WorldWideScience

Sample records for network-based social capital

  1. Capital y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Elizalde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    La perspectiva teórica del Capital, del siglo XIX, aparece alejada del capital social del siglo XXI.  Ambas, con la misma raíz, sin embargo, pareciera que no se tocan, ni teórica ni prácticamente.  Quizás, sería pertinente escudriñar esta relación. Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia ...

  2. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  3. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  4. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...

  5. A social capital index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Arangüena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Monica

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a social capital measure for individuals belonging to a social network. To do this, we use a game theoretical approach and so we suppose that these individuals are also involved in a cooperative TU-game modelling the economic or social interests that motivate their

  6. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....

  7. Organizational networks and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  8. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  9. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital is an ...... focus on the structural dimensions of social capital, in addition to the cognitive dimensions, as this would yield a more nuanced depiction of social advantages of urban community gardening.......There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital...

  10. Human Capital a Part of Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fedoryshina, Inna

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...

  11. Social Capital in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oteman

    2008-01-01

    In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital

  12. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...

  13. On Representative Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Kroger, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data for a random sample drawn from the Dutch population who reveal their propensity to invest and reward investments in building up social capital by means of an economic experiment.We find substantial heterogeneity and asymmetries in the propensity to invest and in the

  14. Social capital and education

    OpenAIRE

    Timur Natkhov

    2012-01-01

    Timur Natkhov, Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor in the Subdepartment of Institutional Economics, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: The paper presents a brief evolution of studies on the relationship between education and social capital in different countries. A distinctive feature of these studies is their interdisciplinary nature, as they combine theories and methods of different social sciences.To ide...

  15. MODELLING SOCIAL CAPITAL AND GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan K. Chou

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes three theoretical growth models incorporating social capital, based on varied expositions on the concept of social capital and the empirical evidence gathered to date. In these models, social capital impacts growth by assisting in the accumulation of human capital, by affecting financial development through its effects on collective trust and social norms, and by facilitating networking between firms that result in the creation and diffusion of business and technological i...

  16. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy......", a recently proposed alternative to the "trust question", is also related to cooperation behavior but operates through beliefs rather than preferences....

  17. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive......Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...

  18. Capital social comunicativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se buscan establecer las bases para una transformación del tradicional triángulo comunicativo emisor-mensaje-receptor, por un esquema que haga alusión a la dinámica social de la comunicación relacionada con lo público: actores-escenarios-sentidos. De esta forma, es posible conformar guías para la acción y encontrar en los actores ciudadanos de comunicación, la conformaciónde un capital social para la democracia.

  19. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  20. Re-Thinking Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Bukač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.

  1. Dynamic social networks based on movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Henry; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Johnson, Devin S.; London, Joshua M.; Durban, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Network modeling techniques provide a means for quantifying social structure in populations of individuals. Data used to define social connectivity are often expensive to collect and based on case-specific, ad hoc criteria. Moreover, in applications involving animal social networks, collection of these data is often opportunistic and can be invasive. Frequently, the social network of interest for a given population is closely related to the way individuals move. Thus, telemetry data, which are minimally invasive and relatively inexpensive to collect, present an alternative source of information. We develop a framework for using telemetry data to infer social relationships among animals. To achieve this, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model with an underlying dynamic social network controlling movement of individuals via two mechanisms: an attractive effect and an aligning effect. We demonstrate the model and its ability to accurately identify complex social behavior in simulation, and apply our model to telemetry data arising from killer whales. Using auxiliary information about the study population, we investigate model validity and find the inferred dynamic social network is consistent with killer whale ecology and expert knowledge.

  2. Working Paper on Social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before ...... the concept is bridged to the context of farmers and traders in yam and cassava value chains in the Ghana....

  3. Exploring the social capital grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....

  4. Social Capital in Rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....

  5. Social capital and localised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2007-01-01

      This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...

  6. Ensayo sobre el Capital Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Frediani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En la teoría económica existen distintas definiciones de capital: capital físico, el capital en recursos naturales, el capital financiero, el capital en infraestructura económica, el capital en infraestructura social y el capital humano. Todos ellos son condiciones necesarias para que un país alcance el desarrollo económico y social y un alto estándar y calidad de vida de sus habitantes, pero no suficientes puesto que hace falta una categoría adicional de capital. En los últimos años ha surgido el análisis de una nueva categoría: el Capital Social. El concepto se ha convertido en uno de los temas más debatidos de las ciencias sociales y políticas. Se refiere a un elemento invisible, etéreo, menos tangible que el capital humano (conocimientos y/o habilidades de los individuos o el capital físico (bienes materiales, pero que resulta decisivo para la actividad productiva, la satisfacción de las necesidades personales y el desarrollo comunitario y de una sociedad toda.

  7. Measuring social capital: further insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Carrillo Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones.

  8. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...... and heterogeneous sample. We provide evidence on the microfoundation of this relation by use of an experimental design that enables us to disentangle preferences for cooperation from beliefs about others' cooperation. Our analysis suggests that the standard trust question used in the World Values Survey is a proxy...... for cooperation preferences rather than beliefs about others' cooperation. In contrast, the “fairness question”, a recently proposed alternative to the standard trust question, seems to operate through beliefs rather than preferences....

  9. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  10. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  11. Pobreza, capital humano, capital social e familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, Giancarlo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Porreca, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo investiga a pobreza partindo de uma análise dos recursos que os pobres dispõem em sua realidade, analisando os temas do capital humano, social e familiar, procurando estabelecer conexões e elucidar fatores da realidade pouco considerados em estudos e  projetos de combate à pobreza e à exclusão social. O presente artigo, em seu conjunto, procura compreender porque, em condições semelhantes de pobreza, algumas pessoas conseguem elaborar um projeto de vida enquanto outras se es...

  12. Social capital in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  13. Bridges in social capital: a review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...

  14. Levels of Social Capital in Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....

  15. Social Capital and Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Batra,Manu; Tangade, Pradeep; Rajwar, Yogesh Chand; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Social determinants have always been an important element of the oral health. It has been seen that social aspects like the organizations and relations influence the health of population. A new domain named social capital has come up into limelight which refers to “features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions”. The bonds between individuals, both in intimate relationships and in voluntary associ...

  16. The measurement of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.

  17. CAPITAL SOCIAL, DEMOCRACIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Adriane Teixeira Amaral

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão critica da literatura sobre a relação entre Capital Social, Democracia e o Desenvolvimento. É relevante refletirmos sobre estes três temas, pois não se consegue ver um distanciamento entre ambos. Todavia, como meio para promover o capital social, o desenvolvimento e a democracia, é necessária que haja uma melhoria do bem-estar social, devendo ser associada com liberdades econômicas e abertura de mercado de modo a viabilizar o crescimento econômico e a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.

  18. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  19. Building Social Capital for Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.

  20. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  1. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TITTENBRUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  2. School Cheating and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  3. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  4. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  5. Public libraries: places creating social capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show why studies of public libraries, regarding their possible contribution in creating social capital, are important for social capital research in general, and are important for library practice in particular. Design/methodology/approach – Building on the latest theoretical developments and empirical findings of social capital research, the role of the public library as a potential creator of social capital is discussed. Findings from both quantita...

  6. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  7. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  8. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...... organizations increases the proportion of liquid assets held in the form of deposits that yield a return. Our results imply that targeting information on the benefits of deposit saving through formal networks or groups would be effective in increasing the number of households that save at grassroots level....

  9. Social capital in involuntary displacement and resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, A.; Vaart, van der W.

    2013-01-01

    Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital among poor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital concept and its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used in evaluating the adaptation and integration of

  10. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  11. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobin Huang

    Full Text Available It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  12. Asociatividad, Capital Social y Redes Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aguirre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga en la percepción de los actores sociales, las relaciones interpersonales, los significados asociados y las redes sociales autogeneradas en las prácticas asociativas que se desarrollan en este ámbito de sociabilidad compartida. Nuestro análisis se sustenta en la teoría de los campos de Pierre Bourdieu, la que opera como corpus articulador de los aspectos asociativos directos encontrados, incorporando de igual forma aspectos de la teoría del capital social, y el enfoque de redes sociales, aplicado al contexto de esta organización social. Para obtener el conocimiento así planteado, nos aproximamos al discurso, a los relatos que respecto a su asociatividad, enuncian los propios miembros del club de fútbol amateur. En este sentido, elaboramos un diseño de investigación cualitativo cuya técnica de observación y captación del sentido se basó en una serie de entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Al concluir, se desarrolla y presenta un análisis de los resultados obtenidos, entre los cuales destaca la riqueza de la vida asociativa, espacios de sociabilidad, redes de ayuda mutua, convivencia intergeneracional conformadora de identidad social, así como el potencial de capital social subyacente.

  13. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  14. Getting the Goods on Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ellen; Ferrazzi, Gabriele; Schryer, Frans

    1998-01-01

    Overview of the origins, development, rapid diffusion, and current usage of the concept of social capital in the literature. Focuses on three approaches to operationalizing the concept: those of James Coleman, Pierre Bourdieu, and Robert Putnam. Discusses social capital as a resource, as goal-oriented, and as a contributor to social control and…

  15. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  16. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub......Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...

  17. 'Blue' social capital and work performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    (Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....

  18. Social capital of organizations : from social structure to the management of corporate social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical

  19. The association between oxytocin and social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is known to be related to social behaviors, including trust. However, few studies have investigated the association between oxytocin levels and social capital. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous oxytocin levels are positively associated with social capital. We also considered whether the association differed across gender because previous studies have shown differential effects of OT on social behaviors depending on gender. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of 50 women and 31 men in Japan via community sampling from whom we obtained urine sample with which to measure oxytocin levels. Individual-level cognitive social capital (social trust and mutual aid and structural social capital (community participation were assessed using a questionnaire. We used multivariate regression, adjusted for covariates (age, number of children, self-rated health, and education, and stratified by gender to consider associations between oxytocin and social capital. RESULTS: Among women, oxytocin was inversely associated with social trust and mutual aid (p<0.05. However, women participating in only 1 organization in the community showed higher oxytocin than women who participated in either no organizations (p<0.05 or 2 or more organization (i.e. inverse-U shape association. Among men, no association was observed between oxytocin and either form of cognitive and structural social capital. CONCLUSION: Women who perceived low cognitive social capital showed higher oxytocin levels, while structural social capital showed inverse-U shape association with oxytocin. No association between oxytocin and social capital was found among men. Further study is needed to elucidate why oxytocin was inversely associated with cognitive social capital only among women.

  20. Social Capital and Stratification of Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Behtoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.

  1. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....

  2. Gendered Social Capital in a Johannesburg Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2016-01-01

    Social capital research rarely takes a gendered approach. This article explores how black women and men from a marginalized community in Johannesburg, South Africa, rely on family, friends, and community members to survive and strategize for the future by utilizing social capital. The results from 30 semi-structured interviews and ego network mapping illustrate that gender moderates the type of social capital used and benefits associated with bonding and bridging social capital in important ways. This research builds upon knowledge of gendered advantages and disadvantages in social networks and informs researchers how women and men survive in pervasive poverty. I posit that identifying potential sources of support is an important consideration within social capital or any network research because the prospect of receiving assistance in the future undoubtedly alters the development of these individuals' livelihood strategies.

  3. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  4. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  5. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  6. Social Capital as Investment in the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Anh, Nguyen; Thomese, Fleur; Salemink, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    học]. From a social capital perspective, we argue that social capital, understood as enforceable trust and reciprocity exchanges, was the foundation for raising patrilineage study encouragement funds. One significant observation was that both patrilineage members and non-members contributed...

  7. Social capital and health during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinlaender, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature.This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of ruralSri Lankan pregnant women.Methods: An exploratory qualitative study...

  8. Social capital, family violence, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K

    2006-06-01

    Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.

  9. ¿Necesitamos capital social? Sí, pero socializando el capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salej Higgins

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de O Capital S ocia! está na moda: aná!isepara sua reconstruido teórica (Salej: 2003, ofrecemos una sinopsis sobre la arquitectura teórica de uno de los conceptos más utilizados en las ciencias sociales durante la última década. En el nivel de la discusión sobre las transformaciones de las democracias del primer mundo (putnam: 2001, cuestionamos la tesis básica de que la merma del asociativismo cívico es el resultado de la modernización tecnológica y su concomitante cultura individualista. Por el contrario y en la misma linea de Rothstein (2001, construimos la hipótesis de que la disminución del capital social, denunciada por Putnam (1995, es correlativa al desmantelamiento de las políticas de asistencia social, con la consecuente caída en los indicadores de equidad. De modo prospectivo se presentan las preguntas- clave y las hipótesis para un programa de investigación alternativo y plausible sobre el capital social. Palabras clave: capital social, asociativismo cívico, integración social, equidad.

  10. The social architecture of capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ian

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.

  11. Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations : Capital Accumulation by Social Relationship and Rethinking the Definition of Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    北見, 幸一

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...

  12. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  13. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more...... transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  14. Cultural capital and social inequality in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, T

    2008-07-01

    Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.

  15. Social Capital and Stratification of Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Behtoui

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i) Which c...

  16. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention...

  17. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Bourdieu's (1986) seminal definition of social capital as "the aggregate of the actual or potential resources" is reflected in older definitions, as well as in many current within sociology (e.g. Portes, 2000) and organization (Adler & Kwon, 2002). The definition is interesting, because it directs...

  18. El capital social en la biblioteca universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor Palma, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo es una aproximación al conocimiento sobre cómo se genera el capital social en una institución pública como la UAB partiendo de uno de sus principales elementos: la biblioteca. El propósito fue identificar y describir qué acciones de los bibliotecarios generan capital social, basándonos en la Teoría Fundamentada y el método de las comparaciones constantes. La teoría desarrollada demuestra que el capital social en la biblioteca está conformado por redes que parten de unas condicion...

  19. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.

  20. Social Disorganisation, Social Capital and Violence Prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Disorganisation, Social Capital and Violence Prevention in South Africa. ... African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... The article concludes with a discussion of some of the potential implications that a social capital perspective might hold for violence prevention and safety promotion.

  1. Operationalization of social capital in small societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen Lolle, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    , and the inequalities between cities and rural areas are getting more pronounced. If Denmark is to keep its social capital and strengthen the regional development, we need to examine the condition of the social capital and find ways to maintain or maybe even strengthen its stock. However, it is difficult to measure...... by educational institutions as platforms for offering educations on different locations in the periphery. How do these new possibilities affect the social capital of small communities and thus the regional development? Does it enhance the sense of community cohesion, or is this just another way of communicating...... in social capital and that Danes are among the world’s most trusting people (Ex. European Values Survey and World Value Survey, World Bank). Despites of this world record, it is not all bliss. For instance, citizens are protesting and marching to demonstrate discontent with local school closings...

  2. On Relational Capital in Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael; Fieseler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    relies not only on communication in classical media alone but also on the various online channels summarized by the term “social media.” Utilizing a literature study and expert interviews, this article explores how organizations engage in creating and maintaining relational social capital...... by communicating their corporate social responsibility efforts through social media channels.......Stakeholder relationships become increasingly important as new communication technologies en-able interest groups to communicate their demands, organize themselves and voice their concerns with ease. In this changing stakeholder environment, the creation and maintenance of relational social capital...

  3. Enhancing Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with Social Network-based Concepts and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management

  4. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to improve our analytical understanding of the concept of “linking social capital.” Concretely, the article focuses on disaster contexts where the importance of linking social capital intensifies both for the vulnerable communities and for the local authorities concerned...... facilitate a more nuanced understanding of the potential risks inherent in the relationships between local authorities and communities in disaster settings....

  5. Capital Social y Desarrollo en Zona Rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano Estrada, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    El autor revisa el concepto de capital social y plantea su utilidad para el análisis de las dinámicas de desarrollo. En primer lugar analiza el carácter polisémico de este concepto, mostrando cómo ha sido definido de forma diferente desde los diversos enfoques teóricos de la sociología. En segundo lugar comenta las dimensiones del concepto de capital social.

  6. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  7. Social Capital in the Classroom: A Study of In-Class Social Capital and School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…

  8. Social capital in the classroom: a study of in-class social capital and school adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, R.; Vermande, M.; Volker, B.; Baerveldt, C.

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students’ school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils’ performance and well-being. The sample in

  9. Social Capital, Poverty and Social Exclusion in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Andriani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the relationship between social capital and the standard living of the Italian households based on poverty and social exclusion. The analysis is developed at the regional level through cross-sections based in the year 2002 and in the year 2003. The indices of social capital that we use are the associational activity a la Putnam and a new proxy based on the regional density of industrial districts. By using the empirical model advanced by Grootaert (2001 we find that our results confirm the theory of social capital and poverty transition mechanism advanced by Narayan and Woolcock (2000. Moreover we find significant and negative correlation between social capital and the measures of social exclusion. All these results drive the paper to the conclusion that social capital is positively correlated to higher level of living standard.

  10. Social Capital Accumulation among Puerto Rican Mothers in Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J. Granberry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social capital provides access to material and personal resources through participation in social networks and other social structures. Social capital may not function equally for all populations, especially those living in residentially segregated urban neighborhoods with increased levels of poverty. This is because inequalities exist in social capital accumulation and are found where disadvantaged socioeconomic groups cluster. Using probabilistic household survey data consisting of 205 Puerto Rican mothers in Springfield, Massachusetts in 2013, this research tests hypotheses regarding the association of social capital accumulation with Puerto Rican mothers’ individual, neighborhood, and social network characteristics. Logistic regression results suggested that Puerto Rican mothers who were employed and lived in neighborhoods with other Latinos were more likely to accumulate social capital. In addition, mothers who participated in activities of their children also had increased social capital accumulation. This neighborhood effect on social capital accumulation may promote bonding social capital but not bridging social capital among these Puerto Rican mothers.

  11. Location, Motivation, and Social Capitalization via Enterprise Social Networking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulk, Janet; Yuan, Y. Connie

    2013-01-01

    .... Building on previous theories and empirical research on transactive memory theory, public goods theory, and social capital theories, as well as recent research on enterprise social media, we argue...

  12. Location, Motivation, and Social Capitalization via Enterprise Social Networking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulk, Janet; Yuan, Y. Connie

    2013-01-01

    .... These challenges include location of expertise, motivation to share knowledge, and social capitalization in the form of developing and maintaining social ties with knowledge providers to actualize knowledge sharing...

  13. Methodological approaches to performance evaluation of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Каріна Ромеовна Немашкало

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is developed a methodical approach that will allow performance evaluation of social capital at the macro-, meso- and micro levels, which consists of evaluation of social capital and evaluation of the impact of social capital on the effectiveness of economic system in which it is reproduced. It is determined the difference in terms of «evaluation of social capital» and «evaluation of the functioning of social capital»

  14. Social capital and public libraries: The need for research

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research on public libraries and social capital has primarily been oriented toward discovering how libraries contribute to social capital in local contexts, rather than contributing to solving the theoretical puzzles of the social capital literature. In spite of this, it has produced interesting findings that align with new developments in social capital research. These findings emphasize the significance of institutions in generating social capital. By outlining and applying the ma...

  15. Video on community-driven development and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fentress, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Metadata only record In this video, Keith M. Moore discusses community-driven development and social capital. He first describes the process of a development project gaining a community’s trust. He then describes two types of social capital: bonding and building capital. Bonding capital refers to linkages within a community, while building capital refers to linkages that are external to the community. These forms of social capital are plotted on a graph, and the characteristics of villages...

  16. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  17. Social network based dynamic transit service through the OMITS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Open Mode Integrated Transportation System (OMITS) forms a sustainable information infrastructure for communication within and between the mobile/Internet network, the roadway : network, and the users social network. It manipulates the speed g...

  18. SOCIAL CONTEXT, MANAGEMENT, AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE : When human capital and social capital serve as substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Favero, Nathan; Compton, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    Do internal (administrative human capital) and external (social capital) resources work to reinforce the effects of each other? Work from multiple disciplines has approached this question, and we advance this literature with a theory of social and administrative resources as potential substitutes

  19. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taken Gerring’s and Adcock and Collier’s work on concept formation and measurement validity as the starting point, the paper first discusses necessary...... conditions for concepts to be good in a strict sense. Afterwards, an empirical section explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption of most definitions of social capital. This assumption is rejected in four separate tests at both the micro and macro level. A final section therefore discusses...

  20. A Multi Level Approach to Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of social capital serves as a structural hole in the landscape of scholarly disciplines in social science. This article argues that the unifying strength of the concept is based mainly upon the semantics of trust and networks and is, therefore, superficial, and that various levels of

  1. Engendering Social Capital: Perspectives from Rural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the link between gender, social capital and rural development in Uganda. Noting that gender relations involve struggles over control of strategic resources and relationships, it highlights the complex interrelationships between power, resources, social networks and collaborations in the analysis of

  2. Social Capital in an Outdoor Recreation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.

  3. Measuring social capital: The Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...

  4. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  5. A neural network based approach to social touch classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Siewart; Uebbing, Tobias J.; Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes

    2014-01-01

    Touch is an important interaction modality in social interaction, for instance touch can communicate emotions and can intensify emotions communicated by other modalities. In this paper we explore the use of Neural Networks for the classification of touch. The exploration and assessment of Neural

  6. Building social capital as a route to social inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arp Fallov, Mia

    This paper investigates the instrumentalization of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood regeneration policies. The paper builds on material from a research project comparing neighbourhood regeneration policies in Denmark and England, and points to limitations to social capital...... to the capacities of inclusion. The first section of the paper discusses how active resident participation and the building of social capital in regeneration projects are constructed as legitimate and just means of achieving social inclusion. Furthermore, how slippages between social capital at different levels...... as an instrument to achieve local social inclusion. The material consists both of an analysis of policy rationales based on policy documents and of interviews with professionals and residents involved in neighbourhood regeneration. The starting point for the paper based on a theoretical combination of Bourdieu...

  7. Social-ecological frames of the social capital in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Ljubinko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the general problem of territorialization and the special problems of cultural-genetical conditions in the sociological construction of social capital. The starting base is presented by the fact that a connection between the social-ecological conditions of an environment and social capital is historical, permanent and crucial. High and continuous growing level of urbanization in Vojvodina shows the prevailing of urban society inside of which the social capital is being formed. However, in the conditions of social transition also appear controversial relations which exert influence on the creation and functioning of social capital. Social-economical structure of the urban population in Vojvodina and the governing systems of values do not necessary product also the urban way of life, which therefore exerts influence on the quality of social capital. In this paper is particularly examined a connection of the spatial mobility of the urban population, institutional channels and local conditions in the social construction of social capital.

