimal performance require mature tools from system reliability theory, as well as principles to handle emerging system features, such as controllability. This paper conducts a comparative study of the connectivity reliability (CR) and topological controllability (TC) of infrastructure systems in terms of three aspects: topology, robustness, and node importance. Taking eight city-level power transmission networks and thousands of artificial networks as examples, this paper reveals that a dense and homogeneous network topology is better to satisfy CR and TC requirements, than more common sparse and heterogeneous networks when node attributes are generic. It is observed that the average degree's impact on CR is more significant than on TC, while degree heterogeneity is more significant on TC. When node attributes are accounted for, for generators the reliability-based node importance measure may underestimate some important nodes in terms of TC, and vice versa—an issue not observed for substation nodes. The findings in this paper suggest a potential new direction to enhance reliability-based design by integrating it with emerging controllability-based measures relevant in the future as infrastructure networks increase reliance on information systems. - Highlights: • Compares connectivity reliability (CR) and topological controllability (TC) metrics. • Develops a controllability index and a controllability-based node importance metric. • CR is more sensitive to degree while TC is more sensitive to degree heterogeneity. • CR-based importance measures match TC-based measures for substation nodes. • CR- and TC-based measures are complementary to identify important generator nodes.

  5. The spatial data infrastructure for the European Seas Observatory Network (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael

    2010-05-01

    ESONET is a Multidisciplinary European Network of Excellence (NoE) in which scientists and engineers from 50 partners and 14 countries cooperate in building the infrastructure for a lasting integration of research and development in deep sea observatories in Europe. This NoE aims to develop strong links between regional nodes of a European network of sub sea observatories and to promote multidiciplinarity and transnationality within each node. Essential for these goals is the provision of an effective data and knowledge infrastructure for both, management and archiving of observatory data as well as knowledge and data sharing among network participants. The ESONET data infrastructure roughly consists of four major components: data policies a common agreement on the data management procedures and prerequisites, data acquisition technologies serve to collect data directly from ESONET observatories, data archives care for long term data management of collected ESONET data and data integration and portal tools which ensure harmonisation of collected data and allow access to the data in a common way. Most critical for ESONET was the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) by using standardised protocols to directly access observatory data in its spatial and temporal context. The ESONET SDI provides means to either access data in quasi real time or harvest locally stored data in order to transfer it to a long term data archive. ESONET SDI largely builds upon the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. Among those, the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), the Observations & Measurements (O&M), Sensor Markup Language (SensorML) are especially important for the integration of observatory data as well as for the contribution of ESONET data to GEOSS.

  6. Beyond public acceptance of energy infrastructure: How citizens make sense and form reactions by enacting networks of entities in infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaen, Sara Bjørn; Kerndrup, Søren; Lyhne, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the growing insight into public acceptance by presenting a novel approach to how citizens make sense of new energy infrastructure. We claim that to understand public acceptance, we need to go beyond the current thinking of citizens framed as passive respondents to proposed projects, and instead view infrastructure projects as enacted by citizens in their local settings. We propose a combination of sensemaking theory and actor–network theory that allows insight into how citizens enact entities from experiences and surroundings in order to create meaning and form a reaction to new infrastructure projects. Empirically, we analyze how four citizens make sense of an electricity cable project through a conversation process with a representative from the infrastructure developer. Interestingly, the formal participation process and the materiality of the cable play minor roles in citizens' sensemaking process. We conclude that insight into the way citizens are making sense of energy infrastructure processes can improve and help to overcome shortcomings in the current thinking about public acceptance and public participation. - Highlights: •Attention to citizens' sensemaking enables greater insight into the decision-making process. •A combination of sensemaking and actor-network theory (ANT) is relevant for studies of public acceptance. •Sensemaking explains why citizens facing similar situations act differently. •Complexity of citizens' sensemaking challenges the predictability of processes.

  7. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  8. Monitoring performance of a highly distributed and complex computing infrastructure in LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Z.; Haen, C.; Stagni, F.

    2017-10-01

    In order to ensure an optimal performance of the LHCb Distributed Computing, based on LHCbDIRAC, it is necessary to be able to inspect the behavior over time of many components: firstly the agents and services on which the infrastructure is built, but also all the computing tasks and data transfers that are managed by this infrastructure. This consists of recording and then analyzing time series of a large number of observables, for which the usage of SQL relational databases is far from optimal. Therefore within DIRAC we have been studying novel possibilities based on NoSQL databases (ElasticSearch, OpenTSDB and InfluxDB) as a result of this study we developed a new monitoring system based on ElasticSearch. It has been deployed on the LHCb Distributed Computing infrastructure for which it collects data from all the components (agents, services, jobs) and allows creating reports through Kibana and a web user interface, which is based on the DIRAC web framework. In this paper we describe this new implementation of the DIRAC monitoring system. We give details on the ElasticSearch implementation within the DIRAC general framework, as well as an overview of the advantages of the pipeline aggregation used for creating a dynamic bucketing of the time series. We present the advantages of using the ElasticSearch DSL high-level library for creating and running queries. Finally we shall present the performances of that system.

  9. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN: infrastructure development and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breland-Noble Alfiee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of

  10. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  11. Visionary network 2030. Technology vision for future distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, L.; Laaksonen, H.; Komulainen, R.

    2006-11-01

    Objective of this research was to create the long term vision of a distribution network technology to be used for the near future rebuild and necessary R and D efforts. Present status of the grid was briefly handled and created scenarios for the operational environment changes and available technology International view was used for getting familiar with the present solutions and future expectations in other countries. Centralised power generation is supposed to form the majority, but also the distributed generation will play more and more important role, which is hard to predict due to the uncertainty of the development of the regulation. Higher reliability and safety in major faults are expected from the future network with the reasonable costs. Impact of the climate change and impregnant using restrictions cause difficulties especially for the overhead lines in the forests. In the rural network also the ageing is the problem. For the urban networks the land usage and environmental issues get more challenging and the network reinforcement is necessary due to the increased use of electricity. As a result several technical solutions are available. Additions to the technology today, several new solutions were introduced. Important solutions in the future network are supposed to be the wide range of underground cable, high degree utilisation of the communication and network automation solutions, considerable shorter protection zones and new layout solution. In a long run the islanding enabled by the distributed energy systems and totally new network structures and solutions based on power electronics are supposed to improve the power quality and profitability. Separate quality classes in network design principally are also supposed to be approved. Getting into the vision needs also the Roadmap project, which coordinates and focuses the development of the industry. So the limited national development resources can be effectively utilised. A coordinated national

  12. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  13. Algorithms for Bayesian network modeling and reliability assessment of infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Iris; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Novel algorithms are developed to enable the modeling of large, complex infrastructure systems as Bayesian networks (BNs). These include a compression algorithm that significantly reduces the memory storage required to construct the BN model, and an updating algorithm that performs inference on compressed matrices. These algorithms address one of the major obstacles to widespread use of BNs for system reliability assessment, namely the exponentially increasing amount of information that needs to be stored as the number of components in the system increases. The proposed compression and inference algorithms are described and applied to example systems to investigate their performance compared to that of existing algorithms. Orders of magnitude savings in memory storage requirement are demonstrated using the new algorithms, enabling BN modeling and reliability analysis of larger infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • Novel algorithms developed for Bayesian network modeling of infrastructure systems. • Algorithm presented to compress information in conditional probability tables. • Updating algorithm presented to perform inference on compressed matrices. • Algorithms applied to example systems to investigate their performance. • Orders of magnitude savings in memory storage requirement demonstrated.

  14. Data interoperabilty between European Environmental Research Infrastructures and their contribution to global data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Zhao, Z.; Hardisty, A.; Hellström, M.; Chin, Y.; Magagna, B.; Asmi, A.; Papale, D.; Pfeil, B.; Atkinson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental Research Infrastructures (ENVRIs) are expected to become important pillars not only for supporting their own scientific communities, but also a) for inter-disciplinary research and b) for the European Earth Observation Program Copernicus as a contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) or global thematic data networks. As such, it is very important that data-related activities of the ENVRIs will be well integrated. This requires common policies, models and e-infrastructure to optimise technological implementation, define workflows, and ensure coordination, harmonisation, integration and interoperability of data, applications and other services. The key is interoperating common metadata systems (utilising a richer metadata model as the `switchboard' for interoperation with formal syntax and declared semantics). The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). The European Cluster Project ENVRIplus has developed a reference model (ENVRI RM) for common data infrastructure architecture to promote interoperability among ENVRIs. The presentation will provide an overview of recent progress and give examples for the integration of ENVRI data in global integration networks.

  15. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-30

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  16. An Industrial Control System for the Supervision of the CERN Electrical Distribution Network

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    1999-01-01

    CERN operates a large distribution network for the supply of electricity to the particle accelerators, experiments and the associated infrastructure. The distribution network operates on voltage levels from 400 V to 400 kV with a total yearly consumption of near to 1000 GWh. In the past, the laboratory has developed an in-house control system for this network, using the technologies applied to the accelerator control system. However, CERN is now working on a project to purchase, configure and install an industrial Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS). This is a state-of-the-art industrial control system completely developed and supported by an external contractor. The system - based on a scalable and distributed architecture - will allow the installation to be performed gradually, and will be tested while the existing system is fully operational. Ultimately, the complete electrical distribution network will be supervised with this new system, the maintenance and further development of which will be the complet...

  17. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  18. WRF4G project: Adaptation of WRF Model to Distributed Computing Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofino, Antonio S.; Fernández Quiruelas, Valvanuz; García Díez, Markel; Blanco Real, Jose C.; Fernández, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays Grid Computing is powerful computational tool which is ready to be used for scientific community in different areas (such as biomedicine, astrophysics, climate, etc.). However, the use of this distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) is not yet common practice in climate research, and only a few teams and applications in this area take advantage of this infrastructure. Thus, the first objective of this project is to popularize the use of this technology in the atmospheric sciences area. In order to achieve this objective, one of the most used applications has been taken (WRF; a limited- area model, successor of the MM5 model), that has a user community formed by more than 8000 researchers worldwide. This community develop its research activity on different areas and could benefit from the advantages of Grid resources (case study simulations, regional hind-cast/forecast, sensitivity studies, etc.). The WRF model is been used as input by many energy and natural hazards community, therefore those community will also benefit. However, Grid infrastructures have some drawbacks for the execution of applications that make an intensive use of CPU and memory for a long period of time. This makes necessary to develop a specific framework (middleware). This middleware encapsulates the application and provides appropriate services for the monitoring and management of the jobs and the data. Thus, the second objective of the project consists on the development of a generic adaptation of WRF for Grid (WRF4G), to be distributed as open-source and to be integrated in the official WRF development cycle. The use of this WRF adaptation should be transparent and useful to face any of the previously described studies, and avoid any of the problems of the Grid infrastructure. Moreover it should simplify the access to the Grid infrastructures for the research teams, and also to free them from the technical and computational aspects of the use of the Grid. Finally, in order to

  19. Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to find the optimal size and optimum location for the placement of DG in the radial distribution networks for active power compensation by reduction in real power losses and enhancement in voltage profile. In the first segment, the optimal ...

  20. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: Major upgrade of the ATLAS Test Beam network infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B; Pasqualucci, E

    Based on the positive experience gained last year by the Muon group with the adoption of a completely isolated private network for the data acquisition, already last year for the 2002 Combined Pixel-Tilecal-Muon Test Beam, we adopted the private network solution. The main advantage of the isolation from the common CERN network infrastructure is the complete independence from possible problems that could affect the network in the area, intended to serve many other users, and the possibility to have a completely independent management of the IP addresses assignment. Moreover the presence of a firewall in the private network allows a better protection against possible external hackers, allowing users to transparently access the external word. A Fast Ethernet network has been set up as a control network. It relies on a backbone 24-port Fast Ethernet switch on which, in a tree structure, are connected several smaller switches dedicated to each sub-detector. In this way each sub-detector produces its own traffic...

  1. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  2. A novel critical infrastructure resilience assessment approach using dynamic Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Xie, Min; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Yiliu; Ji, Renjie; Feng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    The word resilience originally originates from the Latin word "resiliere", which means to "bounce back". The concept has been used in various fields, such as ecology, economics, psychology, and society, with different definitions. In the field of critical infrastructure, although some resilience metrics are proposed, they are totally different from each other, which are determined by the performances of the objects of evaluation. Here we bridge the gap by developing a universal critical infrastructure resilience metric from the perspective of reliability engineering. A dynamic Bayesian networks-based assessment approach is proposed to calculate the resilience value. A series, parallel and voting system is used to demonstrate the application of the developed resilience metric and assessment approach.

  3. Scalable and practical multi-objective distribution network expansion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, N.H.; Grond, M.O.W.; Poutré, La J.A.; Bosman, P.A.N.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate the distribution network expansion planning (DNEP) problem as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem with different objectives that distribution network operators (DNOs) would typically like to consider during decision making processes for expanding their networks. Objectives are

  4. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  5. Report by the study committee related to data held by energy network and infrastructure managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at providing a view of the status of data related to energy and held by network and infrastructure managers and operators. It is notably based on about fifty hearings of regulated energy operators, providers, representatives of electricity producers, local authorities, representatives of public bodies awarding concession and exploitation, and consumer associations. The authors also met heat and water network operators, IT service companies, start-ups of the energy sector, and telecommunications operators, and representatives of French and European institutional bodies. Fifteen propositions have been formulated which address the imperative of data consistence, quality and inter-operability, the clarification of the game of actors for an efficient governance of networks, the necessity of a consolidated confidence of consumers regarding the management of their data, and the activities of regulation (readability of analysis criteria, predictability of the resulting action)

  6. Distributed Cloud Storage Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage is usually considered within acloud provider to ensure availability and reliability of the data.However, the user is still directly dependent on the quality of asingle system. It is also entrusting the service provider with largeamounts of private data, which may be accessed by a successfulattack to that cloud system or even be inspected by governmentagencies in some countries. This paper advocates a generalframework for network coding enabled distributed storage overmulti...

  7. Distributed Data Networks That Support Public Health Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabano, David C; Cole, Elizabeth; Holve, Erin; Davidson, Arthur J

    Data networks, consisting of pooled electronic health data assets from health care providers serving different patient populations, promote data sharing, population and disease monitoring, and methods to assess interventions. Better understanding of data networks, and their capacity to support public health objectives, will help foster partnerships, expand resources, and grow learning health systems. We conducted semistructured interviews with 16 key informants across the United States, identified as network stakeholders based on their respective experience in advancing health information technology and network functionality. Key informants were asked about their experience with and infrastructure used to develop data networks, including each network's utility to identify and characterize populations, usage, and sustainability. Among 11 identified data networks representing hundreds of thousands of patients, key informants described aggregated health care clinical data contributing to population health measures. Key informant interview responses were thematically grouped to illustrate how networks support public health, including (1) infrastructure and information sharing; (2) population health measures; and (3) network sustainability. Collaboration between clinical data networks and public health entities presents an opportunity to leverage infrastructure investments to support public health. Data networks can provide resources to enhance population health information and infrastructure.

  8. Development of a secure and cost-effective infrastructure for the access of arbitrary web-based image distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacklaender, T.; Demabre, N.; Cramer, B.M.; Kleber, K.; Schneider, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To build an infrastructure that enables radiologists on-call and external users a teleradiological access to the HTML-based image distribution system inside the hospital via internet. In addition, no investment costs should arise on the user side and the image data should be sent renamed using cryptographic techniques. Materials and Methods: A pure HTML-based system manages the image distribution inside the hospital, with an open source project extending this system through a secure gateway outside the firewall of the hospital. The gateway handles the communication between the external users and the HTML server within the network of the hospital. A second firewall is installed between the gateway and the external users and builds up a virtual private network (VPN). A connection between the gateway and the external user is only acknowledged if the computers involved authenticate each other via certificates and the external users authenticate via a multi-stage password system. All data are transferred encrypted. External users get only access to images that have been renamed to a pseudonym by means of automated processing before. Results: With an ADSL internet access, external users achieve an image load frequency of 0.4 CT images per second. More than 90% of the delay during image transfer results from security checks within the firewalls. Data passing the gateway induce no measurable delay. (orig.)

  9. Decentralised electrical distribution network in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannila, P.; Lehtonen, M.

    2000-02-01

    A centralised network is a dominating network solution in today's power plants. In this study a centralised and a decentralised network were designed in order to compare them economically and technically. The emphasis of this study was on economical aspects, but also the most important technical aspects were included. The decentralised network requires less space and less cabling since there is no switchgear building and distribution transformers are placed close to the consumption in the field of a power plant. MV-motors and distribution transformers build up a ring. Less cabling and an absent switchgear building cause considerable savings. Component costs of both of the networks were estimated by using data from fulfilled power plant projects and turned out to be smaller for the decentralised network. Simulations for the decentralised network were done in order to find a way to carry out earth fault protection and location. It was found out that in high resistance earthed system the fault distance can be estimated by a relatively simple method. The decentralised network uses a field bus, which offers many new features to the automation system of a power plant. Diversified information can be collected from the protection devices in order to schedule only the needed maintenance duties at the right time. Through the field bus it is also possible to control remotely a power plant. The decentralised network is built up from ready-to-install modules. These modules are tested by the module manufacturer decreasing the need for field testing dramatically. The work contribution needed in the electrification and the management of a power plant project reduces also due the modules. During the lifetime of a power plant, maintenance is easier and more economical. (orig.)

  10. Distributed control network for optogenetic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Juszczyk, B.; Mankiewicz, L.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays optogenetic experiments are constructed to examine social behavioural relations in groups of animals. A novel concept of implantable device with distributed control network and advanced positioning capabilities is proposed. It is based on wireless energy transfer technology, micro-power radio interface and advanced signal processing.

  11. Wide-band segmented power distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel design of Power Distribution Network (PDN). By physical structuring of the power plane into repetitive symmetrical and asymmetrical segments of varying size, suppression of the propagation of unwanted noise throughout the PDN over a wide frequency range is achieved.

  12. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  13. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  14. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    ... design of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using ..... self cleansing drinking water distribution system is set at 0.4m/s, .... distribution network offers advantages over manual ...

  15. Science gateways for distributed computing infrastructures development framework and exploitation by scientific user communities

    CERN Document Server

    Kacsuk, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the science gateway building technology developed in the SCI-BUS European project and its adoption and customization method, by which user communities, such as biologists, chemists, and astrophysicists, can build customized, domain-specific science gateways. Many aspects of the core technology are explained in detail, including its workflow capability, job submission mechanism to various grids and clouds, and its data transfer mechanisms among several distributed infrastructures. The book will be useful for scientific researchers and IT professionals engaged in the develop

  16. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, Edward T. [Kansas City Power & Light Company, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  17. Towards a renewal of transmission & distribution infrastructures to meet EU 2020 goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monizza, Giuliano; Delfino, F.; Denegri, G.B.; Invernizzi, M.; Pampararo, F.; Amann, G.; Bessede, J.-L.; Luxa, A.

    2010-09-15

    This paper is the outcome of a collaboration between T&D Europe - The European Association of the Electricity Transmission and Distribution Equipment and Services Industry and the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Genoa. It presents a scientific analysis of how much modern products and systems from the electric industry contribute to the European Union's efforts to mitigate climate change. A methodology is proposed in order to quantify the environmental benefits in terms of efficiency increase, CO2 reduction and a wider employ of renewable energy resources and of power quality improvement provided by a renewal of the T&D infrastructures.

  18. Protection of Low Voltage CIGRE distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    High quality electricity services are the prime objectives in the modern power systems around the world. One of the main players to achieve this is protection of the system which needs to be fast, reliable and cost effective. The study about the protection of the Low Voltage (LV) CIGRE distribution...... grid and networks like this has been proposed in this paper. The main objective of this paper is to develop protection against short circuit faults which might appear any-where in the network. The protection of the power networks that comprises of renewable energy generation units is complicated...... because of the bidirectional flow of the current and is a challenge for the protection engineers. The selection of the protection devices in this paper is made to protect the network against faults in grid connected and island mode of operation. Ultra-fast fuses are proposed in order to protect...

  19. The obstacles for the investments in natural gas distribution infrastructure in Brazil; Os obstaculos aos investimentos na rede de distribuicao de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Bueno, Salua Saud; Selles, Vitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the main obstacles for the expansion of the Brazilian gas distribution pipelines infrastructure. The paper examines the evolution of investments in the gas chain and highlights the existence of an important unbalance between the level of investments in the upstream and transportation segments and the level of investment in the distribution network. It is clear that the level of investments in the distribution segment is not following the pace of expansion of the other segments. Given this conclusion, the paper examines the potential for increasing the level of investment in the distribution segment by augmenting the debt level of distribution companies. By analyzing the main distribution companies' financial statements, the paper shows that they there is room for an expansion in investments through financial leverage. Finally, the paper examines the main financing obstacles that impede the companies to increase their investment level. (author)

  20. Topological Taxonomy of Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giudicianni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water Distribution Networks (WDNs can be regarded as complex networks and modeled as graphs. In this paper, Complex Network Theory is applied to characterize the behavior of WDNs from a topological point of view, reviewing some basic metrics, exploring their fundamental properties and the relationship between them. The crucial aim is to understand and describe the topology of WDNs and their structural organization to provide a novel tool of analysis which could help to find new solutions to several arduous problems of WDNs. The aim is to understand the role of the topological structure in the WDNs functioning. The methodology is applied to 21 existing networks and 13 literature networks. The comparison highlights some topological peculiarities and the possibility to define a set of best design parameters for ex-novo WDNs that could also be used to build hypothetical benchmark networks retaining the typical structure of real WDNs. Two well-known types of network ((a square grid; and (b random graph are used for comparison, aiming at defining a possible mathematical model for WDNs. Finally, the interplay between topology and some performance requirements of WDNs is discussed.

  1. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  2. Resilience of Networked Infrastructure with Evolving Component Conditions: Pavement Network Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Miller-Hooks, Elise; Asadabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with quantifying the resilience of a network of pavements. Calculations were carried out by modeling network performance under a set of possible damage-meteorological scenarios with known probability of occurrence. Resilience evaluation was performed a priori while accounting...

  3. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  5. Metadata and network API aspects of a framework for storing and retrieving civil infrastructure monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John-Michael; Stojadinovic, Bozidar

    2005-05-01

    A framework has been defined for storing and retrieving civil infrastructure monitoring data over a network. The framework consists of two primary components: metadata and network communications. The metadata component provides the descriptions and data definitions necessary for cataloging and searching monitoring data. The communications component provides Java classes for remotely accessing the data. Packages of Enterprise JavaBeans and data handling utility classes are written to use the underlying metadata information to build real-time monitoring applications. The utility of the framework was evaluated using wireless accelerometers on a shaking table earthquake simulation test of a reinforced concrete bridge column. The NEESgrid data and metadata repository services were used as a backend storage implementation. A web interface was created to demonstrate the utility of the data model and provides an example health monitoring application.

  6. APPLICATION OF UKRAINIAN GRID INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INVESTIGATION OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN LARGE NEURONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. О. Sudakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present work the Ukrainian National Grid (UNG infrastructure was applied for investigation of synchronization in large networks of interacting neurons. This application is important for solving of modern neuroscience problems related to mechanisms of nervous system activities (memory, cognition etc. and nervous pathologies (epilepsy, Parkinsonism, etc.. Modern non-linear dynamics theories and applications provides powerful basis for computer simulations of biological neuronal networks and investigation of phenomena which mechanisms hardly could be clarified by other approaches. Cubic millimeter of brain tissue contains about 105 neurons, so realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley model and phenomenological (Kuramoto-Sakaguchi, FitzHugh-Nagumo, etc. models simulations require consideration of large neurons numbers.

  7. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  8. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  9. Applications of Graph Spectral Techniques to Water Distribution Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando di Nardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities depend on multiple heterogeneous, interconnected infrastructures to provide safe water to consumers. Given this complexity, efficient numerical techniques are needed to support optimal control and management of a water distribution network (WDN. This paper introduces a holistic analysis framework to support water utilities on the decision making process for an efficient supply management. The proposal is based on graph spectral techniques that take advantage of eigenvalues and eigenvectors properties of matrices that are associated with graphs. Instances of these matrices are the adjacency matrix and the Laplacian, among others. The interest for this application is to work on a graph that specifically represents a WDN. This is a complex network that is made by nodes corresponding to water sources and consumption points and links corresponding to pipes and valves. The aim is to face new challenges on urban water supply, ranging from computing approximations for network performance assessment to setting device positioning for efficient and automatic WDN division into district metered areas. It is consequently created a novel tool-set of graph spectral techniques adapted to improve main water management tasks and to simplify the identification of water losses through the definition of an optimal network partitioning. Two WDNs are used to analyze the proposed methodology. Firstly, the well-known network of C-Town is investigated for benchmarking of the proposed graph spectral framework. This allows for comparing the obtained results with others coming from previously proposed approaches in literature. The second case-study corresponds to an operational network. It shows the usefulness and optimality of the proposal to effectively manage a WDN.

  10. Small Distributed Renewable Energy Generation for Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindris M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the existing energy policies, the use of renewable energy has increased considerably all over the world in order to respond to the increasing energy consumption and to reduce the environmental impact of the electricity generation. Although most policy makers and companies are focusing on large applications, the use of cheap small generation units, based on local renewable resources, has become increasingly attractive for the general public, small farms and remote communities. The paper presents several results of a research project aiming to identify the power quality issues and the impact of RES based distributed generation (DG or other non-linear loads on low voltage (LV distribution networks in Romania; the final goal is to develop a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC able to diminish the existing disturbances. Basically, the work analyses the existing DG technologies and identifies possible solutions for their integration in Romania; taking into account the existent state of the art, the attention was paid on small systems, using wind and solar energy, and on possibility to integrate them into suburban and rural LV distribution networks. The presence of DG units at distribution voltage level means the transition from traditional passive to active distribution networks. In general, the relatively low penetration levels of DG does not produce problems; however, the nowadays massive increase of local power generation have led to new integration challenges in order to ensure the reliability and quality of the power supply. Power quality issues are identified and their assessment is the key element in the design of measures aiming to diminish all existing disturbances.

  11. CMS distributed analysis infrastructure and operations: experience with the first LHC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaandering, E W

    2011-01-01

    The CMS distributed analysis infrastructure represents a heterogeneous pool of resources distributed across several continents. The resources are harnessed using glite and glidein-based work load management systems (WMS). We provide the operational experience of the analysis workflows using CRAB-based servers interfaced with the underlying WMS. The automatized interaction of the server with the WMS provides a successful analysis workflow. We present the operational experience as well as methods used in CMS to analyze the LHC data. The interaction with CMS Run-registry for Run and luminosity block selections via CRAB is discussed. The variations of different workflows during the LHC data-taking period and the lessons drawn from this experience are also outlined.

  12. Applying IPFIX Protocol for Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks against Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mukhtarov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The way of monitoring deviations in network traffic behavior inside “Cloud Infrastructure” using IPFIX protocol is suggested in the paper. The proposed algorithm is applied for registration of “Distributed Denial of Service” attacks against “Cloud Infrastructure”.

  13. Optimal power flow for distribution networks with distributed generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA based approach for the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF in distribution networks with distributed generation (DG units, including fuel cells, micro turbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. The OPF is formulated as a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. Due to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties, a probabilisticalgorithm is introduced in the OPF analysis. The Weibull and normal distributions are employed to model the input random variables, namely the wind speed, solar irradiance and load power. The 2m+1 point estimate method and the Gram Charlier expansion theory are used to obtain the statistical moments and the probability density functions (PDFs of the OPF results. The proposed approach is examined and tested on a modified IEEE 34 node test feeder with integrated five different DG units. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve both deterministic and probabilistic OPF problems for different forms of the multi-objective function. As such, it can serve as a useful decision-making supporting tool for distribution network operators. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  14. Distributed coding/decoding complexity in video sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Paulo J; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality.

  15. Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Traditionally power distribution networks are either not observable or only partially observable. This complicates development and implementation of new smart grid technologies, such as these related to demand response, outage detection and management, and improved load-monitoring. Here, inspired by proliferation of the metering technology, we discuss statistical estimation problems in structurally loopy but operationally radial distribution grids consisting in learning operational layout of the network from measurements, e.g. voltage data, which are either already available or can be made available with a relatively minor investment. Our newly suggested algorithms apply to a wide range of realistic scenarios. The algorithms are also computationally efficient – polynomial in time – which is proven theoretically and illustrated computationally on a number of test cases. The technique developed can be applied to detect line failures in real time as well as to understand the scope of possible adversarial attacks on the grid.

  16. The value of electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study aimed at evaluating parts of the distribution network of ENEL, in charge of distributing and supplying electricity to its captive market, that could be sold as a separate entity. To determine the asset value of these hypothetical companies, the discounted cash flow method has been used applied to the 147 ENEL's distributing zones. The econometric analysis shows that the relevant variables are the quantity sold to non residential and non big industrial consumers and the length of medium voltage lines. According to the available data and to the methodology chosen, the per client value of the distribution zones of ENEL varies substantially. The maximum value is bout three times the mean value and the minimum value is largely negative. The article maintains that changes in regulation could greatly modify the asset value of distribution networks. The main regulatory risks are linked to the degree of market opening, the introduction of compensation mechanisms between different distributors and the allowed maximum revenue fixed by energy Authority for a given period of time. This point is developed in the appendix where it is shown that the price cap method is decided on the basis of a rate of return which is valid at the moment of the cap fixing but that could be no longer valid if the rate of inflation varies [it

  17. Radon levels in a water distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, relies on both desalinated sea water as well as treated groundwater to meet all its water requirements. About 66% of the water demand is met by desalinated sea water, and the remaining is supplied by six groundwater treatment plants located in the vicinity of the city and supplied with water from 161 wells. The desalinated sea water is blended with only one plant product water and pumped to the distribution network, whereas the other five plants product water is pumped directly to the network. A study of 222 Rn levels in the city distribution network was carried out in which 89 samples were collected from different locations representing the city districts. All samples have shown low radon levels with an average concentration of 0.2 Bq l -1 and a range values of 0.1-1.0 Bq l -1 . The level of radon in different parts of the network was found to be influenced by the water sources to which they are supplied. The lowest radon levels were observed in districts supplied mostly by desalinated sea water. (Author)

  18. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Kuehler; Jon Hathaway; Andrew Tirpak

    2017-01-01

    The use of green infrastructure for reducing stormwater runoff is increasingly common. One under‐studied component of the green infrastructure network is the urban forest system. Trees can play an important role as the “first line of defense” for restoring more natural hydrologic regimes in urban watersheds by intercepting rainfall, delaying runoff, infiltrating, and...

  19. Distributed multiprotocol acquisition network for environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Fabrizio; De Rosa, Rosario; Milano, Leopoldo; Qipiani, Ketevan

    2003-03-01

    The acquisition and storage of large amount of data coming from distributed environmental sensors of different kind can be solved with the aid of a network between the acquisition subsystems, but problems can arise if they are not homogeneous. In this case the network should be as flexible as possible to ensure modularity and connectivity. In this work we describe the development and testing of a network based acquisition system. The network uses, where possible, commercial products, based on different standards, in order to increase the availability of its components, as well as its modularity. In addition it is completely independent from proprietary hardware and software products. In particular we tested an acquisition network based on multiple transmission protocol, like wireless and cabled RS232 and Fast Ethernet, which includes the acquisition, archiving and data analysis systems. Each acquisition subsystem can get time from satellite using GPS, and is able to monitor seismic activity, temperature, pressure, humidity and electromagnetic data. The sampling frequency and the dynamics of the acquired data can be matched to the characteristics of each probe. All the acquisition stations can use different platform as well as different operating systems. Tests have been performed to evaluate the capability of long acquisition periods and the fault tolerance of the whole system.

  20. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  1. The Earth System Grid Federation : an Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John; Shipman, Galen; Wang, Feiyi; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Miller, Neill; Denvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF's architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  2. The development of network infrastructure in rural areas and problems in applying IT to the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Yosuke; Anamizu, Hiromitsu; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    The financial condition of the Japanese health insurance system is said to be compounded with the aging of the population. The government argues that the application of IT and networking is required in order to streamline health care services while avoiding its collapse. The Internet environment has been furnished with broadband connection and multimedia in the span of one year or shorter, and is becoming more and more convenient. It is true that the Internet is now a part of Tokyo's infrastructure along with electricity and water supply, as it is the center of politics. However, in local cities, development of the Internet environment is still insufficient. In order to use the network as a common infrastructure at health care facilities, we need to be aware of this digital divide. This study investigated the development status of network infrastructure in regional cities.

  3. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S M; Cottrell, R L; Kalim, U; Ali, A

    2008-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  4. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; Cottrell, R. Les; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad

    2007-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  5. Modeling and optimization of an electric power distribution network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and optimization of an electric power distribution network planning system using ... of the network was modelled with non-linear mathematical expressions. ... given feasible locations, re-conductoring of existing feeders in the network, ...

  6. A distributed lumped active all-pass network configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence a new and interesting distributed lumped active network configuration that realizes an all-pass network function is described. A design chart for determining the values of the network elements is included.

  7. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  8. Distributed generation of shared RSA keys in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Huang, Qin; Shen, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is a totally new concept in which mobile nodes are able to communicate together over wireless links in an independent manner, independent of fixed physical infrastructure and centralized administrative infrastructure. However, the nature of Ad Hoc Networks makes them very vulnerable to security threats. Generation and distribution of shared keys for CA (Certification Authority) is challenging for security solution based on distributed PKI(Public-Key Infrastructure)/CA. The solutions that have been proposed in the literature and some related issues are discussed in this paper. The solution of a distributed generation of shared threshold RSA keys for CA is proposed in the present paper. During the process of creating an RSA private key share, every CA node only has its own private security. Distributed arithmetic is used to create the CA's private share locally, and that the requirement of centralized management institution is eliminated. Based on fully considering the Mobile Ad Hoc network's characteristic of self-organization, it avoids the security hidden trouble that comes by holding an all private security share of CA, with which the security and robustness of system is enhanced.

  9. Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ortega, Maria Pia; Perez-Arriaga, J. Ignacio; Rivier Abbad, Juan Rivier; Gonzalez, Jesus Peco

    2008-01-01

    Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

  10. Computational Aspects of Sensor Network Protocols (Distributed Sensor Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Iyer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we model the sensor networks as an unsupervised learning and clustering process. We classify nodes according to its static distribution to form known class densities (CCPD. These densities are chosen from specific cross-layer features which maximizes lifetime of power-aware routing algorithms. To circumvent computational complexities of a power-ware communication STACK we introduce path-loss models at the nodes only for high density deployments. We study the cluster heads and formulate the data handling capacity for an expected deployment and use localized probability models to fuse the data with its side information before transmission. So each cluster head has a unique Pmax but not all cluster heads have the same measured value. In a lossless mode if there are no faults in the sensor network then we can show that the highest probability given by Pmax is ambiguous if its frequency is ≤ n/2 otherwise it can be determined by a local function. We further show that the event detection at the cluster heads can be modelled with a pattern 2m and m, the number of bits can be a correlated pattern of 2 bits and for a tight lower bound we use 3-bit Huffman codes which have entropy < 1. These local algorithms are further studied to optimize on power, fault detection and to maximize on the distributed routing algorithm used at the higher layers. From these bounds in large network, it is observed that the power dissipation is network size invariant. The performance of the routing algorithms solely based on success of finding healthy nodes in a large distribution. It is also observed that if the network size is kept constant and the density of the nodes is kept closer then the local pathloss model effects the performance of the routing algorithms. We also obtain the maximum intensity of transmitting nodes for a given category of routing algorithms for an outage constraint, i.e., the lifetime of sensor network.

  11. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  12. Biophysical, infrastructural and social heterogeneities explain spatial distribution of waterborne gastrointestinal disease burden in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Andrés; Estrada-Barón, Alejandra; Serrano-Candela, Fidel; Bojórquez, Luis A.; Eakin, Hallie; Escalante, Ana E.

    2018-06-01

    Due to unplanned growth, large extension and limited resources, most megacities in the developing world are vulnerable to hydrological hazards and infectious diseases caused by waterborne pathogens. Here we aim to elucidate the extent of the relation between the spatial heterogeneity of physical and socio-economic factors associated with hydrological hazards (flooding and scarcity) and the spatial distribution of gastrointestinal disease in Mexico City, a megacity with more than 8 million people. We applied spatial statistics and multivariate regression analyses to high resolution records of gastrointestinal diseases during two time frames (2007–2009 and 2010–2014). Results show a pattern of significant association between water flooding events and disease incidence in the city center (lowlands). We also found that in the periphery (highlands), higher incidence is generally associated with household infrastructure deficiency. Our findings suggest the need for integrated and spatially tailored interventions by public works and public health agencies, aimed to manage socio-hydrological vulnerability in Mexico City.