  8. Analysing the Correlation between Social Network Analysis Measures and Performance of Students in Social Network-Based Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Goran; Costa, Eric; Alves, Cátia; Castro, Hélio; Varela, Leonilde; Shah, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Social network-based engineering education (SNEE) is designed and implemented as a model of Education 3.0 paradigm. SNEE represents a new learning methodology, which is based on the concept of social networks and represents an extended model of project-led education. The concept of social networks was applied in the real-life experiment,…

  9. Discrete opinion dynamics on networks based on social influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Haibo; Wang Xiaofan [Complex Networks and Control Lab, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-06-05

    A model of opinion dynamics based on social influence on networks was studied. The opinion of each agent can have integer values i = 1, 2, ..., I and opinion exchanges are restricted to connected agents. It was found that for any I {>=} 2 and self-confidence parameter 0 {<=} u < 1, when u is a degree-independent constant, the weighted proportion (q{sub i}) of the population that hold a given opinion i is a martingale, and the fraction q{sub i} of opinion i will gradually converge to (q{sub i}). The tendency can slow down with the increase of degree assortativity of networks. When u is degree dependent, (q{sub i}) does not possess the martingale property, however q{sub i} still converges to it. In both cases for a finite network the states of all agents will finally reach consensus. Further if there exist stubborn persons in the population whose opinions do not change over time, it was found that for degree-independent constant u, both q{sub i} and (q{sub i}) will converge to fixed proportions which only depend on the distribution of initial obstinate persons, and naturally the final equilibrium state will be the coexistence of diverse opinions held by the stubborn people. The analytical results were verified by numerical simulations on Barabasi-Albert (BA) networks. The model highlights the influence of high-degree agents on the final consensus or coexistence state and captures some realistic features of the diffusion of opinions in social networks.

  10. «Workplace social capital» - A qualitative study of social capital among prison officers

    OpenAIRE

    Frydendahl, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    English abstract: Title: “Workplace Social capital” – A qualitative study of social capital among prison officers. Background: The background for the project was a personal wish to develop a deeper understanding of the factors of inter-human relations that can provide benefits to the public health, with a specific focus on occupational health. Aim: This project aims to explore how social capital might function to prevent stress in the work environment of prison officers. This study will...

  11. Social Capital and Walkability as Social Aspects of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of sustainability and sustainable development are frequently described as having three main components, sometimes referred to as the three pillars or the triple bottom line: environmental, economic, and social. Because of an historical focus in the sustainability field on correcting environmental problems, much consideration has been given to environmental issues, especially how they interface with economic ones. Frequently mentioned but rarely examined, the social aspects of sustainability have been considered the weakest and least described pillar. After a brief review of existing concepts and theories, this paper uses a case study approach to examine the third pillar more comprehensively and offers social capital as one measure of social sustainability. Specifically, social capital was used to measure the social-environmental interface of communities. The positive correlation between aspects of the built environment, specifically walkability, and social capital suggests that measuring a social aspect of sustainability may be feasible, especially in the context of community development.

  12. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  13. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation and event......This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...

  14. THE INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL, STRUCTURAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL ON FIRM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fadzilah Wan Yusoff

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Independent studies conducted on the impact of human capital, structural capital and social capital on firm performance have shown that a significant positive relationship can be established between each of them and performance. This study examined if each of these components of intellectual capital would show more significant relationships if they were to interact with each other, whether in a two-way or three-way interactions. Results provided by a sample collected from 298 business units of firms in the Malaysian financial services industry is consistent with the suggestion that the key driving forces in the contemporary business environment has moved from the management of tangible resources to the exploitation of intangible resources and differential outcome can be expected from the interactive nature of the components.

  15. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  16. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinfield, Charles; Scupola, Ada; López-Nicolás, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    This study explores how some kinds of ICT uses, as well as social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development.  The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...... to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how ICT use complements personal relationships to enhance...

  17. Human capital diversity in the creation of social capital for team creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents

  18. Social capital and the care networks of frail seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Norah; Dosman, Donna

    2009-11-01

    Social capital has been a key framework in conceptualizing the place of social ties in quality of life. Families have not been among groups of interest in social capital research. Yet within the context of research and public policy on aging, the contemporary discourse on families and care is congruent with social capital assumptions. In this paper, we draw on social capital literature to frame our understanding of the social capital inherent in families of frail older adults, and hypothesize their abilities to benefit family members. Data are drawn from Statistics Canada 2002 General Social Survey on Aging and Social Support.

  19. Building Social Capital through Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Social capital, an important mechanism for the creation and maintenance of healthy organizational life, may be developed through initiatives such as leadership development as effective leadership development not only enhances individual effectiveness, but serves to build relationships, coordinate actions, and extend and strengthen the social…

  20. Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

    2003-01-01

    Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence

  1. Social Capital and Regional Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We study a cross-section of 54 European regions in the period 1950-1998.The central question is whether social capital, in the form of generalized trust and associational activity, is related to regional differences in economic growth. Based on extensive robustness tests, we present evidence that

  2. Growing Social Capital in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Gilberto; Rocha, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Sharing school supplies appears, indeed, a simple, even an irrelevant routine activity, but upon closer examination one realizes that deeper and complex issues are at stake. This article aims at explaining how seemingly uneventful classroom activities contain the potential to building social capital in the classroom, which occurs when and if…

  3. School Leadership that Builds Teacher Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckler, Cheri Hoff

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the relationship between school leadership and the development and sustenance of teacher social capital. The literature review discusses aspects of leadership theory to elucidate understanding of how leadership influences teachers' working relationships. Quantitative methodology and analyses ascertain the…

  4. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region locate...

  5. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed....... Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks...

  6. A social network-based organizational model for improving knowledge management in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Capó-Vicedo, Josep; Mula, Josefa; Capó i Vicedo, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a social network-based model for improving knowledge management in multi-level supply chains formed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: This approach uses social network analysis techniques to propose and represent a knowledge network for supply chains. Also, an empirical experience from an exploratory case study in the construction sector is presented. Findings: This proposal improves the establishment of inter-organi...

  7. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MANAGING SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DIVERSITY FOR PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Mallory E.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    Managers concerned with the performance of their organizations will exploit available social, administrative, and human capital resources. However, extant theory and mixed empirical evidence leave the effect of social capital on performance unclear. The gains from these norms of reciprocity,

  9. Relationship between Social Capital and Livelihood Enhancing Capitals among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Jemimah M. Njuki; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...

  10. The Relationship Between Social Capital And Health In China

    OpenAIRE

    Xindong Xue; W. Robert Reed

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the 2005 and 2006 China General Social Survey (CGSS) to study the relationship between social capital and health in China. Using four separate samples totalling over 18,000 respondents and some methodological innovations that are new to the social capital literature, we identify social trust, social relationships, and social networks as robust correlates of self-reported health. The estimated sizes of the social capital effects are economically important, being of the same ord...

  11. High political participation, high social capital? A relational analysis of youth social capital and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teney, Celine; Hanquinet, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    Social capital has been alleged to increase the capacity for political mobilization. Yet, until now, the empirical debate has not succeeded in rendering a detailed account of the relationships between social capital and political participation partly because of the use of a reductive conception and operationalization of both concepts. Using a multidimensional and relational technique (multiple correspondence analysis) and a detailed youth survey data from Belgium, the article demonstrates that youth draw on diverse forms of social capital and that these forms vary along socio-economic status and ethnic origin. Six classes based on the forms of social capital were identified. Two of them - the 'Committed' and 'Religious' are highly political active. The 'Committed' Class, based on a diversified social capital, consists mainly of non-immigrant youth with a high socio-economic background undertaking a large diversity of political activities. The 'Religious' Class, based on a narrow social capital built around religious activities, is mostly composed of ethnic minority youth with a low SES involved in more specific political activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between social capital and regional competitiveness in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at presenting different approaches to the phenomenon of social capital The concept of social capital is ambiguous and that is why we will highlight a number of definitions of this notion. The central attention of the paper focuses on the relationship between social capital and

  13. Gender specifics in entrepreneurs' social capital: implications for firm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, it was observed that structural and bonding social capital had a consistent influence on firm performance across gender. However, relational and bridging social capital was only associated with performance for men-owned businesses, while cognitive social capital was only significantly associated with the ...

  14. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  15. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive.

  16. Indigenous social capital in women led small businesses in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By taking into account gender differences through which social capital is formed and operates, the article is based on the study that examines how indigenous social capital influences and impacts on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. It revealed that in indigenous settings, the notion of social capital is a gendered ...

  17. Changes in Small Town Social Capital and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Small towns are often depicted as places with many interpersonal relationships and generalized trust, or high social capital. Social capital is a resource which towns can use to solve problems and improve the local quality of life. In this paper, I determined if social capital and civic engagements have declined in small towns in the U.S. Midwest…

  18. Social Capital and Educational Achievements: Coleman vs. Bourdieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogošic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    The influence of social capital on an individual's educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman's (1988) or Bourdieu's (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman's approach has its roots in structural…

  19. Social capital and pet ownership - A tale of four cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Martin, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Houghton, Steve; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vallesi, Shannen; McCune, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    •Pet ownership is significantly associated with higher levels of social capital.•Social capital was associated with pet ownership in the U.S. and Australia.•Results are not confined to dog owners nor dog walkers.•Pets are an under-recognized conduit for building social capital.

  20. en torno al capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las diásporas online han sido casi exclusivamente abordadas desde enfoques culturalistas, hecho que ha oscurecido la necesidad de explicar su existencia como producto y determinante de estrictos modelos de acción colectiva. Así, el presente trabajo propone aproximar a su estudio el enfoque del, tendencia teórica atenta a ver el papel de los principios conectivos y asociativos de la redes sociales en la consecución de fines individuales y colectivos.

  1. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    are urging all social scientists to think more as social scientists rather than just as anthropologists, economists, historians, political scientists, or sociologists. Their effort to broaden the way social scientists think about social organization is an important step, especially for those of us interested...... in public policies. . . This is the type of book that should be assigned to graduate students across the social sciences as an illustration of the kind of work that they should aspire to do. I know I have learned a great deal from reading this book and appreciate the effort that the Svendsens have put......‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...

  2. Social Capital in Organizations - Perspectives and Unresolved Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and identifying five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...... a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort...

  3. Review of Recommender Systems Algorithms Utilized in Social Networks based e-Learning Systems & Neutrosophic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.

  4. Social capital, patriotism and nation passionarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zherebin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the qualitative characteristics of the nation, previously not have been considered as a characteristic of the quality of life, but which are important conditions for the immediate formation of indicators of quality of life. These characteristics are: social capital and trust, patriotism of citizens of the nation. These concepts are discussed on the example of the present situation of the Russian population.

  5. Inequality in Social Capital: Social Capital, Social Risk and Drop-out in the Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Göksen, Fatos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of social capital on the likelihood of dropping out from the compulsory education system (Grades One through Eight) in Turkey. It focuses on the question of whether school-related social capital can provide the means to stay in school in the presence of risk factors such as socioeconomic status, race, or gender…

  6. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  7. Measuring aspects of social capital in a gerontological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tine; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    capital at community level are based on theory of bonding, bridging and linking social capital. It has been possible to analyse variations in the three measurements of social capital in the 34 municipalities and to characterize different municipalities according to high versus low social capital......Within the last 10 years, there has been a growing interest in the importance of social capital and older people. The aims of the study are to advance measurements of aspects of social capital based on bonding, bridging and linking that can be used to study the impact of the local community...... on community-dwelling older populations and to study the distribution of these three measurements of social capital in 34 municipalities. Data are from a Danish prospective cohort study on preventive home visits among 4,034 old people 75? in 34 municipalities in Denmark. The measurements of aspects of social...

  8. Social capital and the Danish system of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of social capital and applies it to the Danish national system of innovation. It is argued that social capital is important to the working of the national system of innovation, and that the way in which the concept of social capital informs the study of national...... systems of innovation is in accordance with fundamental contributions in the field. Reviewing a number of approaches to social capital, the paper shows that even though different views exist there seem to be a number of common features that will facilitate research both within individual fields and cross......-disciplinary. Regarding the Danish national system of innovation, social capital plays an important role, and a number of features facilitating social capital prevail. However, a number of challenges are present and calling for political action and future research. The main argument of the paper is that social capital...

  9. The effects of organizational embeddedness on development of social capital and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2010-07-01

    This article examines the effects of organizational embeddedness on employees' activities to build social capital and human capital. To test a latent growth model, we collected data from 375 managers at multiple points over an 8-month period. We found that the more embedded employees perceived themselves to be at Time 1, the more likely they were to show declines in social capital development behaviors over time. In addition, declines in social capital development behavior were directly related to declines in human capital development behavior over time. These findings highlight the potential negative consequences embeddedness can have on employees' career development activity.

  10. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: Assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. PMID:24495808

  11. Bridging social capital and the imperative of leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper asserts that there is a nexus between the nature and character of leadership and the stock and genre of social capital in a polity. Specifically, it posits that low levels of bridging social capital (generalised trust) in contemporary Nigeria are reflective of the abysmally low levels of leadership capital possessed by the ...

  12. Increasing Returns to Education and the Impact on Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeves, Gareth D.

    2014-01-01

    The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…

  13. The limits of social capital: Durkheim, suicide, and social cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Howard I; Sterk, Claire E

    2005-07-01

    Recent applications of social capital theories to population health often draw on classic sociological theories for validation of the protective features of social cohesion and social integration. Durkheim's work on suicide has been cited as evidence that modern life disrupts social cohesion and results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality-including self-destructive behaviors and suicide. We argue that a close reading of Durkheim's evidence supports the opposite conclusion and that the incidence of self-destructive behaviors such as suicide is often greatest among those with high levels of social integration. A reexamination of Durkheim's data on female suicide and suicide in the military suggests that we should be skeptical about recent studies connecting improved population health to social capital.

  14. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this paper is to understand the historical impact on urban land usage of ecological, economic and political factors in order to conceptualise strategic ideas for transforming urban land usage currently and in the future to enable social equity, promote the efficient use of resources and sustain the ecologies ...

  15. Social Capital and Education: Implications for Student and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly work on student and school performance poses a variety of explanations for observed variations. One explanation receiving too little attention is social capital, an intangible resource argued to grow out of social relations and social structure. The seedbed of social capital is argued to reside with John Dewey, who in 1900 used the term…

  16. Job satisfaction and social capital in university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rezaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social capital is multidimensional and it is about the value of social networks and relations between people. Social capital refers to the relationships that forms the quality and quantity of the society’s social interactions. This study was designed to determine the relationship between social capital and faculty member’s job satisfaction in Shiraz Medical School. Method: Social capital is multidimensional and it is about the value of social networks and relations between people. Social capital refers to the relationships that forms the quality and quantity of the society’s social interactions. This study was designed to determine the relationship between social capital and faculty member’s job satisfaction in Shiraz Medical School. Results: 69 (57% female and 51 (43% male faculty members participated in this study. Also the findings indicated that mean±SD of social capital was 67.75±6.67 from 75 and that of job satisfaction was 77.1±6.41 from 100. There was a significant relationship between age and job satisfaction (p=0.002, but no relationship was found with marital status(p=0.24.There was a positive relationship between job satisfaction and social capital (p=0.003. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained from this study, it seems that paying attention to social capital and personal characteristics is a useful approach for behavioral interventions and organizational goals in order to upgrade the job satisfaction.

  17. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  18. Social capital in Spain: Are there gender inequalities?

    OpenAIRE

    Celia Muñoz-Goy

    2013-01-01

    Social capital is an asset for individuals because it grants access to important resources embedded in their social networks. But social capital is not evenly distributed among different groups. Gender groups are analysed in this paper in order to examine if there are differences in diverse indicators of social capital and whether these possible differences remain when control variables are considered. The data used in this paper come from a representative sample of 3,400 people in Spain. The...

  19. Investigating the Status of Social Capital in Tehran in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya shadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, the role of social capital has been proved to be undeniable in the health . The World Health Organization (WHO in 2000 declared that almost 60% of the causes of disease and mortality were related to the social factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the status of social capital as one of the social determinants of health in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods:   The study participants, who aged over 18 years, lived in 22 districts of Tehran in 2010. The study data were collected on social capital and socioeconomic variables in Iran. Different dimensions of social capital as well as the mean score of social capital was measured in various groups using the SC-IQ. The study data were analyzed using Stata statistical software: release 13.0. Results: In this study, 2.484 participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The mean age of participants was 41.38±17.7, and the mean score of social capital was slightly more in men (31.18 than women (30.41. Social capital was demonstrated to be lower within poor participants than other groups. In terms of marital status, the divorced had the lowest social capital (26.50. The mean social capital in those with university education was higher compared to individuals with other levels of education. Conclusion: Social capital is regarded as one of the factors affecting health. To promote the level of this valuable capital, the factors affecting the  social capital level should be identified and all appropriate measures should be taken into account in order to ultimately enhance the level of public health.

  20. CAPITAL SOCIAL: IMPORTANCIA DE LAS MEDICIONES PARA COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Foliaco-Gamboa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The social capital as new research paradigm contributes to find out answers to big differences between social and economic development. International institutions and countries have intensified on these researches since the eighty´s decade. The specific purposes are: 1. Analyzing the concept of social capital as a new and universal research paradigm; 2. Enhance the results of measurements and research made in Colombia with Professor John Sudarsky’s leadership since 1997; 3. Compare the national measurements of social capital with those of other countries and regions; 4. Establish the structural reasons of the Colombian low social capital, making some reflections towards its improvement.

  1. The Effect of Cognitive and Relational Social Capital on Structural Social Capital and Micro-Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajennd A/L Muniady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.

  2. Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…

  3. A meta-analysis of social networking online and social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Dong; Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2016-01-01

    Social networking sites offer new avenues for interpersonal communication that may enable people to build social capital. The meta-analyses reported in this paper evaluated the relationship between social network site (SNS) use and 2 types of social capital: bridging social capital and bonding

  4. The Role of Social Capital in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    This paper carries out an empirical assessment of the causal nexus connecting social capital's diverse aspects to the "quality" of economic development in Italy. The analysis accounts for three main social capital dimensions (i.e. bonding, bridging and linking social capital) and measures them through synthetic indicators built by means of principal component analyses performed on a dataset including multiple variables. The quality of development is measured through human development and indi...

  5. Social Capital, Socioeconomic Status and Self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...

  6. High School Dropout Experiences: A Social Capital Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Drewry, Julie Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and analyze students' experiences with dropping out of high school within a social capital framework. Discussing the stories of high school dropouts provided valuable information related to the root causes of dropout behaviors in a social capital context. This information can be used to develop programs designed to increase social capital in schools, families, and communities, which can contribute to a decrease in dropout behaviors. This phenomenol...

  7. SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Mihaela-Raluca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the theoretical framework of the social capital concept, based on different approaches identified in the literature and highlight the direct influence social capital has on the entrepreneurial personality characteristics of individuals and organizations. The objectives of the paper focus first on conceptualizing the notion of social capital, by acknowledging the social capital structure and components in the acceptation of the most popular scholars in the research field, the sources of social capital and its role in building social economy; further on, the article explores the influence of social capital in the creation of innovation and economic growth, its dimensions in the entrepreneurial process and the definition of the instruments of measurement, including indicators of trust-generalized and institutional, number of social networks, associational activities-passive and active membership and civic norms. The paper gathers some of the outcomes of different researches conducted in the literature with respect to the positive relationship between social capital dimensions and entrepreneurship, through attracting the right potential of human capital and the required level of financial capital, reducing the transaction costs, identifying new market opportunities and leveraging the social networks, transfer and knowledge overflow and information channels, enabling the launch and the survival of business venture and help gain competitive advantage that would ensure sustainability and success. The case studies referenced in this article use various approaches of highlighting the social capital as a key enabler and not necessarily a generator of entrepreneurial activity, by analyzing the likelihood to launch new ventures based on the interactions with key partners and exchange of information, the sustainability and success of a start up or push/pull factors that determine an entrepreneur to enter the new

  8. Research Productivity and Social Capital in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaran, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of social capital in raising research productivity in academic institutions. Social capital as a strategic resource embedded in social relationships can be utilised towards decreasing pressures from external environmental conditions, such as the global financial crisis. A survey was sent to academic staff in five…

  9. Bonding and Bridging Social Capital and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Smulders, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a formal model of economic growth and two types of social capital. Following extant literature, we model social capital as participation in two types of social networks: first, closed networks of family and friends, and, second, open networks that bridge different

  10. Social capital : A review from an ethics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayios, A.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Manning, P.; Spence, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has as its key element the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Some authors have noted that social capital nevertheless has a dark side. There is a moral element to such a conceptualisation, yet there is

  11. Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective. CRLRA Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult…

  12. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  13. Social Capital in Western and Eastern Europe: Method of Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    methodology due to the heterogeneity of the very definition of the concept of social capital. A consensus concerning a standardized method of measurement has not yet been reached. Based on the existing theoretical and empirical approaches, we suggest the use of a questionnaire where the principal component......The purpose of this paper is to suggest a standard method of measurement for social capital. Various authors have investigated the influence of social capital on economic growth but still social capital has not been measured in any satisfactory way. So far, each survey has used its own ad hoc...

  14. Novo-desenvolvimento, capital social e desigualdade social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Oliveira Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a tendência de enfrentamento da desigualdade social a partir, no campo econômico, da versão do novo-desenvolvimentismo e, no campo político e ideológico, a partir da noção de capital social, na tentativa de realizar um "capitalismo com face mais humana". Discutiremos duas ordens de questões, considerando a especificidade da formação social brasileira de capitalismo dependente: 1 a “construção de Estados fortes” para

    assegurar as condições de acumulação do capital, ampliando as margens do mercado de consumo, aliviando a pobreza e controlando possíveis tensões políticas e 2 a difusão da necessidade de construir uma sociedade em harmonia, que se traduz na incorporação da ética empreendedora dos empresários em todas as esferas sociais. Entendemos que este escopo político-econômico revela uma nova pedagogia da hegemonia, sustentada numa suposta alternativa
    de gerenciamento das novas expressões da “questão social”, voltada para educar o conformismo e ocultar o conflito de classes.
    Palavras-chave:  questão social; novo-desenvolvimentismo; capital social; inclusão forçada

  15. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  16. Network-based modeling and intelligent data mining of social media for improving care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Altug; Dragomir, Andrei; Erlandsson, Bjorn-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Intelligently extracting knowledge from social media has recently attracted great interest from the Biomedical and Health Informatics community to simultaneously improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs using consumer-generated opinion. We propose a two-step analysis framework that focuses on positive and negative sentiment, as well as the side effects of treatment, in users' forum posts, and identifies user communities (modules) and influential users for the purpose of ascertaining user opinion of cancer treatment. We used a self-organizing map to analyze word frequency data derived from users' forum posts. We then introduced a novel network-based approach for modeling users' forum interactions and employed a network partitioning method based on optimizing a stability quality measure. This allowed us to determine consumer opinion and identify influential users within the retrieved modules using information derived from both word-frequency data and network-based properties. Our approach can expand research into intelligently mining social media data for consumer opinion of various treatments to provide rapid, up-to-date information for the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, and medical staff, on the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of future treatments.

  17. Social capital and healthy urbanization in a globalized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Pat; Thomas, Liz; Havemann, Kirsten; Sapag, Jaime; Wood, Lisa

    2007-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the extent in which social capital can be a resource to promote health equity in urban contexts. It analyzes the concept of social capital and reviews evidence to link social capital to health outcomes and health equity, drawing on evidence from epidemiological studies and descriptive case studies from both developed and developing countries. The findings show that in certain environments social capital can be a key factor influencing health outcomes of technical interventions. Social capital can generate both the conditions necessary for mutual support and care and the mechanisms required for communities and groups to exert effective pressure to influence policy. The link between social capital and health is shown to operate through different pathways at different societal levels, but initiatives to strengthen social capital for health need to be part of a broader, holistic, social development process that also addresses upstream structural determinants of health. A clearer understanding is also needed of the complexity and dynamics of the social processes involved and their contribution to health equity and better health. The paper concludes with recommendations for policy and programming and identifies ten key elements needed to build social capital.