  13. Establishing a distributed national research infrastructure providing bioinformatics support to life science researchers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Victoria; Griffin, Philippa C; Tyagi, Sonika; Flannery, Madison; Dayalan, Saravanan; Gladman, Simon; Watson-Haigh, Nathan; Bayer, Philipp E; Charleston, Michael; Cooke, Ira; Cook, Rob; Edwards, Richard J; Edwards, David; Gorse, Dominique; McConville, Malcolm; Powell, David; Wilkins, Marc R; Lonie, Andrew

    2017-06-30

    EMBL Australia Bioinformatics Resource (EMBL-ABR) is a developing national research infrastructure, providing bioinformatics resources and support to life science and biomedical researchers in Australia. EMBL-ABR comprises 10 geographically distributed national nodes with one coordinating hub, with current funding provided through Bioplatforms Australia and the University of Melbourne for its initial 2-year development phase. The EMBL-ABR mission is to: (1) increase Australia's capacity in bioinformatics and data sciences; (2) contribute to the development of training in bioinformatics skills; (3) showcase Australian data sets at an international level and (4) enable engagement in international programs. The activities of EMBL-ABR are focussed in six key areas, aligning with comparable international initiatives such as ELIXIR, CyVerse and NIH Commons. These key areas-Tools, Data, Standards, Platforms, Compute and Training-are described in this article. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Network design for cylinder gas distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Network design of the supply chain is an important and strategic aspect of logistics management. In this paper, we address the network design problem specific to packaged gases (cylinder supply chain. We propose an integrated framework that allows for the determination of the optimal facility locations, the filling plant production capacities, the inventory at plants and hubs, and the number of packages to be routed in primary and secondary transportation. Design/methodology/approach: We formulate the problem as a mixed integer program and then develop a decomposition approach to solve it. We illustrate the proposed framework with numerical examples from real-life packaged gases supply chain. The results show that the decomposition approach is effective in solving a broad range of problem sizes. Findings: The main finding of this paper is that decomposing the network design problem into two sub-problems is very effective to tackle the real-life large scale network design problems occurring in cylinder gas distribution by optimizing strategic and tactical decisions and approximating the operational decisions. We also benchmark the results from the decomposition approach by solving the complete packaged gases network design model for smaller test cases. Originality/value: The main contribution of our work is that it integrates supply chain network design decisions without fixing the fillings plant locations with inventory and resource allocation decisions required at the plants. We also consider the transportation costs for the entire supply chain including the transhipment costs among different facilities by deciding the replenishment frequency.

  15. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-06-26

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency.

  16. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cañete

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency.

  17. The Navajo Learning Network and the NASA Life Sciences/AFOSR Infrastructure Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The NSF-funded Navajo Learning Network project, with help from NASA Life Sciences and AFOSR, enabled Dine College to take a giant leap forward technologically - in a way that could never had been possible had these projects been managed separately. The combination of these and other efforts created a network of over 500 computers located at ten sites across the Navajo reservation. Additionally, the college was able to install a modern telephone system which shares network data, and purchase a new higher education management system. The NASA Life Sciences funds further allowed the college library system to go online and become available to the entire campus community. NSF, NASA and AFOSR are committed to improving minority access to higher education opportunities and promoting faculty development and undergraduate research through infrastructure support and development. This project has begun to address critical inequalities in access to science, mathematics, engineering and technology for Navajo students and educators. As a result, Navajo K-12 education has been bolstered and Dine College will therefore better prepare students to transfer successfully to four-year institutions. Due to the integration of the NSF and NASA/AFOSR components of the project, a unified project report is appropriate.

  18. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  19. Rehabilitation of a secondary network of forest traffic infrastructure (skid roads - skid trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest transport infrastructure is the key segment of rational forest resource management. One of its constituent and inseparable segments are skid roads and skid trails whose network density significantly exceeds the primary network, i.e. truck roads. Skid road -skid trail network density in high economic forests of FB&H is most often between 40 and 100 m/ha. Simplified way of construction, non-existence of road construction, objects for surface water drainage as well as significant longitudinal inclination (up to 50% in which they are constructed, makes them subject to erosion processes. The lack of rehabilitation measures on skid roads - skid trails causes significant damages in post-exploitation period, and very often to the extent that the ones in the following exploitation round are unusable for skidding. Utilization of skid roads - skid trails damaged by erosion processes for forest operations often represents a significant expense. This paper considers rehabilitation measures efficient from the point of remedying erosion processes, and at the same time, acceptable from the point of financial expenditure for forest operations.

  20. An integrated control for overvoltage mitigation in the distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viyathukattuva Mohamed Ali, M.M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing share of distributed renewable energy sources (DRES) in the distribution network raises new operational and power quality challenges like overvoltage in the network feeders. Such power quality challenge limits the penetration of DRES in the distribution network. This paper addresses a

  1. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  2. Distributed Function Calculation over Noisy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidun Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering any connected network with unknown initial states for all nodes, the nearest-neighbor rule is utilized for each node to update its own state at every discrete-time step. Distributed function calculation problem is defined for one node to compute some function of the initial values of all the nodes based on its own observations. In this paper, taking into account uncertainties in the network and observations, an algorithm is proposed to compute and explicitly characterize the value of the function in question when the number of successive observations is large enough. While the number of successive observations is not large enough, we provide an approach to obtain the tightest possible bounds on such function by using linear programing optimization techniques. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  3. Scaling to diversity: The DERECHOS distributed infrastructure for analyzing and sharing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Clune, T.; Oloso, A.; Brown, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    Integrating Earth Science data from diverse sources such as satellite imagery and simulation output can be expensive and time-consuming, limiting scientific inquiry and the quality of our analyses. Reducing these costs will improve innovation and quality in science. The current Earth Science data infrastructure focuses on downloading data based on requests formed from the search and analysis of associated metadata. And while the data products provided by archives may use the best available data sharing technologies, scientist end-users generally do not have such resources (including staff) available to them. Furthermore, only once an end-user has received the data from multiple diverse sources and has integrated them can the actual analysis and synthesis begin. The cost of getting from idea to where synthesis can start dramatically slows progress. In this presentation we discuss a distributed computational and data storage framework that eliminates much of the aforementioned cost. The SciDB distributed array database is central as it is optimized for scientific computing involving very large arrays, performing better than less specialized frameworks like Spark. Adding spatiotemporal functions to the SciDB creates a powerful platform for analyzing and integrating massive, distributed datasets. SciDB allows Big Earth Data analysis to be performed "in place" without the need for expensive downloads and end-user resources. Spatiotemporal indexing technologies such as the hierarchical triangular mesh enable the compute and storage affinity needed to efficiently perform co-located and conditional analyses minimizing data transfers. These technologies automate the integration of diverse data sources using the framework, a critical step beyond current metadata search and analysis. Instead of downloading data into their idiosyncratic local environments, end-users can generate and share data products integrated from diverse multiple sources using a common shared environment

  4. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect he...... period, detect injury...). Our goal is to explore the design of a sensor network that supports such functionalities and meets the constraints of this industry in terms of price, energy consumption and availability....

  5. Electronic Power Transformer for Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuraсhi Iu.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing losses in electricity distribution networks is a current technical problem. This issue also has social and environmental aspects. As a promising solution one can examine the direct distribution from the medium voltage power network using new equipment based on the use of power electronics. The aim of the paper is to propose and argue an innovative technical solution for the realization of the Solid State Transformer (SST in order to decrease the number of energy transformation stages compared to the known solutions, simplifying the topology of the functional scheme with the reduction of production costs and the loss of energy in transformers used in electrical distribution networks. It is proposed the solution of simplifying the topology of the AC/AC electronic transformer by reducing the number of passive electronic components (resistors, inductors, capacitors and active (transistors. The inverter of the SST transformer ensures the switching mode of the transistors, using for this purpose the inductance of the magnetic leakage flux of the high frequency transformer. The robustness of the laboratory sample of the SST 10 / 0.22 kV transformer with the power of 20 kW was manufactured and tested. Testing of the laboratory sample confirmed the functionality of the proposed scheme and the possibility of switching of the transistors to at zero current (ZCS mode with the reduction of the energy losses. In the proposed converter a single high-frequency transformer with a simplified construction with two windings is used, which reduces its mass and the cost of making the transformer. The reduction in the manufacturing cost of the converter is also due to the decrease in the number of links between the functional elements.

  6. EGSNRC distributed systems on commercial network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: EGSnrc is a Monte Carlo based simulation program for determining radiation dose distribution within a body. Computational times are large as each individual photon path must be calculated and every energy absorption event stored. This means that EGSnrc lends itself to distributed processing, as each photon is independent of the next, and code is included within the package to enable this. EGSnrc is currently only supported on Unix based computer systems, whilst the department has ∼45 Pentium II and III class workstations all operating under Windows NT within a Novell network. This investigation demonstrates the capability of a windows based system to perform distributed computation of EGSnrc. All Unix scripts were modified to work as one single Windows NT batch file. The source code was then compiled using the gcc C compiler (a Windows NT version of the Unix compiler) without modification of the underlying source code. A small Visual Basic program was used as a trigger to start the simulation as a Windows NT service, with Novell Z.E.N. Works to distribute the trigger code to each system. When a trigger was received, the computer began a simulation as a low priority task in such a way that the user did not see anything on the screen, and so the simulation did not slow down the general running of the computer. The results were then transferred to the network, and collated on a central computer. As an unattended system, a calculation can start within 15 minutes of any desired time, calculate the desired results, and return the results for collation. This demonstrated effectively a distributed Windows NT TM EGSnrc system. Simulations must be chosen carefully to ensure that each photon can be considered independent, as photon histories do not get distributed. Each system that was used for EGSnrc was required to be capable of running the full EGSnrc simulation on its own EGSnrc stored the entire result array locally, so a large, high-resolution body required

  7. Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  8. Analysis of internal network requirements for the distributed Nordic Tier-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, G.; Fischer, L.; Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: It is not located at one or a few locations but instead distributed throughout the Nordic, it is not under the governance of a single organisation but but is instead...... build from resources under the control of a number of different national organisations. Being physically distributed makes the design and implementation of the networking infrastructure a challenge. NDGF has its own internal OPN connecting the sites participating in the distributed Tier-1. To assess...

  9. A First Look into SCADA Network Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks are commonly deployed to aid the operation of critical infrastructures, such as water distribution facilities. These networks provide automated processes that ensure the correct functioning of these infrastructures, in a operation much

  10. Complete distributed computing environment for a HEP experiment: experience with ARC-connected infrastructure for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, A; Taga, A; O-Saada, F; Pajchel, K; Samset, B H; Cameron, D

    2008-01-01

    Computing and storage resources connected by the Nordugrid ARC middleware in the Nordic countries, Switzerland and Slovenia are a part of the ATLAS computing Grid. This infrastructure is being commissioned with the ongoing ATLAS Monte Carlo simulation production in preparation for the commencement of data taking in 2008. The unique non-intrusive architecture of ARC, its straightforward interplay with the ATLAS Production System via the Dulcinea executor, and its performance during the commissioning exercise is described. ARC support for flexible and powerful end-user analysis within the GANGA distributed analysis framework is also shown. Whereas the storage solution for this Grid was earlier based on a large, distributed collection of GridFTP-servers, the ATLAS computing design includes a structured SRM-based system with a limited number of storage endpoints. The characteristics, integration and performance of the old and new storage solutions are presented. Although the hardware resources in this Grid are quite modest, it has provided more than double the agreed contribution to the ATLAS production with an efficiency above 95% during long periods of stable operation

  11. Complete distributed computing environment for a HEP experiment: experience with ARC-connected infrastructure for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A; Taga, A; O-Saada, F; Pajchel, K; Samset, B H; Cameron, D [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.b. 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: a.l.read@fys.uio.no

    2008-07-15

    Computing and storage resources connected by the Nordugrid ARC middleware in the Nordic countries, Switzerland and Slovenia are a part of the ATLAS computing Grid. This infrastructure is being commissioned with the ongoing ATLAS Monte Carlo simulation production in preparation for the commencement of data taking in 2008. The unique non-intrusive architecture of ARC, its straightforward interplay with the ATLAS Production System via the Dulcinea executor, and its performance during the commissioning exercise is described. ARC support for flexible and powerful end-user analysis within the GANGA distributed analysis framework is also shown. Whereas the storage solution for this Grid was earlier based on a large, distributed collection of GridFTP-servers, the ATLAS computing design includes a structured SRM-based system with a limited number of storage endpoints. The characteristics, integration and performance of the old and new storage solutions are presented. Although the hardware resources in this Grid are quite modest, it has provided more than double the agreed contribution to the ATLAS production with an efficiency above 95% during long periods of stable operation.

  12. The effect of increasing levels of embedded generation on the distribution network. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A; Earp, G K; Howson, D; Owen, R D; Wright, A J

    1999-10-01

    This report was commissioned as part of the EA Technology Strategic Technology Programme under guidance of the Module 5 (Embedded Generation) Steering Group. This report aims to provide information related to the distribution and supply of electricity in the context of increasing levels of embedded generation. There is a brief description of the operating environment within which electricity companies in the UK must operate. Technical issues related to the connection of generation to the existing distribution infrastructure are highlighted and the design philosophy adopted by network designers in accommodating applications for the connection of embedded generation to the network is discussed. The effects embedded generation has on the network and the issues raised are presented as many of them present barriers to the connection of embedded generators. The final chapters cover the forecast of required connection to 2010 and solutions to restrictions preventing the connection of more embedded generation to the network. (author)

  13. Employing a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) infrastructure as a global command and control gateway to dynamically connect and disconnect diverse forces on a task-force-by-task-force basis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcrease, Patrick N.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited GHOSTNet is a secure and anonymous Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Coupling Ethernet tunneling and proxy services to provide users safe and anonymous Internet access, GHOSTNet utilizes TLS (SSL) protocol with AES-256 encryption to secure the network along with PKI certificates and HMAC protection from replay attacks and UDP flooding. This thesis will be a system level test and evaluation of the GHOSTNet infrastructure. The primary...

  14. Virtualization in network and servers infrastructure to support dynamic system reconfiguration in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Ovando, Nicolás.; Bartsch, Marcelo; Simmond, Max; Vélez, Gastón; Robles, Manuel; Soto, Rubén.; Ibsen, Jorge; Saldias, Christian

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is the first astronomical project being constructed and operated under industrial approach due to the huge amount of elements involved. In order to achieve the maximum through put during the engineering and scientific commissioning phase, several production lines have been established to work in parallel. This decision required modification in the original system architecture in which all the elements are controlled and operated within a unique Standard Test Environment (STE). The advance in the network industry and together with the maturity of virtualization paradigm allows us to provide a solution which can replicate the STE infrastructure without changing their network address definition. This is only possible with Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) and Virtual LAN (VLAN) concepts. The solution allows dynamic reconfiguration of antennas and other hardware across the production lines with minimum time and zero human intervention in the cabling. We also push the virtualization even further, classical rack mount servers are being replaced and consolidated by blade servers. On top of them virtualized server are centrally administrated with VMWare ESX. Hardware costs and system administration effort will be reduced considerably. This mechanism has been established and operated successfully during the last two years. This experience gave us confident to propose a solution to divide the main operation array into subarrays using the same concept which will introduce huge flexibility and efficiency for ALMA operation and eventually may simplify the complexity of ALMA core observing software since there will be no need to deal with subarrays complexity at software level.

  15. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  16. Effective Loss Minimization and Allocation of Unbalanced Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient distribution network must be able to supply power with good voltage profile. The main objective of the proposed work is to allocate losses of the unbalanced distribution network by the firefly algorithm in regulated and deregulated environments before and after loss minimization. Reconfiguration is one of the methods for loss reduction of unbalanced distribution network. Further, optimal placement of distributed generation and capacitor in the reconfigured unbalanced distribution network can further reduce the loss. The results of reconfigured unbalanced distribution network in regulated environment have already been reported. In this paper reconfiguration of an unbalanced distribution network in a deregulated environment is also carried out using an established Fuzzy Firefly algorithm. Loss sensitivity factor of unbalanced distribution networks is used to get the appropriate location of distributed generation and capacitor to be placed in the unbalanced distribution network. Their ratings have been found out by using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA. The suggested loss allocation method using Firefly algorithm is implemented at first on 13 node unbalanced distribution network to check the performance of the proposed loss allocation method when compared to other available method. Finally the proposed method has been implemented on 25 node unbalanced distribution network. Both of the implementations are carried out under MATLAB environment.

  17. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  18. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  19. Extensible router for a quantum key distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Mo Xiaofan; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    Building a quantum key distribution network is crucial for practical quantum cryptography. We present a scheme to build a star topology quantum key distribution network based on wavelength division multiplexing which, with current technology, can connect at least a hundred users. With the scheme, a 4-user demonstration network was built up and key exchanges were performed

  20. Impact of distributed generation units with power electronic converters on distribution network protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; Haan, de S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of distributed generation units (DG units) are connected to the distribution network. These generators affect the operation and coordination of the distribution network protection. The influence from DG units that are coupled to the network with a power electronic converter

  1. Regulation of the energy infrastructure. Load management. Part 1. Fiscal aspects of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch energy system depends on the presence of a good infrastructure. For many decades little attention was paid to infrastructure, but due to the liberalization infrastructure is receiving renewed attention. The grids are now considered the backbone of the energy system and essential for security of supply. Moreover, future electricity plants may have to adhere to the 'zero emission' demands in the future and (nearly) empty oil and gas fields will be used for underground storage of substances such as CO2. This new series addresses the existing and new regulation for the energy infrastructure. This edition addresses a number of fiscal aspects of the energy infrastructure. [mk] [nl

  2. Design and analysis of electrical energy storage demonstration projects on UK distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.F.; Wade, N.S.; Jiang, T.; Taylor, P.C.; Hashiesh, F.; Michel, M.; Miller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Results of an EES system demonstration project carried out in the UK. • Approaches to the design of trials for EES and observation on their application. • A formalised methodology for analysis of smart grids trials. • Validated models of energy storage. • Capability of EES to connect larger quantities of heat pumps and PV is evaluated. - Abstract: The UK government’s CO 2 emissions targets will require electrification of much of the country’s infrastructure with low carbon technologies such as photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles and heat pumps. The large scale proliferation of these technologies will necessitate major changes to the planning and operation of distribution networks. Distribution network operators are trialling electrical energy storage (EES) across their networks to increase their understanding of the contribution that it can make to enable the expected paradigm shift in generation and consumption of electricity. In order to evaluate a range of applications for EES, including voltage control and power flow management, installations have taken place at various distribution network locations and voltage levels. This article reports on trial design approaches and their application to a UK trial of an EES system to ensure broad applicability of the results. Results from these trials of an EES system, low carbon technologies and trial distribution networks are used to develop validated power system models. These models are used to evaluate, using a formalised methodology, the impact that EES could have on the design and operation of future distribution networks

  3. Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Power Systems in general and specifically the problems of communication, control, and coordination in human supervisory control of electric power transmission and distribution networks constitute a good case study for resilience engineering. Because of the high cost and high impact on society of transmission disturbances and blackouts and the vulnerability of power networks to terrorist attacks, Transmission Systems Operators (TSOs) are already focusing on organizational structures, procedures, and technical innovations that could improve the flexibility and robustness of power Systems and achieve the overall goal of providing secure power supply. For a number of reasons however the complexity of power Systems is increasing and new problems arise for human supervisory control and the ability of these Systems to implement fast recovery from disturbances. Around the world power Systems are currently being restructured to adapt to regional electricity markets and secure the availability, resilience and sustainability of electric power generation, transmission and distribution. This demands a reconsideration of the available decision support, the activity of human supervisory control of the highly automated processes involved and the procedures regulating it, as well as the role of the TSOs and the regional, national and international organizations set up to manage their activity. Unfortunately we can expect that human supervisory control of power Systems will become more complex in the near future for a number of reasons. The European Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) has remarked that although the interconnected Systems of power transmission networks has been developed over the years with the main goal of providing secure power supply through common use of reserve capacities and the optimization of the use of energy resources, today's market dynamics imposing a high level of cross-border exchanges is 'out of the scope of the

  4. PEOPLE REIDENTIFCATION IN A DISTRIBUTED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Oliveira de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to the object reidentification problem in a distributed camera network system. The reidentification or reacquisition problem consists essentially on the matching process of images acquired from different cameras. This work is applied in a monitored environment by cameras. This application is important to modern security systems, in which the targets presence identification in the environment expands the capacity of action by security agents in real time and provides important parameters like localization for each target. We used target’s interest points and target’s color with features for reidentification. The satisfactory results were obtained from real experiments in public video datasets and synthetic images with noise.

  5. Social Networking Adapted for Distributed Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Share is a social networking site with novel, specially designed feature sets to enable simultaneous remote collaboration and sharing of large data sets among scientists. The site will include not only the standard features found on popular consumer-oriented social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace, but also a number of powerful tools to extend its functionality to a science collaboration site. A Virtual Observatory is a promising technology for making data accessible from various missions and instruments through a Web browser. Sci-Share augments services provided by Virtual Observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase science returns from NASA missions. Sci-Share also enables better utilization of NASA s high-performance computing resources by providing an easy and central mechanism to access and share large files on users space or those saved on mass storage. The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today remains the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. Each of these tools has well-known limitations. Sci-Share transforms the social networking paradigm into a scientific collaboration environment by offering powerful tools for cooperative discourse and digital content sharing. Sci-Share differentiates itself by serving as an online repository for users digital content with the following unique features: a) Sharing of any file type, any size, from anywhere; b) Creation of projects and groups for controlled sharing; c) Module for sharing files on HPC (High Performance Computing) sites; d) Universal accessibility of staged files as embedded links on other sites (e.g. Facebook) and tools (e.g. e-mail); e) Drag-and-drop transfer of large files, replacing awkward e-mail attachments (and file size limitations); f) Enterprise-level data and

  6. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-08

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.

  7. THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DEVELOPEMENT IN PRINT MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Iordache

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the characteristics of the distribution networks in print media and the features ofmarketing in mass media, emphasising the attempts initiated by the press in the context of the financial crisis. Theresearch was conducted through a case study on regional newspaper,, Gazeta de Sud'' The main problems analyzedwere decreasing newspaper circulation and advertising. The research taken into account trends and developmentsworldwide print media as well as print media particularities of Romania, with a focus on identifying factors thatcontributed to the closure of a significant number of newspapers, or their transition from printed version online format.The paper is mainly focused on some practical issues related to the way of organizing the print media sales networks,the authors elaborating proposals for the implementation of certain measures to increase the circulation, on the onehand, and on the hand, to increase the sale of ad space in the newspaper. Compared with other products, thenewspaper has unique characteristics caused by daily changing content, and therefore the product itself. Having ahighly perishable, the content of media products should always seen in relation to time, which requires more rapiddistribution and continuous production.

  8. Distributed Bayesian Networks for User Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedesco, Roberto; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a popular platform for providing eLearning applications to a wide spectrum of users. However – as users differ in their preferences, background, requirements, and goals – applications should provide personalization mechanisms. In the Web context, user models used by such ada......The World Wide Web is a popular platform for providing eLearning applications to a wide spectrum of users. However – as users differ in their preferences, background, requirements, and goals – applications should provide personalization mechanisms. In the Web context, user models used...... by such adaptive applications are often partial fragments of an overall user model. The fragments have then to be collected and merged into a global user profile. In this paper we investigate and present algorithms able to cope with distributed, fragmented user models – based on Bayesian Networks – in the context...... of Web-based eLearning platforms. The scenario we are tackling assumes learners who use several systems over time, which are able to create partial Bayesian Networks for user models based on the local system context. In particular, we focus on how to merge these partial user models. Our merge mechanism...

  9. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shan; Tong, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverte...

  10. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  11. Application of dynamic Bayesian network to risk analysis of domino effects in chemical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima

    2015-01-01

    A domino effect is a low frequency high consequence chain of accidents where a primary accident (usually fire and explosion) in a unit triggers secondary accidents in adjacent units. High complexity and growing interdependencies of chemical infrastructures make them increasingly vulnerable to domino effects. Domino effects can be considered as time dependent processes. Thus, not only the identification of involved units but also their temporal entailment in the chain of accidents matter. More importantly, in the case of domino-induced fires which can generally last much longer compared to explosions, foreseeing the temporal evolution of domino effects and, in particular, predicting the most probable sequence of accidents (or involved units) in a domino effect can be of significance in the allocation of preventive and protective safety measures. Although many attempts have been made to identify the spatial evolution of domino effects, the temporal evolution of such accidents has been overlooked. We have proposed a methodology based on dynamic Bayesian network to model both the spatial and temporal evolutions of domino effects and also to quantify the most probable sequence of accidents in a potential domino effect. The application of the developed methodology has been demonstrated via a hypothetical fuel storage plant. - Highlights: • A Dynamic Bayesian Network methodology has been developed to model domino effects. • Considering time-dependencies, both spatial and temporal evolutions of domino effects have been modeled. • The concept of most probable sequence of accidents has been proposed instead of the most probable combination of accidents. • Using backward analysis, the most vulnerable units have been identified during a potential domino effect. • The proposed methodology does not need to identify a unique primary unit (accident) for domino effect modeling

  12. A Hierarchical Dispatch Structure for Distribution Network Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhao; Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical dispatch structure for efficient distribution network pricing. The dispatch coordination problem in the context of hierarchical network operators are addressed. We formulate decentralized generation dispatch into a bilevel optimization problem in which main network operator and the connected distribution network operator optimize their costs in two levels. By using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions and Fortuny-Amat McCarl linearization, the bilevel optimization ...

  13. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  14. Framework for implementation of maintenance management in distribution network service providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Fernandez, Juan Francisco; Crespo Marquez, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Distribution network service providers (DNSP) are companies dealing with network infrastructure, such as distribution of gas, water, electricity or telecommunications, and they require the development of special maintenance management (MM) capabilities in order to satisfy the needs of their customers. In this sector, maintenance management information systems are essential to ensure control, gain knowledge and improve decision making. The aim of this paper is the study of specific characteristics of maintenance in these types of companies. We will investigate existing standards and best management practices with the scope of defining a suitable ad-hoc framework for implementation of maintenance management. The conclusion of the work supports the proposition of a framework consisting on a processes framework based on a structure of systems, integrated for continuous improvement of maintenance activities. The paper offers a very practical approach to the problem, as a result of more of 10 years of professional experience within this sector, and specially focused to network maintenance.

  15. Multi-level infrastructure of interconnected testbeds of large-scale wireless sensor networks (MI2T-WSN)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available are still required for further testing before the real implementation. In this paper we propose a multi-level infrastructure of interconnected testbeds of large- scale WSNs. This testbed consists of 1000 sensor motes that will be distributed into four...

  16. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  17. OSiRIS: a distributed Ceph deployment using software defined networking for multi-institutional research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; Kissel, Ezra; Meekhof, Benjeman; Swany, Martin; Miller, Charles; Gregorowicz, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We report on the first year of the OSiRIS project (NSF Award #1541335, UM, IU, MSU and WSU) which is targeting the creation of a distributed Ceph storage infrastructure coupled together with software-defined networking to provide high-performance access for well-connected locations on any participating campus. The projects goal is to provide a single scalable, distributed storage infrastructure that allows researchers at each campus to read, write, manage and share data directly from their own computing locations. The NSF CC*DNI DIBBS program which funded OSiRIS is seeking solutions to the challenges of multi-institutional collaborations involving large amounts of data and we are exploring the creative use of Ceph and networking to address those challenges. While OSiRIS will eventually be serving a broad range of science domains, its first adopter will be the LHC ATLAS detector project via the ATLAS Great Lakes Tier-2 (AGLT2) jointly located at the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. Part of our presentation will cover how ATLAS is using the OSiRIS infrastructure and our experiences integrating our first user community. The presentation will also review the motivations for and goals of the project, the technical details of the OSiRIS infrastructure, the challenges in providing such an infrastructure, and the technical choices made to address those challenges. We will conclude with our plans for the remaining 4 years of the project and our vision for what we hope to deliver by the projects end.

  18. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...... in the distribution networks considering the specifications of the connected resources. The main goal is to develop a fairer methodology trying to distribute the distribution network use costs to all players which are using the network in each period. In this paper, a model considering different type of costs (fixed......, losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle...

  19. A Complex Network Approach to Distributional Semantic Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Utsumi

    Full Text Available A number of studies on network analysis have focused on language networks based on free word association, which reflects human lexical knowledge, and have demonstrated the small-world and scale-free properties in the word association network. Nevertheless, there have been very few attempts at applying network analysis to distributional semantic models, despite the fact that these models have been studied extensively as computational or cognitive models of human lexical knowledge. In this paper, we analyze three network properties, namely, small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical properties, of semantic networks created by distributional semantic models. We demonstrate that the created networks generally exhibit the same properties as word association networks. In particular, we show that the distribution of the number of connections in these networks follows the truncated power law, which is also observed in an association network. This indicates that distributional semantic models can provide a plausible model of lexical knowledge. Additionally, the observed differences in the network properties of various implementations of distributional semantic models are consistently explained or predicted by considering the intrinsic semantic features of a word-context matrix and the functions of matrix weighting and smoothing. Furthermore, to simulate a semantic network with the observed network properties, we propose a new growing network model based on the model of Steyvers and Tenenbaum. The idea underlying the proposed model is that both preferential and random attachments are required to reflect different types of semantic relations in network growth process. We demonstrate that this model provides a better explanation of network behaviors generated by distributional semantic models.

  20. Aggregated Representation of Distribution Networks for Large-Scale Transmission Network Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Altin, Müfit; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    As a common practice of large-scale transmission network analysis the distribution networks have been represented as aggregated loads. However, with increasing share of distributed generation, especially wind and solar power, in the distribution networks, it became necessary to include...... the distributed generation within those analysis. In this paper a practical methodology to obtain aggregated behaviour of the distributed generation is proposed. The methodology, which is based on the use of the IEC standard wind turbine models, is applied on a benchmark distribution network via simulations....

  1. Making Network Markets in Education: The Development of Data Infrastructure in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of data infrastructure in Australian schooling with a specific focus on interoperability standards that help to make new markets for education data. The conceptual framework combines insights from studies of infrastructure, economic markets and digital data. The case of the Australian National Schools…

  2. An integrated GIS-MARKAL toolbox for designing a CO2 infrastructure network in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, M.A.; Brederode, E.; Ramirez, C.A.; Kramers, K.; van der Kuip, M.; Wildenborg, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale implementation of carbon capture and storage needs a whole new infrastructure to transport and store CO2. Tools that can support planning and designing of such infrastructure require incorporation of both temporal and spatial aspects. Therefore, a toolbox that integrates ArcGIS, a

  3. Conflict free network coding for distributed storage networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we design a conflict free instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) solution for file download from distributed storage servers. Considering previously downloaded files at the clients from these servers as side information, IDNC can speed up the current download process. However, transmission conflicts can occur since multiple servers can simultaneously send IDNC combinations of files to the same client, which can tune to only one of them at a time. To avoid such conflicts and design more efficient coded download patterns, we propose a dual conflict IDNC graph model, which extends the conventional IDNC graph model in order to guarantee conflict free server transmissions to each of the clients. We then formulate the download time minimization problem as a stochastic shortest path problem whose action space is defined by the independent sets of this new graph. Given the intractability of the solution, we design a channel-aware heuristic algorithm and show that it achieves a considerable reduction in the file download time, compared to applying the conventional IDNC approach separately at each of the servers.

  4. System analysis and planning of a gas distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Edwin F.M.; Farias, Helio Monteiro [AUTOMIND, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Carla V.R. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand by gas consumers require that projects or improvements in gas distribution networks be made carefully and safely to ensure a continuous, efficient and economical supply. Gas distribution companies must ensure that the networks and equipment involved are defined and designed at the appropriate time to attend to the demands of the market. To do that a gas distribution network analysis and planning tool should use distribution networks and transmission models for the current situation and the future changes to be implemented. These models are used to evaluate project options and help in making appropriate decisions in order to minimize the capital investment in new components or simple changes in operational procedures. Gas demands are increasing and it is important that gas distribute design new distribution systems to ensure this growth, considering financial constraints of the company, as well as local legislation and regulation. In this study some steps of developing a flexible system that attends to those needs will be described. The analysis of distribution requires geographically referenced data for the models as well as an accurate connectivity and the attributes of the equipment. GIS systems are often used as a deposit center that holds the majority of this information. GIS systems are constantly updated as distribution network equipment is modified. The distribution network modeling gathered from this system ensures that the model represents the current network condition. The benefits of this architecture drastically reduce the creation and maintenance cost of the network models, because network components data are conveniently made available to populate the distribution network. This architecture ensures that the models are continually reflecting the reality of the distribution network. (author)

  5. Distributed Robust Optimization in Networked System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Li, Chunguang

    2016-10-11

    In this paper, we consider a distributed robust optimization (DRO) problem, where multiple agents in a networked system cooperatively minimize a global convex objective function with respect to a global variable under the global constraints. The objective function can be represented by a sum of local objective functions. The global constraints contain some uncertain parameters which are partially known, and can be characterized by some inequality constraints. After problem transformation, we adopt the Lagrangian primal-dual method to solve this problem. We prove that the primal and dual optimal solutions of the problem are restricted in some specific sets, and we give a method to construct these sets. Then, we propose a DRO algorithm to find the primal-dual optimal solutions of the Lagrangian function, which consists of a subgradient step, a projection step, and a diffusion step, and in the projection step of the algorithm, the optimized variables are projected onto the specific sets to guarantee the boundedness of the subgradients. Convergence analysis and numerical simulations verifying the performance of the proposed algorithm are then provided. Further, for nonconvex DRO problem, the corresponding approach and algorithm framework are also provided.

  6. An open, component-based information infrastructure for integrated health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2002-12-18

    A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is the seamless sharing of multimedia clinical information. Different technological approaches can be adopted for enabling the communication and sharing of health record segments. In the context of the emerging global information society, the creation of and access to the integrated electronic health record (I-EHR) of a citizen has been assigned high priority in many countries. This requirement is complementary to an overall requirement for the creation of a health information infrastructure (HII) to support the provision of a variety of health telematics and e-health services. In developing a regional or national HII, the components or building blocks that make up the overall information system ought to be defined and an appropriate component architecture specified. This paper discusses current international priorities and trends in developing the HII. It presents technological challenges and alternative approaches towards the creation of an I-EHR, being the aggregation of health data created during all interactions of an individual with the healthcare system. It also presents results from an ongoing Research and Development (R&D) effort towards the implementation of the HII in HYGEIAnet, the regional health information network of Crete, Greece, using a component-based software engineering approach. Critical design decisions and related trade-offs, involved in the process of component specification and development, are also discussed and the current state of development of an I-EHR service is presented. Finally, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and security issues, which are important for the deployment and use of any I-EHR service, are considered.

  7. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  8. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watthanai Pinthong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software.

  9. Degree distribution of a new model for evolving networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on intuitive but realistic consideration that nodes are added to the network with both preferential and random attachments. The degree distribution of the model is between a power-law and an exponential decay. Motivated by the features of network evolution, we introduce a new model of evolving networks, incorporating the ...

  10. Modern computer networks and distributed intelligence in accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.

    1991-01-01

    Appropriate hardware and software network protocols are surveyed for accelerator control environments. Accelerator controls network topologies are discussed with respect to the following criteria: vertical versus horizontal and distributed versus centralized. Decision-making considerations are provided for accelerator network architecture specification. Current trends and implementations at Fermilab are discussed

  11. Delivering Sustainability Through Supply Chain Distribution Network Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ravet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Companies could gain (cost, service, green/sustainable competitive advantage through the supply chain network. The goal of this article is to study how to deliver sustainability through the supply chain distribution network redesign.Design/methodology/approach - A literature review is conducted to examine research relating to sustainable supply chain strategies and supply chain distribution network redesign.Findings - A study of the supply chain literature reveals the importance to rethink the supply chain distribution network design and to treat sustainability as integral to operations.

  12. Impact of embedded renewable on transmission and distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistora, M.; Maslo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with impact of renewable energy sources on both interconnected transmission systems and distribution networks. It evaluates the role of phase-shifting transformers in controlling active power flows created by renewable as well as embedded renewable' role in is landing operation in distribution network. Model of photovoltaic power plant from MODES simulation software is described as well. (Authors)

  13. Modelling aspects of distributed processing in telecommunication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasgard, A; Audestad, JA; Dye, S; Stougie, L; van der Vlerk, MH; Wallace, SW

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formally describe new optimization models for telecommunication networks with distributed processing. Modem distributed networks put more focus on the processing of information and less on the actual transportation of data than we are traditionally used to in

  14. Solutions to operate transmission and distribution gas networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respect the actual and future regulations, besides SCADA, there is a need for further modern operating solutions for the transmission and distribution gas network. The paper presents the newest operating principles and modern software solutions that represent a considerable help to operate the transmission and distribution gas networks.

  15. Smart curtailment for congestion management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A. N.M.M.; Rahman, M. T.; Nguyen, P. H.; Bliek, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) leads to capacity challenges, i.e. network congestions, in the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. A number of strategies are being widely studied to tackle the challenges with direct switching actions such as load shedding or power

  16. Topology Counts: Force Distributions in Circular Spring Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Knut M.; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Sharma, Abhinav; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wardetzky, Max

    2018-02-01

    Filamentous polymer networks govern the mechanical properties of many biological materials. Force distributions within these networks are typically highly inhomogeneous, and, although the importance of force distributions for structural properties is well recognized, they are far from being understood quantitatively. Using a combination of probabilistic and graph-theoretical techniques, we derive force distributions in a model system consisting of ensembles of random linear spring networks on a circle. We show that characteristic quantities, such as the mean and variance of the force supported by individual springs, can be derived explicitly in terms of only two parameters: (i) average connectivity and (ii) number of nodes. Our analysis shows that a classical mean-field approach fails to capture these characteristic quantities correctly. In contrast, we demonstrate that network topology is a crucial determinant of force distributions in an elastic spring network. Our results for 1D linear spring networks readily generalize to arbitrary dimensions.