  18. Social Capital and Healthy Urbanization in a Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Liz; Havemann, Kirsten; Sapag, Jaime; Wood, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the extent in which social capital can be a resource to promote health equity in urban contexts. It analyzes the concept of social capital and reviews evidence to link social capital to health outcomes and health equity, drawing on evidence from epidemiological studies and descriptive case studies from both developed and developing countries. The findings show that in certain environments social capital can be a key factor influencing health outcomes of technical interventions. Social capital can generate both the conditions necessary for mutual support and care and the mechanisms required for communities and groups to exert effective pressure to influence policy. The link between social capital and health is shown to operate through different pathways at different societal levels, but initiatives to strengthen social capital for health need to be part of a broader, holistic, social development process that also addresses upstream structural determinants of health. A clearer understanding is also needed of the complexity and dynamics of the social processes involved and their contribution to health equity and better health. The paper concludes with recommendations for policy and programming and identifies ten key elements needed to build social capital. PMID:17401692

  19. Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While neighbourhood differences in social capital have been mapped, few empirical studies have considered the nexus between specific physical characteristics of communities and social capital. In this study we hypothesised that social capital would be positively associated with a more walkable street network design, but inversely associated with negative experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood environments. Data was gathered through a random cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (n=339 from three suburbs with differing street network design. Although there was some relationship between street network layout and social capital, this was not always as hypothesised by previous studies. Perceived incivilities, lower levels of trust and support were among factors that may have countered some of the positive influences of a walkable street network design on social capital. Overall, our findings suggest that the built environment may influence neighbourhood social capital at both a real and perceived level. While the actual presence and type of facilities, neighbourhood design and walkability may impact on social capital formation and maintenance, so too can perceptions of the physical and social environment. Understanding the complex intertwining of physical neighbourhood features, perceptions and social dynamics is relevant to growing public policy interest in strengthening social capital for enhanced community wellbeing.

  20. Social Capital and Educational Achievements: Coleman vs. Bourdieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rogošić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman’s (1988 or Bourdieu’s (1986 theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman’s approach has its roots in structural functionalism, Bourdieu’s approach contains elements of conflict theory. A number of authors, starting with Bourdieu, attempt to explain and prove that, when connected with the education of individuals, the activity of social capital facilitates social reproduction. Other authors support the notion that social capital is, in fact, a powerful weapon that encourages social mobility. A third group of researchers emphasise that neither of these approaches in isolation can entirety explain the influences of social capital on an individual’s education (Ho, 2003. The present paper offers a review of research focusing on the influences of social capital on educational achievements, while outlining the fundamental differences between the two theoretical approaches that are most frequently used for research of this topic. The aim of the paper is to explain the influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements under Bourdieu’s and Coleman’s theoretical concepts, and to establish whether combining the approaches is possible. The conclusion and arguments show that it is legitimate to use all three theoretical approaches.

  1. Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.

  2. Social capital and job satisfaction among substance abuse treatment employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Andreas; Niakas, Dimitris; Sarafis, Pavlos

    2017-02-15

    Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA). A revised Greek Version of the Social Capital Questionnaire (SCQ-G) for the individual social capital measurement, and of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) for the job satisfaction measurement, were used. Individual Social Capital ranged in medium levels. We observed a significant positive association between social capital and its' different aspects and gender, age, place of residence and working experience. Men, older employees, those who lived in smaller places, and those working more years, reached higher levels of individual social capital. Concerning overall job satisfaction most of the participants were ambivalent (61.5%), while 21.8% were satisfied and 16.7% were dissatisfied. Concerning its separate aspects, 77% were least satisfied with pay, 69.9% were least satisfied with advancement opportunities, 60.3% were least satisfied with fringe benefits, 85.8% were most satisfied with the nature of their work, 80.8% with their relationship with colleagues, and 77.8% were satisfied with supervision. Total Job Satisfaction was positively associated with place of residence and monthly salary. A significant positive correlation between social capital and job satisfaction was also observed. Early evidence suggests that social capital is associated with job satisfaction of employees providing services in the treatment of substance abuse. Further research, regarding social capital on job satisfaction, is suggested. We need to design and implement

  3. Using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice: a learning behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2014-06-01

    Virtual communities provide numerous resources, immediate feedback, and information sharing, enabling people to rapidly acquire information and knowledge and supporting diverse applications that facilitate interpersonal interactions, communication, and sharing. Moreover, incorporating highly mobile and convenient devices into practice-based courses can be advantageous in learning situations. Therefore, in this study, a tablet PC and Google+ were introduced to a health education practice course to elucidate satisfaction of learning module and conditions and analyze the sequence and frequency of learning behaviors during the social-network-based learning process. According to the analytical results, social networks can improve interaction among peers and between educators and students, particularly when these networks are used to search for data, post articles, engage in discussions, and communicate. In addition, most nursing students and nursing educators expressed a positive attitude and satisfaction toward these innovative teaching methods, and looked forward to continuing the use of this learning approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  5. Social Value Orientation and Capitalism in Societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibly Shahrier

    Full Text Available Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called "capitalism," affects the evolution of people's social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i rural, (ii transitional and (iii capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of "unidentified" people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic.

  6. On a source of social capital : Gift exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; van der Eijk, R.; Jolink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of social capital helps to explain relations within and between companies but has not crystallized yet. As such, the nature, development, and effects of such relations remain elusive. How is social capital created, how is it put to use, and how is it maintained? Can it decline, and if

  7. Understanding the role of social capital in adoption decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunecke, Claudia; Engler, Alejandra; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Poortvliet, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Recently, social capital has gained importance in explaining technology adoption decisions by farmers. In this paper, we examine the impact of social capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and irrigation scheduling among wine producers in Central Chile. We propose three hypotheses: that

  8. Effect of social capital on food security among rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...

  9. Social capital and agricultural innovation in sub Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, F.; Bulte, E.H.; Adekunle, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a novel and extensive dataset to explore the association between different forms of social capital and innovation in agriculture, for a sample of African countries. We find mixed evidence. While structural social capital, especially in the form of connections beyond the village,

  10. Social Capital and the Equalizing Potential of the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSocial capital is predominantly seen as a public good. Internet communication tends to complement real-world interaction. Therefore, concerns that it might contribute to a decline of social capital seem unfounded. Internet communication can support and enhance communities that to some

  11. Social capital and health: a review of prospective multilevel studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health.

  12. From social capital to health--and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Elena; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We assess the causal relationship between health and social capital, measured by generalized trust, both at the individual and the community level. The paper contributes to the literature in two ways: it tackles the problems of endogeneity and reverse causation between social capital and health by

  13. Spatial Heterogeneity, Social Capital, and Rural Larceny and Burglary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Steven; Deller, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    We explore the role of social capital in explaining patterns of rural larceny and burglary crime rates. We find consistent evidence that higher levels of social capital tend to be associated with lower levels of rural property crime rates. We also find that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the underlying data-generating process. This…

  14. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of...... problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents....

  15. Social Capital, a Critical Factor in Strengthening Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Capital, a Critical Factor in Strengthening Democratic Governance: The Case of Mkambati and Kumasi. S Zeka. Abstract. Social capital has for centuries been used by traditional communities as a resource on which they relied in dealing with challenges and problems confronting them. Colonialism and imperialism ...

  16. Trust, Trustworthiness and Cooperation: Social Capital and Community Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Bulte, E.H.; Soest, van D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is one of the main determinants of community resource management success. We use the (average) amount sent in a trust game as a measure of social capital in five rural villages in India. Combining these experimental data with household surveys we analyze: (i) how the amount sent is

  17. Trust and cooperation: Social capital and community resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.A.; Bulte, E.H.; van Soest, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is one of the main determinants of community resource management success. We use the (average) amount sent in a trust game as a measure of social capital in five rural villages in India. Combining these experimental data with household surveys we analyze: (i) how the amount sent is

  18. Social Capital, a Critical Factor in Strengthening Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with other stakeholders, are continuously reinforced through the promotion of the properties of social capital such as trust and solidarity. Using the case of Mkambati, South Africa and Kumasi, Ghana this article seeks to demonstrate the critical role social capital plays in building and consolidating democratic governance.

  19. The need for psychological needs: a role for social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.

  20. The effect of social capital on improving productivity of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of social capital on improving productivity of human resources in the project of engineering, procurement and construction Bandar Abbas gas ... three minor hypotheses were formed,which evaluated the effect of social capital and its three-fold aspects (trust, solidarity and cooperation) on productivity, respectively.

  1. Toward an Empirical Characterization of Bridging and Bonding Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Geys, Benny

    2007-01-01

    Though a vast amount of empirical work stresses the beneficial effects of social capital, the recent literature has explicitly recognized the importance of distinguishing different types of social capital. Particularly, a distinction has been made between homogeneous (or bonding) and heterogeneous

  2. Perceptions of social capital and sexual behaviour among youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With about one quarter of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occuring in young people, there is an on-going debate regarding the role of social capital on youth sexual behaviour. Some studies have suggested that high levels of family and community social capital may act as protective factors that lessen ...

  3. Single Mothers, Social Capital, and Work--Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattari, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…

  4. HIV/AIDS, social capital, and online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drushel, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The prospects for online social networks as sites of information-gathering and affiliation for persons with AIDS and others concerned about HIV/AIDS not only represent the latest development in a trend toward circumventing traditional media and official information sources, but also may offer hope for a revitalization of HIV/AIDS discourse in the public sphere. This article provides an overview of three decades of information-seeking on the pandemic and its social and personal implications, as well as case studies of three examples of social networking surrounding HIV/AIDS. It finds preliminary evidence of the formation of strong and weak ties as described in Social Network Theory and suggests that the online accumulation of social capital by opinion leaders could facilitate dissemination of messages on HIV/AIDS awareness and testing.

  5. Social capital in Spain: Are there gender inequalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Muñoz-Goy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is an asset for individuals because it grants access to important resources embedded in their social networks. But social capital is not evenly distributed among different groups. Gender groups are analysed in this paper in order to examine if there are differences in diverse indicators of social capital and whether these possible differences remain when control variables are considered. The data used in this paper come from a representative sample of 3,400 people in Spain. The main results show gender differences in the access, mobilisation and type of social networks, as well as in the extent and type of social participation. However, these differences are mostly reduced for the groups in more advantageous social positions, which have the possibility to contact with greater and more varied groups, or which have been educated in less traditional gender roles. In general, gender inequalities in social capital remain for the other groups.

  6. Social Capital and Economic Performance: some lessons from Farm Partnerships in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkandreas, Thanos; Larsen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The social capital literature usually perceives social capital as dues ex machine for economic performance. In this paper we use existing social capital theory to develop a conceptual framework to explain; (i) the importance of organizational capital as the ‘missing link’ between social capital and economic performance, and (ii) the phenomenon of ‘complementarity’ of different forms of capital (i.e. Physical, Financial, Human, Social, Organizational and Economic Capital) as a prerequisite for...

  7. Development of the Social Network-Based Intervention "Powerful Together with Diabetes" Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development of the social network-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes which aims to improve diabetes self-management (DSM) among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods by stimulating social support for DSM and diminishing social influences hindering DSM (e.g., peer pressure and social norms). The intervention was specifically developed for patients with Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese backgrounds. The intervention was developed according to Intervention Mapping. This article describes the first four steps of Intervention Mapping: (1) the needs assessment; (2) development of performance and change objectives; (3) selection of theory-based methods and strategies; and (4) the translation of these into an organized program. These four steps resulted in Powerful Together with Diabetes, a 10-month group-based intervention consisting of 24 meetings, 6 meetings for significant others, and 2 meetings for participants and their spouses. The IM method resulted in a tailored approach with a specific focus on the social networks of its participants. This article concludes that the IM method helped our planning team to tailor the intervention to the needs of our target population and facilitated our evaluation design. However, in hindsight, the intervention could have been improved by investing more in participatory planning and community involvement.

  8. On the wealth of nations: Bourdieuconomics and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    'lubricating' civic society and the voluntary provision of collective goods such as trust and predictable behaviour. In this way, social capital reduces transaction costs in society thereby enhancing economic growth and consequently the creation of differences in the wealth of nations. Future research should...... a 'Bourdieuconomics' - implies the usage of a capital theory that, methodologically, operates with material and immaterial forms of capital at the same level. Here, we stress the particular importance of an immaterial form of capital, namely social capital, which facilitates informal human exchange thereby...... therefore be directed towards analyses of a new and formerly disregarded production factor, social capital, within a new field of socio-economics, namely 'Bourdieuconomics'. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  9. Social capital and post-disaster mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R. Wind

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite national and international policies to develop social capital in disaster-affected communities, empiric evidence on the association between social capital and disaster mental health is limited and ambiguous. Objective : The study explores the relationship between social capital and disaster mental health outcomes (PTSD, anxiety, and depression in combination with individual factors (appraisal, coping behavior, and social support. Design : This is a community-based cross-sectional study in a flood-affected town in northern England. The study is part of the MICRODIS multi-country research project that examines the impact of natural disasters. It included 232 flood-affected respondents. Results : The findings showed that a considerable part of the association between cognitive and structural social capital and mental health is exerted through individual appraisal processes (i.e. property loss, primary and secondary appraisal, social support, and coping behavior. These individual factors were contingent on social capital. After the inclusion of individual characteristics, cognitive social capital was negatively related to lower mental health problems and structural social capital was positively associated to experiencing anxiety but not to PTSD or depression. Depression and anxiety showed a different pattern of association with both components of social capital. Conclusions : Individual oriented stress reducing interventions that use appraisal processes, social support, and coping as starting points could be more effective by taking into account the subjective experience of the social context in terms of trust and feelings of mutual support and reciprocity in a community. Findings indicate that affected people may especially benefit from a combination of individual stress reducing interventions and psychosocial interventions that foster cognitive social capital.

  10. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  11. Building Indigenous Social Capital in an Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bandias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, information communication technology (ICT access and social inclusion. More specifically, a case study methodology is used to examine the role of ICT in facilitating the social capital of Indigenous communities. A remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT is the focus of the paper. Whilst the potential of social capital to affect positive outcomes across a diverse range of areas is well researched, Indigenous disadvantage is well documented and the role of ICT in facilitating social and economic development is well established, although little is known about the ICT social capital nexus in an Indigenous context. The paper commences with a review of the social capital literature. A description of the methodology employed in the data collection phase of the project is followed by the case study. The paper concludes with a summary of the findings and recommendations for further research.

  12. A concept analysis of social capital within a health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the concept of social capital within a health context using Rodgers's (2000) Evolutionary Method. Published literature. The analysis demonstrates that social capital is the intangible assets, including trust, networks, and social norms of reciprocity, possessed by a society within a specific culture. When a unit (individual or a family) increases its sense of community or quality of community participation, this could increase its social capital. The result of this analysis provides a guide for further conceptual and empirical research and clinical practice.

  13. Violence and social capital in post-conflict Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesen, Cecilie; Ronsbo, Henrik; Juárez, Carla; González, Mariano; Estrada Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Modvig, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Violence in post-conflict Guatemala has serious public health consequences for the population. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between violence and social capital. Data from a cross-sectional victimization survey conducted in 2008 - 2010 in Guatemala were analyzed. Two-stage proportionate sampling was used in the survey. Households (n = 1 300) were randomly sampled within a random sample of communities (n = 118) in five administrative departments. The survey collected information on the six-month violence exposure of 6 335 individuals. Social capital was measured at the household level using the short version of the Adapted Social Capital Tool (SASCAT). The odds ratio for household violence exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. Community-level data from the latest national census were included as explanatory factors at the community level. Income, ethnicity, and social capital were included at the household level. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. In total, 2.7% of individuals and 11.7% of households had been exposed to violence within the past six months. The multivariate analysis showed that 1) structural social capital (in this case, the level of participation in social networks and civil society) was a risk factor for violence and 2) cognitive social capital (measured as trust, norms, and sense of belonging) was a protective factor for violence. The opposite direction of the association between violence and structural and cognitive social capital challenges the use of social capital as a unified concept. If this finding is corroborated by other studies, structural and cognitive social capital will have to be treated as two distinctly different concepts.

  14. Neighborhood social capital and achieved mobility of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L; Tabb, Loni P; Grubesic, Tony H; Taylor, Jennifer A; Michael, Yvonne L

    2014-12-01

    Evaluate associations of neighborhood social capital and mobility of older adults. A community-based survey (Philadelphia, 2010) assessed mobility (Life-Space Assessment [LSA]; range = 0-104) of older adults (n = 675, census tracts = 256). Social capital was assessed for all adults interviewed from 2002-2010 (n = 13,822, census tracts = 374). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics estimated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in mobility by social capital tertiles. Interactions by self-rated health, living arrangement, and race were tested. Social capital was not associated with mobility after adjustment for other neighborhood characteristics (mean difference for highest versus lowest tertile social capital = 0.79, 95% CI = [-3.3, 4.8]). We observed no significant interactions. In models stratified by race, Black participants had higher mobility in high social capital neighborhoods (mean difference = 7.4, CI = [1.0, 13.7]). Social capital may not contribute as much as other neighborhood characteristics to mobility. Interactions between neighborhood and individual-level characteristics should be considered in research on mobility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Social capital and poverty reduction: empirical evidence from Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Barassou Diawara; Saeki Chikayoshi; Kobena Hanson

    2013-01-01

    Social capital has been described as an empirically elusive concept, yet has also been heralded as the glue that holds communities together. The objective of this paper is to show that associational relationships, social norms and cohesion are important in partly explaining the poverty status of the household heads in Senegal. We make use of the 2005 Senegalese Household Survey to construct an index of social capital and show that it is correlated with the economic situation of the households...

  16. Social Capital and Individual Performance: A Study of Academic Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Alireza; Hossain, Liaquat; Wigand, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Studies on social networks highlight the importance of network structure or structural properties of a given network and its impact on performance outcome. One of the important properties of this network structure is referred as "social capital" which is the "network of contacts" and the associated values attached to these networks of contacts. In this study, our aim is to provide empirical evidence of the influence of social capital and performance within the context of academic collaboratio...

  17. Inclusive Growth Through Creation of Human and Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses inclusive growth that focuses on the creation of opportunities for all. Inclusive growth allows people to contribute to and benefit from economic growth, while pro-poor growth approaches focusing on welfare of the poor only to reduce inequality. Recently, economics literature incorporates social capital for explaining regional disparities. Economic development of country depends on the impact of social capital which includes social culture, norms and regulations that promo...

  18. Leveraging tourism legacies: social capital and the 2010 Games

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhashab, Aliaa Shawky

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting views exist concerning the extent to which the planning, development and delivery processes related to mega-events leave positive tangible and intangible legacies for the host destinations. This research suggest that the 2010 Tourism Consortium activities have built the foundation for a legacy of social networks and social capital that can be leveraged well beyond the Games. Growing evidence reveals that investing in social capital yields various streams of human, intellectual, an...

  19. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative......Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... environmental management....

  20. Multinational Enterprises and Social Capital as Location Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....

  1. NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES FOR ENTREPRENEURS IN TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela CORODEANU AGHEORGHIESEI; Valentin NIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    In the business field, the social networks based on ties of trust are an attribute of organizations with strong organizational culture where the social status is important. These networks are the source of social capital.Given the role of tourism industry in the development community, especially since 1990, according david a. Fennell (2003) the social capital can exist at the micro levelwith reference to social network sites that exist in the very strong social arrangements, at the meso-level...

  2. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  3. Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Wepener

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to arrive at this conclusion regarding food and the eating habits of humankind, the phenomenon of commensality and its relation to social capital is approached here from three different angles, namely Social Anthropology, New Testament Studies and Ethnography.

  4. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    The transition of the "Old Communist" countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor...

  5. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PENGARUHNYA PADA PROFITABILITAS PERBANKAN

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ayu Nyoman Budiasih

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji secara empiris pengaruh Intellectual Capital dan Corporate Social Responsibilty pada Profitabilitas sektor Perbankan. Sampel penelitian yaitu seluruh bank di Bursa Efek Indonesia yang terdaftar periode 2011-2013 dengan metode purposive sampling. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi linear berganda. Metode pengumpulan datanya menggunakan  metode dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan intellectual capital berpengaruh positif pada Profitabilitas. ...

  6. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  7. Neighbourhood Renewal, Participation and Social Capital in Deprived Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants to consi......This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants...... to consider the kinds of patterns and connections that build up in a neighbourhood renewal project in a small, deprived neighbourhood of a provincial town in Denmark. Results show that outcomes of community participation depend on the kind of social capital generated and on who is excluded from...

  8. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Population levels of wellbeing and the association with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Kelly, G; Dal Grande, E; Kelly, D; Marin, T; Hey, N; Burke, K J; Licinio, J

    2017-07-03

    This research investigates wellbeing at the population level across demographic, social and health indicators and assesses the association between wellbeing and social capital. Data from a South Australian monthly chronic disease/risk factor surveillance system of randomly selected adults (mean age 48.7 years; range 16-99) from 2014/5 (n = 5551) were used. Univariable analyses compared wellbeing/social capital indicators, socio-demographic, risk factors and chronic conditions. Multi-nominal logistic regression modelling, adjusting for multiple covariates was used to simultaneously estimate odds ratios for good wellbeing (reference category) versus neither good nor poor, and good wellbeing versus poor wellbeing. 48.6% were male, mean age 48.7 (sd 18.3), 54.3% scored well on all four of the wellbeing indicators, and positive social capital indicators ranged from 93.1% for safety to 50.8% for control over decisions. The higher level of social capital corresponded with the good wellbeing category. Modeling showed higher odds ratios for all social capital variables for the lowest level of wellbeing. These higher odds ratios remained after adjusting for confounders. The relationship between wellbeing, resilience and social capital highlights areas for increased policy focus.

  10. Negative Bystander Behavior in Bullying Dynamics: Assessing the Impact of Social Capital Deprivation and Anti-social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Bystanders witness bullying, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim; however, they often engage in negative bystander behavior. This study examines how social capital deprivation and anti-social capital are associated with the likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior in a sample (N = 5752) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. Data were collected using an online, youth self-report; the current study uses cross sectional data. Following multiple imputation, a binary logistic regression with robust standard errors was run. Results partially supported the hypothesis and indicated that social capital deprivation in the form of peer pressure and verbal victimization and anti-social capital in the form of delinquent friends, bullying perpetration, verbal perpetration, and physical perpetration were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior. Findings highlight the importance of establishing sources of positive social support for disenfranchised youth.

  11. Is Social Capital an Effective Smoke Condenser? An Essay on Concept Linking the Social Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Paldam, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must...... be added to human and physical capital, or it might enter as a reduction in either transaction or monitoring costs. A direct and an indirect way to measure social capital are discussed. The crucial question is if social capital can be changed. That is, if self enforcement can replace third party...... enforcement, and it is discussed how much harm totalitarian regimes do to social capital, when they expand their area of central control....

  12. Applying Social Capital Theory and the Technology Acceptance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... can strongly inform knowledge sharing research. The paper explains the components, relevance and practical applicability of the two theories to information and knowledge sharing research. Keywords: Social capital theory, technology acceptance model, information sharing, knowledge sharing, research collaboration.

  13. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    collective action problems. However, these micro-level effects of social capital are more often assumed or postulated than empirically demonstrated. Using the collective action problem of organizing for the furthering of a common (collective) interest or good among non-western first-generation immigrants...... in Denmark this paper provides empirical evidence that the number of memberships in voluntary com¬mon-interest associations - i.e. the propensity to choose the cooperative strategy of joining this type of associations - is indeed positively and significantly related to the individual’s social capital......A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve...