  17. Topology Counts: Force Distributions in Circular Spring Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Knut M; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O; Sharma, Abhinav; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F; Wardetzky, Max

    2018-02-09

    Filamentous polymer networks govern the mechanical properties of many biological materials. Force distributions within these networks are typically highly inhomogeneous, and, although the importance of force distributions for structural properties is well recognized, they are far from being understood quantitatively. Using a combination of probabilistic and graph-theoretical techniques, we derive force distributions in a model system consisting of ensembles of random linear spring networks on a circle. We show that characteristic quantities, such as the mean and variance of the force supported by individual springs, can be derived explicitly in terms of only two parameters: (i) average connectivity and (ii) number of nodes. Our analysis shows that a classical mean-field approach fails to capture these characteristic quantities correctly. In contrast, we demonstrate that network topology is a crucial determinant of force distributions in an elastic spring network. Our results for 1D linear spring networks readily generalize to arbitrary dimensions.

  18. Photovoltaic production and distribution network; La production photovoltaique et les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, J.L. [ERDF, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    The rapid development of photovoltaics boosted by attractive feed-in tariffs caused a sharp increase in requests for connection to public distribution grids, which were originally designed to serve consumers. ERDF, main distribution network operator in France, is facing a challenge in terms of capacity for handling requests for connection and in terms of public distribution network operation and management. (author)

  19. A Capacity Dimensioning Method for Broadband Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Bergheim, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents capacity dimensioning for a hypothetical distribution network in the Danish municipality of Aalborg. The number of customers in need for a better service level and the continuous increase in network traffic makes it harder for ISPs to deliver high levels of service to their cu......This paper presents capacity dimensioning for a hypothetical distribution network in the Danish municipality of Aalborg. The number of customers in need for a better service level and the continuous increase in network traffic makes it harder for ISPs to deliver high levels of service...... to their customers. This paper starts by defining three levels of services, together with traffic demands based on research of traffic distribution and generation in networks. Calculations for network dimension are then calculated. The results from the dimensioning are used to compare different network topologies...

  20. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This

  1. A Novel Intensive Distribution Logistics Network Design and Profit Allocation Problem considering Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Gan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of logistics distribution highlights the problems including the imperfect infrastructure of logistics distribution network, the serious shortage of distribution capacity of each individual enterprise, and the high cost of distribution in China. While the development of sharing economy makes it possible to achieve the integration of whole social logistic resources, big data technology can grasp customer’s logistics demand accurately on the basis of analyzing the customer’s logistics distribution preference, which contributes to the integration and optimization of the whole logistics resources. This paper proposes a kind of intensive distribution logistics network considering sharing economy, which assumes that all the social logistics suppliers build a strategic alliance, and individual idle logistics resources are also used to deal with distribution needs. Analyzing customer shopping behavior by the big data technology to determine customer’s logistics preference on the basis of dividing the customer’s logistics preference into high speed, low cost, and low pollution and then constructing the corresponding objective function model according to different logistics preferences, we obtain the intensive distribution logistics network model and solve it with heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mechanism of interest distribution of the participants in the distribution network and puts forward an improved interval Shapley value method considering both satisfaction and contribution, with case verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. The results showed that, compared with the traditional Shapley method, distribution coefficient calculated by the improved model could be fairer, improve stakeholder satisfaction, and promote the sustainable development of the alliance as well.

  2. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Mozart B C; Kim, Seokjin; Huang, Rongbing

    2017-01-01

    Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  3. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products

  4. Combining Wired and Wireless Networks for a QoS-Aware Broadband Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2004-01-01

    We show how integrated planning of wired and wireless infrastructures can be used to build a QoS-aware broadband infrastructure. The outset is a case study of the municipality of Hals, a rural community in Denmark, where the objective is to establish a broadband infrastructure reaching all househ...... To The Home for primary connections and Fixed Wireless Access for backup. This is implemented over 15 years, during which temporary solutions ensure sufficient QoS and reliability for all users. These temporary solutions form parts of the final solutions....

  5. Evaluation of Voltage Control Approaches for Future Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates meta-heuristic and deterministic approaches for distribution network voltage control. As part of this evaluation, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, Cuckoo Search, is applied for distribution network voltage control and compared with a deterministic voltage control algorithm, the oriented discrete coordinate decent method (ODCDM. ODCDM has been adopted in a state-of-the-art industrial product and applied in real distribution networks. These two algorithms have been evaluated under a set of test cases, which were generated to represent the voltage control problems in current and future distribution networks. Sampled test results have been presented, and findings have been discussed regarding the adoption of different optimization algorithms for current and future distribution networks.

  6. A distributed authentication and authorization scheme for in-network big data sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Big data has a strong demand for a network infrastructure with the capability to support data sharing and retrieval efficiently. Information-centric networking (ICN is an emerging approach to satisfy this demand, where big data is cached ubiquitously in the network and retrieved using data names. However, existing authentication and authorization schemes rely mostly on centralized servers to provide certification and mediation services for data retrieval. This causes considerable traffic overhead for the secure distributed sharing of data. To solve this problem, we employ identity-based cryptography (IBC to propose a Distributed Authentication and Authorization Scheme (DAAS, where an identity-based signature (IBS is used to achieve distributed verifications of the identities of publishers and users. Moreover, Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE is used to enable the distributed and fine-grained authorization. DAAS consists of three phases: initialization, secure data publication, and secure data retrieval, which seamlessly integrate authentication and authorization with the interest/data communication paradigm in ICN. In particular, we propose trustworthy registration and Network Operator and Authority Manifest (NOAM dissemination to provide initial secure registration and enable efficient authentication for global data retrieval. Meanwhile, Attribute Manifest (AM distribution coupled with automatic attribute update is proposed to reduce the cost of attribute retrieval. We examine the performance of the proposed DAAS, which shows that it can achieve a lower bandwidth cost than existing schemes.

  7. Parallel Distributed Processing theory in the age of deep networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely, that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format, and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated within cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks le...

  8. The Value of Information in Distributed Decision Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    formulation, and then we describe the various results at- tained. 1 Mathematical description of Distributed Decision Network un- der Information...Constraints We now define a mathematical framework for networks. Let G = (V,E) be an undirected random network (graph) drawn from a known distribution pG, 1...to any linear, combinatorial problem like shortest path optimization, and, further, so long as the original combinatorial problem can be solved in

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  10. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  11. Robust quantum network architectures and topologies for entanglement distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Khatri, Sumeet; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2018-01-01

    Entanglement distribution is a prerequisite for several important quantum information processing and computing tasks, such as quantum teleportation, quantum key distribution, and distributed quantum computing. In this work, we focus on two-dimensional quantum networks based on optical quantum technologies using dual-rail photonic qubits for the building of a fail-safe quantum internet. We lay out a quantum network architecture for entanglement distribution between distant parties using a Bravais lattice topology, with the technological constraint that quantum repeaters equipped with quantum memories are not easily accessible. We provide a robust protocol for simultaneous entanglement distribution between two distant groups of parties on this network. We also discuss a memory-based quantum network architecture that can be implemented on networks with an arbitrary topology. We examine networks with bow-tie lattice and Archimedean lattice topologies and use percolation theory to quantify the robustness of the networks. In particular, we provide figures of merit on the loss parameter of the optical medium that depend only on the topology of the network and quantify the robustness of the network against intermittent photon loss and intermittent failure of nodes. These figures of merit can be used to compare the robustness of different network topologies in order to determine the best topology in a given real-world scenario, which is critical in the realization of the quantum internet.

  12. Scaling up local energy infrastructure; An agent-based model of the emergence of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonathan; Roelich, Katy; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Knoeri, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of local energy infrastructure – such as heat networks – to the transition to a low carbon economy is increasingly recognised in international, national and municipal policy. Creating the policy environment to foster the scaling up of local energy infrastructure is, however, still challenging; despite national policy action and local authority interest the growth of heat networks in UK cities remains slow. Techno-economic energy system models commonly used to inform policy are not designed to address institutional and governance barriers. We present an agent-based model of heat network development in UK cities in which policy interventions aimed at the institutional and governance barriers faced by diverse actors can be explored. Three types of project instigators are included – municipal, commercial and community – which have distinct decision heuristics and capabilities and follow a multi-stage development process. Scenarios of policy interventions developed in a companion modelling approach indicate that the effect of interventions differs between actors depending on their capabilities. Successful interventions account for the specific motivations and capabilities of different actors, provide a portfolio of support along the development process and recognise the important strategic role of local authorities in supporting low carbon energy infrastructure. - Highlights: • Energy policy should account for diverse actor motivations and capabilities. • Project development is a multi-stage process, not a one-off event. • Participatory agent-based modelling can inform policy that accounts for complexity. • Policy should take a portfolio approach to providing support. • Local authorities have an important strategic role in local infrastructure.

  13. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  14. Information report on electricity distribution network security and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first outlines the degradation of electricity quality, and identifies the lack of investment as the main reason of the network weakness. It notices that the French network is much extended, and that the medium and low voltage networks need to be secured, and outlines that some legal measures have already been implemented to correct these problems. In its second part, the report comments the network manager's point of view, and denies his critics of the conceding authorities. It also discusses the network manager's investments, and finally formulates six propositions for a better future of the distribution network

  15. InSAR remote sensing for performance monitoring of transportation infrastructure at the network level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    The goal of the project was the implementation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar : (InSAR) monitoring techniques to allow for early detection of geohazard, potentially : affecting the transportation infrastructure, as well as the monitoring...

  16. Recent advances in operational seasonal forecasting in South Africa: Models, infrastructure and networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The various institutions involved with seasonal forecast development and production are discussed. New modelling approaches and the establishment of infrastructures to improve forecast dissemination are discussed....

  17. TRANSVAC research infrastructure - Results and lessons learned from the European network of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Mark J; Thøgersen, Regitze L; Guzman, Carlos A; Ho, Mei Mei; Verreck, Frank; Collin, Nicolas; Robertson, James S; McConkey, Samuel J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Leroy, Odile

    2015-10-05

    TRANSVAC was a collaborative infrastructure project aimed at enhancing European translational vaccine research and training. The objective of this four year project (2009-2013), funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7), was to support European collaboration in the vaccine field, principally through the provision of transnational access (TNA) to critical vaccine research and development (R&D) infrastructures, as well as by improving and harmonising the services provided by these infrastructures through joint research activities (JRA). The project successfully provided all available services to advance 29 projects and, through engaging all vaccine stakeholders, successfully laid down the blueprint for the implementation of a permanent research infrastructure for early vaccine R&D in Europe. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Learning Method, Facilities And Infrastructure, And Learning Resources In Basic Networking For Vocational School

    OpenAIRE

    Pamungkas, Bian Dwi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the contribution of learning methods on learning output, the contribution of facilities and infrastructure on output learning, the contribution of learning resources on learning output, and the contribution of learning methods, the facilities and infrastructure, and learning resources on learning output. The research design is descriptive causative, using a goal-oriented assessment approach in which the assessment focuses on assessing the achievement of a goal. The ...

  19. Strategy for sustainability of the Joint European Research Infrastructure Network for Coastal Observatories - JERICO

    OpenAIRE

    Puillat, Ingrid; Farcy, Patrick; Durand, Dominique; Petihakis, George; Morin, Pascal; Kriegger, Magali; Petersen, Wilhelm; Tintoré, Joaquin; Sorensen, Kai; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Wehde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The JERICO European research infrastructure (RI) is integrating several platform types i.e. fixed buoys, piles, moorings, drifters, Ferryboxes, gliders, HF radars, coastal cable observatories and the associated technologies dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the European coastal seas. The infrastructure is to serve both the implementation of European marine policies and the elucidation of key scientific questions through dedicated observation and monitoring plans. It includes obse...

  20. A fusion networking model for smart grid power distribution backbone communication network based on PTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In current communication network for distribution in Chinese power grid systems, the fiber communication backbone network for distribution and TD-LTE power private wireless backhaul network of power grid are both bearing by the SDH optical transmission network, which also carries the communication network of transformer substation and main electric. As the data traffic of the distribution communication and TD-LTE power private wireless network grow rapidly in recent years, it will have a big impact with the SDH network’s bearing capacity which is mainly used for main electric communication in high security level. This paper presents a fusion networking model which use a multiple-layer PTN network as the unified bearing of the TD-LTE power private wireless backhaul network and fiber communication backbone network for distribution. Network dataflow analysis shows that this model can greatly reduce the capacity pressure of the traditional SDH network as well as ensure the reliability of the transmission of the communication network for distribution and TD-LTE power private wireless network.

  1. Trade-offs in the distribution of neural networks in a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Tham, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the tradeoff between communication and memory usage in different methods of distributing neural networks in a Wireless Sensor Network. A structural approach is presented, categorized in two dimensions: horizontal and vertical decomposition. Horizontal decomposition turns

  2. CERN printing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  3. CERN printing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Rafal.Otto@cern.ch, E-mail: Juraj.Sucik@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all ({approx}1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration.

  4. Estimating Conditional Distributions by Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Neural Networks for estimating conditionaldistributions and their associated quantiles are investigated in this paper. A basic network structure is developed on the basis of kernel estimation theory, and consistency property is considered from a mild set of assumptions. A number of applications...

  5. NUMA-Aware Thread Scheduling for Big Data Transfers over Terabits Network Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeuk Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evergrowing trend of big data has led scientists to share and transfer the simulation and analytical data across the geodistributed research and computing facilities. However, the existing data transfer frameworks used for data sharing lack the capability to adopt the attributes of the underlying parallel file systems (PFS. LADS (Layout-Aware Data Scheduling is an end-to-end data transfer tool optimized for terabit network using a layout-aware data scheduling via PFS. However, it does not consider the NUMA (Nonuniform Memory Access architecture. In this paper, we propose a NUMA-aware thread and resource scheduling for optimized data transfer in terabit network. First, we propose distributed RMA buffers to reduce memory controller contention in CPU sockets and then schedule the threads based on CPU socket and NUMA nodes inside CPU socket to reduce memory access latency. We design and implement the proposed resource and thread scheduling in the existing LADS framework. Experimental results showed from 21.7% to 44% improvement with memory-level optimizations in the LADS framework as compared to the baseline without any optimization.

  6. Flexibility and Balancing in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi

    . Chapter 4 presents the details of the analysis, as well as the details of the MV network. To generalize the analysis, a standard MV network has been used for the studies. The MV network is also an active network, i.e. it involves MV wind turbines and decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP). DCHP...... units play an important role in Danish power system, and they contribute to electricity production as well. Modeling of wind turbines is done considering real data of a Vestas wind turbine. For wind speed, a modified wind speed model has been used for wind turbines, considering the available wind...... measurement. Also, a detailed model of DCHP units has been used in this thesis. Details of wind turbine model, as well as details of DCHP are presented in the thesis. The third objective of the research is to include the LV and MV networks in frequency response of the power system. Considering the increasing...

  7. A Distributed Energy-Aware Trust Management System for Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelios, Yannis; Papayanoulas, Nikos; Trakadas, Panagiotis; Maniatis, Sotiris; Leligou, Helen C.; Zahariadis, Theodore

    Wireless sensor networks are inherently vulnerable to security attacks, due to their wireless operation. The situation is further aggravated because they operate in an infrastructure-less environment, which mandates the cooperation among nodes for all networking tasks, including routing, i.e. all nodes act as “routers”, forwarding the packets generated by their neighbours in their way to the sink node. This implies that malicious nodes (denying their cooperation) can significantly affect the network operation. Trust management schemes provide a powerful tool for the detection of unexpected node behaviours (either faulty or malicious). Once misbehaving nodes are detected, their neighbours can use this information to avoid cooperating with them either for data forwarding, data aggregation or any other cooperative function. We propose a secure routing solution based on a novel distributed trust management system, which allows for fast detection of a wide set of attacks and also incorporates energy awareness.

  8. The role of network theory and object-oriented modeling within a framework for the vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusgeld, Irene; Kroeger, Wolfgang; Sansavini, Giovanni; Schlaepfer, Markus; Zio, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures has been proposed by some of the authors. The framework basically consists of two successive stages: (i) a screening analysis for identifying the parts of the critical infrastructure most relevant with respect to its vulnerability and (ii) a detailed modeling of the operational dynamics of the identified parts for gaining insights on the causes and mechanisms responsible for the vulnerability. In this paper, a critical presentation is offered of the results of a set of investigations aimed at evaluating the potentials of (i) using network analysis based on measures of topological interconnection and reliability efficiency, for the screening task; (ii) using object-oriented modeling as the simulation framework to capture the detailed dynamics of the operational scenarios involving the most vulnerable parts of the critical infrastructure as identified by the preceding network analysis. A case study based on the Swiss high-voltage transmission system is considered. The results are cross-compared and evaluated; the needs of further research are defined

  9. Theses on Distributed Aesthetics. Or, What a Network is Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Lovink

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay Lovink and Munster set forward a number of proposals for a distributed aesthetics. If new media artistic practice and aesthetic experience were most often characterised by recourse to computational culture, then distributed aesthetics is dominated by networks. Networked media and technologies help to disperse experience so that we never seem to be having our experiences in the one place anymore. However, the authors suggest, most of the images and rhetoric attempting to characterise this distributed experience are drawn from the cartographic traditions of geographic information systems and/or conceptions of biological networking and growth. These do not assist in coming to terms with the specifically social aspects of online networking. The authors speculate that a distributed aesthetics must take into account the collective and personal 'aesthesia' of online networks - the experience of labouring towards new forms of social collectivity that produces not only euphoria but also boredom and frustration.

  10. An Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Power Distribution Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution network planning because of involving many variables and constraints is a multiobjective, discrete, nonlinear, and large-scale optimization problem. Harmony search (HS algorithm is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the improvisation process of music players. HS algorithm has several impressive advantages, such as easy implementation, less adjustable parameters, and quick convergence. But HS algorithm still has some defects such as premature convergence and slow convergence speed. According to the defects of the standard algorithm and characteristics of distribution network planning, an improved harmony search (IHS algorithm is proposed in this paper. We set up a mathematical model of distribution network structure planning, whose optimal objective function is to get the minimum annual cost and constraint conditions are overload and radial network. IHS algorithm is applied to solve the complex optimization mathematical model. The empirical results strongly indicate that IHS algorithm can effectively provide better results for solving the distribution network planning problem compared to other optimization algorithms.