  14. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PENGARUHNYA PADA PROFITABILITAS PERBANKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Nyoman Budiasih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji secara empiris pengaruh Intellectual Capital dan Corporate Social Responsibilty pada Profitabilitas sektor Perbankan. Sampel penelitian yaitu seluruh bank di Bursa Efek Indonesia yang terdaftar periode 2011-2013 dengan metode purposive sampling. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi linear berganda. Metode pengumpulan datanya menggunakan  metode dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan intellectual capital berpengaruh positif pada Profitabilitas. Disisi lain Corporate Social Responsibilty tidak berpengaruh pada Profitabilitas. This study aims to determine the effect of intellectual capital and Corporate Social Responsibility on profitability on Banks sector. Samples were banks listed from 2011-2013 periods employing purposive sampling method. The analysis technique used was multiple linear regressions. The technique of data collections was documentation. The results of this study demonstrate intellectual capital had positive effect on profitability. On the other hand, Corporate Social Responsibility had no effect on profitability. 

  15. Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Knorringa (Peter); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe present report on Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept is part of the broader Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development (COMPID), research programme of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),

  16. Social Capital and Community Effects on Population and Individual Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAWACHI, ICHIRO

    1999-01-01

    ...‐that facilitate collective action for mutual benefit. Social capital is believed to play an important role in the functioning of community life across a variety of domains, ranging from the prevention of juvenile delinquency and crime, the promotion...

  17. Social Capital and the Equalizing Potential of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pruijt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSocial capital is predominantly seen as a public good. Internet communication tends to complement real-world interaction. Therefore, concerns that it might contribute to a decline of social capital seem unfounded. Internet communication can support and enhance communities that to some extent depend on face-to-face interaction. Taking the online communication of computer professionals as a model, the paper seeks to demonstrate the power of virtual communities. Examples are the deve...

  18. Social Capital, Public Spending and the Quality of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Sabatini

    2005-01-01

    This paper carries out an empirical assessment of the relationship between social capital and the quality of economic development in Italy. The analysis draws on a dataset collected by the author including about two hundred variables representing different aspects of economic development and four “structural” dimensions of social capital. The quality of development is measured through human development and indicators of the state of health of urban ecosystems, public services, gender equality...

  19. Social Capital, Public Spending and the Quality of Economic

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Sabatini

    2005-01-01

    This paper carries out an empirical assessment of the relationship between social capital and the quality of economic development in Italy. The analysis draws on a dataset collected by the author including about two hundred variables representing different aspects of economic development and four “structural” dimensions of social capital. The quality of development is measured through human development and indicators of the state of health of urban ecosystems, public services, gender equality...

  20. Help from My "Friends": Social Capital in the Social Network Sites of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline social networks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online social networks and…

  1. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties and community social capital (measuring weak ties. On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances.

  2. Social capital to strengthen health policy and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jessica; Morrison, Ken; Hardee, Karen

    2014-12-01

    This article recounts the development of a model for social capital building developed over the course of interventions focused on HIV-related stigma and discrimination, safe motherhood and reproductive health. Through further engagement with relevant literature, it explores the nature of social capital and suggests why undertaking such a process can enhance health policy and programmes, advocacy and governance for improved health systems strengthening (HSS) outcomes. The social capital process proposed facilitates the systematic and effective inclusion of community voices in the health policy process-strengthening programme effectiveness as well as health system accountability and governance. Because social capital building facilitates communication and the uptake of new ideas, norms and standards within and between professional communities of practice, it can provide an important mechanism for integration both within and between sectors-a process long considered a 'wicked problem' for health policy-makers. The article argues that the systematic application of social capital building, from bonding through bridging into linking social capital, can greatly enhance the ability of governments and their partners to achieve their HSS goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  3. The Resource Generator : social capital quantification with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Gaag, M; Snijders, TAB; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    In research on the social capital of individuals, there has been little standardisation of measurement instruments, and more emphasis on measuring social relationships than on social resources. In this paper, we propose two innovations. First, a new measurement method: the Resource Generator; an

  4. Education and social capital: empirical evidence from microeconomic analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Social capital is considered an important asset for individuals, groups, communities and society because it is related to individual health and socio-economic status, and it affects the crime rate, social cohesion, and social welfare. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a detail

  5. Crime and Punishment: Social Capital and Children of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    An ethnographic study explored the social dynamics behind the discipline statistics provided by referrals. This paper describes the social context that creates the educational environment where social capital is generated and/or denied, starting with the application of detention as the initial step toward issuing referrals, considered a more…

  6. Social Capital and Happiness in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the association between social capital and average happiness in the United States. Social capital is measured as a multidimensional concept consisting of social trust and two different indicators of sociability. In order to employ the variation both over time and across states......, the data are organized in either a panel of nine US Census regions over the period 1983-1998 or in averages over this period in a cross-section of 48 states. The results show that social trust is positively associated with happiness while the potential effects of informal sociability at the level...... of society only appear significant in the regional estimates. The findings document the importance of social trust for average happiness but also hold more general implications for social capital theory....

  7. A study on relationship between social capital and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Fotovvat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.

  8. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  9. Neighbourhood alcohol availability and gonorrhea rates: impact of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Theall

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and income inequality have been proposed as important mediators of the relation between the material environment and health outcomes. We determined whether indicators of social capital are (i associated with neighbourhood gonorrhea rates, and (ii mediate the relation between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. Longitudinal analyses of age- and sex-adjusted gonorrhea cases reported from 1990 to 1996 in the 445 census tracts affected by the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles, California was conducted. The role of alcohol outlets was assessed both as tracts with surrendered off-sale outlets due to the civil unrest and annual off-sale alcohol outlet density rates. Tract level voting rates were used as one indicator of social capital, while neighbourhood structure conducive to social organization was used as another. Neighbourhoods with greater voting over time and greater endogenous social organization experienced 1.9 and 67.2 fewer gonorrhea cases per 100,000. Results also reveal a partial mediating role of social capital on the relationship between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. The alcohol environment may have a direct or partially mediated role in infectious disease outcomes such as gonorrhea. Our findings support the importance of continuing controls and limits on off-premise alcohol outlet density, as a potential means of reducing gonorrhea rates and increasing social capital.

  10. Una definición estructural de capital social.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Valdecasas Medina, José I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of a definition of social capital that relates the topological structure of social networks, in which individuals are embedded, to the resources available to individuals in such networks. Social capital, as defined here, consists of a series of resources that individuals can obtain from the structure of social networks. Two of the most important resources are information flowing through networks and obligations of reciprocity which can come out of the mutual confidence between agents in the same network. Both aspects of social capital –information and reciprocity- are closely related to the structure of networks: firstly, the flow of information depends on certain structural configurations (brokerage characterized by low path length; and, secondly, the obligations of reciprocity depend on other structural distributions (closure characterized by high clustering coefficient.

  11. A sign of the times: To have or to be? Social capital or social cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria A; Bilal, Usama

    2016-06-01

    Among various social factors associated with health behavior and disease, social cohesion has not captured the imagination of public health researchers as much as social capital as evidenced by the subsuming of social cohesion into social capital and the numerous studies analyzing social capital and the comparatively fewer articles analyzing social cohesion and health. In this paper we provide a brief overview of the evolution of the conceptualization of social capital and social cohesion and we use philosopher Erich Fromm's distinction between "having" and "being" to understand the current research focus on capital over cohesion. We argue that social capital is related to having while social cohesion is related to being and that an emphasis on social capital leads to individualizing tendencies that are antithetical to cohesion. We provide examples drawn from the literature where this conflation of social capital and cohesion results in non-concordant definitions and subsequent operationalization of these constructs. Beyond semantics, the practical implication of focusing on "having" vs. "being" include an emphasis on understanding how to normalize groups and populations rather than providing those groups space for empowerment and agency leading to health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Capital Social, Cohesión social y uso de la lengua

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lozares, Carlos; Sala, Mireia

    2011-01-01

    Language is a vehicle of interactions that occurs in our social life. So, it is an instrument of communication and resource of implicit or explicit social relationships, and as such, also of social capital...

  13. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Møllegaard; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...

  15. The dark side of social capital: A systematic review of the negative health effects of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga-Olives, E; Kawachi, I

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing literature demonstrating the health benefits of social capital (defined as the resources accessed through social connections). However, social capital is also acknowledged to be a "double-edged" phenomenon, whose effects on health are not always positive. We sought to systematically review studies that have found a negative (i.e. harmful) association between social capital and health outcomes. Our objective was to classify the different types of negative effects, following a framework originally proposed by Portes (1998). We conducted a literature search in Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo. We identified 3530 manuscripts. After detailed review, we included 44 articles in our systematic review. There are at least two negative consequences of social capital besides the classification proposed by Portes: behavioral contagion and cross-level interactions between social cohesion and individual characteristics. When leveraging the concept of social capital for health promotion interventions, researchers need to take account of these potential "downsides" for health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The pet connection: pets as a conduit for social capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max

    2005-09-01

    There is growing interest across a range of disciplines in the relationship between pets and health, with a range of therapeutic, physiological, psychological and psychosocial benefits now documented. While much of the literature has focused on the individual benefits of pet ownership, this study considered the potential health benefits that might accrue to the broader community, as encapsulated in the construct of social capital. A random survey of 339 adult residents from Perth, Western Australia were selected from three suburbs and interviewed by telephone. Pet ownership was found to be positively associated with some forms of social contact and interaction, and with perceptions of neighbourhood friendliness. After adjustment for demographic variables, pet owners scored higher on social capital and civic engagement scales. The results suggest that pet ownership provides potential opportunities for interactions between neighbours and that further research in this area is warranted. Social capital is another potential mechanism by which pets exert an influence on human health.

  17. Affording to exchange: social capital and online information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Young, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    The potential harm and benefit associated with sharing personal information online is a topic of debate and discussion. Using survey methods (n=872), we explore whether attainment of social capital online relates to greater comfort with sharing personal information. We found that perceptions of bridging and bonding social capital earned from using Facebook are significant predictors of overall comfort levels with sharing personal information. This research raises timely questions about how the perceived benefits of social networking sites influence how personal information is shared online.

  18. Neighborhood social capital and adult health: an empirical test of a Bourdieu-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  19. Linking social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia at the folk festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Wilks

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of folk festivals in transforming interconnections between people, space and culture. It interlinks three sets of theoretical ideas: social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia to suggest a new conceptual framework that will help to frame a deeper understanding of the nature of celebration. Qualitative data were collected at two long-established folk festivals, Sidmouth Folk Festival in southern England and the Feakle Traditional Music Festival in western Ireland, in order to investigate these potential links. Although Foucault did not fully develop the concept of heterotopia, his explanation that heterotopias are counter-sites, which, unlike utopias, are located in real, physical, space-time, has inspired others, including some festival researchers, to build on his ideas. This study concludes that the heterotopian concept of the festival as sacred space, with the stage as umbilicus, may be linked to the building of social capital; while it is suggested that both social capital and appropriate cultural capital are needed to gain full entry to the heterotopia.

  20. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  1. Human capital development and a Social License to Operate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco C. A.; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...

  2. The association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement: Differences between subtypes of social capital and the impact of intra-team agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Annette; Clausen, Thomas; Borg, Vilhelm

    2018-02-19

    The study explored the association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement. Questionnaire data were collected from six companies in the dairy industry. Seven hundred seventy-two participants divided into 65 teams were included. In confirmatory factor analyses, we found a superior model fit to a four dimensional model of social capital: bonding social capital, bridging social capital and two types of linking social capital. The results showed a positive association between all subtypes of social capital at the team level and work engagement at the individual level. However, this association only remained significant for linking social capital in relation the workplace as a whole when we adjusted for psychosocial working conditions. The level of intra-team agreement in social capital score did not moderate the association between social capital and work engagement. In conclusion, the results provide further support for previous findings suggesting a positive association between social capital and work engagement. They add to the existing knowledge by suggesting that linking social capital in relation to the workplace is the most important explanatory variable for work engagement, thus emphasizing the need to distinguish between subtypes of social capital in research and practice. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. El capital social en el futuro de la Universidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Consuelo Chapela

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un análisis de los conceptos de los autores más connotados en el campo del capital social, este trabajo presenta dos maneras de entender este concepto e identifica algunas características de la universidad pública que la convierten en este tipo de capital para las naciones. Se argumenta que las definiciones operativas de “capital social” son una forma de homogeneizar y reducir la riqueza cultural de los grupos sociales que atenta contra sus posibilidades de resistencia y autonomía y se aplica esta argumentación al caso específico de la universidad pública. Asimismo, se discute acerca de la adopción de contenidos y prácticas de las agendas internacionales, por parte de la universidad pública, que ha resultado en una modificación importante de su capital social. Finalmente, se anotan tres posibles escenarios a futuro en donde el capital social universitario adquiere dimensiones y características diferentes

  4. FROM SOCIAL CAPITAL TO FIRMS NETWORKS: SOME EVIDENCE FOR EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    perrucci antonella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of development is not only referred to the level or to the growth rate of GDP of a country, but it concerns different aspects of individual and social life. Development leads to a changing of values, culture, behaviours and attitudes of people interested in it. That is to say that not only quantitative dimensions, but also qualitative ones became relevant in fostering development trajectories. Reasoning in these general terms a long and rich intellectual debate grow up in social sciences within which we focused the social capital and firm network debate. Social capital is a multidimensional determinant at base of the industrial district framework as the “network capital” represent a driver of firm’s network framework. By moving from social capital, as a local development driver, to network capital, as a global development driver, the present paper analyzes the firms’ networks determinants by identifying the conditions for some European countries. The methodology through which the results are obtained is the multidimensional scaling method which allows to define relations between countries in terms of proximity/distance with respect to the considered determinants providing a spatial representation of them.

  5. A Comparative Study of Family Social Capital and Literacy Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei

    2013-01-01

    Social capital--the social relations between people--is an important component of the family environment and is crucial for the creation of human capital for the next generation. Drawing on James S. Coleman's theory of family capital, this study focuses on parents' utilization of social capital to support children's literacy acquisition in four…

  6. Entrepreneurship, Social Capital, And Institutions: Social And Commercial Entrepreneurship Across Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Stephan, Ute

    2012-01-01

    We model and test the relationship between social and commercial entrepreneurship drawing on social capital theory. We propose that the country prevalence rate of social entrepreneurship is an indicator of constructible nation-level social capital and enhances the likelihood of individual commercial entry. We further posit that both social and commercial entrepreneurial entry is facilitated by certain formal institutions, namely strong property rights and (low) government activism, albeit the...

  7. Trust and social capital in the design and evolution of institutions for collective action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Six, Benjamin; Van Zimmeren, Esther; Popa, Florin; Frison, Christine

    2015-01-01

    .... Our theoretical framework for studying trust is based on the social capital theory. Social capital is defined as the features of social organization, such as trust, networks and norms that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit...

  8. Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: Evidence from a Colombian Business Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the important body of research on entrepreneurship and social capital. Most previous work on social capital and business incubators has analyzed how the structure of personal networks (measured by network size or density and their quality (measured by tie strength influence venture performance. However, few studies have focused on the mobilization of partners’ resources. This paper analyses how these three dimensions of social capital —defined in this article as the structural dimension, the relational dimension and the resource dimension— are closely linked to the three types of interactions in a business incubator: networking, counseling and resourcing. An Ordinary Least Squares regression was applied to a sample made up of incubating firms in Colombia. Results from the data analysis show that resourcing interactions constitute the most significant aspect of business incubators for entrepreneurs.

  9. The Relationship between Social Capital and Substance Use by High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    Social capital theory suggests that assets inherent in social relations may be used to enhance outcomes for individuals and that youth with increased access to social capital may be less likely to exhibit social and behavioral difficulties. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to examine the relationship between social capital and…

  10. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does relational leadership generate organizational social capital? A case of exploring the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Akram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital. Three forms of organizational social capital namely structural, relational and cognitive organizational social capital are used as dependent variables. Using self- administered questionnaire, Data of 240 employees was collected from an IT company in China. Data was analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results of this study suggested that relational leadership plays a positive and significant role in generating structural and relational organizational social capital. However, this study failed in finding the effect of relational leadership on cognitive organizational social capital. Practical implications and limitations are also provided at the end.

  12. Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship in a Social Capital Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    In 1989 Mitton suggested that success for start-ups not only depends on who you are but also on whom you know. To study the importance of social capital and networks in relation to entrepreneurial activities, research in a Danish start-up context in two knowledge-intensive sectors has been carried...... out. The research methodology was based on a triangulation approach including a general questionnaire-based survey conducted through the Internet combined with a 85 in-depth interviews in purposefully sampled ventures. The analysis of the content and structure of social capital in relation...

  13. Evaluating human, social and cultural capital in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internet use among older adults: association with health needs, psychological capital, and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M

    2013-05-16

    Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the

  15. Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0

  16. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  17. The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yerko; Carlson, Per

    2006-06-01

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1,009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  18. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Social capital, measured as the level of trust among people, may be regarded as a new production factor alongside the traditional ones of human and physical capital. With appropriate levels of social capital, monitoring and transaction costs can be saved and thus economic growth stimulated. Via...... linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century....... However, the comparison of the present level of social capital indicates that the level of social capital is significantly higher in Denmark than in Poland. The paper concludes that the reason for this difference is due to the fact that the original accumulation of social capital in Poland was destroyed...

  19. NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES FOR ENTREPRENEURS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CORODEANU AGHEORGHIESEI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the business field, the social networks based on ties of trust are an attribute of organizations with strong organizational culture where the social status is important. These networks are the source of social capital.Given the role of tourism industry in the development community, especially since 1990, according david a. Fennell (2003 the social capital can exist at the micro levelwith reference to social network sites that exist in the very strong social arrangements, at the meso-level with people throughout the community and at themacro level from an inter-community perspective. This article stresses the importance of network design and the social capital in support of sustainable tourism and how the partnerships between business, local and government authorities and bodies responsible for tourism development and default community may be an important active for an industry that brings many advantages in economic and social development in all areas of the world.

  20. El capital social en el nuevo enfoque del capital intelectual de las organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO BUENO

    2002-01-01

    de un nuevo modo de gobierno estratégico-social, en el que los recursos intangibles que componen el Capital Intelectual cobran un papel crítico en la creación de valor. En este nuevo enfoque surge el Capital Social de la organización, como suma de las relaciones poseídas y a desarrollar que aquella mantiene con sus partícipes y agentes sociales. Concepto que se sustenta en un conjunto de valores y sus correspondientes indicadores basados en la confianza, la lealtad, la sinceridad, el compromiso, la transparencia, la solidaridad, la responsabilidad, la honestidad y la ética, entre otros conceptos.

  1. "I Don't Know What Fun Is": Examining the Intersection of Social Capital, Social Networks, and Social Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Miriam; Gardner, Megan; Gerken, Erin; Ross, Melissa; Wheeler, Jack

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing. Qualitative data were coded for social networks accessed throughout the life course, distinguished by bonding, bridging and linking social capital. Social networks included drug treatment programs; non-drug-using family and friends; religious/spiritual groups; workplace networks, and social clubs/activities. Bonding and/or bridging social capital were acquired through treatment, family and friends, religious/spiritual groups, workplaces, and social clubs. Linking social capital was not acquired through any social networks available, and many barriers to accessing mainstream social networks were found. This is a small study conducted in the US. A greater focus on social recovery is needed to achieve sustained recovery for individuals lacking access to and engagement in mainstream social networks. Social recovery is proposed as an analytical tool as well as for developing prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies.

  2. Boundary Spanners as supports of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....

  3. Building Social Capital among Social Work Educators: A Strategy for Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Carmen G. Luca

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of human relations in the process of curriculum change in social work education. Social capital, the theoretical framework that underpins this research, explains how social resources are made available to social work faculty and groups for their own benefit. Using data from 88 surveys completed by social work…

  4. When AIDS meets poverty : implications for social capital in a village in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nombo, C.

    2007-01-01

    The role of social capital in development has in recent years received increasing attention. Social capital seems to have evolved into panacea for the problems affecting poor communities. The question is how social capital produced in social networks is used, generated and maintained in a context of

  5. In search of links between social capital, mental health and sociotherapy: a longitudinal study in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E.; Wind, Tim R.; Scholte, Willem F.

    2014-01-01

    To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social capital and mental health. Evidence that social capital can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social capital may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental

  6. Gracious space: Library programming strategies towards immigrants as tools in the creation of social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the generation of social trust and social capital gives public institutions prominent roles as instruments for creating social capital, the trust and connections between community members that yield collective action. Less is known about specific institutions and the mechanisms involved in creating social capital. In this paper, public library programs directed towards immigrants are explored as one possible mechanism for generating social capital. The data are unstructured...

  7. Social capital and burnout among mental healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacin, Johanne; Flanagan, Mindy; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Wasmuth, Sarah; Salyers, Michelle P; Rollins, Angela L

    2018-01-06

    Provider burnout is a critical problem in mental health services. Contributing factors have been explicated across three domains: personal, job and organizational characteristics. Of these, organizational characteristics, including workplace environment, appear to be particularly important given that most interventions addressing burnout via the other domains (e.g. bolstering personal coping skills) have been modestly effective at best. This study builds on previous research by using social capital as a framework for the experience of work social milieu, and aims to provide a richer understanding of how workplace social environment might impact burnout and help create more effective ways to reduce burnout. Providers (n = 40) taking part in a larger burnout intervention study were randomly selected to take part in interviews regarding their workplace environment and burnout. Participant responses were analyzed thematically. Workplace social milieu revolved around two primary themes: workplace social capital in provider burnout and the protective qualities of social capital in cohesive work teams that appear to mitigate burnout. These results imply that work environments where managers support collaboration and social interaction among work teams may reduce burnout.

  8. Gendered Patterns of Social Capital among Farmers in Guruve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addressing this question could help unlock the potential benefits of social capital in addressing the problem of poverty from a gendered perspective. Based on the findings of both structured and unstructured interviews of 385 heads of household, it was found that women were significantly more likely to trust and engage in ...

  9. Knowledge Productivity for Sustainable Innovation: Social Capital as HRD Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Corry; van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Henny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge intensive organisations, taking the perspective that…

  10. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  11. Social Institutions as a Form of Intangible Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bansha Dulal (Hari); R. Foa (Roberto)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years there has been growing interest in including estimates of "intangible" capital, such as knowledge, skills, and institutions, in national asset accounting. In accordance with these efforts, this paper attempts to provide the first worldwide evaluations of "social"

  12. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  13. Parental Influence on Chinese Students' Achievement: A Social Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…

  14. Teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... The notion of social capital evolved from the work of sociologists like Pierre Bourdieu, who explained it as the average of the actual or potential resources, ... context emanates from sociological frameworks that explain schools as .... study. The research question that we sought to an- swer was: how does the ...

  15. Social Capital as a Framework in Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of researchers have chosen to examine various sociological dimensions of music education (e.g., inclusion, civic engagement) through the lens of social capital. Yet, there has been no systematic discussion of the capacity and limitations of this conceptual framework to shed light on these sociological…

  16. Social capital and maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheabo Dessalegn, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the effect of social capital on maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia. Reports show that in Ethiopia, despite the huge investment in health infrastructure and the deployment of health professionals to provide maternal health services free of charge, utilization remains low.

  17. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  18. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  19. Teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on lessons learnt in the use of teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development, in the implementation of the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) programme in South Africa. The researchers in this study were amongst the trainers. The study followed a qualitative research approach, where a ...

  20. The emergence of entrepreneurial milieus and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Matiaske, Wenzel; Royer, Susanne

    In the center of the investigation of this research is the emergence of entrepreneurial milieus and social capital within industry clusters. The motivation of the research initiative is to shed some light on the action patterns in innovation processes within multiple domain settings. This paper...

  1. Networking Behaviour, Graduate Employability: A Social Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistic, Saša; Tymon, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on the overarching framework of social capital theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically examine networking behaviour and employability within the higher education context. Design/methodology/approach: In a sample of 376 full-time business students the authors measured perceived employability, networking…

  2. Social capital dimensions and its implications on poverty status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...

  3. Linking bonding and bridging ownership social capital in private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilse A. Matser; Roberto H. Flören; Lorraine M. Uhlaner; Marta M. Berent-Braun

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between bonding and bridging ownership social capital (OSC) for a random sample of 679 privately held small and medium-sized firms. Results confirm the positive effects of bonding OSC (quality of relationships and shared vision) on bridging OSC (network

  4. The influencing role of social capital in the formation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurial intention using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The study was carried out by means of a cross-sectional survey and included 329 final-year commerce students at a rural university in the Limpopo province. A structured questionnaire ...

  5. Pupils' Plans to Study Abroad: Social Reproduction of Transnational Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses Dutch pupils' plans to study abroad. The main question is to what extent these plans are related to their social class position, their parents' and their own transnational capital and the school type they attend. The analyses are based on survey data of 549 Dutch pupils, aged

  6. Chinese Entrepreneurs Human and Social Capital Benefiting Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    home country and in the new host country. Such dual embeddedness may have a reinforcing or a countervailing impact on the benefits of human and social capital for innovation. Using a sample of 3,593 Chinese entrepreneurs in China and 177 Chinese entrepreneurs residing abroad, we examine the benefits...

  7. Peoples Human and Social Capital Benefiting Careers in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of residence does not impact entrepreneurial intention. Human and social capital benefits entrepreneurial intention, as expected. Furthermore, the place of residence has moderating effects on the relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention, but not on the relationship between education...

  8. Social Capital, Race, and Income Inequality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the United States has witnessed increasing wealth concentration in the hands of the ultra-rich. Measured at the state level, the top 10 percent of income earners amassed roughly 43% of total income, and economic growth only enhanced this inequality between the ultrarich and the rest of citizens. This paper examines whether social capital plays a positive role in mitigating income inequality at the state level, with an emphasis on racial diversity and its relation to church attendance. The empirical findings demonstrate that social capital, whether measured by Robert Putnam’s state-level social capital index (SCI, or a new measure that improves SCI’s original measurement, fails to improve income equality. In comparison, racial diversity is found to be a consistent contributor of income inequality. In states with a greater proportion of minority population, the ultra-rich tend to share more wealth and social capital potentially facilitates the ultra-rich to enjoy the benefit of economic growth.

  9. Cambodian Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement: The Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…

  10. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  11. The influencing role of social capital in the formation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influencing role of social capital in the formation of entrepreneurial intention. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, ...

  12. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  13. Using Discussion Methods to Inspire Diversity: Harnessing Social & Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison, Brian; Gordon, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    How can you better harness the powerful social capital that exists within diverse individuals, families, businesses, and schools to make positive impacts in your community? What could you add to your next meeting--a Chamber strategic planning session, an employee wellness program, a non-profit board development--to better connect participants with…

  14. A social capital perspective to innovation management in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlies, R.D. van der; Maas, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art products commonly outperform construction products that are used in day to day building practice. Also construction products appear to have a diffusion curve that differs from consumer products, slower at first, more rapid later. The social capital theory helps us to understand why

  15. Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use in children from socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods in Maastricht in The Netherlands,19 while low levels of linking social capital was associated with increased hospitalisation due to psychosis in the Swedish adult population, even after adjustment for neighbourhood deprivation.21. Whether aspects of the ...

  16. Networking behaviour, graduate employability : A social capital perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Tymon, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Drawing on the overarching framework of social capital theory this study develops and empirically examines networking behaviour and employability within the higher education context. Design/methodology/approach In a sample of 376 full-time business students we measured perceived

  17. Community Heterogeneity : A Burden for the Creation of Social Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Geys, Benny

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examines the relationship between community heterogeneity and social capital on the local government level. Method. We apply both OLS and interval regression techniques to objective macro data of 307 Flemish municipalities for the year 2000. Results. Our results show that,

  18. Social Capital: Strengthening Mexican-American Families through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…

  19. The Nexus between Social Capital and Reintegration of Ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peace education, music and sports groups have been established to restore social capital (Ginifer 2003). Stopgap or temporary work programmes proved to be successful for reintegrating ex-combatants. In addition to giving them access to money at a critical time, ex-combatants were able to prove themselves to community.

  20. Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis: Findings from a low- and middle-income country context. ... to formal health services. This is especially likely in contexts where mental health services are scarce and inaccessible, which has important implications for mental health education campaigns.

  1. How do Multinationals Build Social Capital? Evidence from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, I; C.M Nyland; Pollitt, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at the self-reporting of social engagement by multinational firms in South Africa, developing previous measures of social capital to fit the unique context of the multinational firm in particular mapping the configurations of declared engagement and the firms' provision. It finds large intersectoral variation which cannot be predicted by one factor alone, and sometimes wide intrasectoral variation. In particular (and for different reasons) 'extractive' and 'industrial' sector...

  2. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  3. [Social capital as a determinant of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Vallejos, N D

    The concept of Social Capital (SC), originally described by Durkheim (1893), is composed of dimensions related to cohesion and trust between members of a social group, and considered by the Word Health Organization (WHO) as part of the social determinants of public health for the decrease of inequities and inequalities in health provision. To contribute to the dissemination of the concept of SC related to the social determinants of Public Health, in order to offer the reader in-depth content to observe the potential applications and practices in this field. Literature search (Google Academics™, PubMed, Science direct™, Ebsco Host™). A total of 294 full-text publications were obtained, and those selected were the most influential sources on the evolution and application of the concept of Social Capital, socioeconomic development and health in the last decade. Although the current evidence shows that Social Capital is a determinant related to health, standards are still needed for its measurement. This could allow the concept to be measured, and facilitate its integration into the form of actions that exert positive influence and contribute to the implementation of institutional interventions planned for development and public health. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system.

  5. Social capital and the social economy in a sub-national island jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Groome Wynne, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins with an explanation of social capital and its manifestation in structures and institutes of the social economy. It then describes how Prince Edward Island (PEl) is using social capital in the pursuit of economic sustainability. Next, the paper explores case studies of other sub-national island jurisdictions (SNIJs) and highlights how PEl could learn from the successes and failures of these other islands. Finally, it generates suggestions on how to more effe...

  6. The public sphere and social capital: Unlikely allies in social media interactions?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hallarn, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The formative sociological concepts of the public sphere and social capital have traced similar paths through a range of social science scholarship over decades, evolving as new technology, such as connected Internet technologies, have altered the way society interacts. Interestingly, there is very little scholarship linking these two important theories. This conceptual paper examines the modest body of literature that has considered the public sphere and social capital in tandem. It offers a...

  7. Capital Social e Inclusión Social: algunos elementos para la política social en Colombia Social Capital and Social Inclusion: Some Elements for Social Policy in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ramiro Azuero Rodríguez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El tema del capital social resulta central en el análisis de los elementos que pueden potenciar condiciones de desarrollo e inclusión social, por sus implicaciones de orden económico, social, político y cultural. Este análisis pasa necesariamente por el examen de las diversas concepciones sobre capital social e inclusión social y las experiencias y aprendizajes locales en el tema. En ese sentido, el propósito de este documento es destacar algunos elementos del capital social que pueden ser útiles a la política social para generar espacios de inclusión social. Para ello, en el primer apartado se exploran algunas aproximaciones teóricas del capital social. En el segundo apartado ser revisa una aproximación teórica sobre los conceptos de exclusión/inclusión social. En el tercer apartado, se esbozan las líneas generales de la política social en Colombia y el Valle del Cauca para finalmente, en el cuarto apartado, identificar algunos elementos de capital social que pueden jugar un papel en la política social para propiciar inclusión social.The topic of the social capital turns out to be central in the analysis of the elements that can promote conditions of development and social inclusion, for its implications of economic, social, political and cultural order. This analysis necessarily passes through the examination of the diverse conceptions on social capital and social inclusion and the experiences and local learning in the topic. In this sense, the purpose of this document is to emphasize some elements of the social capital that can be useful to the social policy to generate social inclusion spaces. For this, in the first part some theoretical approximations of the social capital are explored. In the second section a theoretical approach is revised on the concepts of social exclusion and inclusion. In the third part, general lines of the social policy in Colombia and Valle del Cauca are outlined and finally, in the fourth

  8. Which Type of Social Capital Matters for Building Trust in Government? Looking for a New Type of Social Capital in the Governance Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghwan Myeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When the level of trust in government is low, government cannot effectively provide services, since the policy goals and the process of implementations are not fully understood by the people. This study hypothesizes that the level of trust in government may increase if the level of social capital increases. It also hypothesizes that the impact of social capital on the level of trust in government may differ depending on the type of social capital. The study examined the relationship between the level of trust in government and types of social capital, including bonding social capital and bridging social capital. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that bonding social capital shows a negative relationship with the level of trust in government, while a bridging social capital has a positive relationship with the level of trust in government. In addition, the study examined the variances of the perceptions of each group based on the degree of social cohesion on the level of trust in government by employing ANOVA. It showed that there are no significant differences in bonding social groups, while bridging social capital groups showed variances in their perception of the level of trust in government.

  9. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  10. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN SMEs: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AS A MEDIATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina Daud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and intellectual capital are increasingly recognised as the main sources of competitive advantages in the knowledge-based economy. Businesses, particularly those that are small- or medium-sized, find that they need to give increasing attention to knowledge management and social capitalsocial capital being a mediating variable between knowledge management processes and firm performance. This study examined knowledge management, social capital and firm performance through the use of a questionnaire directed to small- and medium-sized enterprises — all of them situated within the Multimedia Super Corridor in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The results based on 289 usable questionnaires demonstrated the following: (i knowledge management processes influence social capital positively; (ii social capital enhances firm performance; and (iii social capital is a mediator between knowledge management processes and firm performance. The research demonstrated that knowledge management processes and social capital can be integrated to enhance firm performance.

  11. The Role of Reflective Practices in Building Social Capital in Organizations from an HRD Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshie Tomozumi; Yorks, Lyle

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been receiving increasing attention in the field of human resource development (HRD). However, little is known as to how social capital has been formed or has grown over time with HRD interventions. There is limited research and discussion on how reflective practices play a role in the development of social capital as…

  12. Using and improving social capital to increase community preparedness for wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruti Agrawal; Martha C. Monroe

    2006-01-01

    Communities with more social capital are better able to work together to cope with problems such as a wildfire threat. This study found a positive relationship between perceiving greater social capital and participating in wildfire preparedness educational programs. Results suggest that managers can take advantage of existing social capital in communities to improve...

  13. Evaluation of social capital in historic urban tissue (Case Study: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today Social Capital as one of the most important comprehensive development factors is a key concept in new attitude to urban planning and management. In this attitude, planning is based on human resources, social capitals and collaborative participation. The social capital in historic tissue is considered from two ...

  14. An essay on social capital: Looking for the fire behind the smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must b...

  15. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…

  16. Sources of Social Capital: Effects of Altruistic Citizenship Behavior and Job Involvement on Advice Network Centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mian; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Social capital has been receiving increasing attention in HRD research. However, the sources of social capital have received inadequate attention. Little has been done to reveal how people obtain their social capital in the workplace. This study investigated the effects of employees' altruistic citizenship behavior and job involvement on their…

  17. The importance of corporate social responsibility for advertising of social capital in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rodrigues da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Social, economic and technological changes within the modern world have transformed the role of companies before society and, through this prism, the issue of Corporative Social Responsibility stands out. However, for small and mediumsized companies, there are several limitations which prevent their management to benefit from a bigger integration in such matter. As a means of overcoming obstacles, a broader application of social capital concept is been attemptively set through stronger trust bonds, belief and norm sharing, and social network interaction. Therefore, the present study aims to present the theory of social capital and link it to Corporative Social Responsibility and comprehend their interactions, applicability and gains applied to small and medium enterprises. It is also pointed out some variables which may serve to measure Corporative Social Responsibility and Social Capital in future researches.

  18. EL CAPITAL SOCIAL COMO DINAMIZADOR DEL DESARROLLO RURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Márquez Fernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:La globalización de los fenómenos económicos, políticos y sociales se enmarca dentro de unos planteamientos geográficos con el fin de establecer un equilibrio entre el crecimiento económico, el desarrollo sociopolítico y el bienestar de la sociedad. La emergencia de una nueva gobernabilidad base de una estructura de desarrollo sostenible, ha de fundamentarse en cambios profundos de comportamientos,estructuras y procedimientos en los que el capital social es el eje fundamental. PALABRAS CLAVE:Desarrollo rural, Multifuncionalidad, Capital social, Participación, Calidad de vida. ABSTRACT:The globalization of the economic, political and social phenomena is framed within geographic expositions with the purpose of establishing a balance between the economic growth, the social and politic development and the well-being of the society. The emergency of a new governability bases of a structure of sustainable development, has to be based on deep changes of behaviours, structures and procedures in which the social capital is the fundamental axis. KEY WORDS:Rural development, multifunctionality, social capital, participation, quality of live. RÉSUMÉLa globalisation des phénomenes économiques, politiques et sociaux est encadrée dans des approches géographiques afín d'établir un équilibre entre la croissance économique, le développe- ment socio-politique et le bien-etre de la société. L'urgence d'un nouveau gouvernement de base d'une structure de développement soutenable, doit etre fondée des changements profonds comportements, structures et procédures dans lesquelles le capital social est l'axe fondamental. MOTS CLÉ:Développement rural, multifuncionalite, capitale sociale, participacion, qualité de vie. 

  19. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified

  20. Social capital, cultural festivals and tourism in Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Richards

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Muchos estudios han resaltado los efectos negativos potenciales del turismo sobre la cultura local. Los eventos culturales son un área de preocupación particular dado que pueden parecer "inauténticos" al ser vistos por los turistas, además de perder el significado para los residentes locales. Estos argumentos tienden a pasar por altola capacidad de las comunidades locales para usar el turismo de manera creativa como medio para exponer y fortalecer su identidad local (friedman, 1994. Uno de las más importantes indicadores de resistencia de las comunidades locales es el nivel del capital social presente en la población receptora, lo cual es importante a la hora de crear cohesión social y asegurar una distribución más equitativa de los beneficios del turismo. Este artículo presenta un estudio del capital social, redes locales y turismo en Cataluña. Encuestas a residentes locales y visitantes a las fiestas indican un nivel relativamente alto de capital social entre los residentes locales, particularmente en términos de membresías a asociaciones culturales. Existe una relación directa entre membresía de asociaciones culturales, participación activa en eventos culturales y actitudes positivas hacia cambios culturales y hacia el turismo. Esta investigación plantea que el desarrollo del capital social puede ser una manera de desarrollar relaciones más positivas entre el turismo y la cultura, tomando en cuenta que el papel de las asociaciones y redes locales es esencial en este proceso.

  1. Naturaleza y alcance del capital social en las comunidades rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Valdez David

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo explicitar la naturaleza y alcance del capital social presente en las relaciones de los integrantes de las comunidades rurales del municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco del Estado Lara (Venezuela. La metodología fue de tipo cualitativa y se utilizaron las técnicas de la Observación Directa, propias de todo proceso de investigación, así como la Observación Participativa, donde el investigador expuso sus puntos de vista con respecto a la información que se recabó. También se utilizó el método Etnográfi co, que aplicado al estilo de vida de un grupo obstaculiza el establecimiento de redes sociales con mayor alcance. Se concluyó entonces que la naturaleza del capital social es espaciada, egocéntrica e informal, propia de los lazos fuertes de las relaciones afectivas; el alcance está caracterizado por relaciones de vinculación y asociación entre comunidades. AbstractThis research aimed to explain the nature and extent of social capital present in relations among the members of a rural communities in Andres Eloy Blanco municipality of Estado de Lara (Venezuela. The methodology was qualitative and used direct observation, which is inherent in all research processes, as well as participatory observation, where the researcher shared his points of view based on the information that was gathered. Ethnographic method was also used. When applied to the lifestyle of a group of people, it hinders the establishment of social networks with the results allowed to make explicit that the nature and of social capital extent in these communities is emerging, which hinders the establishment of social networks. It was concluded that the nature of social capital is spaced, egocentric and informal, own of the ties of affective relationships; the range is characterized by relationships of linkage and association between communities.

  2. Descubrimiento de oportunidades empresariales: capital humano, capital social y género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria González-Álvarez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son los factores que influyen sobre la segunda de las etapas del proceso de creación empresarial establecidas por Shane y Venkataraman (2000, es decir, sobre el descubrimiento de oportunidades de creación empresarial. Para ello, por un lado, se analiza la influencia que pudiera tener sobre esta etapa tanto el capital humano como el capital social. Por otra parte, también se pretende analizar la existencia de diferencias de género en el descubrimiento de oportunidades empresariales. Para ello, se utiliza una muestra de 28.888 individuos provenientes del Proyecto Gem (2009, que permite concluir que los individuos que poseen un mayor stock de capital humano, así como aquellos que están inmersos en amplias redes sociales, descubrirán más oportunidades de creación empresarial. asimismo, este trabajo muestra que existen diferencias de género en cuanto al descubrimiento de oportunidades de creación empresarial.

  3. "Social Capitalism" in Renewable energy generation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Woodrow W; Li, Xing

    2010-01-01

    to develop a wide range of renewable energy generation including solar, wind, geothermal and run of the river. Because China practices “social capitalism” as expressed in it's recurrent Five Year National Plans since 1999, the national government and all the provinces have programs, unlike many western......With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects...... will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroelectric generated power. Nonetheless, the nation and especially the provinces are moving rapidly...

  4. Empirical analysis of internal social media and product innovation: Focusing on SNS and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Idota, Hiroki; Minetaki, Kazunori; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Recently social media such as Blog and SNS has been introducing by many firms for means of sharing information inside the firm, in particular to promote product and process innovation. This paper attempts to examine the relationship between social media and product innovation, and research questions are summarized as follows: (i) whether social capital influences the use of social media; (ii) whether social media promotes product innovation; and (iii) whether the effect of social media on pro...

  5. The Influences of Online Cultural Capital on Social Tagging Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influences of online cultural capital on social tagging behavior in Delicious.com. The researchers identified three online cultural capital-related variables (understanding of social tagging, understanding of Delicious’ social functionalities, and quantity of tags and bookmarks via factor analysis of a survey dataset and analyzed their influences on tagging motivations (information organization-oriented vs. social-oriented and tagging strategies (object-based tagging vs. situationbased tagging. An existing dataset from a previous survey of Delicious users was used for the analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the influences of the three variables on tagging motivations and strategies. The study found that understanding of social tagging has a significant positive influence on information organization-oriented tagging; understanding of Delicious’ social functionalities has a significant positive influence on social-oriented tagging. In tagging strategies, understanding of Delicious’ functionalities significantly influenced how strategic respondents are in situation-based tagging. Quantity of tags and bookmarks influenced both types of tagging strategies.

  6. Trust, social capital and democracy: a complex joint for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ganga Contreras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, it has been seen progress in Latin America, mainly from an economic perspective. Currently, it has been conducted research aimed at sustaining the growth, but focused on the country's development, which can be converted into social capital. Democracy becomes a key factor on this challenge and thus confidence in individuals and institutions. In this sense, the central purpose of this paper is to analyze the most relevant aspects of trust, social capital and its impact on democracy and development. To achieve these objectives, it is primarily used secondary sources of information, which involved review of articles addressing this issue. The conclusion is that a society that aspires the development should coordinate institutions to solve the society’s problems and demands, so that society responds with appropriate confidence levels.

  7. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...

  8. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  9. Human Capital Management and Accountability of Social Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Siti Anis Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social business enterprises has been attributed to the increased demand for sustainability among the non-profit organisations (NPOs due to diminishing funding from traditional sources and increased competition for the scarce resources. To date, there is growing interest on social businesses (SBs as innovation in providing public services that contributes to the social wellbeing of community. This in turn can be linked directly or indirectly to economic development as the sustainability level of the country is measured specifically towards the development of human capital and solving the social problems rather than the economics alone. Indeed, having both economic and non-economic aims, SBs would be the potential solutions to address a range of societal issues and increase the efficiency and quality of public sector services that focus on equitable growth with ecological sustainability. Therefore, it is important to explore the relationship between capability of SBs and the social impact created. This paper explores on capability based on human capital management and social impact or value created through SBs. This is expected to provide some insights on the sustainability and credibility of SBs to support the government efforts in moving towards high nation income.

  10. Clarifying the concept of social capital through its three perspectives: individualistic, communitarian and macrosocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Membiela-Pollán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has received increasing attention in recent years. The complexity and multidimensionality that accompany the variable of social capital have caused confusion and ambiguity. This article presents a synthesis of social capital in three perspectives. From the individualistic or micro-social perspective, social capital is an "individual resource" that consists of the networks of relations of the focal subject that bring it a set of instrumental and expressive resources. For the communitarian or meso-social perspective, social capital is a "community resource" or set of attributes and properties present in the social structure (shared norms and values, private trust, closure ... that facilitate its functioning and collective action. Finally, for the macrosocial perspective, social capital is a "macrosocial and macroinstitutional resource" resting on aspects such as civic-mindedness, general trust and social cohesion, which favors the functioning of the economy and society in general.

  11. Doing femininity and respectability: social networks and social capital among female members of Dutch student organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Roelofsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the complexities that underlie the formation of women’s social networks at traditional social student organisations in the Netherlands, advancing theory on the intersectionality of gender and class in leisure space. Building on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social capital it

  12. Social Capital and Regional Social Infrastructure Investment : Evidence From New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskruge, Matthew; Grimes, Arthur; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques

    In this article, we link unique data on local social infrastructure expenditure with microlevel individual survey data of self-reported social capital measures of trust and participation in community activities. We use both probit and tobit models to estimate the impact of social infrastructure

  13. Networks, Norms, and Trust: The Social Psychology of Social Capital. 2004 Cooley Mead Award Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karen Schweers

    2005-01-01

    Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…

  14. Measurement of Social Participation and its Place in Social Capital Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillen, L.; Coromina Soler, L.; Saris, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of social capital has become very popular but its definition and measurement are still rather unclear. We frame our study in one of its components, social participation. In this article we develop an optimal measure for social participation based on the questions asked in the first round

  15. Are we becoming gadgets? Social capital in the era of social networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K. Ingle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is partially predicated on the levels of trust obtaining between institutions and between members of society. As such it is a vital ingredient in the ‘glue’ which holds society together and which facilitates contractual economic activity. Recent technological advances, and the concomitant ascendancy of social networking, have radically reconfigured the environment in which social capital is generated, and the social sciences have some way to go fully to digest these new developments. This article surveys the meteoric rise of the ‘technium’ in the social imaginary and delineates some of the reservations current commentators have about the next ‘singularity’ to succeed the Internet. The discussion includes a brief account of the philosophy behind the objectification of the human. It also speculates about the consequences of paradigm shifts in modes of relating for the formation of social capital in the future.

  16. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight......Denmark exemplifies the puzzle of socioeconomic success in Scandinavia. Populations are thriving despite the world’s highest levels of tax and generous social benefits. Denmark would appear to be a land of paradise for free-riders and those who want ‘money for nothing’. However, the national...

  17. Corruption, Norm Violation and Decay in Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    The paper studies the interplay between corruption and social capital (measured as trust), using data from a lab experiment. Subjects play either a harassment bribery game or a strategically identical but differently framed ultimatum game, followed by a trust game. In a second experiment, the trust...... spillover effect of corruption on trust, but not vice-versa, and the effect increases with decrease in social appropriateness norm of the bribe demand; b) lower trust in the bribery game treatment is explained by lower expected return on trust; c) surprisingly, for both the bribery and the ultimatum game...

  18. Alternative for Understanding Poverty: Households and Social Capital in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Portales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, social capital has been a key element within academic discourses and social policy programs. However, the operationalization of the concept varies from one place to another, thus generating debates regarding its likely contributions —both theoretical and empirical—. The paper argues that a contextual definition of the term contributes to the construction of a more sophisticated idea regarding poverty alleviation, supporting other academic work, which questionstraditional approaches. The latter is shown through the results of ethnographic fieldwork in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, which included in depth interviews to household members defined as representatives of different poverty levels by a previous survey.

  19. The analysis of split graphs in social networks based on the K-Cardinality assignment problem

    OpenAIRE

    Belik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In terms of social networks, split graphs correspond to the variety of interpersonal and intergroup relations. In this paper we analyse the interaction between the cliques (socially strong and trusty groups) and the independent sets (fragmented and non-connected groups of people) as the basic components of any split graph. Based on the Semi-Lagrangean relaxation for the k-cardinality assignment problem, we show the way of minimizing the socially risky interactions between the cliques and the ...

  20. The analysis of split graphs in social networks based on the K-Cardinality assignment problem

    OpenAIRE

    Belik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In terms of social networks, split graphs correspond to the variety of interpersonal and intergroup relations. In this paper we analyse the interaction between the cliques (socially strong and trusty groups) and the independent sets (fragmented and non-connected groups of people) as the basic components of any split graph. Based on the Semi-Lagrangean relaxation for the kcardinality assignment problem, we show the way of minimizing the socially risky interactions between the cl...

  1. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.

  2. Exposing the Dark Side, an Exploration of the Influence Social Capital Has upon Parental Sports Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Colin Grant; Holland-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence social capital had over parental sports volunteers who are considered to be of paramount importance in the delivery of UK sports initiatives. A review of the relevant literature identifies and discusses the complexities within the debate to define social capital while human and cultural capital emerge as an…

  3. Development of the Social Network-Based Intervention “Powerful Together with Diabetes” Using Intervention Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Vissenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the social network-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes which aims to improve diabetes self-management (DSM among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods by stimulating social support for DSM and diminishing social influences hindering DSM (e.g., peer pressure and social norms. The intervention was specifically developed for patients with Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese backgrounds. The intervention was developed according to Intervention Mapping. This article describes the first four steps of Intervention Mapping: (1 the needs assessment; (2 development of performance and change objectives; (3 selection of theory-based methods and strategies; and (4 the translation of these into an organized program. These four steps resulted in Powerful Together with Diabetes, a 10-month group-based intervention consisting of 24 meetings, 6 meetings for significant others, and 2 meetings for participants and their spouses. The IM method resulted in a tailored approach with a specific focus on the social networks of its participants. This article concludes that the IM method helped our planning team to tailor the intervention to the needs of our target population and facilitated our evaluation design. However, in hindsight, the intervention could have been improved by investing more in participatory planning and community involvement.

  4. Social Network Sites, Individual Social Capital and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Arampatzi (Efstratia); M.J. Burger (Martijn); N.A. Novik (Natallia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCan online social contacts replace the importance of real-life social connections in our pursuit of happiness? With the growing use of social network sites (SNSs), attention has been increasingly drawn to this topic. Our study empirically examines the effect of SNS use on happiness for

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Social Capital and Health: A Case for Needed Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Keon L.; Quinn, Sandra C.; Goodman, Robert M.; Butler, James; Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Social capital refers to various levels of social relationships formed through social networks. Measurement differences have lead to imprecise measurement. Methods A meta-analysis of eligible studies assessing the bivariate association between social capital and self-reported health and all-cause mortality. Results Thirty-nine studies met inclusion criteria, showing social capital increased odds of good health by 27% (95% confidence intervals [CI] =21%, 34%). Social capital variables, reciprocity increased odds of good health by 39% (95% CI = 21%, 60%), trust by 32% (95% CI =19%, 46%). Future research suggests operationalizing measures by assessing differences by race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status. PMID:23548810

  6. Living with disasters: social capital for disaster governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes; Cook, Brian; Thomsen, Dana C; Munro, Paul G; Smith, Timothy F; Gallina, John

    2017-10-24

    This paper explores how social networks and bonds within and across organisations shape disaster operations and strategies. Local government disaster training exercises serve as a window through which to view these relations, and 'social capital' is used as an analytic for making sense of the human relations at the core of disaster management operations. These elements help to expose and substantiate the often intangible relations that compose the culture that exists, and that is shaped by preparations for disasters. The study reveals how this social capital has been generated through personal interactions, which are shared among disaster managers across different organisations and across 'levels' within those organisations. Recognition of these 'group resources' has significant implications for disaster management in which conducive social relations have become paramount. The paper concludes that socio-cultural relations, as well as a people-centred approach to preparations, appear to be effective means of readying for, and ultimately responding to, disasters. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  7. Social networking-based personal home telehealth system: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Huang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: CDF presented in this paper extends the value of a home telehealth system from the provision of health care to enhancing older adults' interpersonal communication and social participation.

  8. The Cycle of Reciprocity: A Social Capital Intervention Strategy for SSTR Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    early pioneer in social capital thought, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu defined social capital as …the aggregate of the actual or potential...Online] available from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/ HumanCapital.html, accessed October 15, 2006. 18 Pierre Bourdieu deserves credit for his...2002): 17-18. 17 P. Bourdieu , "The Forms of Capital," Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (1986): 248. 14 James

  9. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  10. PGTandMe: social networking-based genetic testing and the evolving research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Valerie Gutmann

    2012-01-01

    The opportunity to use extensive genetic data, personal information, and family medical history for research purposes may be naturally appealing to the personal genetic testing (PGT) industry, which is already coupling direct-to-consumer (DTC) products with social networking technologies, as well as to potential industry or institutional partners. This article evaluates the transformation in research that the hybrid of PGT and social networking will bring about, and--highlighting the challenges associated with a new paradigm of "patient-driven" genomic research--focuses on the consequences of shifting the structure, locus, timing, and scope of research through genetic crowd-sourcing. This article also explores potential ethical, legal, and regulatory issues that arise from the hybrid between personal genomic research and online social networking, particularly regarding informed consent, institutional review board (IRB) oversight, and ownership/intellectual property (IP) considerations.

  11. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  12. Social Capitalism and Educational Policy: Democracy, Professionalism and Social Justice under New Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarnikow, Eva; Green, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Here we examine New Labour's education policy concerning social justice and the organisation of educational provision with reference to social capital as policy vocabulary. The central focus is on policy discourses and practices in relation to networking between schools and other partners. We identify three policy phases for reducing inequalities…

  13. Bridging Social Capital in Online Communities: Heterogeneity and Social Tolerance of Online Game Players in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the democratic potential of online communities by investigating the influence of network heterogeneity on social tolerance in an online gaming environment. Online game communities are potential sources of bridging social capital because they tend to be relatively heterogeneous. Causal analyses are conducted using structural…

  14. Online Social Participation, Social Capital and Literacy of Adolescents with Hearing Loss: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Whitfield, Jessica; Duncan, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The internet and social media have fast become an everyday aspect of adolescents' lives. Online participation may increase social capital and be particularly beneficial for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH), as it provides an alternative method to communicate, interact with others and access information. However, reduced levels of…

  15. Social Capital, Self-Esteem, and Use of Online Social Network Sites: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfield, Charles; Ellison, Nicole B.; Lampe, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook…

  16. Link prediction in social network based on local information and attributes of nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingying; Huang, Lan; Wang, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    Link prediction is essential to both research areas and practical applications. In order to make full use of information of the network, we proposed a new method to predict links in the social network. Firstly, we extracted topological information and attributes of nodes in the social network. Secondly, we integrated them into feature vectors. Finally, we used XGB classifier to predict links using feature vectors. Through expanding information source, experiments on a co-authorship network suggest that our method can improve the accuracy of link prediction significantly.

  17. Religiosity and teen drug use reconsidered: a social capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowski, John P; Xu, Xiaohe

    2007-06-01

    Although religiosity has often been shown to have a deterrent effect on teen drug use, noteworthy theoretic gaps and contradictory findings have left important questions unanswered. Conceptualizing religion as a measure of social capital and using cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future (1996), a nationally representative sample of American high school seniors collected annually, this study is designed to shed new light on the relationship between religiosity and drug use among American youth. Levels of teen drug use for three different components of faith-based social capital-exposure to and internalization of religious norms, integration within religious networks, and trust in religious phenomena-are explored with respect to high school seniors' use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs during the year prior to the survey. In addition, drug use associated with faith-based and secular forms of civic engagement among teens (e.g., participation in religious youth groups vs secular organizations such as sports and school clubs, theistic trust vs secular trust) are compared. Among religiosity variables, integration within congregational networks (i.e., worship service attendance) exhibits the most consistent negative association with youth drug use. Theistic trust is not associated with teen drug use, but secular trust and civic participation in secular organizations are associated with less drug use. Elements of both religious and secular social capital are associated with lower reported drug use, thereby suggesting that multiple avenues for the prevention of teen drug use might be pursued. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Social capital and knowledge sharing: effects on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Huang, Heng-Chiang; Chiang, Chi-Yun; Hsu, Chiu-Ping; Chang, Chia-Chen

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report on a study that empirically examines the influence of social capital on knowledge sharing and the impact of knowledge sharing on patient safety. Knowledge sharing is linked to many desirable managerial outcomes, including learning and problem-solving, which are essential for patient safety. Rather than studying the tangible effects of rewards, this study examines whether social capital (including social interaction, trust and shared vision) directly supports individual knowledge sharing in an organization. This cross-sectional study analysed data collected through a questionnaire survey of nurses from a major medical centre in northern Taiwan. The data were collected over a 9-month period from 2008 to 2009. The data analysis was conducted using the Partial Least Squares Graph v3.0 program to evaluate the measurement properties and the structural relationships specified in the research model. Based on a large-scale survey, empirical results indicate that Registered Nurses' perceptions of trust and shared vision have statistically significant and direct effects on knowledge sharing. In addition, knowledge sharing is significantly and positively associated with patient safety. The findings suggest that hospital administrators should foster group trust and initiate a common vision among Registered Nurses. In addition, administrators and chief knowledge officers of hospitals should encourage positive intentions towards knowledge sharing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Leadership in Acts through a social capital lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Nell

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital can be defined in various ways. In most of these definitions at least three dimensions can be distinguished. First there is �bonding� (the horizontal relationships between people operating within different social networks and with specific norms and values. The second dimension is �bridging� (bonds that transcend differences in religion, ethnicity, culture and socio-economic status. This dimension prevents horizontal ties from becoming the basis for narrow and even sectarian interests. Normally, a third dimension called �linking� also forms part of social capital, and ideological aspects come into focus here. This dimension includes aspects such as justice, political power and the equitable distribution of income and property. When leadership in Acts is analysed through the lenses of these multi-focal spectacles, interesting perspectives are discovered that can enrich theories on leadership. These discoveries can also open up new perspectives on aspects of being a missional church in our South African context from within the context of Acts.�

  20. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  1. Mothers' group participation: associations with social capital, social support and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexandra; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between participation in mothers' groups and social capital, social support and mental well-being measures for mothers whose oldest child was 0-5 years. Evaluations of facilitated mothers' groups have found positive benefits for information sharing and support. Mothers' groups often continue as parent-led groups; however, little is known about the potential benefits of ongoing participation compared with non-participation. Cross-sectional survey. Data were collected through a survey from March 2013-January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a subgroup of mothers (N = 313) whose oldest child was 0-5 years of age were analysed using multivariable regression. Participation in mothers' groups in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with social capital {Neighbourhood Cohesion Index (NCI); Families, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey (FSCCS) and Reciprocity}; social support {Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and Parent Support Outside Home Scale (PSOHS)}; and mental well-being {Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS)}. Participation was measured as three groups - locally, outside area of residence and non-participation. Mothers who participated in mothers' groups locally scored significantly higher than those who had not participated in mothers' group for 'social capital' (NCI, FSCCS, Reciprocity), 'social support' (MOS-SSS, PSOHS) and 'mental well-being' (WEMWBS). Mothers who participated in mothers' group outside the area scored significantly higher than those who had not participated in mothers' groups for one measure of 'social support' (PSOHS). Participation in mothers' group locally may provide support and social capital benefits for mothers of children aged 0-5 years, which may influence mental well-being. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Social Networking-based Advertising to Enhance Customer Reach Target

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Najmi Amer Haider Nuar; Hairulnizam Mahdin; Noryusliza Abdullah; Rozanawati Darman; Masitah Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    A traditional advertising is a method to deliver commercial messages to mass audiences through newspaper, outdoors billboards, radio and television. This method is quite expensive for small and medium company. The new concept of advertising such as social media, website and application provide an inexpensive way to promote businesses. The proposed idea is to create a new platform of advertising and promotional tools which is called Tagme. This system is developed based on web environment on W...

  3. Social capital and child nutrition in India: The moderating role of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Kriti

    2018-01-16

    Empirical studies of social capital rarely take into account the socioeconomic context of the region in which it operates, indeed as most of this research has been located in high income countries. It is imperative to investigate how development may influence the impact of social capital, especially in developing countries. This paper examines the relationship between social capital and child nutrition using the India Human Development Survey, 2005-2006. Using a multilevel framework and a sample of 6770 rural children under the age of five, it finds that household based bridging social capital, expressed as connections with development based organizations, is positively associated with child nutrition. Bonding social capital, expressed as ties with caste and religious based organizations, has the opposite impact. At the village level, contextual measures of social capital are associated with nutritional status of children, but their influence is conditional on local development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward a social capital theory of competitive advantage in medical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Mark L; Hoffman, James J; Dawley, David

    2005-01-01

    Social capital can have a positive impact on medical group performance. We forward our theory based on the integration of theories in social capital, resource advantage, and the resource-based view of the firm. Further, we suggest specific ways in which medical groups can increase their levels of social capital. First, medical groups should design or redesign the workplace so that there is ample interaction among employees. Second, employee participation within the community should be encouraged. Third, medical groups should recognize that social capital becomes ingrained in organizational culture. Therefore, medical groups should take steps to ensure a culture that supports its social capital. Fourth, hiring procedures should be designed (or redesigned) to ensure that new employees add social capital to the organization. Finally, trust must be fostered at the employee level.

  5. The Contribution of a Social Enterprise to the Building of Social Capital in a Disadvantaged Urban Area of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Marcello; Harden, Angela; Renton, Adrian; Sheridan, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    There has been much enthusiasm over the past 10 years for the potential contribution of social enterprises to the regeneration of disadvantaged urban areas. This enthusiasm has far outstripped the availability of empirical evidence. This paper reports a qualitative study of one social enterprise, a community café, and its contribution to building social capital in a disadvantaged urban area in London. The analysis reveals how the café builds 'bonding' and 'bridging' social capital whilst also addressing 'downside' social capital. Overall, the manager of the social enterprise played a considerable role in facilitating the development of social capital, thus emphasising the importance of individuals and their attitudes, skills, and background in urban regeneration. However, the role of the social enterprise in building 'linking' social capital was minor. In this instance, more effective mechanisms of community engagement need to be put in place in order to empower local residents and organisations.

  6. An empirical study to investigate the effects of social capital on social contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an empirical study to study the effects of social capital on social contribution for a group of people of 18-year-orl who lived in a city of Meymand/Iran. The survey selects 300 people out of 5026 people based on a two-stage cluster sampling and distributed questionnaire among them. The results are analyzed based on descriptive and inductive terms, which indicate a positive and meaningful relation between social capital and social solidarity. However, there is a negative and meaningful relationship between social opposition and conflict with organizations while there are some opposite relationships among networks of social relationships instead of level of internal group relationships.

  7. Development and Efficacy Testing of a Social Network-Based Competitive Application for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisan; Kim, Jeongeun

    2016-05-01

    Although a lot of people continuously try to lose weight, the obesity rate has remained high: 36.9% of males and 38.0% of females worldwide in 2013. This suggests the need for a new intervention. In this study, we designed a smartphone application, With U, to aid weight loss by using an offline social network of friends and an online social network, Facebook. To determine the effects of With U, this study was designed as a one-group pretest-posttest design. Overweight, obese, and severely obese adults 20-40 years old, along with their friends, participated in this study. A total of 10 pairs attempted to lose weight for 4 weeks. We used a questionnaire to measure general characteristics, motivation, and intent to continue to use With U, and the Inbody720 (Biospace, Seoul, Republic of Korea) body composition analyzer was used to measure physical characteristics. In addition, we briefly interviewed the participants about their experience. We observed statistically significant effects in terms of motivation to lose weight and the amount of weight loss. Changes in physical characteristics beyond weight loss also showed positive trends. Also, we discovered some interesting facts during the interviews. The weight loss effect was greater when the team members met more and the relationship between the challengers was more direct and intimate. The application With U, designed and developed to allow friends to challenge each other to lose weight, affected both motivation to lose weight and the amount of weight loss. In the future, effects of smartphone applications for health management with social networks need to be studied further.

  8. Community Detection for Multiplex Social Networks Based on Relational Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper we propose to use relational Bayesian networks for the specification of probabilistic network models, and develop inference techniques that solve the community detection problem based on these models. The use of relational Bayesian networks as a flexible high-level modeling framework enables us......Many techniques have been proposed for community detection in social networks. Most of these techniques are only designed for networks defined by a single relation. However, many real networks are multiplex networks that contain multiple types of relations and different attributes on the nodes...

  9. The investigation of social networks based on multi-component random graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyi, V. N.; Yudin, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    The methods of non-homogeneous random graphs calibration are developed for social networks simulation. The graphs are calibrated by the degree distributions of the vertices and the edges. The mathematical foundation of the methods is formed by the theory of random graphs with the nonlinear preferential attachment rule and the theory of Erdôs-Rényi random graphs. In fact, well-calibrated network graph models and computer experiments with these models would help developers (owners) of the networks to predict their development correctly and to choose effective strategies for controlling network projects.

  10. Regional social capital and multiple modernization in Russia. On defining the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Aleksandrovna Belyaeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issues of relationship between multiple modernization and social capital in Russia’s regions. Social capital is considered as a factor that determines the specifics and pace of modernization. The article also shows the ways to measure social capital and the necessity to develop the indicators for making socio-cultural portraits of the regions with regard to Russia’s conditions

  11. Neighborhood Social Capital, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Change of Neighborhood as Predictors of School Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Charles; Shen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood income and social capital are considered important for child development, but social capital has rarely been measured directly at an aggregate level. We used Canadian data to derive measures of social capital from aggregated parental judgments of neighborhood collective efficacy and neighborhood safety. Measures of neighborhood income came from Census data. Direct measures of preschoolers’ school readiness were predicted from neighborhood-level variables, with regional indicators...

  12. The Impact of Social Capital on Crime: Evidence from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Akçomak, Semih; Weel, Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This research shows that social capital is important in explaining why crime is so heterogeneous across Dutch municipalities. Social capital is considered as a latent construct composed of a variety of indicators, such as blood donations, voter turnout, voluntary contributions to community well-being, and trust. To isolate exogenous variation in social capital, three historical variables are used as instruments: the fraction of foreigners, the number of schools and the fraction of Protestants...

  13. You have to be there to enjoy it? Neighbourhood social capital and health.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohnen, S.M.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.; Subramanian, S.V.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effect of neighbourhood social capital on health. Existing research, however, has hitherto not studied whether the duration and intensity of exposure to neighbourhood social capital conditions and its effect on health. The aim of this study was to examine whether neighbourhood social capital affects individual’s health immediately and equally. Methods: We used two waves of the Dutch cross-sectional ‘Housing and Living Survey’. One (from 2009...

  14. A social network-based intervention stimulating peer influence on children's self-reported water consumption: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Crystal R; de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Burk, William J; Buijzen, Moniek

    2016-08-01

    The current pilot study examined the effectiveness of a social network-based intervention using peer influence on self-reported water consumption. A total of 210 children (52% girls; M age = 10.75 ± SD = 0.80) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 106; 52% girls) or control condition (n = 104; 52% girls). In the intervention condition, the most influential children in each classroom were trained to promote water consumption among their peers for eight weeks. The schools in the control condition did not receive any intervention. Water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and intentions to drink more water in the near future were assessed by self-report measures before and immediately after the intervention. A repeated measure MANCOVA showed a significant multivariate interaction effect between condition and time (V = 0.07, F(3, 204) = 5.18, p = 0.002, pη(2) = 0.07) on the dependent variables. Further examination revealed significant univariate interaction effects between condition and time on water (p = 0.021) and SSB consumption (p = 0.015) as well as water drinking intentions (p = 0.049). Posthoc analyses showed that children in the intervention condition reported a significant increase in their water consumption (p = 0.018) and a decrease in their SSB consumption (p  0.05). The children who were exposed to the intervention did not report a change in their water drinking intentions over time (p = 0.576) whereas the nonexposed children decreased their intentions (p = 0.026). These findings show promise for a social network-based intervention using peer influence to positively alter consumption behaviors. This RCT was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001179628). Study procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Social Sciences at Radboud University (ECSW2014-1003-203). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Social Capital in Avoiding Over-education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANKA BALINT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In post-socialist countries, overqualification is a current and relevant issue, butdespite its importance, this topic is not sufficiently addressed in the literature,especially in the post-communist region. Starting from the theory of professionalreorientation strategies, one can assume that the lack of social capital may be one ofthe causes of overqualification. In this study, I will investigate this hypothesis. Theanalysis of the issue was performed on the database of the “MOZAIK2001”sociological survey. The long period of time that has lapsed since the collection of thedata requires the verification of the assumptions on a much more recent database,namely the Cultural Consumption Barometer 2010. In order to identify the necessaryworkplace educational training, I used the occupation classification method.Overqualification was determined by comparing the educational training acquiredwith the occupation performed. Although the importance of relational resources on thelabour market is discussed in several studies in the field, the research was only partlyable to prove the positive role of social capital in avoiding overqualification.

  16. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of

  17. Social capital, mortality, cardiovascular events and cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyoung; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Nuesch, Eveline; Hargreaves, James; Prieto-Merino, David; Bowling, Ann; Snith, G Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Dale, Caroline; Casas, Juan P

    2014-12-01

    Social capital is considered to be an important determinant of life expectancy and cardiovascular health. Evidence on the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer was systematically reviewed. Prospective studies examining the association of social capital with these outcomes were systematically sought in Medline, Embase and PsycInfo, all from inception to 8 October 2012. We categorized the findings from studies according to seven dimensions of social capital, including social participation, social network, civic participation,social support, trust, norm of reciprocity and sense of community, and pooled the estimates across studies to obtain summary relative risks of the health outcomes for each social capital dimension. We excluded studies focusing on children, refugees or immigrants and studies conducted in the former Soviet Union. Fourteen prospective studies were identified. The pooled estimates showed no association between most social capital dimensions and all-cause mortality, CVD or cancer. Limited evidence was found for association of increased mortality with social participation and civic participation when comparing the most extreme risk comparisons. Evidence to support an association between social capital and health outcomes is limited. Lack of consensus on measurements for social capital hinders the comparability of studies and weakens the evidence base.

  18. Social Capital, Economic Development, and Homicide: A Cross-National Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…

  19. Social Capital and HIV Risks among Acculturating Asian Indian Men in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2005-01-01

    This community-based, qualitative study explored social capital resources and their influences upon HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 17 heterosexual Asian Indian immigrant men residing in New York City. Our study defined social capital as the resources available to individuals and society through social relationships. At the family, peer, and…

  20. Associations between social identity diversity, compatibility, and recovery capital amongst young people in substance use treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mawson

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that it is higher compatibility of a lower substance-using social identity and lower-using group memberships that contributes to recovery capital. Further, positive ties between groups and lower diversity of group memberships appear to be key aspects in how multiple social identities that are held by young adults relate to personal and social recovery capital.

  1. Associations between Social Capital and HIV Stigma in Chennai, India: Considerations for Prevention Intervention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David

    2009-01-01

    Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…

  2. Interracial Bridging Social Capital among Students of a Multicultural University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of interracial socialization and race on interracial bridging social capital among Malaysian students of a multicultural Malaysian public university was examined. Results reveal a narrowed level of interracial bridging social capital among the students. The minority Chinese and the majority Malays do not differ in…

  3. Social capital, collective efficacy and the provision of services and amenities by municipalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waverijn, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Klerk, M. de

    2017-01-01

    Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and

  4. Social Capital in Virtual Learning Communities and Distributed Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Social capital has recently emerged as an important interdisciplinary research area. It is frequently used as a framework for understanding various social issues in temporal communities, neighbourhoods and groups. In particular, researchers in the social sciences and the humanities have used social capital to understand trust, shared understanding, reciprocal relationships, social network structures, common norms and cooperation, and the roles these entities play in various aspects of temporal communities. Despite proliferation of research in this area, little work has been done to extend this effort to technology-driven learning communities (also known as virtual learning communities. This paper surveys key interdisciplinary research areas in social capital. It also explores how the notions of social capital and trust can be extended to virtual communities, including virtual learning communities and distributed communities of practice. Research issues surrounding social capital and trust as they relate to technology-driven learning communities are identified.

  5. Leveraging Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities through Participation on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2018-01-01

    Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

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    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  7. Uncovering the community structure in signed social networks based on greedy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yan, Jiaqi; Yang, Yu; Chen, Junhua

    2017-05-01

    The formality of signed relationships has been recently adopted in a lot of complicated systems. The relations among these entities are complicated and multifarious. We cannot indicate these relationships only by positive links, and signed networks have been becoming more and more universal in the study of social networks when community is being significant. In this paper, to identify communities in signed networks, we exploit a new greedy algorithm, taking signs and the density of these links into account. The main idea of the algorithm is the initial procedure of signed modularity and the corresponding update rules. Specially, we employ the “Asymmetric and Constrained Belief Evolution” procedure to evaluate the optimal number of communities. According to the experimental results, the algorithm is proved to be able to run well. More specifically, the proposed algorithm is very efficient for these networks with medium size, both dense and sparse.

  8. Creative elements: network-based predictions of active centres in proteins, cellular and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Active centres and hot spots of proteins have a paramount importance in enzyme action, protein complex formation and drug design. Recently a number of publications successfully applied the analysis of residue networks to predict active centres in proteins. Most real-world networks show a number of properties, such as small-worldness or scale-free degree distribution, which are rather general features of networks from molecules to the society. Based on extensive analogies I propose that the existing findings and methodology enable us to detect active centres in cells, social networks and ecosystems. Members of these active centres are creative elements of the respective networks, which may help them to survive unprecedented, novel challenges, and play a key role in the development, survival and evolvability of complex systems.

  9. A study on the effect of social capital on job satisfaction and citizenship behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghiyeh Khodaei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is one of the most important assets of any organization and it plays essential role in reaching organizational objectives. In this paper, we present an empirical study to study the effect of social capital on job satisfaction and citizenship behavior. The proposed study is performed among 240 employees who work for Allameh Tabataba’i University in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among selected employees and, using structural equation modeling, investigates the role of social capital on job satisfaction as well as citizenship behavior. The preliminary results of our survey indicate that social capital positively influences on both mentioned variables.

  10. New variables for detecting transport disadvantages. The role of social capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the potential role of social capital variables on the transport mode choice. Traditionally travel behavior model included social capital as empowerment factor (i.e. social capital as substitute of financial capital) or as social network influence on travel choice. Only recently constraints of social capital are considered as factors influencing travel behavior (Swanen et al, 2015, Di Ciommo & Martens, 2015).This article will show both aspects of empowerments and constraints of social capital in a dynamic way stressing two dynamic aspects of social capital: the building up social capital and use of social capital. Both aspects are related with the value of time: when you are doing something for others ( i.e. Voluntary actions, pick up all family members, etc) you are loosing your time, and your mode choice will be oriented to saving time, therefore a private mode will be chosen, while when you are using your social capital benefit (somebody else is helping you), you will easily choose the less flexible and more time consuming public transport. After defining social capital notion in both aspects of empowerments and constraints, a set of social capital variables is defined. Then two of these variables are tested through a smartphone short panel survey, where 100 individuals living or working in one surrounding southern area of Madrid have participated in entering their travel data for an entire working week. The estimated mixed-logit model that incorporated two “social capital variables: participation in voluntary activities and receiving help for various tasks (i.e. child care) show how people who have less social capital, but that are trying to build it up choose more private than public modes: building social capital stock has a cost in term of time that push people to use more flexible transport mode (i.e. private car), while people who have already a stock of social capital and can use it (i.e. helped people) receive time from others and

  11. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Frederike

    2017-08-30

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in social capital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National, rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluation of 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but it does not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  12. Building Social Capital in Hightown: The Role of "Confianza" in Latina Immigrants' Social Networks in the New South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Shanan; McClure, Greg

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the social networks of immigrant Latinas from two women's groups in northwestern North Carolina. We explore how participants built social capital and confidence in self through sharing knowledge and experiences in intimate, "mujerista" spaces. We argue that traditional analyses of social capital, framed in…

  13. Bringing the Best of Two Worlds Together for Social Capital Research in Education: Social Network Analysis and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…

  14. Social capital, collective efficacy and the provision of social support services and amenities by municipalities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waverijn, Geeke; Groenewegen, Peter P.; de Klerk, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and

  15. The association between social capital and burnout in nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Farahbod

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is a multi-faceted phenomenon in social sciences that massively affects many social fields. It can be a helpful factor in promoting health. Among the groups with high burnout, nurses have always shown higher levels of burnout. Studies have revealed that social capital can be an important factor affecting burnout. This study aimed to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout in nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital in Rasht. This was a descriptive correlational study conducted on 214 nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital. Maslach standard questionnaire and the social capital questionnaire devised by Boyas and colleagues were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and linear regression analysis to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout. The study showed an inverse association between social capital and burnout. The intensity of the relationship was -0.451 (P<0.0001. Also, the linear regression model of social capital on burnout variable showed that the regression coefficient of social capital equaled -0.34. The determination coefficient of this regression model indicated that social capital explained 20% of burnout changes. The results showed high burnout in emotional exhaustion dimension and an inverse association between social capital and burnout. Thus, attempts should be made to promote social capital dimensions among nurses. Given the inevitability of job stress in a nursing environment, and managers should plan on improving the working conditions and training techniques to deal with such stress.

  16. Social capital across the life course and functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Frida; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E

    2014-11-01

    To examine social capital across life and functional somatic symptoms in middle-age, according to life-course models of cumulative risk and sensitive periods. Data from the 26-year prospective study the Northern Swedish Cohort enabled complete case analyses on 940 individuals (451 women and 489 men) participating in questionnaire surveys at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42. Social capital was operationalized at the individual level, comprising items on social participation, social influence and social support. Functional somatic symptoms were a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties occuring during the 12 months prior to the data collection. Linear regression was used as the main statistical method, examining the relationship between functional somatic symptoms at age 42 and social capital across life. Lower levels of social capital accumulated over the life course were associated with higher levels of functional somatic symptoms at age 42, for both women and men. Social capital was, especially among adolescent men, related to functional somatic symptoms at age 42, independently of social capital later in life and baseline material circumstances. The health impact of poor social capital may be due to accumulation across the life course and to adolescence being a particularly sensitive period it is relevant for preventive work to acknowledge effects of social capital throughout life. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL START-UP PROCESS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONDITION

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    Enkhbold Chuluunbaatar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.

  18. #DocsOnTwitter: How Physicians use Social Media to Build Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Taylor; Richards, Jessica; Schwitters, Paige; Smith, Kirsten; Wendland, Kyle; Martin, Jamie; Keltgen, Jaciel

    2017-08-29

    Using social capital theory, Augustana University healthcare marketing students examined how medical professionals utilize social media to further engage with their communities. The team selected Twitter as the social media network from which to collect data because of its popularity and ease of use. The sample was drawn from 1,000 Twitter profiles that were retrieved from 24 keywords such as MD. A total of 3,378,285 tweets from this sample were collected and analyzed for content, use of hashtags, mobile device use, frequency, longevity, medical relevance, medical specialty, gender, and approximate age. This is an important first look, using Big Data, at how physicians parlay the popularity of social media to build social capital through sharing research with colleagues, connecting with patients and prospective patients, and extending their personal and employer brands to increasingly information-hungry and interactive consumers.

  19. Governance Mechanisms for the Promotion of Social Capital for Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    are combined with theory on the determinants of social capital. Three governance mechanisms are identified: market-based mechanisms, hierarchical mechanisms, and social mechanisms. The findings, based on data from two Danish MNCs, indicate that although the use of social governance mechanisms promotes positive......The aim of this paper is to extend social capital approaches to knowledge transfer by identifying governance mechanisms that managers can deploy to promote the development of social capital. In order to achieve this objective, insights from the micro-level, knowledge governance approach...... assessment of social capital, hierarchical governance mechanisms constrain its development. The application of market-based governance mechanisms has no significant effect. In addition, the findings provide evidence that social capital has a positive impact on knowledge transfer...

  20. The Association Between Social Capital and Depression Among Chinese Older Adults Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J; Canham, Sarah L; Lam, Agnes Iok Fong

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a critical resource for physical and mental health among older adults, but few studies have investigated this relationship in Chinese populations, and specifically among those with low socioeconomic status. This study examined the association between depression and cognitive social capital (reciprocity and trust) and structural social capital (social participation) in a community sample of older adults living in public housing in Macau (SAR), China (N = 366). Multivariable linear regressions estimated the associations between dimensions of social capital and depression, while adjusting for potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between reciprocity and trust and depression. No association was found between social participation and depression. Poor self-reported health was a robust correlate of depression in all models tested. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether enhancing social capital may reduce depression among Chinese older adults living in poverty.

  1. The impact of a social network based intervention on self-management behaviours among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods: a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nijpels, Giel; Uitewaal, Paul; Middelkoop, Barend; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper aims to explore the effect of the social network based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes on diabetes self-management among socioeconomically deprived patients. This 10-month group intervention targeting patients and significant others aimed to improve self-management by

  2. Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

    2011-12-17

    Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals' risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race - within specific cultural contexts - mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents' and young adults' engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes.

  3. Social capital and health in China: exploring the mediating role of lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xindong Xue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social capital as a key determinant of health has been well established in various studies, little is known about how lifestyle factors mediate this relationship. Understanding the cross-relationships between social capital, health, and lifestyle factors is important if health promotion policies are to be effective. The purpose of this study is to explore whether different dimensions of social capital and lifestyle factors are related, and whether lifestyle factors mediate the association between social capital and self-rated health (SRH and psychological well-being (PWB in China. Methods This study used nationally representative data from the 2014 China Family Panel Studies (n = 28,916. The data reported on three dimensions of individual-level social capital: social trust, social relationship and Chinese Communist Party (CCP membership. Health was assessed using SRH and PWB. Five lifestyle indicators were recorded: healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, sleeping, and non-overweight status. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between social capital and lifestyle factors, and whether there was a mediating role of lifestyle. Odds ratios relating health status to social capital were reported before and after adjustment for lifestyle factors. Mediation analysis was then used to calculate the total, direct and indirect effects of social capital on SRH and PWB. Results The results show that social trust was significantly associated with all five lifestyle factors. Social relationship was significantly associated with four of the five: healthy diet, physical activity, sleeping and non-overweight. CCP membership was only significantly associated with two lifestyle factors: physical activity and non-overweight. Social trust and social relationship were significantly related to both SRH and PWB. CCP membership was only significantly related to SRH. Mediation analysis found modest evidence that

  4. Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. RESULTS: The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02 or PHS score (OR=6.90. Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.

  5. Workplace determinants of social capital: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a Finnish cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Oksanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000-02 (response rate 68%. We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. RESULTS: After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.98 per 30-person-year increase. A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.17 and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.30 higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively. Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces.

  6. The impacts of community social capital on the life satisfaction of older adults in Hong Kong: the moderator role of intergenerational family capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Lum, Terry Y S; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the moderator role of intergenerational family capital on the relationship between community social capital and life satisfaction of older Chinese adults. The data were derived from a quota sampling of 372 older adults aged 60 and above, who were interviewed at four districts in Hong Kong in 2011. Multiple group analysis was employed to examine the proposed model. For the low family capital group, community social capital was found to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction, even when the well-known covariates were controlled. However, the association between community social capital and life satisfaction was statistically non-significant among the high family capital group. The findings highlighted the interplay between community social capital and intergenerational family capital, which supported community social capital replacement theory in understanding the mechanism linking social capital to life satisfaction in older age in a Chinese context. Community social capital can play a compensatory role in maintaining the mental health of older people. It is particularly important for older adults who lack family support and/or suffer from social isolation and loneliness in local communities.

  7. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  8. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2013-01-04

    There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15-19, 35-44 and 65-74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  9. A Social Capital Approach to Identifying Correlates of Perceived Social Support among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Bowen, Elizabeth; Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability of homeless youth to accumulate resources through their personal relationships with others (i.e. social capital) is often associated with improved outcomes across multiple domains. Despite growing evidence documenting the heterogeneity of homeless youths' relationships, many youth still experience adversities or lack access…

  10. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Social Capital Status in Patients With Primary Headache Compared to Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social capital, in general, is mutual relationships, interactions, and networks that emerge among human grouping and is the level of trust formed in the specific group as commitment and social norm. This issue is associated with many mental and physical disorders in the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of social capital in some people with a primary headache in comparison with control group. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 60 patients with a primary headache who referred to one of neurology clinics in Yazd city, Iran, as the case group and 60 subjects without primary headache as the control group that had some similarities with case group in demographic features. Data was collected via social capital questionnaire containing demographic information. Results: The mean score of social capital in the case group was 193.5±30.82 while the mean score of social capital in the control group was 214.1±34.22 (P=0.001 that indicate a significant correlation between social capital level and catching primary headache. Conclusion: Further studies are needed on the effect of social capital on the level of response to treatment in patients with primary headache. It is also suggested to be conducted interventions regarding the impact of social capital on headaches and broader studies with larger scale (urban population in this regard.

  12. The role of bonding and bridging cognitive social capital in shaping entrepreneurial intention in transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Vuković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important factor of potential growth and development that will determine the development dynamics of transition countries in the future. Starting from the theory of planned behaviour and the social cognition theory, the paper argues that bonding and bridging cognitive social capital may positively influence entrepreneurial intentions of young people in Croatia and Macedonia. The hypotheses were tested by using structural equation modelling. Our findings indicate that bridging and bonding social capital could be significant enhancers of entrepreneurial intention. The fact that those individuals who have poor bonding social capital may get their chance through bridging social capital seems as a good indicator. Bridging social capital that forms in an entrepreneurial environment can encourage young people in their self-employment efforts. Furthermore, our research implies several possible measures of enhancing the efficiency of entrepreneurial education.

  13. Social Capital Role in Managing High Risk Behavior: a Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mansoure; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzeghardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-08-01

    Social capital as a social context based concept is a new component in addition to the previous factors including the biologic-environmental, the genetic and the individual behavior factors that influence health and society. Social capital refers to the information that makes people believe being interesting & being paid attention to, & respected, valued, and belonging to a network of bilateral relations. Health issue is greatly affected by the existence of social capital. High risk behaviors refer to the ones enhancing the probability of negative and devastating physical, psychological and social consequences for an individual. Negative & overwhelming results mean keeping one's distance from social norms as a result rejection and labeling (social stigma) and finally, to distance oneself from the benefits of social life in the individuals with high risk behaviors. The present study reviews social capital in the groups having high risk behaviors. The present study is a narrative review in which researchers conducted their computer search in public databases like Google Scholar, and more specifically in Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Springer, Science Direct, and ProQuest using the keywords: social capital, social support, risk behaviors, addicts, HIV, AIDS, and selected the articles related to the study subject from 2004 to 2014. Overall 96 articles have been searched. Researchers reviewed the summary of all articles searched, & ultimately, they applied the data from 20 full articles to compile this review paper. Article review results led to organizing the subjects into 6 general categories: Social capital and its role in health; Social capital in groups with high risk behaviors (Including: substance abusers, AIDS patients, the homeless and multi-partner women); Social capital in different social groups; measurement tools for social capital and risk behaviors; the role of health in helping people with risky behaviors with the focus on improving social capital and social

  14. Child centered literacy orientation: a form of social capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, P; Hopmann, M; LaGasse, L; Sege, R; Moran, J; Guiterrez, C; Becker, S

    1999-04-01

    To describe the home literacy environment and to identify financial, human, and social capital variables associated with the presence or lack of Child Centered Literacy Orientation (CCLO) in families with young children who regularly attend pediatric primary care clinics. Cross-sectional case-control analysis of structured parent interviews conducted in two hospital-based and four community-based pediatric clinics in New England. Parents of 199 healthy 1- to 5-year-old children whose mean age was 30 +/- 15 (SD) months were interviewed. Parents were primarily mothers (94%) with a mean age of 28 +/- 7 (SD) years 60% of whom were single. Educational levels of study parents varied: 43% had not graduated from high school, 29% had a high school equivalency, and 28% had at least a year of college or vocational training. This was a multiethnic parent group. Sixty-five percent were bilingual or non-English speaking. Fifty-eight percent were born outside of the continental United States. Parents were primarily of low-income status with 85% receiving Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) food supplements, Aid to Families With Dependent Children, and/or Medicaid. Half of the parents interviewed reported that they rarely read books. Sixty percent of children had fewer than 10 books at home and two-thirds of these households contained fewer than 50 books total. When asked open-ended questions, 28% of parents said that sharing books with their child was one of their three favorite activities together, 14% said that looking at books was one of their child's three favorite things to do, and 19% reported sharing books at bedtime at least six times each week. Thirty-nine percent of families had at least one of these three literacy-related responses present and so were said to have a CCLO. A backwards stepwise multiple logistic regression on CCLO was performed with family financial, human, and social capital variables. Parents married or living together (odds ratio [OR] 2.56, 95

  15. Does parents' economic, cultural, and social capital explain the social class effect on educational attainment in the Scandinavian mobility regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2007-01-01

    for the statistical analysis. Our results are, first, that controlling for the three types of capital we explain a considerable part of the social class effect on educational attainment, and, second, that cultural and social capital are the key predictors of educational attainment.......This paper analyzes how much of the effect of social class on children’s choice of secondary education in Denmark can be decomposed into the influence of parental economic, cultural, and social capital. Following mobility regime theory, we propose that in the Scandinavian mobility regime to which...... Denmark belongs, the effect of social class on educational attainment should be explained primarily by non-economic forms of capital. We use an extremely rich Danish longitudinal survey to construct empirical measures of economic, cultural, and social capital and an extended random effect framework...

  16. Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: practical consequences and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P

    2011-01-01

    Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.

  17. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-08-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  18. Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The in......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital.......The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives...... study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that groupcoaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative...

  19. Roadmap to a Caring Economics: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our unprecedented technological, economic, and environmental challenges call for thinking that goes beyond capitalism and socialism, both of which were developed in early industrial times. This article outlines a caring economics or partnerism that supports not only human survival but also human development. It proposes a full-spectrum economic map and economic policies needed at this time when many jobs are being replaced by automation. It looks at issues generally ignored in the conversation about a new economics, such as intra-household resource allocation, the devaluation of women and the ‘feminine,’ and the view that caring for people, starting in early childhood, is merely reproductive rather than productive work. It examines economic systems in the larger context of societies orienting to either end of the domination-partnership social scale, showing the interaction between social values and economic priorities. It describes new metrics that, unlike GDP and GNP, demonstrate the economic value of caring for people and nature, and proposes other steps toward a caring economics as the basis for a more humane and sustainable future.

  20. Effect of social capital on poverty alleviation: A study of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entrepreneurial performance of women in developing countries is influenced by microfinance factors such as social capital. However, there are mixed ... Thus, this study assessed the effect of social capital on self-employment, education, training and skills acquisition, and economic empowerment. The study adopted ...

  1. Immigrant performance in the labour market: bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income

  2. An Analysis of Social Capital and Environmental Management of Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinos, Konstantinos I.; Jones, Nikoleta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the theory of social capital for the challenges presented during environmental management initiatives in higher education institutions (HEIs). In particular, the paper utilises the fundamental components of social capital theory and assesses a hypothesis that higher stocks of…

  3. The Consequences of Internet Cafe use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  4. Social capital and reported discrimination among people with depression in 15 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppei, S.; Lasalvia, A.; Bonetto, C.; van Bortel, T.; Nygvist, F.; Webber, M.; Aromaa, E.; van Weeghel, J.; Lanfredi, M.; Harangozo, J.; Wahlbeck, K.; Thornicroft, G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Social capital is a protective factor for mental health. People with depression are vulnerable to discrimination and its damaging impact. No previous studies have explored the link between social capital and experienced or anticipated discrimination in people with depression. This study aims

  5. Social capital as an ecosystem service: Evidence from a locally managed marine area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes-Mauthe, M.; Oleson, K.L.L.; Brander, L.M.; Zafindrasilivonona, B.; Oliver, T.A.; van Beukering, P.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is an important ecosystem service, yet we lack common understanding of how it fits, and can be operationalized, within the ecosystem services framework. We review the literature to clarify the role of social capital in this context, establishing it as a multidimensional concept and a

  6. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  7. Relations with Faculty as Social Capital for College Students: Evidence from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a social capital framework was adopted to investigate the extent to which academically focused interactions with faculty and other institutional agents serve as social capital for college students, using National Survey of Student Engagement data from a large, science, technology, engineering and math-focused institution in Puerto…

  8. The Mismeasure of Monkeys: Education Policy Research and the Evolution of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearin, B.

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual history traces the rise of "social capital" from the theories of James Coleman and Pierre Bourdieu to its eventual adoption in fields such as primatology and evolutionary psychology. It argues that the earliest theories of social capital were formulated in response to a growing perception that education was an economic…

  9. The Impact of Social Capital on the Employment of College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengqiao, Yan; Dan, Mao

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the impact of social capital on college graduate employment. After reviewing the literature, the authors analyze data collected by Peking University from 34 universities in 2005 and use statistical analysis to clarify the impact of social capital on students' choice of employment or further study, job placement rate,…

  10. Exploring the role of social capital in urban citizens' initiatives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentink, Carlijn; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Dam, van Rosalie; Hassink, Jan; Salverda, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This research explores the role of social capital in urban citizens' initiatives in the Netherlands, by using in-depth interviews. Method: Social capital was operationalized as shared norms and values, connectedness, trust and reciprocity. Results: The findings show that initiatives form

  11. Social capital, agricultural innovation and the evaluation of agricultural development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van F.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of

  12. Validating Social and Cultural Capital of Hyperghettoized At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how school leaders recognize and validate cultural and social capital of hyperghettoized at-risk students. Two primary research questions drove this research: (1) Did traditional school leaders recognize the social and cultural capital of at-risk, African American students? (2) How did an effective school leader validate…

  13. Facebook Use and Social Capital: To Bond, To Bridge, or to Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…

  14. Andragology and social capital theory: the implications for human resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  15. The economic returns of bonding and bridging social capital for immigrant men in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this paper analyses the effect of different forms of social capital on the likelihood of employment and the occupational status of first generation immigrant men in Germany. This allows me to examine to what extent social capital of the bonding and the bridging types yield

  16. How Social and Human Capital Predict Participation in Lifelong Learning: A Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…

  17. Social Capital and Learning Organisation: Is It Worth to Engage in Networking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shoaib; Awan, Sajid H.; Ismail, Kamariah; Naveed, Shaheryar

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the influence of social capital towards learning organisation in higher education institutions. The study adopted quantitative approach with survey questionnaire. The sample of the study was 227 academic staff members of 22 higher educational institutions. Social capital was measured using structural, relational and…

  18. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important for predicting rural youths' educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic…

  19. The influence of social capital on individual health: is it the neighbourhood or the network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.; Subramanian, S.V.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of both individual and neighbourhood social capital on individual health and analysed whether effects of one type of social capital are contingent upon the other. The Dutch 'Housing and Living Survey' (WoON 2006, n = 53,269) was used and combined with information on

  20. The impact of social and human capital on new venture internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process.......The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process....

  1. Using a social capital framework to enhance measurement of the nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Sheingold, Steven H

    2013-07-01

    To develop, field test and analyse a social capital survey instrument for measuring the nursing work environment. The concept of social capital, which focuses on improving productive capacity by examining relationships and networks, may provide a promising framework to measure and evaluate the nurse work environment in a variety of settings. A survey instrument for measuring social capital in the nurse work environment was developed by adapting the World Bank's Social Capital - Integrated Questionnaire (SC-IQ). Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the properties of the instrument. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors that align well with the social capital framework, while reflecting unique aspects of the nurse work environment. The results suggest that the social capital framework provides a promising context to assess the nurse work environment. Further work is needed to refine the instrument for a diverse range of health-care providers and to correlate social capital measures with quality of patient care. Social capital measurement of the nurse work environment has the potential to provide managers with an enhanced set of tools for building productive capacity in health-care organisations and achieving desired outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Social capital and self-rated health: experiences from Makete district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is almost two decades since various research works started documenting the debate surrounding the role of social capital on individual health outcomes in different contexts. However, in Tanzania there is a dearth of empirical evidence showing how social capital influences health outcomes. The objective of ...

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  4. The Relationship between Social Capital and Corporal Punishment in Schools. A Theoretical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the use of corporal punishment in the public schools and the amount of social capital (i.e., residents degree of involvement in community matters) in a state. Existing state-level data regarding social capital and incidents of corporal punishment were utilized. Results show a statistically significant…

  5. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  6. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Capital in Rural Communities of the Greek North Aegean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseloni, Andromachi; Zissi, Anastasia; Skapinakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    Which facets of social capital affect mental health in rural settings? This study explores the association between different aspects of social capital and psychiatric morbidity in rural communities of the Greek North Aegean islands. A large number of individual and community characteristics that may influence psychiatric morbidity are concurrently…

  7. [The importance of neighborhood social cohesion and social capital for the well being of older adults in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J M; van Dijk, H M; Nieboer, A P

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well-being of older adults. This cross-sectional study included 945/1440 (66 % response rate) independently living older adults (aged >70 years) in Rotterdam. We fitted a hierarchical random-effects model to account for the hierarchical structure of the study design: 945 older adults (level 1) nested in 72 neighborhoods (level 2). Univariate analyses showed that being born in the Netherlands, house ownership, education, income, social capital of individuals, neighborhood security, neighborhood services, neighborhood social capital, and neighborhood social cohesion were significantly related to the well-being of older adults. Multilevel analyses showed that social capital of individuals, neighborhood services, neighborhood social capital, and neighborhood social cohesion predicted the well-being of older adults. Single and poor older adults reported lower well-being than did better-off and married older adults. However, the effects of marital status and income were mediated by neighborhood services, social capital, and social cohesion. Neighborhood services, social capital and social cohesion may act as buffer against the adverse effects of being single and poor on the well-being of older adults. The results of this study support the importance of social capital of individuals, as well as social capital within the neighborhood and social cohesion within the neighborhood for well-being of older adults. The well-being of older adults may also be enhanced through the improvement of quality of neighborhood services.

  8. Trust and Social Capital Research in Hungarian Economic Sociology, 1995-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dén-Nagy, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of social networks, social capital and trust and their impact on the economic arrangements and performance of nascent capitalist economies have raised many research questions in the post...

  9. Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social Capital at Home and at School*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731

  10. The Impact of Facebook Use on Micro-Level Social Capital: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn L. Antheunis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and how it influences the social benefits that people gather from having social relationships. Although the extant research provides a solid basis for future research into this area, a number of issues remain underexplored. The aim of the current article is twofold. First, it seeks to synthesize what is already known about the relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital. Second, it seeks to advance future research by identifying and analyzing relevant theoretical, analytical and methodological issues. To address the first research aim, we first present an overview and analysis of current research findings on Facebook use and social capital, in which we focus on what we know about (1 the relationship between Facebook use in general and the different subtypes of social capital; (2 the relationships between different types of Facebook interactions and social capital; and (3 the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between Facebook use and social capital. Based on this analysis, we subsequently identify three theoretical issues, two analytical issues and four methodological issues in the extant body of research, and discuss the implications of these issues for Facebook and social capital researchers.

  11. Education and Dimensions of Social Capital : Do Educational Effects Differ due to Educational Expansion and Social Security Expenditure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Meer, Tom van der; Scheepers, Peer

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does education affect formal and informal social capital, what is the influence of educational expansion, and welfare state contexts, and to what extent do educational effects on social capital differ under varying educational expansion and welfare state contexts? Multilevel estimates

  12. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  13. Cooperativas en conflicto : el capital social hace la diferencia?, estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Patricia Beatriz; Tort, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    p.187-200 Las cooperativas consideradas como organizaciones autogestionadas, son construidas para satisfacer las necesidades de sus asociados debiendo desarrollar la capacidad de adaptar sus estrategias a los cambios del contexto en el cual se desenvuelven. Es así que la confianza resulta central para establecer el capital social a través de relaciones de reciprocidad dentro de las redes económicas y sociales. El concepto capital social, de antigua data en las ciencias sociales, ha adquiri...

  14. Trust in Libraries and Trust in Most People: Social Capital Creation in the Public Library

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the creation of social trust and social capital indicate that informal social contact has a positive effect. Some studies find that uncorrupt public institutions have positive effects on trust and social capital. Additionally, a number of papers show that public libraries have a similar effect. The mechanisms that generate trust, however, remain largely unspecified. Therefore, research describing micro-level processes is needed to uncover the mechanisms creating trust. ...

  15. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke Takemura; Yukiko Uchida; Sakiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys we...

  16. Empreendedorismo e capital social no discurso institucional do Sebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Lourdes Colbari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A construção do artigo ancora-se em uma análise de documentos institucionais produzidos pelo Sebrae, tornando possível efetuar o mapeamento dos conteúdos retóricos que fundamentam a incorporação do empreendedorismo e da cooperação como eixos de atuação da referida instituição. Originalmente referenciados por padrões distintos de interesses e valores, esses fenômenos se articulam na modelagem de um discurso que, simultaneamente, afirma a importância e a legitimidade dos pequenos empreendimentos e das estratégias individuais e coletivas não assalariadas de inclusão produtiva. No delineamento de um quadro explicativo-compreensivo que associa empreendedorismo e cooperação, destaca-se o conceito de capital social, uma referência cada vez mais presente na discussão das políticas públicas de desenvolvimento e de promoção social.   Abstract: This article construction has been anchored on an analysis of Sebrae’s institutional documents, which allowed us to carry on a mapping of the rhetorical contents that found entrepreneurship and cooperation incorporation as the institution performance axis. These phenomena have originally been placed by distinct standards of interests and values, and they fit into a discourse mode that, simultaneously, set the importance and legitimacy of small businesses, and also of non-salary individual and collective strategies of productive inclusion. On an explanatory-comprehensible picture design that associates entrepreneurship and cooperation, one can highlight the social capital concept as an ever-greater current reference in the debates on social development and promotion public policies.   Resumen: La construcción de este artículo se basa en un análisis de los documentos institucionales producidos por el Sebrae, por lo que es posible llevar a cabo el mapeo del contenido retórico que subyacen a la incorporación de el empreendedorismo y la cooperación como ejes de acción de la

  17. The Importance of Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Social Capital for the Well Being of Older Adults in the Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); H.M. van Dijk (Hanna); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This

  18. Redes sociales, políticas públicas y capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ballester

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad, o en un espacio más amplio la propia sociedad, en cualquiera de sus dimensiones, no es un espacio cerrado sin conexiones e interconexiones; más bien puede concebirse como una red de relaciones. En este sentido, desde las Ciencias Sociales ha ido creciendo el interés por el estudio de las redes sociales; esto ha permitido comprender mejor como se construyen y mantienen las relaciones sociales entre la población. Junto al concepto de redes sociales aparece también el de capital social; un recurso creado por los propios individuos que representa un poder a la hora de ocupar espacios sociales, acceder a recursos, cubrir necesidades, resolver problemas sociales, etc. La existencia de redes sociales fuertes favorece los vínculos democráticos, el nexo entre los diversos agentes e instituciones del territorio, la coordinación de las acciones colectivas y, consecuentemente, la construcción de capital social.

  19. Social capital, collective efficacy and the provision of social support services and amenities by municipalities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waverijn, Geeke; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Klerk, Mirjam

    2017-03-01

    Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and amenities in Dutch municipalities, against a background of decentralisation of long-term care to municipalities. We used data on neighbourhood social capital, collective efficacy (the extent to which people are willing to work for the common good), and the provision of services and amenities in 2012. We included the services municipalities provide to support informal caregivers (e.g. respite care), individual services and support (e.g. domiciliary help), and general and collective services and amenities (e.g. lending point for wheelchairs). Data for social capital were collected between May 2011 and September 2012. Social capital was measured by focusing on contacts between neighbours. A social capital measure was estimated for 414 municipalities with ecometric measurements. A measure of collective efficacy was constructed based on information about the experienced responsibility for the liveability of the neighbourhood by residents in 2012, average charity collection returns in municipalities in 2012, voter turnout at the municipal elections in 2010 and the percentage of blood donors in 2012. We conducted Poisson regression and negative binomial regression to test our hypotheses. We found no relationship between social capital and the provision of services and amenities in municipalities. We found an interaction effect (coefficient = 3.11, 95% CI = 0.72-5.51, P = 0.011) of social capital and collective efficacy on the provision of support services for informal caregivers in rural municipalities. To gain more insight in the relationship between social capital and health, it will be important to study the relationship between social capital and differential provision of

  20. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students' academic and professional identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.

  1. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students’ academic and professional identity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity

  2. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A meta-analysis of the effect of education on social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the empirical estimates of the effect of education on social trust and social participation - the basic dimensions of individual social capital - a meta-analysis is applied, synthesizing 154 evaluations on social trust, and 286 evaluations on social participation. The publication bias

  4. Mental health impact of social capital interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elaine C; Fuhr, Daniela C; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G; Thorogood, Nicki; Simms, Victoria

    2017-12-12

    Mental disorders are a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, and can be extremely costly at both individual and community level. Social capital, (SC) defined as an individual's social relationships and participation in community networks, may lower the risk of mental disorders while increasing resilience capacity, adaptation and recovery. SC interventions may be a cost-effective way of preventing and ameliorating these conditions. However, the impact of these SC interventions on mental health still needs research. We conducted a systematic review of SC-based interventions to investigate their effect on mental health outcomes from controlled, quasi-experimental studies or pilot trials. We searched twelve academic databases, three clinical trials registries, hand-searched references and contacted field experts. Studies' quality was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools for randomized and non-randomized studies. Seven studies were included in the review, published between 2006 and 2016. There was substantial heterogeneity in the definitions of both SC and mental disorders among the studies, preventing us from calculating pooled effect sizes. The interventions included community engagement and educative programs, cognitive processing therapy and sociotherapy for trauma survivors, and neighbourhood projects. There are paucity of SC interventions investigating the effect on mental health outcomes. This study showed that both SC scores and mental health outcomes improved over time but there was little evidence of benefit compared to control groups in the long term. Further high-quality trials are needed, especially among adverse populations to assess sustainability of effect.

  5. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  6. Social capital and the multiethnic challenge: The role of the public library

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The paper talks about the social capital in the form of civic values as generalized trust and norms of reciprocity. What it does mean is that the level of social trust varies between countries and within countries. The author says that the role of the library in creating social capital has not been given great attention in the literature, and its role in generating trust between ethnic groups has been even less studied. According to author the sources of social capital are in contenti...

  7. A systematic review of social capital and chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fuyong; Hu, Bo; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Niu, Li; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, chronic non-communicable diseases have become a significant social problem of healthcare which threatens human health along with their rapid progress of morbidity and mortality. How to develop potential, intangible resources to compensate for insufficient physical resources is urgent. By analyzing literature reporting the association between social capital and chronic non-communicable diseases systematically, evidence was found for a positive association between social capital and chronic non-communicable disease prevention and control. The social capital theory may provide a new idea to solve the problem.

  8. The social vagina: labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Josefine

    2010-10-01

    Far from being an individual concern, vaginas are located within complex socio-cultural settings. The acceptability of policies that focus on health-promoting behavioural change is influenced by values regarding normative gender and sexual roles. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora through manual manipulation is not an individual act but takes place in social groups and thus cannot be fully understood by focusing one's attention solely on the individual-related behavioural components but, rather, on the social environment in which it exists. This paper aims to increase knowledge about labia elongation and assesses whether this vaginal practice produce social capital.

  9. Individual social capital and survival: a population study with 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte; Christensen, Line R B U; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Kræmer, Stella R J; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Claus D

    2014-10-02

    The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. We used data from a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104). Analysing the specific dimensions of social capital, higher levels of trust and social network were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.827, 95% CI = 0.750-0.913 and HR = 0.832, 95% CI = 0.729-0.949, respectively). For men, strong social networks were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.017-1.260). Civic engagement had a similar effect for both men (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.722-0.997) and women (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.630-1.140). We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women. The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied. Gender stratified analysis and the use of multiple indicators to measure social capital are thus warranted in future research.

  10. Motivation and social capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma T; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F; Moreno, Elizabeth C; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2013-06-01

    Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however, social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, human immunodeficiency virus testing and knowledge, social capital, and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined before the donor screening process. Among participants, 43.5 and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal, respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3 and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism were associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. A qualitative study on the attributes of nurses' workplace social capital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norikoshi, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Keiji

    2017-09-25

    To identify attributes of nurses' workplace social capital in Japan. Much attention has been paid to nurses' workplace social capital to improve the quality of the work environment; however, few studies are available on the attributes of nurses' workplace social capital. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 nurses at seven hospitals. Nurses reported on the attributes of workplace social capital, such as characteristics facilitating individual positive action in an organisation, which were qualitatively analysed using the Kawakita Jiro method. The attributes of nurses' workplace social capital were organised into six groups: affirmation; exchange of appreciation; unrestricted information sharing; ability to trust; access to the strength; and altruistic reciprocity. The attributes of nurses' workplace social capital included a social structure that allowed nurses to make full use of their abilities both vertically and horizontally and were supported by a sense of security. In particular, newly emerged exchange of appreciation and altruistic reciprocity were important for nurses in Japan in building cooperative relationships with others. Managing human relationships, such as exchange of appreciation and altruistic reciprocity, in clinical settings based on nurses' workplace social capital may promote positive emotions in the organisation, positive ideas among staff and cooperative teamwork, which may lead to high-quality patient care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. “I Don’t Know What Fun Is”: Examining the Intersection of Social Capital, Social Networks, and Social Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Miriam; Gardner, Megan; Gerken, Erin; Ross, Melissa; Wheeler, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. Design/methodology/approach In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing. Qualitative data were coded for social networks accessed throughout the life course, distinguished by bonding, bridging and linking social capital. Findings Social networks included drug treatment programs; non-drug-using family and friends; religious/spiritual groups; workplace networks, and social clubs/activities. Bonding and/or bridging social capital were acquired through treatment, family and friends, religious/spiritual groups, workplaces, and social clubs. Linking social capital was not acquired through any social networks available, and many barriers to accessing mainstream social networks were found. Limitations This is a small study conducted in the US. Social implications A greater focus on social recovery is needed to achieve sustained recovery for individuals lacking access to and engagement in mainstream social networks. Practical implications Social recovery is proposed as an analytical tool as well as for developing prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies. PMID:27668008

  13. Searching for social capital: historical perspectives on health, poverty and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, John

    2006-11-01

    Social capital has been seen as having a positive effect on health, and the concept of social capital has been viewed as of central importance to debates about healthy, sustainable communities. More generally, behaviour and its relationship with health has become much more central to policy-making, as illustrated in the Choosing Health White Paper (2005), and the concept of social capital has been one influence on the concept of social exclusion. Robert Putnam's arguments, both those expressed in Making Democracy Work (1993) and the revised version seen in Bowling Alone (2000) have been taken up by numerous social scientists and policy-makers. But despite the explicitly historical perspective that Putnam employs in Bowling Alone in particular, the history of social capital remains rather neglected in the available literature. This article is concerned with providing a historical perspective on social capital, especially the ways in which social investigators have viewed the relationships between health, poverty and behaviour. The article puts social capital alongside that of 'underclass' concepts such as the culture of poverty thesis, and examines how the latter has been invented and reinvented in the U.K. and the U.S.A. over the last 120 years. It argues that there are important similarities between the culture of poverty and social capital, but also significant differences, and these have implications for current policy initiatives. One way of analysing concepts like social capital and social exclusion more rigorously is by locating them within this longer-term history of social investigation, in which debates about health, poverty, and culture have been of

  14. Workplace social capital and risk of chronic and severe hypertension: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jokela, Markus; Kouvonen, Anne; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-06-01

    The association between workplace factors and the development of hypertension remains uncertain. We examined the risk of hypertension as a function of workplace social capital, that is, social cohesion, trust and reciprocity in the workplace. A total of 11 777 male and 49 145 female employees free of chronic hypertension at baseline in 2000-2004 were followed up for incident hypertension until the end of 2005 (the Finnish Public Sector Study). We used survey responses from the participants and their coworkers in the same work unit to assess workplace social capital at baseline. Follow-up for incident hypertension was based on record linkage to national health registers (mean follow-up 3.5 years, 1424 incident hypertension cases). Male employees in work units characterized by low workplace social capital were 40-60% more likely to develop chronic hypertension compared to men in work units with high social capital [age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.14 for self-assessed social capital and 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.97 for coworkers' assessment]. According to path analysis adjusted for covariates, the association between low self-reported social capital and hypertension was partially mediated by obesity (P for pathway = 0.02) and alcohol consumption (P = 0.03). For coworker-assessed social capital, the corresponding mediation pathways did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.055 and 0.22, respectively). No association between workplace social capital and hypertension was found for women. These data suggest that low self-reported workplace social capital is associated with increased near-term risk of hypertension in men in part due to unhealthy lifestyle.

  15. Are Public Libraries Developers of Social Capital? A Review of Their Contribution and Attempts to Demonstrate It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the idea, commonly expressed in the Library and Information Services (LIS) literature, that public libraries have a growing role as developers of social capital, and brings to bear some of the growing body of research into public libraries and social capital. It reviews definitions of social capital by writers outside the LIS…

  16. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  17. Neighborhood settings, types of social capital and depression among immigrants in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Haque, Nasim; Gao, Meiyin; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Muntaner, Carles; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Few studies consider the associations between neighborhood social capital and immigrant's mental health. We examined associations between bonding, bridging and linking social capital and depression among immigrants in Toronto neighborhoods. We used data on immigrants from the neighborhood effects on health and well-being (NEHW) study, conducted in 47 randomly selected greater Toronto area neighborhoods (sample = 916), and a study of one low-income, immigrant receiving neighborhood (IRN) (sample = 600). We conducted logistic regression models for depression (Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and social capital types: bonding (social cohesion and informal social control), bridging (group membership) and linking (engagement in political activities), while adjusting for different covariates. The prevalence of depression was 22.9 % in IRN and 21.4 % in NEHW. The associations between social capital types and depression differed in each sample. Lower social cohesion (bonding) was associated with higher depression in NEHW only. Lower linking social capital (never participated in political activities) was associated with lower depression in IRN only. These associations were consistent after adjustment for different covariates. Results suggest that social cohesion might have a protective effect from depression among immigrants in NEHW. In IRN, lower linking social capital associated with lower depression might reflect opposite direction association. Bridging social capital was not associated with depression in either sample, indicating that current community building might be insufficient to impact depression. Different pathways might explain how depression among immigrants is impacted by social capital types operating in different neighborhood settings; this could be examined in future longitudinal studies.

  18. Social Capital and Educational Needs of Adults in the Period of Changing Work and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nives Ličen

    2001-01-01

    The learning organisation is one of the products of globalisation. Knowledge, learning and education are intertwined with global capitalism. Education is regarded as a servant, which enables companies to function more effectively. Learning is seen as an investment in human and social capital. The result is employability and contribution to the economy. However, learning is also a human process resulting in the development of people as human beings, not only human capital.

  19. Social Capital and Educational Needs of Adults in the Period of Changing Work and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The learning organisation is one of the products of globalisation. Knowledge, learning and education are intertwined with global capitalism. Education is regarded as a servant, which enables companies to function more effectively. Learning is seen as an investment in human and social capital. The result is employability and contribution to the economy. However, learning is also a human process resulting in the development of people as human beings, not only human capital.

  20. Analysis of the impact of corruption index, education and social capital on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Požega, Željko; Crnković, Boris; Sučić, Goran

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the corruption index, educational index and index of social capital, compared to the degree of development of the world's countries. It is divided into three parts. The first part gives a brief theoretical review of the importance of different components of human capital on the personality and companies' business results, with additional analysis of influences (relevance factors) of each of the observed segments of human capital. In second part of the paper, the methodolog...