  11. Degree and wealth distribution in a network induced by wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Gwang Il

    2007-09-01

    A network induced by wealth is a social network model in which wealth induces individuals to participate as nodes, and every node in the network produces and accumulates wealth utilizing its links. More specifically, at every time step a new node is added to the network, and a link is created between one of the existing nodes and the new node. Innate wealth-producing ability is randomly assigned to every new node, and the node to be connected to the new node is chosen randomly, with odds proportional to the accumulated wealth of each existing node. Analyzing this network using the mean value and continuous flow approaches, we derive a relation between the conditional expectations of the degree and the accumulated wealth of each node. From this relation, we show that the degree distribution of the network induced by wealth is scale-free. We also show that the wealth distribution has a power-law tail and satisfies the 80/20 rule. We also show that, over the whole range, the cumulative wealth distribution exhibits the same topological characteristics as the wealth distributions of several networks based on the Bouchaud-Mèzard model, even though the mechanism for producing wealth is quite different in our model. Further, we show that the cumulative wealth distribution for the poor and middle class seems likely to follow by a log-normal distribution, while for the richest, the cumulative wealth distribution has a power-law behavior.

  12. Freedom of Expression in Distributed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejvind Hansen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the following question: Is it possible to transfer human rights like the freedom of expression – or at least to preserve the formal protections guarding speech acts from arbitrary suppression – in a post-national setting? The question arises as an urgent matter in the context of our global system of connected markets and distributed telecommunications networks – the Internet – since, as many academics and policy makers have noted, the two tend to undermine nationals boundaries, putting into question the power of individual states to continue function as the traditional legal and identity-generating entities of last resort.   If this analysis is reliable the dialectical union between the autonomous individual citizen and the legally regulated nation state is broken. In this paper I will draw the consequences of that supposed break, exploring the question of the extent to which it makes sense to accord “rights” – freedom of expression – to entities that are not classical autonomous humans, and to confer them by entities that no longer bear the marks of nation-state sovereignty. The question thus is: Is it possible to transfer the normative approach of the classic liberal nation states into a global system?   The paper explores this question through an elaboration of problems for the preservation of the human right to freedom of expression: On the one hand communication on the Internet is regulated by an immense legal body, but on the other hand, the machinery for enforcement controlled by this legal body is dependent on various agencies that don’t necessarily recognize its legitimacy. I will then explore whether a more technologically oriented approach could be a more fruitful approach in defining the actual limitations to freedom of expression in the new global system. My answer is that ultimately the control paradigm fails, because it is too clumsy at incorporating self-correcting measures. Thirdly, I

  13. Accelerated Distributed Dual Averaging Over Evolving Networks of Growing Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the problem of accelerating distributed optimization in multi-agent networks by sequentially adding edges. Specifically, we extend the distributed dual averaging (DDA) subgradient algorithm to evolving networks of growing connectivity and analyze the corresponding improvement in convergence rate. It is known that the convergence rate of DDA is influenced by the algebraic connectivity of the underlying network, where better connectivity leads to faster convergence. However, the impact of network topology design on the convergence rate of DDA has not been fully understood. In this paper, we begin by designing network topologies via edge selection and scheduling. For edge selection, we determine the best set of candidate edges that achieves the optimal tradeoff between the growth of network connectivity and the usage of network resources. The dynamics of network evolution is then incurred by edge scheduling. Further, we provide a tractable approach to analyze the improvement in the convergence rate of DDA induced by the growth of network connectivity. Our analysis reveals the connection between network topology design and the convergence rate of DDA, and provides quantitative evaluation of DDA acceleration for distributed optimization that is absent in the existing analysis. Lastly, numerical experiments show that DDA can be significantly accelerated using a sequence of well-designed networks, and our theoretical predictions are well matched to its empirical convergence behavior.

  14. Pain: a distributed brain information network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how pain is processed in the brain has been an enduring puzzle, because there doesn't appear to be a single "pain cortex" that directly codes the subjective perception of pain. An emerging concept is that, instead, pain might emerge from the coordinated activity of an integrated brain network. In support of this view, Woo and colleagues present evidence that distinct brain networks support the subjective changes in pain that result from nociceptive input and self-directed cognitive modulation. This evidence for the sensitivity of distinct neural subsystems to different aspects of pain opens up the way to more formal computational network theories of pain.

  15. A Pub/Sub Message Distribution Architecture for Disruption Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Sergio; Esaki, Hiroshi

    Access to information is taken for granted in urban areas covered by a robust communication infrastructure. Nevertheless most of the areas in the world, are not covered by such infrastructures. We propose a DTN publish and subscribe system called Hikari, which uses nodes' mobility in order to distribute messages without using a robust infrastructure. The area of Disruption/Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) focuses on providing connectivity to locations separated by networks with disruptions and delays. The Hikari system does not use node identifiers for message forwarding thus eliminating the complexity of routing associated with many forwarding schemes in DTN. Hikari uses nodes paths' information, advertised by special nodes in the system or predicted by the system itself, for optimizing the message dissemination process. We have used the Paris subway system, due to it's complexity, to validate Hikari and to analyze it's performance. We have shown that Hikari achieves a superior deliver rate while keeping redundant messages in the system low, which is ideal when using devices with limited resources for message dissemination.

  16. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  17. Final Project Report: DOE Award FG02-04ER25606 Overlay Transit Networking for Scalable, High Performance Data Communication across Heterogeneous Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2007-08-31

    As the flood of data associated with leading edge computational science continues to escalate, the challenge of supporting the distributed collaborations that are now characteristic of it becomes increasingly daunting. The chief obstacles to progress on this front lie less in the synchronous elements of collaboration, which have been reasonably well addressed by new global high performance networks, than in the asynchronous elements, where appropriate shared storage infrastructure seems to be lacking. The recent report from the Department of Energy on the emerging 'data management challenge' captures the multidimensional nature of this problem succinctly: Data inevitably needs to be buffered, for periods ranging from seconds to weeks, in order to be controlled as it moves through the distributed and collaborative research process. To meet the diverse and changing set of application needs that different research communities have, large amounts of non-archival storage are required for transitory buffering, and it needs to be widely dispersed, easily available, and configured to maximize flexibility of use. In today's grid fabric, however, massive storage is mostly concentrated in data centers, available only to those with user accounts and membership in the appropriate virtual organizations, allocated as if its usage were non-transitory, and encapsulated behind legacy interfaces that inhibit the flexibility of use and scheduling. This situation severely restricts the ability of application communities to access and schedule usable storage where and when they need to in order to make their workflow more productive. (p.69f) One possible strategy to deal with this problem lies in creating a storage infrastructure that can be universally shared because it provides only the most generic of asynchronous services. Different user communities then define higher level services as necessary to meet their needs. One model of such a service is a Storage Network

  18. Call Arrival Rate Prediction and Blocking Probability Estimation for Infrastructure based Mobile Cognitive Radio Personal Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Nathani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Radio usage has been estimated as non-emergency service with low volume traffic. Present work proposes an infrastructure based Cognitive Radio network and probability of success of CR traffic in licensed band. The Cognitive Radio nodes will form cluster. The cluster nodes will communicate on Industrial, Scientific and Medical band using IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network based protocol from sensor to Gateway Cluster Head. For Cognitive Radio-Media Access Control protocol for Gateway to Cognitive Radio-Base Station communication, it will use vacant channels of licensed band. Standalone secondary users of Cognitive Radio Network shall be considered as a Gateway with one user. The Gateway will handle multi-channel multi radio for communication with Base Station. Cognitive Radio Network operators shall define various traffic data accumulation counters at Base Station for storing signal strength, Carrier-to-Interference and Noise Ratio, etc. parameters and record channel occupied/vacant status. The researches has been done so far using hour as interval is too long for parameters like holding time expressed in minutes and hence channel vacant/occupied status time is only probabilistically calculated. In the present work, an infrastructure based architecture has been proposed which polls channel status each minute in contrary to hourly polling of data. The Gateways of the Cognitive Radio Network shall monitor status of each Primary User periodically inside its working range and shall inform to Cognitive Radio- Base Station for preparation of minutewise database. For simulation, the occupancy data for all primary user channels were pulled in one minute interval from a live mobile network. Hourly traffic data and minutewise holding times has been analyzed to optimize the parameters of Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average prediction model. The blocking probability of an incoming Cognitive Radio call has been

  19. Distributed Data Management on the Petascale using Heterogeneous Grid Infrastructures with DQ2

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, M; Salgado, P; Lassnig, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), a new approach to the management of large scientific datasets by a dedicated middleware. This middleware is designed to handle the data organisation and data movement on the petascale for the High-Energy Physics Experiment ATLAS at CERN. DQ2 is able to maintain a well-defined quality of service in a scalable way, guarantees data consistency for the collaboration and bridges the gap between EGEE, OSG and NorduGrid infrastructures to enable true interoperability. DQ2 is specifically designed to support the access and management of large scientific datasets produced by the ATLAS experiment using heterogeneous Grid infrastructures. The DQ2 middleware manages those datasets with global services, local site services and enduser interfaces. The global services, or central catalogues, are responsible for the mapping of individual files onto DQ2 datasets. The local site services are responsible for tracking files available on-site, managing data movement and guaranteeing consistency of...

  20. Developing a grid infrastructure in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Aldama, D.; Dominguez, M.; Ricardo, H.; Gonzalez, A.; Nolasco, E.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez, M.; Sanchez, M.; Suarez, F.; Nodarse, F.; Moreno, N.; Aguilera, L.

    2007-07-01

    A grid infrastructure was deployed at Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA) in the frame of EELA project and of a national initiative for developing a Cuban Network for Science. A stand-alone model was adopted to overcome connectivity limitations. The e-infrastructure is based on gLite-3.0 middleware and is fully compatible with EELA-infrastructure. Afterwards, the work was focused on grid applications. The application GATE was deployed from the early beginning for biomedical users. Further, two applications were deployed on the local grid infrastructure: MOODLE for e-learning and AERMOD for assessment of local dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. Additionally, our local grid infrastructure was made interoperable with a Java based distributed system for bioinformatics calculations. This experience could be considered as a suitable approach for national networks with weak Internet connections. (Author)

  1. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  2. Topology Identification of General Dynamical Network with Distributed Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Yan, Wu; Xin-Chu, Fu

    2009-01-01

    General dynamical networks with distributed time delays are studied. The topology of the networks are viewed as unknown parameters, which need to be identified. Some auxiliary systems (also called the network estimators) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied in designing these network estimators. Based on linear matrix inequalities and the Lyapunov function method, the sufficient condition for the achievement of topology identification is obtained. This method can also better monitor the switching topology of dynamical networks. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of this method. (general)

  3. Applicability of line outage distribution factors to evaluate distribution network expansion options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Pouw, J.I.P.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network operators require more advanced planning tools to deal with the challenges of future network planning. An appropriate planning and optimization tool can identify which option for network extension should be selected from available alternatives. However, the evaluation part in

  4. Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The objective of power system operation is to meet the demand at all the locations ... The traditional electric power generation systems utilize the conventional energy resources, such as fossil ..... Power Distribution Planning Reference Book.

  5. Distributed state estimation for multi-agent based active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Along with the large-scale implementation of distributed generators, the current distribution networks have changed gradually from passive to active operation. State estimation plays a vital role to facilitate this transition. In this paper, a suitable state estimation method for the active network

  6. Distributed routing algorithms to manage power flow in agent-based active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Georgiadis, G.; Papatriantafilou, M.; Anh-Tuan, L.; Bertling, L.

    2010-01-01

    The current transition from passive to active electric distribution networks comes with problems and challenges on bi-directional power flow in the network and the uncertainty in the forecast of power generation from grid-connected renewable and distributed energy sources. The power flow management

  7. Autonomous Distributed Self-Organization for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Wen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks.

  8. Autonomous distributed self-organization for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yu; Tang, Hung-Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks.

  9. Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Efficient Reactive Power Compensation Algorithm for Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of automation and energy efficient equipment with electronic control would greatly improve industrial production.  These new devices are more sensitive to supply voltage deviation and the characteristics of the power system that was previously ignored are now very important. Hence the benefits of distribution automation have been widely acknowledged in recent years. This paper proposes an efficient load flow solution technique extended to find optimum location for reactive power compensation and network reconfiguration for planning and day-to-day operation of distribution networks.  This is required as a part of the distribution automation system (DAS for taking various control and operation decisions.  The method exploits the radial nature of the network and uses forward and backward propagation technique to calculate branch currents and node voltages.  The proposed method has been tested to analyze several practical distribution networks of various voltage levels and also having high R/X ratio.

  11. Distributed estimation based on observations prediction in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Mohammed F A; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We consider wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for distributed estimation of unknown parameters. Due to the limited bandwidth, sensor nodes quantize their noisy observations before transmission to a fusion center (FC) for the estimation process

  12. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using. WaterCAD ..... Table 1: Criteria Relating Population to Water Demand (NWSP, 2000) ..... timely manner ... Department, Middle East Technical.

  13. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  14. Urban infrastructure influences dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial metabolism in an urban stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are degraded by a suite of factors, including burial beneath urban infrastructure (i.e., roads, parking lots) that eliminates light and reduces direct organic matter inputs to streams, with likely consequences for organic matter metabolism by microbes and carbon lim...

  15. A Distributed Algorithm for Energy Optimization in Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Wisniewski, Rafal; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study in the form of a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system is considered. A distributed control is developed that minimizes the aggregated electrical energy consumption of the pumps in the network without violating the control demands. The algorithm...... a Plug & Play control system as most commissioning can be done during the manufacture of the pumps. Only information on the graph-structure of the hydraulic network is needed during installation....

  16. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  17. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  18. An Optimal Design Model for New Water Distribution Networks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mathematical formulation is a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) which involves the design of a new network of water distribution considering the cost in the form of unit price of pipes, the hydraulic gradient and the loss of pressure. The objective function minimizes the cost of the network which is computed as the sum ...

  19. The redesign of a warranty distribution network with recovery processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    A warranty distribution network provides aftersales warranty services to customers and resembles a closed-loop supply chain network with specific challenges for reverse flows management like recovery, repair, and reflow of refurbished products. We present here a nonlinear and nonconvex mixed integer

  20. Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One such approach is the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The advantage of ANNs is that they are robust and can be used to model complex linear and non-linear systems without making implicit assumptions. ANNs can be trained to forecast flow dynamics in a water distribution network. Such flow dynamics ...

  1. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunovi?, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  2. THE OPERATION MODES OPTIMIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Shkarbets

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variants of grounding the neutral wire of electric networks are considered and the recommendations are presented on increasing the level of operational reliability and electric safety of distribution networks with 6 kV voltage on the basis of limitation and suppression of transitional processes at asymmetrical damages.

  3. Multimedia distribution using network coding on the iphone platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks into the implementation details of random linear network coding on the Apple iPhone and iPod Touch mobile platforms for multimedia distribution. Previous implementations of network coding on this platform failed to achieve a throughput which is sufficient to saturate the WLAN...

  4. Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Peppino Fazio; Miroslav Voznak; Erik Chromy

    2016-01-01

    As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several ...

  5. Social networks and performance in distributed learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda Rodríguez, Jordi; Monguet Fierro, José María

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this study we analyse two distributed learning communities' social networks in order to understand how characteristics of the social structure can enhance s...

  6. Regulatory Improvements for Effective Integration of Distributed Generation into Electricity Distribution Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Jansen, J.C.; De Joode, J.; Bauknecht, D.; Gomez, T.; Pudjianto, D.; Strbac, G.; Ropenus, S.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of distributed electricity supply of renewable energy sources (RES-E) and combined heat and power (CHP) - so called distributed generation (DG) - can cause technical problems for electricity distribution networks. These integration problems can be overcome by reinforcing the network. Many European Member States apply network regulation that does not account for the impact of DG growth on the network costs. Passing on network integration costs to the DG-operator who is responsible for these extra costs may result in discrimination between different DG plants and between DG and large power generation. Therefore, in many regulatory systems distribution system operators (DSOs) are not being compensated for the DG integration costs. The DG-GRID project analysed technical and economical barriers for integration of distributed generation into electricity distribution networks. The project looked into the impact of a high DG deployment on the electricity distribution system costs and the impact on the financial position of the DSO. Several ways for improving network regulation in order to compensate DSOs for the increasing DG penetration were identified and tested. The DG-GRID project looked also into stimulating network innovations through economic regulation. The project was co-financed by the European Commission and carried out by nine European universities and research institutes. This report summarises the project results and is based on a number of DG-GRID reports that describe the conducted analyses and their results

  7. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  8. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  9. Planning of distributed generation in distribution network based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinze; Qu, Zhi; He, Xiaoyang; Jin, Xiaoming; Li, Tie; Wang, Mingkai; Han, Qiu; Gao, Ziji; Jiang, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale access of distributed power can improve the current environmental pressure, at the same time, increasing the complexity and uncertainty of overall distribution system. Rational planning of distributed power can effectively improve the system voltage level. To this point, the specific impact on distribution network power quality caused by the access of typical distributed power was analyzed and from the point of improving the learning factor and the inertia weight, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO) was proposed which could solve distributed generation planning for distribution network to improve the local and global search performance of the algorithm. Results show that the proposed method can well reduce the system network loss and improve the economic performance of system operation with distributed generation.

  10. Distributed control of deregulated electrical power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable operation of electrical power networks is that supply and demand are balanced at all time, as efficient ways for storing large amounts of electrical energy are scarce. Balancing is challenging, however, due to the power system's dimensions and complexity, the low

  11. Optical Intrabuilding and Interbuilding Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optics communication technology is a potential competitive alternative to coaxial cable and shielded twisted pairlines as a wide-band communications medium. Pilot demonstrations by public institutions such as the health care delivery system can test the application of this new technology. Fiber optic networks may have the potential to be…

  12. Stability of Drinking Water Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of R^n. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  13. Infrastructure Assisted Data Dissemination for Vehicular Sensor Networks in Metropolitan Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erman-Tüysüz, A.; de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Dilo, Arta; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Daher, Robil; Vinel, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs) are an emerging area of research that combines technologies developed in the domains of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and Wireless Sensor Networks. Data dissemination is an important aspect of these networks. It enables vehicles to share relevant sensor data

  14. On Line Segment Length and Mapping 4-regular Grid Structures in Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on mapping the road network into 4-regular grid structures. A mapping algorithm is proposed. To model the road network GIS data have been used. The Geographic Information System (GIS) data for the road network are composed with different size of line segment lengths...

  15. Architectural transformations in network services and distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luntovskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    With the given work we decided to help not only the readers but ourselves, as the professionals who actively involved in the networking branch, with understanding the trends that have developed in recent two decades in distributed systems and networks. Important architecture transformations of distributed systems have been examined. The examples of new architectural solutions are discussed. Content Periodization of service development Energy efficiency Architectural transformations in Distributed Systems Clustering and Parallel Computing, performance models Cloud Computing, RAICs, Virtualization, SDN Smart Grid, Internet of Things, Fog Computing Mobile Communication from LTE to 5G, DIDO, SAT-based systems Data Security Guaranteeing Distributed Systems Target Groups Students in EE and IT of universities and (dual) technical high schools Graduated engineers as well as teaching staff About the Authors Andriy Luntovskyy provides classes on networks, mobile communication, software technology, distributed systems, ...

  16. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation is proposed. The proposed method let the inverter based distributed generation be equivalent to Iθ bus, which makes it suitable to calculate the power flow of distribution network with a current limited inverter based distributed generation. And the low voltage ride through capability of inverter based distributed generation can be considered as well in this paper. Finally, some tests of power flow and short circuit current calculation are performed on a 33-bus distribution network. The calculated results from the proposed method in this paper are contrasted with those by the traditional method and the simulation method, whose results have verified the effectiveness of the integrated method suggested in this paper.

  17. Challenges in network science: Applications to infrastructures, climate, social systems and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Bunde, A.; Cohen, R.; Hermann, H.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Kertész, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Kurths, J.; Portugali, J.; Solomon, S.

    2012-11-01

    Network theory has become one of the most visible theoretical frameworks that can be applied to the description, analysis, understanding, design and repair of multi-level complex systems. Complex networks occur everywhere, in man-made and human social systems, in organic and inorganic matter, from nano to macro scales, and in natural and anthropogenic structures. New applications are developed at an ever-increasing rate and the promise for future growth is high, since increasingly we interact with one another within these vital and complex environments. Despite all the great successes of this field, crucial aspects of multi-level complex systems have been largely ignored. Important challenges of network science are to take into account many of these missing realistic features such as strong coupling between networks (networks are not isolated), the dynamics of networks (networks are not static), interrelationships between structure, dynamics and function of networks, interdependencies in given networks (and other classes of links, including different signs of interactions), and spatial properties (including geographical aspects) of networks. This aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss the challenges that future network science needs to address, and how different disciplines will be accordingly affected.

  18. Secure metropolitan network and the management of branches in the technological infrastructure:Case study GADM Babahoyo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre Vicente León Acurio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the nonexistent network to the general system of data communication that currently has the GADM (Autonomous Government Decentralized Municipal of Babahoyo located in the province of Los Rios in order to develop a logical design of a metropolitan network that can support new technologies and protocols ensuring the information conveyed between branches of GADM of Babahoyo, besides providing the institution of a compatible platform with the requirements of the e-Government (eGovernment. This research allowed to collect information through instruments such as interviews, meetings and literature review also visits took place at the premises of GADM Babahoyo, reviewing aspects of securities in telecommunications under the ISO / IEC 27002: 2013 citing reference the control objective Management network security. Identification, analysis and design of a proposed network infrastructure is made, allowing communication of the various units that are in distant places. It is concluded that the implementation of a system of networks throughout the municipal entity is considered a solution to the problem and generate many benefits.

  19. Heterogeneous Wireless Networks for Smart Grid Distribution Systems: Advantages and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Tarek; Abdrabou, Atef; Shaban, Khaled; Gaouda, A M

    2018-05-11

    Supporting a conventional power grid with advanced communication capabilities is a cornerstone to transferring it to a smart grid. A reliable communication infrastructure with a high throughput can lay the foundation towards the ultimate objective of a fully automated power grid with self-healing capabilities. In order to realize this objective, the communication infrastructure of a power distribution network needs to be extended to cover all substations including medium/low voltage ones. This shall enable information exchange among substations for a variety of system automation purposes with a low latency that suits time critical applications. This paper proposes the integration of two heterogeneous wireless technologies (such as WiFi and cellular 3G/4G) to provide reliable and fast communication among primary and secondary distribution substations. This integration allows the transmission of different data packets (not packet replicas) over two radio interfaces, making these interfaces act like a one data pipe. Thus, the paper investigates the applicability and effectiveness of employing heterogeneous wireless networks (HWNs) in achieving the desired reliability and timeliness requirements of future smart grids. We study the performance of HWNs in a realistic scenario under different data transfer loads and packet loss ratios. Our findings reveal that HWNs can be a viable data transfer option for smart grids.

  20. Heterogeneous Wireless Networks for Smart Grid Distribution Systems: Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Khalifa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporting a conventional power grid with advanced communication capabilities is a cornerstone to transferring it to a smart grid. A reliable communication infrastructure with a high throughput can lay the foundation towards the ultimate objective of a fully automated power grid with self-healing capabilities. In order to realize this objective, the communication infrastructure of a power distribution network needs to be extended to cover all substations including medium/low voltage ones. This shall enable information exchange among substations for a variety of system automation purposes with a low latency that suits time critical applications. This paper proposes the integration of two heterogeneous wireless technologies (such as WiFi and cellular 3G/4G to provide reliable and fast communication among primary and secondary distribution substations. This integration allows the transmission of different data packets (not packet replicas over two radio interfaces, making these interfaces act like a one data pipe. Thus, the paper investigates the applicability and effectiveness of employing heterogeneous wireless networks (HWNs in achieving the desired reliability and timeliness requirements of future smart grids. We study the performance of HWNs in a realistic scenario under different data transfer loads and packet loss ratios. Our findings reveal that HWNs can be a viable data transfer option for smart grids.

  1. Distributed Emulation in Support of Large Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Provider LTE Long Term Evolution MB Megabyte MIPS Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages MRT Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit NPS Naval...environment, modifications to a network, protocol, or model can be executed – and the effects measured – without affecting real-world users or services...produce their results when analyzing performance of Long Term Evolution ( LTE ) gateways [3]. Many research scenarios allow problems to be represented

  2. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....

  3. A unified framework for spiking and gap-junction interactions in distributed neuronal network simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eHahne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary simulators for networks of point and few-compartment model neurons come with a plethora of ready-to-use neuron and synapse models and support complex network topologies. Recent technological advancements have broadened the spectrum of application further to the efficient simulation of brain-scale networks on supercomputers. In distributed network simulations the amount of spike data that accrues per millisecond and process is typically low, such that a common optimization strategy is to communicate spikes at relatively long intervals, where the upper limit is given by the shortest synaptic transmission delay in the network. This approach is well-suited for simulations that employ only chemical synapses but it has so far impeded the incorporation of gap-junction models, which require instantaneous neuronal interactions. Here, we present a numerical algorithm based on a waveform-relaxation technique which allows for network simulations with gap junctions in a way that is compatible with the delayed communication strategy. Using a reference implementation in the NEST simulator, we demonstrate that the algorithm and the required data structures can be smoothly integrated with existing code such that they complement the infrastructure for spiking connections. To show that the unified framework for gap-junction and spiking interactions achieves high performance and delivers high accuracy...

  4. A distributed database view of network tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosinski, Jason; Paffenroth, Randy

    2008-04-01

    In distributed tracking systems, multiple non-collocated trackers cooperate to fuse local sensor data into a global track picture. Generating this global track picture at a central location is fairly straightforward, but the single point of failure and excessive bandwidth requirements introduced by centralized processing motivate the development of decentralized methods. In many decentralized tracking systems, trackers communicate with their peers via a lossy, bandwidth-limited network in which dropped, delayed, and out of order packets are typical. Oftentimes the decentralized tracking problem is viewed as a local tracking problem with a networking twist; we believe this view can underestimate the network complexities to be overcome. Indeed, a subsequent 'oversight' layer is often introduced to detect and handle track inconsistencies arising from a lack of robustness to network conditions. We instead pose the decentralized tracking problem as a distributed database problem, enabling us to draw inspiration from the vast extant literature on distributed databases. Using the two-phase commit algorithm, a well known technique for resolving transactions across a lossy network, we describe several ways in which one may build a distributed multiple hypothesis tracking system from the ground up to be robust to typical network intricacies. We pay particular attention to the dissimilar challenges presented by network track initiation vs. maintenance and suggest a hybrid system that balances speed and robustness by utilizing two-phase commit for only track initiation transactions. Finally, we present simulation results contrasting the performance of such a system with that of more traditional decentralized tracking implementations.

  5. A Review of Power Distribution Test Feeders in the United States and the Need for Synthetic Representative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. Postigo Marcos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources and new smart network technologies, distribution utilities face new challenges and opportunities to ensure reliable operations, manage service quality, and reduce operational and investment costs. Simultaneously, the research community is developing algorithms for advanced controls and distribution automation that can help to address some of these challenges. However, there is a shortage of realistic test systems that are publically available for development, testing, and evaluation of such new algorithms. Concerns around revealing critical infrastructure details and customer privacy have severely limited the number of actual networks published and that are available for testing. In recent decades, several distribution test feeders and US-featured representative networks have been published, but the scale, complexity, and control data vary widely. This paper presents a first-of-a-kind structured literature review of published distribution test networks with a special emphasis on classifying their main characteristics and identifying the types of studies for which they have been used. This both aids researchers in choosing suitable test networks for their needs and highlights the opportunities and directions for further test system development. In particular, we highlight the need for building large-scale synthetic networks to overcome the identified drawbacks of current distribution test feeders.

  6. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  7. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Chen, Liangzhe [ORNL; Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Prakash, B. Aditya [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  8. An improved algorithm for connectivity analysis of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.L.; Devi, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, an efficient algorithm for connectivity analysis of moderately sized distribution networks has been suggested. Algorithm is based on generation of all possible minimal system cutsets. The algorithm is efficient as it identifies only the necessary and sufficient conditions of system failure conditions in n-out-of-n type of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated with the help of saturated and unsaturated distribution networks. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is justified by comparing the computational efforts with the previously suggested appended spanning tree (AST) algorithm. The proposed technique has the added advantage as it can be utilized for generation of system inequalities which is useful in reliability estimation of capacitated networks

  9. A distributed framework for inter-domain virtual network embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihua; Han, Yanni; Lin, Tao; Tang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Network virtualization has been a promising technology for overcoming the Internet impasse. A main challenge in network virtualization is the efficient assignment of virtual resources. Existing work focused on intra-domain solutions whereas inter-domain situation is more practical in realistic setting. In this paper, we present a distributed inter-domain framework for mapping virtual networks to physical networks which can ameliorate the performance of the virtual network embedding. The distributed framework is based on a Multi-agent approach. A set of messages for information exchange is defined. We design different operations and IPTV use scenarios to validate the advantages of our framework. Use cases shows that our framework can solve the inter-domain problem efficiently.

  10. Incentive-Based Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Xinyang [University of Colorado; Chen, Lijun [University of Colorado

    2017-07-03

    This paper considers distribution networks fea- turing distributed energy resources, and designs incentive-based mechanisms that allow the network operator and end-customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Two different network-customer coordination mechanisms that require different amounts of information shared between the network operator and end-customers are developed to identify a solution of a well-defined social-welfare maximization prob- lem. Notably, the signals broadcast by the network operator assume the connotation of prices/incentives that induce the end- customers to adjust the generated/consumed powers in order to avoid the violation of the voltage constraints. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.

  11. Distributed applications monitoring at system and network level

    CERN Document Server

    Aderholz, Michael; Augé, E; Bagliesi, G; Banistoni, G; Barone, L; Boschini, M; Brunengo, A; Bunn, J J; Butler, J; Campanella, M; Capiluppi, P; D'Amato, M; Darneri, M; Di Mattia, A; Dorokhov, A E; Gagliardi, F; Gaines, I; Gasparini, U; Ghiselli, A; Gordon, J; Grandi, C; Gálvez, P; Harris, F; Holtman, K; Karimäki, V; Karita, Y; Klem, J T; Legrand, I; Leltchouk, M; Linglin, D; Lubrano, P; Luminari, L; McArthur, I C; Michelotto, M; Morita, Y; Nazarenko, A; Newman, H; O'Dell, Vivian; O'Neale, S W; Osculati, B; Pepé, M; Perini, L; Pinfold, James L; Pordes, R; Prelz, F; Putzer, A; Resconi, S; Robertson, L; Rolli, S; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Schaffer, R D; Schalk, T L; Servoli, L; Sgaravatto, M; Shiers, J; Silvestris, L; Siroli, G P; Sliwa, K; Smith, T; Somigliana, R; Stanescu, C; Stockinger, H E; Ugolotti, D; Valente, E; Vistoli, C; Wilkinson, R P; Willers, Ian Malcolm; Williams, D O

    2001-01-01

    Most distributed applications are based on architectural models that do not involve real-time knowledge of network status and of their network usage. Moreover the new "network aware" architectures are still under development and their design is not yet complete. We considered, as a use case, an application using ODBMS (Objectivity /DB) for the distributed analysis of experimental data. The dynamic usage of system and network resources at host and application levels has been measured in different client/server configurations, and on several LAN and WAN layouts. The aim was to study the application efficiency and behavior versus the network characteristics and conditions. The most interesting results of the LAN and WAN tests are described. System bottlenecks and limitations have been identified, and efficient working conditions in the different scenarios have been defined. The behavior observed when moving away from the optimal working conditions is also described.

  12. Incentive-Based Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers distribution networks fea- turing distributed energy resources, and designs incentive-based mechanisms that allow the network operator and end-customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Two different network-customer coordination mechanisms that require different amounts of information shared between the network operator and end-customers are developed to identify a solution of a well-defined social-welfare maximization prob- lem. Notably, the signals broadcast by the network operator assume the connotation of prices/incentives that induce the end- customers to adjust the generated/consumed powers in order to avoid the violation of the voltage constraints. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.

  13. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...

  14. Development of Tools for DER Components in a Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Koch-Ciobotaru, C; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    The increasing amount of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) components into distribution networks involves the development of accurate simulation models that take into account an increasing number of factors that influence the output power from the DG systems. This paper presents two simulation m...

  15. The degree distribution of fixed act-size collaboration networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we investigate a special evolving model of collaboration net-works, where the act-size is fixed. Based on the first-passage probability of Markov chain theory, this paper provides a rigorous proof for the existence of a limiting degree distribution of this model and proves that the degree distribution obeys the ...

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of impacts of distributed generation integration in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sujiang; Zhou, Erbiao; Ji, Fengkun; Cao, Xinhui; Liu, Lingshuang; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Xuyang; Cai, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    All Distributed generation (DG) as the supplement to renewable energy centralized utilization, is becoming the focus of development direction of renewable energy utilization. With the increasing proportion of DG in distribution network, the network power structure, power flow distribution, operation plans and protection are affected to some extent. According to the main impacts of DG, a comprehensive evaluation model of distributed network with DG is proposed in this paper. A comprehensive evaluation index system including 7 aspects, along with their corresponding index calculation method is established for quantitative analysis. The indices under different access capacity of DG in distribution network are calculated based on the IEEE RBTS-Bus 6 system and the evaluation result is calculated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The proposed model and method are verified effective and validity through case study.

  17. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  18. Network characteristics emerging from agent interactions in balanced distributed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Mahdi Abed; Bertelle, Cyrille; Sanlaville, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A distributed computing system behaves like a complex network, the interactions between nodes being essential information exchanges and migrations of jobs or services to execute. These actions are performed by software agents, which behave like the members of social networks, cooperating and competing to obtain knowledge and services. The load balancing consists in distributing the load evenly between system nodes. It aims at enhancing the resource usage. A load balancing strategy specifies scenarios for the cooperation. Its efficiency depends on quantity, accuracy, and distribution of available information. Nevertheless, the distribution of information on the nodes, together with the initial network structure, may create different logical network structures. In this paper, different load balancing strategies are tested on different network structures using a simulation. The four tested strategies are able to distribute evenly the load so that the system reaches a steady state (the mean response time of the jobs is constant), but it is shown that a given strategy indeed behaves differently according to structural parameters and information spreading. Such a study, devoted to distributed computing systems (DCSs), can be useful to understand and drive the behavior of other complex systems.

  19. Tactical Airborne Distributed Computing and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    an CnRlni-.Cj , qui ost utilis6 pour Xcuerrcpind iot q~eol CNQ on a un ’R(E~ .gui ost utilisAs pour damr-ndor la~~~~~~ ~ rernmsinLeWmot ulCP] Lea...function can result in the lailure of that tunction and cause the m.. s,.: iot , to be abandoned. For a safety critical function there is an add.iional...Controller; AP-101 interface. 30-6 ENABLE TO SRIALMANCHESTER MODULATOR CONVERTER ENCODER IDRIVER ]J .I BUS CONTROLLER - NETWORK INTERFACE Figure 5. Bus

  20. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show......Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...

  1. SBSI: an extensible distributed software infrastructure for parameter estimation in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Clark, Allan; Yamaguchi, Azusa; Hanlon, Neil; Tsorman, Nikos; Ali, Shakir; Lebedeva, Galina; Goltsov, Alexey; Sorokin, Anatoly; Akman, Ozgur E; Troein, Carl; Millar, Andrew J; Goryanin, Igor; Gilmore, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    Complex computational experiments in Systems Biology, such as fitting model parameters to experimental data, can be challenging to perform. Not only do they frequently require a high level of computational power, but the software needed to run the experiment needs to be usable by scientists with varying levels of computational expertise, and modellers need to be able to obtain up-to-date experimental data resources easily. We have developed a software suite, the Systems Biology Software Infrastructure (SBSI), to facilitate the parameter-fitting process. SBSI is a modular software suite composed of three major components: SBSINumerics, a high-performance library containing parallelized algorithms for performing parameter fitting; SBSIDispatcher, a middleware application to track experiments and submit jobs to back-end servers; and SBSIVisual, an extensible client application used to configure optimization experiments and view results. Furthermore, we have created a plugin infrastructure to enable project-specific modules to be easily installed. Plugin developers can take advantage of the existing user-interface and application framework to customize SBSI for their own uses, facilitated by SBSI's use of standard data formats. All SBSI binaries and source-code are freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbsi under an Apache 2 open-source license. The server-side SBSINumerics runs on any Unix-based operating system; both SBSIVisual and SBSIDispatcher are written in Java and are platform independent, allowing use on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. The SBSI project website at http://www.sbsi.ed.ac.uk provides documentation and tutorials.

  2. Distributed time management in transputer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Wiek; te West, R.; Schoute, Albert L.; Hofstede, J.

    1991-01-01

    For real-time applications in a distributed system a common notion of time is indispensable. Clocks are used for time measurement, determination of causality, process synchronization and generating unique identifications. All this is only possible if there is a time reference of specified accuracy.

  3. Determination of size distribution using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, JH; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Mohammadian, M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach to the estimation of size distributions of grains in water from images. External conditions such as the concentrations of grains in water cannot be controlled. This poses problems for local image analysis which tries to identify and measure single grains.

  4. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  5. A cyclic distributed garbage collector for network objects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena; Jones, Richard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for distributed garbage collection and outlines its implementation within the Network Objects system. The algorithm is based on a reference listing scheme, which is augmented by partial tracing in order to collect distributed garbage cycles. Processes may be dynamically organised into groups, according to appropriate heuristics, to reclaim distributed garbage cycles. The algorithm places no overhead on local collectors and suspends local mutators only briefly....

  6. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  7. Leveraging Microgrids for Capturing Uncertain Distribution Network Net Load Ramping

    OpenAIRE

    Majzoobi, Alireza; Khodaei, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a flexibility-oriented microgrid optimal scheduling model is proposed to mitigate distribution network net load variability caused by large penetration distributed solar generation. The distributed solar generation variability, which is caused by increasing adoption of this technology by end-use consumers, is mainly addressed by electric utilities using grid reinforcement. Microgrids, however, provide viable and local solutions to this pressing challenge. The proposed model, wh...

  8. An Open Distributed Architecture for Sensor Networks for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Denzer

    2008-03-01

    Infrastructure forRisk Management’ (ORCHESTRA, http://www.eu-orchestra.org/ and ‘Sensors Anywhere’(SANY, http://sany-ip.eu/ are discussed in this article. These projects have developed anopen distributed information technology architecture and have implemented web servicesfor the accessing and using data emanating, for example, from sensor networks. Thesedevelopments are based on existing data and service standards proposed by internationalorganizations. The projects seek to develop the ideals of the EC directive INSPIRE(http://inspire.jrc.it, which was launched in 2001 and whose implementation began this year(2007, into the risk management domain. Thanks to the open nature of the architecture andservices being developed within these projects, they can be implemented by any interestedparty and can be accessed by all potential users. The architecture is based around a serviceorientedapproach that makes use of Internet-based applications (web services whose inputsand outputs conform to standards. The benefit of this philosophy is that it is expected tofavor the emergence of an operational market for risk management services in Europe, iteliminates the need to replace or radically alter the hundreds of already operational ITsystems in Europe (drastically lowering costs for users, and it allows users and stakeholdersto achieve interoperability while using the system most adequate to their needs, budgets,culture etc. (i.e. it has flexibility.

  9. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart B C Menezes

    Full Text Available Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  10. NRS : a system for automated network virtualization in IaaS cloud infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodorou, D.; Mak, R.H.; Keijser, J.J.; Suerink, T.

    2013-01-01

    Applications running in multi-tenant IaaS clouds increasingly require networked compute resources, which may belong to several clouds hosted in multiple data-centers. To accommodate these applications network virtualization is necessary, not only for isolation between tenants, but also for

  11. Financial Stability and Interacting Networks of Financial Institutions and Market Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon, C.; Berndsen, R.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    An interacting network coupling financial institutions’ multiplex (i.e. multi-layer) and financial market infrastructures’ single-layer networks gives an accurate picture of a financial system’s true connective architecture. We examine and compare the main properties of Colombian multiplex and

  12. State of the art of the virtual utility: the smart distributed generation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll-Mayor, D.; Picos, R.; Garcia-Moreno, E.

    2004-01-01

    The world of energy has lately experienced a revolution, and new rules are being defined. The climate change produced by the greenhouse gases, the inefficiency of the energy system or the lack of power supply infrastructure in most of the poor countries, the liberalization of the energy market and the development of new technologies in the field of distributed generation (DG) are the key factors of this revolution. It seems clear that the solution at the moment is the DG. The advantage of DG is the energy generation close to the demand point. It means that DG can lower costs, reduce emissions, or expand the energy options of the consumers. DG may add redundancy that increases grid security even while powering emergency lighting or other critical systems and reduces power losses in the electricity distribution. After the development of the different DG and high efficiency technologies such as co-generation and tri-generation, the next step in the DG world is the interconnection of different small distributed generation facilities which act together in a DG network as a large power plant controlled by a centralized energy management system (EMS). The main aim of the EMS is to reach the targets of low emissions and high efficiency. The EMS gives priority to renewable energy sources instead of the use of fossil fuels. This new concept of energy infrastructure is referred to as virtual utility (VU). The VU can be defined as a new model of energy infrastructure which consists of integrating different kind of distributed generation utilities in an energy (electricity and heat) generation network controlled by a central energy management system (EMS). The electricity production in the network is subordinated to the heat necessity of every user. The thermal energy is consumed on site; the electricity is generated and distributed in the entire network. The network is composed of one centralized control with the EMS and different clusters of distributed generation utilities

  13. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh......The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...

  14. Hierarchically structured distributed microprocessor network for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.R.; Holloway, F.W.; Rupert, P.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Suski, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    To satisfy a broad range of control-analysis and data-acquisition requirements for Shiva, a hierarchical, computer-based, modular-distributed control system was designed. This system handles the more than 3000 control elements and 1000 data acquisition units in a severe high-voltage, high-current environment. The control system design gives one a flexible and reliable configuration to meet the development milestones for Shiva within critical time limits

  15. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  16. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  17. Multi-Objective Planning Techniques in Distribution Networks: A Composite Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Abbas Kazmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks (DNWs are facing numerous challenges, notably growing load demands, environmental concerns, operational constraints and expansion limitations with the current infrastructure. These challenges serve as a motivation factor for various distribution network planning (DP strategies, such as timely addressing load growth aiming at prominent objectives such as reliability, power quality, economic viability, system stability and deferring costly reinforcements. The continuous transformation of passive to active distribution networks (ADN needs to consider choices, primarily distributed generation (DG, network topology change, installation of new protection devices and key enablers as planning options in addition to traditional grid reinforcements. Since modern DP (MDP in deregulated market environments includes multiple stakeholders, primarily owners, regulators, operators and consumers, one solution fit for all planning scenarios may not satisfy all these stakeholders. Hence, this paper presents a review of several planning techniques (PTs based on mult-objective optimizations (MOOs in DNWs, aiming at better trade-off solutions among conflicting objectives and satisfying multiple stakeholders. The PTs in the paper spread across four distinct planning classifications including DG units as an alternative to costly reinforcements, capacitors and power electronic devices for ensuring power quality aspects, grid reinforcements, expansions, and upgrades as a separate category and network topology alteration and reconfiguration as a viable planning option. Several research works associated with multi-objective planning techniques (MOPT have been reviewed with relevant models, methods and achieved objectives, abiding with system constraints. The paper also provides a composite review of current research accounts and interdependence of associated components in the respective classifications. The potential future planning areas, aiming at

  18. Smart grid communication infrastructure comparison-for distributed control of distributed energy resources using internet of things devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    Communication between distributed energy resources and aggregators is necessary to improve the efficiency of power use and solve stability issues. For the communication, the probability of delivery for measurements and control commands, determines the possible power system services. The probabili...

  19. Research Devices Maintenance Programs and Safety Network Infrastructures in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin Jaafar; Muhammad Zahidee Taat; Ishak Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation and Automation Center (PIA) is responsible in carrying out maintenance work for building safety infrastructure and area for nuclear scientific and research work. Care cycle and nuclear scientific tools starting from the preparation of specifications until devices disposal- to get the maximum output from devices therefore PIA has introduced Effective and Comprehensive Maintenance Plan under Management/ Trust/ Development/ Science Fund budgets and also user, Asset Management, caring and handling of the devices. This paper also discussed more on case study related to using and handling so that it can be guidance and standard when its involving mishandling, improper maintenance, inadequacy of supervision and others including improvement suggestion programs. (author)

  20. Design of a Mobile Agents Based Solution to Distributional Management of Computer Networks, Taking into Account the Security Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bahrami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents (MAs is one of the technologies considered in the recent years to perform management processes. This technology provides the ability to move code in distributed environments and to connect with other resources and agents locally which makes it an appropriate technology in the development of software applications of distributed network, especially management systems. For using mobile agent technology, an infrastructure for the management of MAs is needed. In this project, an infrastructure called MCT management is introduced for network management. In this infrastructure, some protocols like SNMP are used to get management data for the network administrator. With respect to management ability, MAs can dynamically access the database SNMP (i.e. MIB and extract the data required by the managers. Most well-known methods are characterized by being static relative to code and location in which components cannot modify their location or code in a lifetime. However, the MAs method can dynamically increase communications, reduce costs and overcome certain limitations by changing location and components.

  1. Distributed authentication for randomly compromised networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beals, Travis R; Hynes, Kevin P; Sanders, Barry C

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a simple, practical approach with probabilistic information-theoretic security to solve one of quantum key distribution's major security weaknesses: the requirement of an authenticated classical channel to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme employs classical secret sharing and partially trusted intermediaries to provide arbitrarily high confidence in the security of the protocol. Although certain failures elude detection, we discuss preemptive strategies to reduce the probability of failure to an arbitrarily small level: the probability of such failures is exponentially suppressed with increases in connectivity (i.e. connections per node).

  2. Network Management System for (FUTON-like) Radio-over-Fiber Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santiago, Carlos; Gangopadhyay, Bodhisattwa; Ramkumar, Venkata

    2010-01-01

    by the FUTON Middleware. Although a significant amount of prior research work can be found in the literature related to RoF, there is still significant lack of technologies concerning RoF networks management. RoF Manager and its sub-systems target to fill such gap, proposing a novel concept in the form...... operational costs. The RoF Network Manager manages the network equipment on the optical front haul between the Central Unit (CU) and all Remote Antenna Units (RAU)s connected by it, as well as the communication links, while enabling end-to-end service problem resolution and service quality management...

  3. Neural network determination of parton distributions: the nonsinglet case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Latorre, Jose I.; Piccione, Andrea; Rojo, Joan

    2007-01-01

    We provide a determination of the isotriplet quark distribution from available deep-inelastic data using neural networks. We give a general introduction to the neural network approach to parton distributions, which provides a solution to the problem of constructing a faithful and unbiased probability distribution of parton densities based on available experimental information. We discuss in detail the techniques which are necessary in order to construct a Monte Carlo representation of the data, to construct and evolve neural parton distributions, and to train them in such a way that the correct statistical features of the data are reproduced. We present the results of the application of this method to the determination of the nonsinglet quark distribution up to next-to-next-to-leading order, and compare them with those obtained using other approaches

  4. Large scale distribution monitoring of FRP-OF based on BOTDR technique for infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; He, Jianping; Yan, Kai; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    BOTDA(R) sensing technique is considered as one of the most practical solution for large-sized structures as the instrument. However, there is still a big obstacle to apply BOTDA(R) in large-scale area due to the high cost and the reliability problem of sensing head which is associated to the sensor installation and survival. In this paper, we report a novel low-cost and high reliable BOTDA(R) sensing head using FRP(Fiber Reinforced Polymer)-bare optical fiber rebar, named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF. We investigated the surface bonding and its mechanical strength by SEM and intensity experiments. Considering the strain difference between OF and host matrix which may result in measurement error, the strain transfer from host to OF have been theoretically studied. Furthermore, GFRP-OFs sensing properties of strain and temperature at different gauge length were tested under different spatial and readout resolution using commercial BOTDA. Dual FRP-OFs temperature compensation method has also been proposed and analyzed. And finally, BOTDA(R)-OFs have been applied in Tiyu west road civil structure at Guangzhou and Daqing Highway. This novel FRP-OF rebar shows both high strengthen and good sensing properties, which can be used in long-term SHM for civil infrastructures.

  5. A Shared Infrastructure for Federated Search Across Distributed Scientific Metadata Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Grauch, A.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.; Lopez, L.; Liu, M.; Brandt, M.

    2013-12-01

    The vast amount of science metadata can be overwhelming and highly complex. Comprehensive analysis and sharing of metadata is difficult since institutions often publish to their own repositories. There are many disjoint standards used for publishing scientific data, making it difficult to discover and share information from different sources. Services that publish metadata catalogs often have different protocols, formats, and semantics. The research community is limited by the exclusivity of separate metadata catalogs and thus it is desirable to have federated search interfaces capable of unified search queries across multiple sources. Aggregation of metadata catalogs also enables users to critique metadata more rigorously. With these motivations in mind, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) implemented two search interfaces for the community. Both the NSIDC Search and ACADIS Arctic Data Explorer (ADE) use a common infrastructure which keeps maintenance costs low. The search clients are designed to make OpenSearch requests against Solr, an Open Source search platform. Solr applies indexes to specific fields of the metadata which in this instance optimizes queries containing keywords, spatial bounds and temporal ranges. NSIDC metadata is reused by both search interfaces but the ADE also brokers additional sources. Users can quickly find relevant metadata with minimal effort and ultimately lowers costs for research. This presentation will highlight the reuse of data and code between NSIDC and ACADIS, discuss challenges and milestones for each project, and will identify creation and use of Open Source libraries.

  6. A distributed name resolution system in information centric networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbreiki, Walid; Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Information Centric Networks (ICN) is the new paradigm that envisages to shift the Internet away from its existing Point-to-Point architecture to a data centric, where communication is based on named hosts rather than the information stored on these hosts. Name Resolution is the center of attraction for ICN, where Named Data Objects (NDO) are used for identifying the information and guiding for routing or forwarding inside ICN. Recently, several researches use distributed NRS to overcome the problem of interest flooding, congestion and overloading. Yet the distribution of NRS is based on random distribution. How to distribute the NRS is still an important and challenging problem. In this work, we address the problem of distribution of NRS by proposing a new mechanism called Distributed Name Resolution System (DNRS), by considering the time of publishing the NDOs in the NRS. This mechanism partitions the network to distribute the workload among NRSs by increasing storage capacity. In addition, partitioning the network increases flexibility and scalability of NRS. We evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism, which achieves lesser end-to-end delay with more average throughputs compared to random distribution of NRS without disturbing the underlying routing or forwarding strategies.

  7. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R.

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  8. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  9. The broadband networks, basic infrastructure of the knowledge society; Las redes de banda ancha, infraestructuras basicas de la sociedad del conocimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Vega, R.

    2010-07-01

    Telecommunication networks will conform the basic infrastructure of the future knowledge society. The growing demand in network usage will require the total renewal of current networks and accordingly large investment resources, presenting big difficulties (in a tough economic environment) and that can only be overcome from a global perspective with full understanding of networks role in the value chain and with contributions of all stake holders. This paper analyzes the relevant challenges to new generation network development and makes some proposals to cope with them. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Single Frequency Network Based Distributed Passive Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xian-rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and application of passive radar are heading from single transmitter-receiver pair to multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. As an important class of the illuminators of opportunity, most of modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on Single Frequency Network (SFN, which intrinsically determines that the passive radar based on such illuminators must be distributed and networked. In consideration of the remarkable working and processing mode of passive radar under SFN configuration, this paper proposes the concept of SFN-based Distributed Passive Radar (SDPR. The main characteristics and key problems of SDPR are first described. Then several potential solutions are discussed for part of the key technologies. The feasibility of SDPR is demonstrated by preliminary experimental results. Finally, the concept of four network convergence that includes the broadcast based passive radar network is conceived, and its application prospects are discussed.

  11. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  12. Optimal Sensor Networks Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patan, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Sensor networks have recently come into prominence because they hold the potential to revolutionize a wide spectrum of both civilian and military applications. An ingenious characteristic of sensor networks is the distributed nature of data acquisition. Therefore they seem to be ideally prepared for the task of monitoring processes with spatio-temporal dynamics which constitute one of most general and important classes of systems in modelling of the real-world phenomena. It is clear that careful deployment and activation of sensor nodes are critical for collecting the most valuable information from the observed environment. Optimal Sensor Network Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems discusses the characteristic features of the sensor scheduling problem, analyzes classical and recent approaches, and proposes a wide range of original solutions, especially dedicated for networks with mobile and scanning nodes. Both researchers and practitioners will find the case studies, the proposed al...

  13. ZAP: a distributed channel assignment algorithm for cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaretto Anelise

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose ZAP, an algorithm for the distributed channel assignment in cognitive radio (CR networks. CRs are capable of identifying underutilized licensed bands of the spectrum, allowing their reuse by secondary users without interfering with primary users. In this context, efficient channel assignment is challenging as ideally it must be simple, incur acceptable communication overhead, provide timely response, and be adaptive to accommodate frequent changes in the network. Another challenge is the optimization of network capacity through interference minimization. In contrast to related work, ZAP addresses these challenges with a fully distributed approach based only on local (neighborhood knowledge, while significantly reducing computational costs and the number of messages required for channel assignment. Simulations confirm the efficiency of ZAP in terms of (i the performance tradeoff between different metrics and (ii the fast achievement of a suitable assignment solution regardless of network size and density.

  14. An Intelligent Approach to Observability of Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intelligent observability approach for active distribution systems. Observability assessment of the measured power system network, which is a preliminary task in state estimation, is handled via an algebraic method that uses the triangular factors of singular, symmetric...... gain matrix accompanied by a minimum meter placement technique. In available literature, large numbers of pseudo measurements are used to cover the scarcity of sufficient real measurements in distribution systems; the values of these virtual meters are calculated value based on the available real...... measurements, network topology, and network parameters. However, since there are large margin of errors exist in the calculation phase, estimated states may be significantly differed from the actual values though network is classified as observable. Hence, an approach based on numerical observability analysis...

  15. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2014-06-01

    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.

  16. IAS telecommunication infrastructure and value added network services provided by IASNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Oleg L.; Marchenko, Sergei

    The topology of a packet switching network for the Soviet National Centre for Automated Data Exchange with Foreign Computer Networks and Databanks (NCADE) based on a design by the Institute for Automated Systems (IAS) is discussed. NCADE has partners all over the world: it is linked to East European countries via telephone lines while satellites are used for communication with remote partners, such as Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Moreover, there is a connection to the Austrian, British, Canadian, Finnish, French, U.S. and other western networks through which users can have access to databases on each network. At the same time, NCADE provides western customers with access to more than 70 Soviet databases. Software and hardware of IASNET use data exchange recommendations agreed with the International Standard Organization (ISO) and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). Technical parameters of IASNET are compatible with the majority of foreign networks such as DATAPAK, TRANSPAC, TELENET, and others. By means of IASNET, the NCADE provides connection of Soviet and foreign users to information and computer centers around the world on the basis of the CCITT X.25 and X.75 recommendations. Any information resources of IASNET and value added network services, such as computer teleconferences, E-mail, information retrieval system, intelligent support of access to databanks and databases, and others are discussed. The topology of the ACADEMNET connected to IASNET over an X.25 gateway is also discussed.

  17. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Bo [PENN STATE UNIV.; Vasudevan, Sudarshan [UNIV OF MASS AMHERST; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan [PENN STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  18. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Donghwi Jung; Joong Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal me...

  19. ZAP: a distributed channel assignment algorithm for cognitive radio networks

    OpenAIRE

    Junior , Paulo Roberto ,; Fonseca , Mauro; Munaretto , Anelise; Viana , Aline ,; Ziviani , Artur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We propose ZAP, an algorithm for the distributed channel assignment in cognitive radio (CR) networks. CRs are capable of identifying underutilized licensed bands of the spectrum, allowing their reuse by secondary users without interfering with primary users. In this context, efficient channel assignment is challenging as ideally it must be simple, incur acceptable communication overhead, provide timely response, and be adaptive to accommodate frequent changes in the network. Another ...

  20. Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1975-11-01

    A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented