Sample records for network-aware overlay construction

  1. Improving concrete overlay construction. (United States)


    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  2. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng


    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  3. Construction and monitoring of thin overlay and crack sealant test sections at the Pecos test track. (United States)


    In this project, several crack sealant sections were constructed at the Pecos RTC. Six different sealants were : applied in routed and non-routed configurations on both older and newer pavement. The following summer, : the sections were revaluated in...

  4. Integrating network awareness in ATLAS distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Mckee, S; Nilsson, P; Petrosyan, A; Vukotic, I; Wenaus, T


    A crucial contributor to the success of the massively scaled global computing system that delivers the analysis needs of the LHC experiments is the networking infrastructure upon which the system is built. The experiments have been able to exploit excellent high-bandwidth networking in adapting their computing models for the most efficient utilization of resources. New advanced networking technologies now becoming available such as software defined networks hold the potential of further leveraging the network to optimize workflows and dataflows, through proactive control of the network fabric on the part of high level applications such as experiment workload management and data management systems. End to end monitoring of networking and data flow performance further allows applications to adapt based on real time conditions. We will describe efforts underway in ATLAS on integrating network awareness at the application level, particularly in workload management.

  5. Overlays for plain jointed concrete pavements (United States)

    Gulden, W.; Brown, D.


    This report describes the construction and performance of 4 concrete and 16 asphalt overlay test sections after nine years of traffic. The test sections were placed on I-85 which carries a substantial number of heavy trucks to determine what treatments and overlay type and thickness would give acceptable performance. The concrete overlay sections were placed in 1975 and consisted of 3 inch, 4 1/2 inch, and 6 inch CRC and 6 inch jointed PCC with 15 ft. and 30 ft. joint spacing. The asphalt sections were placed in 1976 with the variables being overlay thickness of 2 inches, 4 inches, and 6 inches and the placement of two geotextiles and strips of a waterproofing membrane for each overlay thickness. An Arkansas base test section was also included in the experiment.

  6. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  7. Overlay degradation induced by film stress (United States)

    Huang, Chi-hao; Liu, Yu-Lin; Luo, Shing-Ann; Yang, Mars; Yang, Elvis; Hung, Yung-Tai; Luoh, Tuung; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.


    The semiconductor industry has continually sought the approaches to produce memory devices with increased memory cells per memory die. One way to meet the increasing storage capacity demand and reduce bit cost of NAND flash memories is 3D stacked flash cell array. In constructing 3D NAND flash memories, increasing the number of stacked layers to build more memory cell number per unit area necessitates many high-aspect-ratio etching processes accordingly the incorporation of thick and unique etching hard-mask scheme has been indispensable. However, the ever increasingly thick requirement on etching hard-mask has made the hard-mask film stress control extremely important for maintaining good process qualities. The residual film stress alters the wafer shape consequently several process impacts have been readily observed across wafer, such as wafer chucking error on scanner, film peeling, materials coating and baking defects, critical dimension (CD) non-uniformity and overlay degradation. This work investigates the overlay and residual order performance indicator (ROPI) degradation coupling with increasingly thick advanced patterning film (APF) etching hard-mask. Various APF films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method under different deposition temperatures, chemicals combinations, radio frequency powers and chamber pressures were carried out. And -342MPa to +80MPa film stress with different film thicknesses were generated for the overlay performance study. The results revealed the overlay degradation doesn't directly correlate with convex or concave wafer shapes but the magnitude of residual APF film stress, while increasing the APF thickness will worsen the overlay performance and ROPI strongly. High-stress APF film was also observed to enhance the scanner chucking difference and lead to more serious wafer to wafer overlay variation. To reduce the overlay degradation from ever increasingly thick APF etching hard-mask, optimizing the

  8. Community overlays upon real-world complex networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, X.; Wang, H.


    Many networks are characterized by the presence of communities, densely intra-connected groups with sparser inter-connections between groups. We propose a community overlay network representation to capture large-scale properties of communities. A community overlay Go can be constructed upon a

  9. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictData not...

  10. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays (United States)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.


    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  11. Target noise in overlay metrology (United States)

    Seligson, Joel L.; Adel, Mike E.; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Yaffe, Dan


    We have developed a method for calculating the statistical effects of spatial noise on the overlay measurement extracted from a given overlay target. The method has been applied to two kinds of overlay targets on three process layers, and the new metric, Target Noise, has been shown to correlate well to the random component of Overlay Mark Fidelity. A significant difference in terms of robustness has been observed between AIM targets and conventional Frame-in-Frame targets. The results fit well into the spatial noise hierarchy presented in this paper.

  12. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu


    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  13. Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks (United States)

    Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

  14. Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology (United States)

    Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.


    For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

  15. A uniform instrumentation, event, and adaptation framework for network-aware middleware and advanced network applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)


    Developers of advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, distributed data management, tele-immersion and collaboration, and distributed computing face a daunting challenge: sustaining robust application performance despite time-varying resource demands and dynamically changing resource availability. It is widely recognized that network-aware middleware is key to achieving performance robustness.

  16. Improving concrete overlay construction : executive summary. (United States)


    As the US highway system ages and available funding diminishes, transportation agencies : are looking for effective methods for preserving and extending the life of existing : pavements. These agencies are also being encouraged to minimize constructi...

  17. Continued implementation of high performance thin overlays in Texas districts. (United States)


    As part of Research Project 0-5598, outputs include guidelines and specifications on how a district can design and construct long-life overlays using the concept of balanced mix design; and training materials describing the best ways to select, desig...

  18. Design of ultra high performance concrete as an overlay in pavements and bridge decks. (United States)


    The main objective of this research was to develop ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) as a reliable, economic, low carbon foot : print and durable concrete overlay material that can offer shorter traffic closures due to faster construction. The U...

  19. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  20. Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, By Ziad G


    Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements to improve the latter's performance, the impact of such a practice on the cracking of a potential HMA overlay has not been examined so far. In this context, this study investigates the effect of using skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements on reflective cracking development in the HMA overlay. Advanced three-dimensional Finite Element models including viscoelastic material properties for the HMA overlay, 3D beam modeling of dowel bars, non-uniform tire-pavement contact stresses, friction interfaces, and infinite boundary elements were constructed for both normal and skewed transverse joints using ABAQUS v-6.11. The potential ...

  1. VT Data - Scenic Overlay District 20110301, Winhall (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Scenic Restriction overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Conservation & Recreational...

  2. Integrating Network Awareness in ATLAS Distributed Computing Using the ANSE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Petrosyan, Artem; Batista, Jorge Horacio; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick


    A crucial contributor to the success of the massively scaled global computing system that delivers the analysis needs of the LHC experiments is the networking infrastructure upon which the system is built. The experiments have been able to exploit excellent high-bandwidth networking in adapting their computing models for the most efficient utilization of resources. New advanced networking technologies now becoming available such as software defined networking hold the potential of further leveraging the network to optimize workflows and dataflows, through proactive control of the network fabric on the part of high level applications such as experiment workload management and data management systems. End to end monitoring of networks using perfSONAR combined with data flow performance metrics further allows applications to adapt based on real time conditions. We will describe efforts underway in ATLAS on integrating network awareness at the application level, particularly in workload management, building upon ...

  3. A Network-Aware Distributed Storage Cache for Data Intensive Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, B.L.; Lee, J.R.; Johnston, W.E.; Crowley, B.; Holding, M.


    Modern scientific computing involves organizing, moving, visualizing, and analyzing massive amounts of data at multiple sites around the world. The technologies, the middleware services, and the architectures that are used to build useful high-speed, wide area distributed systems, constitute the field of data intensive computing. In this paper the authors describe an architecture for data intensive applications where they use a high-speed distributed data cache as a common element for all of the sources and sinks of data. This cache-based approach provides standard interfaces to a large, application-oriented, distributed, on-line, transient storage system. They describe their implementation of this cache, how they have made it network aware, and how they do dynamic load balancing based on the current network conditions. They also show large increases in application throughput by access to knowledge of the network conditions.

  4. Open Problems in Network-aware Data Management in Exa-scale Computing and Terabit Networking Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Byna, Surendra


    Accessing and managing large amounts of data is a great challenge in collaborative computing environments where resources and users are geographically distributed. Recent advances in network technology led to next-generation high-performance networks, allowing high-bandwidth connectivity. Efficient use of the network infrastructure is necessary in order to address the increasing data and compute requirements of large-scale applications. We discuss several open problems, evaluate emerging trends, and articulate our perspectives in network-aware data management.

  5. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael


    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  6. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.


    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  7. Exploring overlay journals: the RIOJA project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Researchers in cosmology and astrophysics depend on the arXiv repository for the registration and dissemination of their work, as well as for current awareness, yet they continue to submit papers to journals for review. Could rapid quality certification be overlaid directly onto the arXiv repository? This presentation introduces the RIOJA (Repository Interface to Overlaid Journal Archives) project, on which a group of cosmology researchers from the UK is working with UCL Library Services and Cornell University. The project is creating a tool to support the overlay of journals onto repositories, and will demonstrate a cosmology journal overlaid on top of arXiv. RIOJA will also work with the cosmology community to explore the social and economic aspects of journal overlay in this discipline: what other value, besides the quality stamp, does journal publication typically add? What are the costs of the ideal overlay journal for this community, and how could those costs be recovered? Would researchers real...

  8. DCM: device correlated metrology for overlay measurements (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei


    One of the main issues with overlay error metrology accuracy is the bias between results based on overlay (OVL) targets and actual device overlay error. In this study, we introduce the concept of Device Correlated Metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantifying and overcoming the bias between target-based overlay results and device overlay issues. For systematically quantifying the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking CD-SEM (Critical Dimension - Scanning Electron Microscope) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence found on the real device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between target and device on the same layer at AEI (After Etch Inspection) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and at ADI (After Develop Inspection) for limited cases such as DPL (Double Patterning Lithography). The results shown demonstrate that for the new process compatible hybrid targets the bias between target and device is small, of the order of CD-SEM measurement uncertainty. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation with optical OVL measurements in certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for imaging based OVL metrology methods using AIM or AIMid OVL targets, and scatterometry-based overlay methods such as SCOL (Scatterometry OVL). Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer's process conditions such as pattern density. We are also designing hybrid targets for memory devices.

  9. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian


    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  10. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.


    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  11. Cracking and debonding of a thin fiber reinforced concrete overlay. (United States)


    Previous field studies suggested that macro-fibers incorporated in thin overlay pavements will result in reduced crack opening widths, vertical deflections, and debonding rates compared to that of unreinforced overlays. A simple finite element (FE) m...

  12. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula


    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  13. CO Chemisorption at Metal Surfaces and Overlayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Morikawa, Y.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    A database of ab initio calculations of the chemisorption energy of CO over Ni(111), Cu(111), Ru(0001), Pd(111), Ag(111), Pt(111), Au(111), Cu3Pt(111), and some metallic overlayer structures is presented. The trends can be reproduced with a simple model describing the interaction between the meta...

  14. Overlay metrology tool calibration using blossom (United States)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Smith, Nigel P.; Dasari, Prasad


    As overlay budgets continue to shrink, there is an increasing need to more fully characterize the tools used to measure overlay. In a previous paper, it was shown how a single-layer Blossom overlay target could be utilized to measure aberrations across the field of view of an overlay tool in an efficient and low-cost manner. In this paper, we build upon this method, and discuss the results obtained, and experiences gained in applying this method to a fleet of currently operational overlay tools. In particular, the post-processing of the raw calibration data is discussed in detail, and a number of different approaches are considered. The quadrant-based and full-field based methods described previously are compared, along with a half-field method. In each case we examine a number of features, including the trade off between ease of use (including the total number of measurements required) versus sensitivity / potential signal to noise ratio. We also examine how some techniques are desensitized to specific types of tool or mark aberration, and suggest how to combine these with non-desensitized methods to quickly identify these anomalies. There are two distinct applications of these tool calibration methods. Firstly, they can be used as part of the tool build and qualification process, to provide absolute metrics of imaging quality. Secondly, they can be of significant assistance in diagnosing tool or metrology issues or providing preventative maintenance diagnostics, as (as shown previously) under normal operation the results show very high consistency, even compared to aggressive overlay requirements. Previous work assumed that the errors in calibration, from reticle creation through to the metrology itself, would be Gaussian in nature; in this paper we challenge that assumption, and examine a specific scenario that would lead to very non-Gaussian behavior. In the tool build / qualification application, most scenarios lead to a systematic trend being superimposed

  15. Experimental and numerical analyses of PCC overlays on PCC slabs-on-grade subjected to climatic loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim Nelson, Patricia


    ... of bonded Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays on PCC slabs-on-grade. Delamination is often due to an inadequacy in one (or more) pavement design variables: the pavement design, the Portland cement materials and mix design, the climatic conditions at the time of construction, and the methods of construction. This led the Federal Highway Ad...

  16. Resilient overlay design in DWDM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodi Cecilia


    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to design a minimum cost resilient overlay network, where a data network is on top of a transport network. Two major challenges are addressed. On one hand, a single failure in the transport network causes multiple simultaneous failures; on the other, the multicommodity flow must respect integrality. An integer programming formulation is presented to design an overlay, meeting the previous constraints. We prove the problem belongs to the class NP-Hard. Then, a decomposition approach is introduced, where the problem is solved in two steps by means of relaxations of the original formulation. Experiments carried out with real-life instances, coming from the Uruguayan telecommunication operator, show that the approach is competitive with respect to previous metaheuristics, to know, Tabu-Search (TS and Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS. A modest percentage of cost-reduction is achieved in some instances, which means millionaire savings in practice.

  17. ATLAS Pile-up and Overlay Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej; The ATLAS collaboration


    The high luminosity of the LHC results in a significant background to interesting physics events known as pile-up. ATLAS uses several methods for simulating the effects of pile-up. The mostly used method is a direct simulation of background events where multiple simulated background events are combined for each physics event. For some physics processes, a more accurate simulation can be achieved by overlaying real proton-proton collisions on a simulated hard-scatter process. Overlay is also being investigated for a premixed pile-up background to reduce CPU usage and I/O stress during the simulation. Embedding replaces the muons found in Z→mumu decays in data with simulated taus at the same 4-momenta, thus preserving the underlying event and pileup from the original data event. This talk compares the pile-up simulation methods used at the ATLAS experiment pointing their benefits and drawbacks.

  18. MIPv6 Experimental Evaluation using Overlay Networks


    Soto, Ignacio; Vidales, Pablo; Carlos J. Bernardos; Cottingham, David; Baliosian, Javier; Crowcroft, Jon


    The commercial deployment of Mobile IPv6 has been hastened by the concepts of Integrated Wireless Networks and Overlay Networks, which are present in the notion of the forthcoming generation of wireless communications. Individual wireless access networks show limitations that can be overcome through the integration of different technologies into a single unified platform (i.e., 4G systems). This paper summarises practical experiments performed to evaluate the impact of inter-ne...

  19. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama


    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in interference limited networks as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. In this paper, we implement the IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the primary network quality of service requirements. In particular, we consider full and partial channel knowledge scenarios and derive the feasibility conditions of operating the overlay cognitive radio systems. Moreover, we derive the superiority conditions of the IGS schemes over the PGS schemes supported with closed form expressions for the corresponding power distribution and the circularity coefficient and parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  20. Construction (United States)


    San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24

  1. Life extension of boilers using weld overlay protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, G.; Hulsizer, P. [Welding Services Inc., Norcross, GA (United States); Brooks, R. [Welding Services Inc., Welding Services Europe, Spijkenisse (Netherlands)


    The presentation describes the status of modern weld overlay technology for refurbishment, upgrading and life extension of boilers. The approaches to life extension of boilers include field overlay application, shop-fabricated panels for replacement of the worn, corroded waterwall and shop-fabricated overlay tubing for replacement of individual tubes in superheaters, generating banks and other areas. The characteristics of weld overlay products are briefly described. Also discussed are successful applications of various corrosion-resistant overlays for life extension of boiler tubes in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers and chemical recovery boilers. Types of corrosion and selection of weld overlay alloys in these systems are also discussed. (orig.) 14 refs.

  2. The hilum overlay sign in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Van Wyk


    Full Text Available A 9-month-old girl presented with a 1-month history of coughing. A chest X-ray (CXR was performed, and the antero-posterior view demonstrated the hilum overlay sign. Furthermore, there was absence of the azygo-oesophageal line and bilateral paraspinal lines. The lateral CXR revealed a posterior mediastinal mass. Subsequently, a computed tomogram of the chest confirmed a posterior mediastinal mass, with calcifications and intraspinal extension consistent with neuroblastoma. Histological analysis confirmed this mass as a neuroblastoma.

  3. Overlay performance with advanced ATHENA trademark alignment strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Huijbregtse, Jeroen; Jeunink, Andre; Megens, Henry; Navarro, Ramon; Simons, Geert; Swinnen, Bart; Tolsma, Hoite; Van Bilsen, Frank; Van Haren, Richard


    The introduction of the ATHENA**T**M alignment sensor has made advanced applications of the sensor data increasingly important to meet the tightening overlay specifications for future technology nodes. As part of the total overlay budget, the effects of different alignment strategies on overlay performance need to be investigated. Keeping in mind that such strategies are simple and easy to use, two developments are addressed: advanced alignment recipes and advanced mark designs. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  4. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  5. The Impacts of Network Centrality and Self-Regulation on an E-Learning Environment with the Support of Social Network Awareness (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Chuang, Yuh-Shy


    An e-learning environment that supports social network awareness (SNA) is a highly effective means of increasing peer interaction and assisting student learning by raising awareness of social and learning contexts of peers. Network centrality profoundly impacts student learning in an SNA-related e-learning environment. Additionally,…

  6. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.


    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  7. Journal maps, interactive overlays, and the measurement of interdisciplinarity on the basis of Scopus data (1996-2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; Guerrero-Bote, V.P.


    Using Scopus data, we construct a global map of science based on aggregated journal-journal citations from 1996-2012 (N of journals = 20,554). This base map enables users to overlay downloads from Scopus interactively. Using a single year (e.g., 2012), results can be compared with mappings based on

  8. Multi-level Reconfigurable Self-organization in Overlay Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.


    Large-scale decentralized systems organized in overlay networks are complex to manage. Such systems integrate organizational complexity in the application-level resulting in low abstraction and modularity in their services. This thesis introduces a multi-level conceptual architecture for overlay

  9. Finite elements simulation of reflective cracking in asphaltic overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpas, A.; De Bondt, A.H.

    Overlaying is one of the most popular and cost effective techniques of rehabilitation of cracked pavements. The placing of reinforcement between the overlay and the top layer of the cracked pavement is currently being utilised as a possible technique for delaying the development of cracks into the

  10. Finite elements simulation of reflective cracking in asphaltic overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpas, A.; De Bondt, A.H.


    Overlaying is one of the most popular and cost effective techniques of rehabilitation of cracked pavements. The placing of reinforcement between the overlay and the top layer of the cracked pavement is currently being utilised as a possible technique for delaying the development of cracks into the

  11. Strategic intelligence on emerging technologies: Scientometric overlay mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.M.; Leydesdorff, L.

    This paper examines the use of scientometric overlay mapping as a tool of “strategic intelligence” to aid the governing of emerging technologies. We develop an integrative synthesis of different overlay mapping techniques and associated perspectives on technological emergence across geographical,

  12. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald


    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  13. Capacity of Intelligent Underlay and Overlay Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Yim; Elling, Jan; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard


    This paper suggests a method of dimensioning the cell configuration of radio sites in a cellular network using the intelligent overlay and underlay (IOU) technique. The traffic capacity has been analysed by means of a teletraffic model, which is developed based on the classical theory of overflow...... traffic. The formulas of the model have been implemented with the use of MatLab. To verify the model, measurement methods have been developed to collect the teletraffic information in a real-live GSM network. The measured data indicates that the teletraffic model describes the capacity with high accuracy...... and therefore can be used to dimension the network. The model shows that the increase of capacity for a GSM network with 34 frequencies is about 30%. Further capacity enhancement can be achieved by intelligent frequency planning method which is currently being developed...

  14. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  15. A Secure and Stable Multicast Overlay Network with Load Balancing for Scalable IPTV Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsao-Ta Wei


    Full Text Available The emerging multimedia Internet application IPTV over P2P network preserves significant advantages in scalability. IPTV media content delivered in P2P networks over public Internet still preserves the issues of privacy and intellectual property rights. In this paper, we use SIP protocol to construct a secure application-layer multicast overlay network for IPTV, called SIPTVMON. SIPTVMON can secure all the IPTV media delivery paths against eavesdroppers via elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH key exchange on SIP signaling and AES encryption. Its load-balancing overlay tree is also optimized from peer heterogeneity and churn of peer joining and leaving to minimize both service degradation and latency. The performance results from large-scale simulations and experiments on different optimization criteria demonstrate SIPTVMON's cost effectiveness in quality of privacy protection, stability from user churn, and good perceptual quality of objective PSNR values for scalable IPTV services over Internet.

  16. Solidification paths in modified Inconel 625 weld overlay material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John


    Inconel 625 is commonly used for overlay welding to protect the base metal against high temperature corrosion. The efficiency of corrosion protection depends on effective mixing of the overlay weld with the base metal and the subsequent segregation of alloy elements during solidification......, focus is put on how the composition of the dendrite core is affected by modifications to the alloy. It has previously been shown that when the overlay material corrodes, the corrosion take place in the dendrite core. Therefore, the discussion will be directed towards explaining the extent to which...

  17. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  18. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu


    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  19. nowCOAST's Map Service for Political Map Overlays (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST map service provides map overlays depicting the boundaries of U.S. states, territories, counties and townships/county subdivisions,...

  20. Tests of HMA overlays using geosynthetics to reduce reflection cracking. (United States)


    The primary objective of this field phase of the research project was to evaluate geosynthetic : products placed under or within hot mix asphalt overlays to reduce the severity or delay the appearance of : reflection cracks and to calibrate and valid...

  1. An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing (United States)


    throughput optimal routing policy that has been studied for decades. Its strength lies in discovering multipath routes and utilizing them optimally... computing differential backlogs across the overlay edges, e.g. node 2 computes W 62,5 = Q 6 2 − Q 6 5 and W 6 2,6 = Q 6 2 − Q 6 6. Simulation results in...require the threshold computation and associated knowledge of the underlay topology. Overlay Backpressure (OBP): Redefine the differential backlog as, W

  2. Robust overlay metrology with differential Mueller matrix calculus. (United States)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Gu, Honggang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan


    Overlay control is of vital importance to good device performances in semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, the differential Mueller matrix calculus is introduced to investigate the Mueller matrices of double-patterned gratings with overlay displacements, which helps to reveal six elementary optical properties hidden in the Mueller matrices. We find and demonstrate that, among these six elementary optical properties, the linear birefringence and dichroism, LB' and LD', along the ± 45° axes show a linear response to the overlay displacement and are zero when the overlay displacement is absent at any conical mounting. Although the elements from the two 2 × 2 off-diagonal blocks of the Mueller matrix have a similar property to LB' and LD', as reported in the literature, we demonstrate that it is only valid at a special conical mounting with the plane of incidence parallel to grating lines. The better property of LB' and LD' than the Mueller matrix elements of the off-diagonal blocks in the presence of overlay displacement verifies them to be a more robust indicator for the diffraction-based overlay metrology.

  3. Device-correlated metrology for overlay measurements (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei


    One of the main issues with accuracy is the bias between the overlay (OVL) target and actual device OVL. In this study, we introduce the concept of device-correlated metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantify and overcome the bias between target-based OVL results and device OVL values. In order to systematically quantify the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence on the actual device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between the target and device on the same layer after etch inspection (AEI) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and after develop inspection for limited cases such as double-patterning layers. The results have shown that for the innovative process compatible hybrid targets the bias between the target and device is small, within the order of CD-SEM noise. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation between CD-SEM and optical OVL measurements at certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for the imaging base OVL method using several target types advance imaging metrology, advance imaging metrology in die OVL, and the scatterometrybase OVL method. Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer process conditions such as pattern density. Additionally, for memory devices we are developing hybrid targets which enable other methods of accuracy verification.

  4. Overlay of conventional angiographic and en-face OCT images enhances their interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pool Chris W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining characteristic morphological and functional information in one image increases pathophysiologic understanding as well as diagnostic accuracy in most clinical settings. En-face optical coherence tomography (OCT provides a high resolution, transversal OCT image of the macular area combined with a confocal image of the same area (OCT C-scans. Creating an overlay image of a conventional angiographic image onto an OCT image, using the confocal part to facilitate transformation, combines structural and functional information of the retinal area of interest. This paper describes the construction of such overlay images and their aid in improving the interpretation of OCT C-scans. Methods In various patients, en-face OCT C-scans (made with a prototype OCT-Ophthalmoscope (OTI, Canada in use at the Department of Ophthalmology (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA were performed. ImagePro, with a custom made plug-in, was used to make an overlay-image. The confocal part of the OCT C-scan was used to spatially transform the FA image onto the OCT C-scan, using the vascular arcades as a reference. To facilitate visualization the transformed angiographic image and the OCT C-scan were combined in an RGB image. Results The confocal part of the OCT C-scan could easily be fused with angiographic images. Overlay showed a direct correspondence between retinal thickening and FA leakage in Birdshot retinochoroiditis, localized the subretinal neovascular membrane and correlated anatomic and vascular leakage features in myopia, and showed the extent of retinal and pigment epithelial detachment in retinal angiomatous proliferation as FA leakage was subject to blocked fluorescence. The overlay mode provided additional insight not readily available in either mode alone. Conclusion Combining conventional angiographic images and en-face OCT C-scans assists in the interpretation of both

  5. Distributed Overlay Anycast Table using Space filling curves


    Mykoniati, Eleni; Latif, Laurence; Landa, Raul; Yang, Ben; Clegg, Richard G.; Griffin, David; Rio, Miguel


    In this paper we present the \\emph{Distributed Overlay Anycast Table}, a structured overlay that implements application-layer anycast, allowing the discovery of the closest host that is a member of a given group. One application is in locality-aware peer-to-peer networks, where peers need to discover low-latency peers participating in the distribution of a particular file or stream. The DOAT makes use of network delay coordinates and a space filling curve to achieve locality-aware routing acr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha SHARMA


    Full Text Available Patients with ectodermal dysplasia or having under‑ gone cleft surgery with anodontia or hypodontia, hypo‑ plastic conical teeth and patients with severely worn dentition are difficult to treat because of the poor remaining tooth structure. These patients often exhibit loss of vertical dimension of occlusion and aesthetic problems and usually need complex prosthetic treatments. Financial constraints or other priorities often restrict one from choosing the most desirable treatment. The overlay removable denture is a covering prosthesis partially supported by natural teeth, tooth roots, or dental implants, providing an efficient alter‑ native of treatment. Clinical reports describe the various applications of overlay dentures.

  7. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shack, W.J.


    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.


    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology

  9. Visualization of Disciplinary Profiles: Enhanced Science Overlay Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carley


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps. Design/methodology/approach: We use the combined set of 2015 Journal Citation Reports for the Science Citation Index (n of journals = 8,778 and the Social Sciences Citation Index (n = 3,212 for a total of 11,365 journals. The set of Web of Science Categories in the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index increased from 224 in 2010 to 227 in 2015. Using dedicated software, a matrix of 227 × 227 cells is generated on the basis of whole-number citation counting. We normalize this matrix using the cosine function. We first develop the citing-side, cosine-normalized map using 2015 data and VOSviewer visualization with default parameter values. A routine for making overlays on the basis of the map (“wc15.exe” is available at Findings: Findings appear in the form of visuals throughout the manuscript. In Figures 1–9 we provide basemaps of science and science overlay maps for a number of companies, universities, and technologies. Research limitations: As Web of Science Categories change and/or are updated so is the need to update the routine we provide. Also, to apply the routine we provide users need access to the Web of Science. Practical implications: Visualization of science overlay maps is now more accurate and true to the 2015 Journal Citation Reports than was the case with the previous version of the routine advanced in our paper. Originality/value: The routine we advance allows users to visualize science overlay maps in VOSviewer using data from more recent Journal Citation Reports.

  10. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan


    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  11. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kissel, Ezra [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Swany, D. Martin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  12. Complexity Leadership Theory: A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay (United States)


    the concept of the Young Turks became an important and frequently replicated, informal small innovation group in the Marine Corps. In another...globalized environment, leading transformational innovation has become more complex and dynamic. Complexity Leadership Theory (CLT) attempts to reconcile...information age organizations. This monograph overlays CLT on two periods of significant warfare innovation in the Marine Corps to evaluate the role of

  13. Perceived effects of coloured overlays on reading material in persons with albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Makgaba


    Full Text Available Persons with albinism often complain of glare when reading. They may therefore benefit from coloured filter overlays just as they benefit from tinted lenses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectof coloured overlays on print perception in persons with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA.   Fifty subjects were included in this study, their ages ranged from 12 to 31 years with a mean of 16.12 years (SD = ± 4.56 years.  Following refraction and subsequent compensation for refractive errors, subjective perception of print was examined with the subject looking at the Wilkins® reading rate test chart with and without colored filter overlay/s.  The subjects were asked to respond to questions previously used in a questionnaire by Wilkins (2001. The percentage frequencies of positive (beneficial responses were used to decide whether or not a particular overlay would enhance reading performance.  McNemar’s test was used to establish significant differences between responses to questions without and with overlays. All single overlays gave greater percentages of positive responses (92.0-97.2% than without overlay (85.2%.  The single overlay that provided the highest positive responses was blue (97.2% and the least was purple (92.0%. All double overlays, except grey/grey (82.0% gave greater positive responses than without overlay (85.2%. Aqua/blue gave the greatest positive responses (possible benefits (97.2%, followed by rose/rose (96.8%.  Comparing the responses without overlay with single and double overlays, the difference in responses to the five questions was only significant (p < 0.05 with regard to brightness of the surface. The results suggest that overlays provided a more glare-free reading surface than without an overlay. It was, therefore concluded that the best advantage of the coloured overlays was in glare reduction.  Although this study showed that there were more subjects who preferred single blue and aqua/blue double

  14. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay. (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I


    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. The Development of An Analytical Overlay Design Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaedi Kosasih


    Full Text Available Pavement structural evaluation using pavement modulus values resulting from back calculation process on non-destructive deflection data has been adopted to quantify objectively the conditions of existing pavements under various traffic loading and environmental conditions. However, such an advanced technique is not yet followed widely by advances in analytical overlay design procedures. One possible reason is perhaps due to its requirement to perform complex computations. A new module of computer program BackCalc has been developed to do that task based on the allowable maximum deflection criterion specified by the Asphalt Institute’83. The rationale is that adequate overlay thickness will be computed by iteration to result in theoretical maximum deflection that closely matches against the specified allowable maximum deflection. This paper outlines the major components of the program module illustrated by using a practical example. The overlay thickness obtained was found to be comparable with that of the known AASHTO’93 method

  16. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers (United States)

    Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.


    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

  17. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad


    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Using overlay network architectures for scalable video distribution (United States)

    Patrikakis, Charalampos Z.; Despotopoulos, Yannis; Fafali, Paraskevi; Cha, Jihun; Kim, Kyuheon


    Within the last years, the enormous growth of Internet based communication as well as the rapid increase of available processing power has lead to the widespread use of multimedia streaming as a means to convey information. This work aims at providing an open architecture designed to support scalable streaming to a large number of clients using application layer multicast. The architecture is based on media relay nodes that can be deployed transparently to any existing media distribution scheme, which can support media streamed using the RTP and RTSP protocols. The architecture is based on overlay networks at application level, featuring rate adaptation mechanisms for responding to network congestion.

  19. Examination of overlay pipe weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.Y.; Kupperman, D.S.; Shack, W.J.


    Laboratory ultrasonic examination (UT), dye penetrant examination (PT), metallography, and sensitization measurements were performed on Type 304 stainless steel overlay pipe weldments from the Hatch-2 BWR to determine the effectiveness of UT through overlays and the effects of the overlays on crack propagation in the weldments. Little correlation was observed between the results of earlier in-service ultrasonic inspection and the results of PT and destructive examination. Considerable difficulty was encountered in correctly detecting the presence of cracks by UT in the laboratory. Blunting of the crack tip by the weld overlay was observed, but there was no evidence of tearing or throughwall extension of the crack beyond the blunted region.

  20. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, Ron A.


    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  1. Trends in Development of Weld Overlaying During The 21ST Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolov Mitko


    Full Text Available The present article discusses the trends in the development of welding and weld overlaying on the threshold of the new millennium and during it. It presents the trends in the production of welding materials for welding and weld overlaying in industrially developed and developing countries. The structure of welding methods is also shown, giving priority to its development until 2020.

  2. The use of fiber reinforcement in latex modified concrete overlay : final report. (United States)


    The requirement to quickly reopen highways in North Carolina has motivated the increased use of rapid-setting concrete in overlays. The addition of polymer latex to the material has been used to increase the service life of the overlays. The latex mo...

  3. Strain Response of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays for Bottom-Up Reflective Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, Ziad G


    This paper examines the strain response of typical HMA overlays above jointed PCC slabs prone to bottom-up reflective cracking. The occurrence of reflective cracking under the combined effect of traffic and environmental loading significantly reduces the design life of the HMA overlays and can lead to its premature failure. In this context, viscoelastic material properties combined with cyclic vehicle loadings and pavement temperature distribution were implemented in a series of FE models in order to study the evolution of horizontal tensile and shear strains at the bottom of the HMA overlay. The effect of several design parameters, such as subbase and subgrade moduli, vehicle speed, overlay thickness, and temperature condition, on the horizontal and shear strain response was investigated. Results obtained show that the rate of horizontal and shear strain increase at the bottom of the HMA overlay drop with higher vehicle speed, higher subgrade modulus, and higher subbase modulus. Moreover, the rate of horizon...

  4. Axial compression behavior of concrete masonry wallettes strengthened with cement mortar overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. De Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a series of axial compression tests on concrete block wallettes coated with cement mortar overlays. Different types of mortars and combinations with steel welded meshes and fibers were tested. The experimental results were discussed based on different theoretical approaches: analytical and Finite Element Method models. The main conclusions are: a the application of mortar overlays increases the wall strength, but not in a uniform manner; b the strengthening efficiency of wallettes loaded in axial compression is not proportional to the overlay mortar strength because it can be affected by the failure mechanisms of the wall; c steel mesh reinforced overlays in combination with high strength mortar show better efficiency, because the steel mesh mitigates the damage effects in the block wall and in the overlays themselves; d simplified theoretical methods of analysis as described in this paper can give satisfactory predictions of masonry wall behavior up to a certain level.

  5. Hybrid image potential states in molecular overlayers on graphene (United States)

    Wella, Sasfan Arman; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Nana; Muttaqien, Fahdzi; Inagaki, Kouji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hamamoto, Yuji


    The structural and electronic properties of naphthalene adsorbed on graphene are studied from first principles using the van der Waals density functional method. It is shown that naphthalene molecules are stabilized by forming a superstructure with the periodicity of (2 √{3 }×2 √{3 }) and a tilted molecular adsorption geometry on graphene, in good agreement with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Our results predict that image potential states (IPSs) are induced by intermolecular interaction on the naphthalene overlayer, hybridizing with the IPSs derived from graphene. The resultant hybrid IPSs are characterized by anisotropic effective mass reflecting the molecular structure of naphthalene. By means of STM simulations, we reveal that one of the hybrid IPSs manifests itself as an oval protrusion distinguishable from naphthalene molecular orbitals, which identifies the origin of an experimental STM image previously attributed to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of naphthalene.

  6. Low-energy photoelectron transmission through aerosol overlayers (United States)

    Amanatidis, Stavros; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth


    The transmission of low-energy (squalane, squalene, and di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacate shells. The photoelectrons are exclusively formed in the core of the particles by two-photon ionization. The total photoelectron yield recorded as a function of shell thicknesses (1-80 nm) shows a bi-exponential attenuation. For all substances, the damping parameter for shell thicknesses below 15 nm lies around 8 to 9 nm and is tentatively assigned to the electron attenuation length at electron kinetic energies of ≲1 eV. The significantly larger damping parameters for thick shells (>20 nm) are presumably a consequence of distorted core-shell structures. A first comparison of aerosol and traditional thin film overlayer methods is provided.

  7. Overlay cognitive radio systems with adaptive two-way relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal


    In this paper, we propose a spectrum sharing mechanism with a two-phase two-way relaying protocol for an overlay cognitive network. The system comprises two primary users (PUs) and two secondary users (SUs). One of the SUs acts as a relay for the PUs and gains spectrum sharing as long as he respects outage probability constraints of the primary system. Moreover, we consider that the relaying node performs an optimal power allocation scheme that minimizes the outage performance of the secondary receiver. Closed form expressions for the outage probability are derived for the cases of Decode-and-Forward (DF), Amplify-and-Forward (AF), and adaptive relaying. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Application of DBM system to overlay verification and wiggling quantification for advanced process (United States)

    Lee, Taehyeong; Kim, Jungchan; Yoo, Gyun; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Byoungjun; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    With the shrinkage of semiconductor device scales, advanced semiconductor industries face tremendous challenges in process control. As lithography and etch processes are pushed to get smaller dimensions, the overlay and wiggling control are hot issues due to the limiting of pattern performance. Many chip makers are using Double Patterning Technology (DPT) process to overcome design rule limitations but they are also concerned about overlay control. In DPT process, obtaining accurate overlay data by measuring overlay marks with traditional metrology is difficult because of the difference of shape and position between cell pattern and overlay marks. Cell to overlay mark miss-match will occur when there is lens aberration or mask registration error. Therefore, the best way to obtain accurate overlay data without error is to measure the real cell itself. The overlay of the cell array using DPT process can be measured by analyzing the relative position of the 2nd exposed pattern to the 1st exposed pattern. But it is not easy to clearly distinguish a 1st layer and 2nd layer in a patterned cell array image using CD SEM. The Design Based Metrology (DBM)-system can help identify which cell pattern is a 1st or 2nd layer, so overlay error between the 1st and 2nd layers at DPT process can be checked clearly. Another noticeable problem in advanced processing is wiggling. The wiggling of a pattern become severe by the etch process and must be controlled to meet electrical characteristics of what the semiconductor device requires. The 1st stage of wiggling control is to understand the level of wiggling which is crucial to device performance. The DBM-system also can be used for quantification of wiggling by determining specially designed parameters. In this paper we introduce overlay verification and wiggling quantification through new methodology for advanced memory devices.

  9. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition. (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O


    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The concept of 'overlay' in relation to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)


    Enger, Magnus


    The evolution of scholarly documentation is discussed in light of the theory of the "ecology of documentation". The OAI-PMH is presented, and a survey of features found in existing service providers/overlays is presented. A prototype overlay incorporating features of wikis and "tagging" is presented along with some thoughts on how overlays may evolve and differentiate in the future.

  11. The performances of different overlay mark types at 65nm node on 300-mm wafers (United States)

    Tseng, H. T.; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Huang, I. H.; Lin, Benjamin S.; Huang, Chin-Chou K.; Huang, Chien-Jen


    The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing factories have measured overlay with conventional "box-in-box" (BiB) or "frame-in-frame" (FiF) structures for many years. Since UMC played as a roll of world class IC foundry service provider, tighter and tighter alignment accuracy specs need to be achieved from generation to generation to meet any kind of customers' requirement, especially according to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2003 METROLOGY section1. The process noises resulting from dishing, overlay mark damaging by chemical mechanism polishing (CMP), and the variation of film thickness during deposition are factors which can be very problematic in mark alignment. For example, the conventional "box-in-box" overlay marks could be damaged easily by CMP, because the less local pattern density and wide feature width of the box induce either dishing or asymmetric damages for the measurement targets, which will make the overlay measurement varied and difficult. After Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) overlay targets was introduced by KLA-Tencor, studies in the past shown AIM was more robust in overlay metrology than conventional FiF or BiB targets. In this study, the applications of AIM overlay marks under different process conditions will be discussed and compared with the conventional overlay targets. To evaluate the overlay mark performance against process variation on 65nm technology node in 300-mm wafer, three critical layers were chosen in this study. These three layers were Poly, Contact, and Cu-Metal. The overlay targets used for performance comparison were BiB and Non-Segmented AIM (NS AIM) marks. We compared the overlay mark performance on two main areas. The first one was total measurement uncertainty (TMU)3 related items that include Tool Induced Shift (TIS) variability, precision, and matching. The other area is the target robustness against process variations. Based on the present study AIM mark demonstrated an equal or better

  12. Overlay performance assessment of MAPPER's FLX-1200 (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lattard, Ludovic; Servin, Isabelle; Pradelles, Jonathan; Blancquaert, Yoann; Rademaker, Guido; Pain, Laurent; de Boer, Guido; Brandt, Pieter; Dansberg, Michel; Jager, Remco J. A.; Peijster, Jerry J. M.; Slot, Erwin; Steenbrink, Stijn W. H. K.; Vergeer, Niels; Wieland, Marco


    Mapper Lithography has introduced its first product, the FLX-1200, which is installed at CEA-Leti in Grenoble (France). This is a mask less lithography system, based on massively parallel electron-beam writing with high-speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. This FLX platform is initially targeted for 1 wph performance for 28 nm technology nodes, but can also be used for less demanding imaging. The electron source currently integrated is capable of scaling to 10 wph at the same resolution performance, which will be implemented by gradually upgrading the illumination optics. The system has an optical alignment system enabling mix-and-match with optical 193 nm immersion systems using standard NVSM marks. The tool at CEA-Leti is in-line with a Sokudo Duo clean track. Mapper Lithography and CEA-Leti are working in collaboration to develop turnkey solution for specific applications. At previous conferences we have presented imaging results including 28nm node resolution, cross wafer CDu of 2.5nm 3 and a throughput of half a wafer per hour, overhead times included. At this conference we will present results regarding the overlay performance of the FLX-1200. In figure 2 an initial result towards measuring the overlay performance of the FLX-1200 is shown. We have exposed a wafer twice without unloading the wafer in between exposures. In the first exposure half of a dense dot array is exposed. In the second exposure the remainder of the dense dot array is exposed. After development the wafer has been inspected using a CD-SEM at 480 locations distributed over an area of 100mm x 100mm. For each SEM image the shift of the pattern written in the first exposure relative to the pattern written in the second exposure is measured. Cross wafer this shift is 7 nm u+3s in X and 5 nm u+3s in Y. The next step is to evaluate the impact of unloading and loading of the wafer in between exposures. At the conference the latest results will be presented.

  13. Visual Overlay on OpenStreetMap Data to Support Spatial Exploration of Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar


    Full Text Available Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM. Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision support. We believe that the VGI data of the urban environment could be used to present a constructive overview of the regional infrastructure with the advent of web technologies. Current location-based services provide general map-based information for the end users with conventional local search functionality, and hence, the presentation of the rich urban information is limited. In this work, we analyze the OSM data to classify the geo entities into consequential categories with facilities, landscape and land use distribution. We employ a visual overlay of heat map and interactive visualizations to present the regional characterization on OSM data classification. In the proposed interface, users are allowed to express a variety of spatial queries to exemplify their geographic interests. They can compare the characterization of urban areas with respect to multiple spatial dimensions of interest and can search for the most suitable region. The search experience is further enhanced via efficient optimization and interaction methods to support the decision making of end users. We report the end user acceptability and efficiency of the proposed system via usability studies and performance analysis comparison.

  14. Asphalt Concrete Overlay Optimization Based on Pavement Performance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj


    Full Text Available The life cycle length of pavement with asphalt concrete material (ACM surfacing is significantly influenced, in addition to transport loading and climatic conditions, by design method and rehabilitation timing. Appropriate overlay thickness calculation and estimation of optimal rehabilitation time are crucial to maximizing life cycle length and, concurrently, reducing road administration costs and road user costs. This article describes a comprehensive method of ACM rehabilitation design. For optimization of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA based design, mathematical analytical solution in combination with experimental verification of physical, mechanical, and fatigue characteristics is utilized. Pavement performance, that is, functions mathematically describing pavement’s degradation characteristics of operational capability, is represented by longitudinal and transverse unevenness; these are used to describe relations between traffic loading and pavement’s bearing capacity on 1 : 1 scale. Optimizing of rehabilitation plan is carried out by making a cost benefit analysis (CBA for several rehabilitation scenarios in which different rehabilitation timing produces different capital cost requirements and social benefits. Rehabilitation scenarios differ in technology, the design of which needs to be mathematically optimized, and timing of rehabilitation execution. This article includes a case study for the sake of illustration of practical results and verification of applicability of used methodology.

  15. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures. (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya


    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  16. The Effect of Colored Overlays on Reading Fluency in Individuals with Dyslexia. (United States)

    Denton, Tiffany Freeze; Meindl, James N


    Colored overlays, one type of tinted filter, are plastic reading sheets tinted with color and placed over text to eliminate or alleviate a wide range of reading difficulties such as low reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension. The effects of colored overlays on reading problems associated with dyslexia were investigated in this study via a multielement design. Reading fluency was assessed when participants read with and without colored overlays. Undifferentiated responding, or decreased accuracy, resulted across three participants, suggesting that colored overlays were ineffective and potentially detrimental to participants' reading abilities. As a result, empirically validated reading techniques were implemented across individuals. These findings are discussed and recommendations are made in regards to the use of research-based reading interventions.

  17. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : calibration plans for M-E models and related software. (United States)


    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate m...

  18. Cracking and debonding of a thin fiber reinforced concrete overlay : research brief. (United States)


    Experimental tests found that the tensile interfacial energy : increased with fiber-reinforcement. Also bond tests indicated : that interfacial fracture occurred through the overlay mixture and : was proportional to the number of fibers which interse...

  19. Evaluation of a thin-bonded Portland cement concrete pavement overlay. (United States)


    This report discusses the performance of the Virginia Department of Transportation's first modern rehabilitation project involving a thin-bonded portland cement concrete overlay of an existing jointed concrete pavement. The performance of the rigid o...

  20. Use of infrared thermography to detect thermal segregation in asphalt overlay and reflective cracking potential. (United States)


    The objectives of this study were to assess whether temperature differentials measured using Infrared : Thermography (IRT) occur in an overlay built on top of discontinuities such as joints and cracks and to : study the horizontal and vertical therma...

  1. ViTexOCR; a script to extract text overlays from digital video (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ViTexOCR script presents a new method for extracting navigation data from videos with text overlays using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Over the...

  2. Effect of SiO2 Overlayer on WO3 Sensitivity to Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Srivastava


    Full Text Available Ammonia gas sensing properties of tungsten trioxide thick film sensor was investigated. The doping of noble catalysts such as Pt, Pd, Au enhanced the gas sensitivity. Platinum doping was found to result in highest sensitivity. Remarkable sensitivity enhancement was realized by coating WO3 thick film sensors with SiO2 overlayer. Sol gel process derived silica overlayer increased ammonia gas sensitivity for doped as well as undoped sensor.

  3. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern. (United States)

    Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng


    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Reducing the overlay metrology sensitivity to perturbations of the measurement stack (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Park, DeNeil; Gutjahr, Karsten; Gottipati, Abhishek; Vuong, Tam; Bae, Sung Yong; Stokes, Nicholas; Jiang, Aiqin; Hsu, Po Ya; O'Mahony, Mark; Donini, Andrea; Visser, Bart; de Ruiter, Chris; Grzela, Grzegorz; van der Laan, Hans; Jak, Martin; Izikson, Pavel; Morgan, Stephen


    Overlay metrology setup today faces a continuously changing landscape of process steps. During Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology setup, many different metrology target designs are evaluated in order to cover the full process window. The standard method for overlay metrology setup consists of single-wafer optimization in which the performance of all available metrology targets is evaluated. Without the availability of external reference data or multiwafer measurements it is hard to predict the metrology accuracy and robustness against process variations which naturally occur from wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot. In this paper, the capabilities of the Holistic Metrology Qualification (HMQ) setup flow are outlined, in particular with respect to overlay metrology accuracy and process robustness. The significance of robustness and its impact on overlay measurements is discussed using multiple examples. Measurement differences caused by slight stack variations across the target area, called grating imbalance, are shown to cause significant errors in the overlay calculation in case the recipe and target have not been selected properly. To this point, an overlay sensitivity check on perturbations of the measurement stack is presented for improvement of the overlay metrology setup flow. An extensive analysis on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) from HMQ recipe optimization is performed on µDBO measurements of product wafers. The key parameters describing the sensitivity to perturbations of the measurement stack are based on an intra-target analysis. Using advanced image analysis, which is only possible for image plane detection of μDBO instead of pupil plane detection of DBO, the process robustness performance of a recipe can be determined. Intra-target analysis can be applied for a wide range of applications, independent of layers and devices.

  5. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs, i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs and compensation VMs (CVMs. MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD, and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast. The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  6. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins. (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne


    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  7. Evaluation of Tizian overlays by means of a swept source optical coherence tomography system (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.


    The teeth affected by pathologic attrition can be restored by a minimally invasive approach, using Tizian overlays. In this study we prove the advantages of a fast swept source (SS) OCT system in the evaluation of Tizian overlays placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces. 12 maxillary first premolars were extracted and prepared for overlays. The Tizian overlays were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling (from -10°C to +50°C) and to mechanical occlusal overloads (at 800 N). A fast SS OCT system was used to evaluate the Tizian overlays before and after the mechanical and thermal straining. The SS (Axsun Technologies, Billerica, MA) has a central wavelength of 1060 nm, sweeping range of 106 nm (quoted at 10 dB) and a 100 kHz line rate. The depth resolution of the system, measured experimentally in air was 10 μm. The imaging system used for this study offers high spatial resolutions in both directions, transversal and longitudinal of around 10 μm, a high sensitivity, and it is also able to acquire entire tridimensional (3D)/volume reconstructions as fast as 2.5 s. Once the full dataset was acquired, rendered high resolutions en-face projections could be produced. Using them, the overlay (i.e., cement) abutment tooth interfaces were remarked both on B-scans/two-dimensional (2D) sections and in the 3D reconstructions. Using the system several open interfaces were possible to detect. The fast SS OCT system thus proves useful in the evaluation of zirconia reinforced composite overlays, placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces.

  8. A comparative study of three commonly used two-dimensional overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis


    Pajnigara, Nilufer Gev; Balpande, Apeksha S; Motwani, Mukta B; Choudhary, Anuraag; Thakur, Samantha; Pajnigara, Natasha G


    Aim: The present study attempts to compare the bite mark overlays generated by three different methods. The objectives of the study were to compare the three commonly used techniques for overlay generation and to evaluate the interobserver reliability in assessing bite marks by these methods. Materials and Methods: Overlays were produced from the biting surfaces of six upper and six lower anterior teeth of 30 dental study models using the following three methods: (a) Hand tracing from wax imp...

  9. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers (United States)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung


    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the

  10. Overlay control methodology comparison: field-by-field and high-order methods (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Healthy; Choi, DongSub; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.


    Overlay control in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing is becoming one of the leading lithographic challenges in the 3x and 2x nm process nodes. Production overlay control can no longer meet the stringent emerging requirements based on linear composite wafer and field models with sampling of 10 to 20 fields and 4 to 5 sites per field, which was the industry standard for many years. Methods that have emerged include overlay metrology in many or all fields, including the high order field model method called high order control (HOC), and field by field control (FxFc) methods also called correction per exposure. The HOC and FxFc methods were initially introduced as relatively infrequent scanner qualification activities meant to supplement linear production schemes. More recently, however, it is clear that production control is also requiring intense sampling, similar high order and FxFc methods. The added control benefits of high order and FxFc overlay methods need to be balanced with the increased metrology requirements, however, without putting material at risk. Of critical importance is the proper control of edge fields, which requires intensive sampling in order to minimize signatures. In this study we compare various methods of overlay control including the performance levels that can be achieved.

  11. A Measurement Study of the Structured Overlay Network in P2P File-Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Zhou


    Full Text Available The architecture of P2P file-sharing applications has been developing to meet the needs of large scale demands. The structured overlay network, also known as DHT, has been used in these applications to improve the scalability, and robustness of the system, and to make it free from single-point failure. We believe that the measurement study of the overlay network used in the real file-sharing P2P systems can provide guidance for the designing of such systems, and improve the performance of the system. In this paper, we perform the measurement in two different aspects. First, a modified client is designed to provide view to the overlay network from a single-user vision. Second, the instances of crawler programs deployed in many nodes managed to crawl the user information of the overlay network as much as possible. We also find a vulnerability in the overlay network, combined with the character of the DNS service, a more serious DDoS attack can be launched.

  12. Characterisation of hydrocarbonaceous overlayers important in metal-catalysed selective hydrogenation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, David; Warringham, Robbie [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Guidi, Tatiana [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Parker, Stewart F., E-mail: [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy of a commercial dehydrogenation catalyst. • The overlayer present on the catalyst is predominantly aliphatic. • A population of strongly hydrogen bonded hydroxyls is also present. - Abstract: The hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes over supported metal catalysts is an important industrial process and it has been shown that hydrocarbonaceous overlayers are important in controlling selectivity profiles of metal-catalysed hydrogenation reactions. As a model system, we have selected propyne hydrogenation over a commercial Pd(5%)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the C–H stretching mode ranges from 2850 to 3063 cm{sup −1}, indicating the mostly aliphatic nature of the overlayer and this is supported by the quantification of the carbon and hydrogen on the surface. There is also a population of strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyls, their presence would indicate that the overlayer probably contains some oxygen functionality. There is little evidence for any olefinic or aromatic species. This is distinctly different from the hydrogen-poor overlayers that are deposited on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts during methane reforming.

  13. Residual stress determination in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wanchuck, E-mail: [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Em, Vyacheslav [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hubbard, Camden R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lee, Ho-Jin [Nuclear Materials Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Soo [Corporate R and D Institute, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon 641-792 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} Determined residual stress distribution in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe. {yields} Consists of a ferritic (SA508), austenitic (F316L) steels, Alloy 182 consumable. {yields} Measured significant compression (-600 MPa) near the inner wall of overlay. {yields} Validate integrity of the inner wall for the pressurized nozzle nuclear structure. - Abstract: Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  14. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions. (United States)

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G


    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

  15. Information Exchange rather than Topology Awareness: Cooperation between P2P Overlay and Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao


    Full Text Available Solutions to the routing strategic conflict between noncooperative P2P overlay and ISP underlay go separate ways: hyperselfishness and cooperation. Unpredictable (possibly adverse impact of the hyperselfish topology awareness, which is adopted in both overlay routing and traffic engineering, has not been sufficiently studied in the literature. Topology-related information exchange in a cooperatively efficient way should be highlighted to alleviate the cross-layer conflict. In this paper, we first illustrate the hyperselfish weakness with two dynamic noncooperative game models in which hyperselfish overlay or underlay has to accept a suboptimal profit. Then we build a synergistic cost-saving (SC game model to reduce the negative effects of noncooperation. In the SC model, through information exchange, that is, the classified path-delay metrics for P2P overlay and peer locations for underlay, P2P overlay selects proximity as well as saving traffic transit cost for underlay, and ISP underlay adjusts routing to optimize network cost as well as indicating short delay paths for P2P. Simulations based on the real and generated topologies validate cost improvement by SC model and find a proper remote threshold value to limit P2P traffic from remote area, cross-AS, or cross-ISP.

  16. Image based overlay measurement improvements of 28nm FD-SOI CMOS front-end critical steps (United States)

    Dettoni, F.; Shapoval, T.; Bouyssou, R.; Itzkovich, T.; Haupt, R.; Dezauzier, C.


    Technology shrinkage leads to tight specifications in advanced semiconductor industries. For several years', metrology for lithography has been a key technology to address this challenge and to improve yield. More specifically overlay metrology is the object of special attention for tool suppliers and semiconductor manufacturers. This work focuses on Image Based Overlay (IBO) metrology for 28 nm FD-SOI CMOS front-end critical steps (gate and contact). With Overlay specifications below 10 nm, accuracy of the measurement is critical. In this study we show specific cases where target designs need to be optimized in order to minimize process effects (CMP, etch, deposition, etc.) that could lead to overlay measurement errors. Another important aspect of the metrology target is that its design must be device-like in order to better control and correct overlay errors leading to yield loss. Methodologies to optimize overlay metrology recipes are also presented. If the process effects cannot be removed entirely by target design optimization, recipe parameters have to be carefully chosen and controlled to minimize the influence of the target imperfection on measured overlay. With target asymmetry being one of the main contributors to those residual overlay measurement errors the Qmerit accuracy flag can be used to quantify the measurement error and recipe parameters can be set accordingly in order to minimize the target asymmetry impact. Reference technique measurements (CD-SEM) were used to check accuracy of the optimized overlay measurements.

  17. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.


    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  18. Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction


    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  19. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot. (United States)

    Hall, Randy A


    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  20. Development of a New Geospatial Data Sharing/overlay System for Land Environmental Studies - Ceres GAIA - (United States)

    Tateishi, R.; Sri Sumantyo, J. T.; Miyazaki, A.; Sumitani, H.


    A new geospatial data sharing/overlay system, CEReS Gaia, has developed. The purpose of the system development is to promote land surface environmental studies. The system has developed to meet the requirements by academic users who wish easy data analysis by using his/her own data with existing other data. The system has the following features; a) internationally unlimited expansion of servers, b) multi-language capability (currently, only English), c) free access without user registration, d) data upload/download by registered users, e) capability to overlay user's data on other registered data, f) option of open or selective data distribution.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Cognitive Interference Channels Using a Spectrum Overlay Strategy (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.


    The use of cognitive radios (CR) and cooperative communications techniques may assist in interference mitigation via sensing of the environment and dynamically altering communications parameters through the use of various mechanisms - one of which is the overlay technique. This report provides a performance analysis of an interference channel with a cognitive transceiver operating in an overlay configuration to evaluate the gains from using cognition. As shown in this report, a cognitive transceiver can simultaneously share spectrum while enhancing performance of non-cognitive nodes via knowledge of the communications channel as well as knowledge of neighboring users' modulation and coding schemes.

  2. Description of the signal and background event mixing as implemented in the Marlin processor OverlayTiming

    CERN Document Server

    Schade, P


    This note documents OverlayTiming, a processor in the Marlin software frame- work. OverlayTiming can model the timing structure of a linear collider bunch train and offers the possibility to merge simulated physics events with beam-beam background events. In addition, a realistic structure of the detector readout can be imitated by defining readout time windows for each subdetector.

  3. A comparative study of three commonly used two-dimensional overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis. (United States)

    Pajnigara, Nilufer Gev; Balpande, Apeksha S; Motwani, Mukta B; Choudhary, Anuraag; Thakur, Samantha; Pajnigara, Natasha G


    The present study attempts to compare the bite mark overlays generated by three different methods. The objectives of the study were to compare the three commonly used techniques for overlay generation and to evaluate the interobserver reliability in assessing bite marks by these methods. Overlays were produced from the biting surfaces of six upper and six lower anterior teeth of 30 dental study models using the following three methods: (a) Hand tracing from wax impressions, (b) radiopaque impression method and (c) computer-based method. The computer-based method was found to be the most accurate method. Of the two hand tracing methods, radiopaque wax impression method was better than the wax impression method for overlay generation. It is recommended that forensic odontologists use computerized method, but the use of hand tracing overlays in bite mark comparison cases using radiopaque wax impression method can also be done where sophisticated software and trained persons in forensic odontology are not available.

  4. First principles analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and alloyed surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno


    Gradient corrected periodic density functional theory (DFT-GGA) slab calculations were used to examine the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen on various Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and uniformly alloyed surfaces. Adsorption was examined at 33% surface coverage, where atomic hydrogen preferred the thre...

  5. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures (United States)

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  6. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report. (United States)

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad


    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions.

  7. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report


    Saeid Nosouhian; Amin Davoudi; Mohammad Derhami


    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions.

  8. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nosouhian


    Full Text Available This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions.

  9. Condition of concrete overlays on Route 60 over Lynnhaven Inlet after 10 years. (United States)


    In 1996, 16 high performance concrete overlays were placed on two 28-span bridges on Route 60 over the Lynnhaven Inlet in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Thirteen concrete mixtures included a variety of combinations of silica fume (SF), fly ash, slag, late...

  10. An Efficient Method for Performance Evaluation of Femto-Macro Overlay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Huang, Qian


    This paper considers a two-tier femto-macro overlay network architecture, where groups of femtocells are overlaid by macrocells. The capacity of the femtocells is limited, thus redirection of blocked femto calls to the overlaid macrocell is used as a QoS assurance strategy. Similar overflow appro...

  11. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.


    The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400{degrees}C at 90{degrees} and 30{degrees} particle impact angles. The microstructure of each coating was characterized before erosion testing. A relative ranking of the coatings erosion resistance was developed by determining the steady state erosion rates. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at both impact angles. It was found that weld overlays that exhibit good abrasion resistance did not show good erosion resistance. Erosion tests were also performed for selected wrought materials with chemical composition similar to weld overlays. Eroded surfaces of the wrought and weld alloys were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine size of the plastically deformed region. It was found that one group of coatings experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of erosion while the other did not. It was also established that, in the steady state erosion regime, the size of the plastically deformed region is constant.

  12. Shadow Segmentation and Augmentation Using á-overlay Models that Account for Penumbra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael; Madsen, Claus B.


    that an augmented virtual object can cast an exact shadow. The penumbras (half-shadows) must be taken into account so that we can model the soft shadows.We hope to achieve this by modelling the shadow regions (umbra and penumbra alike) with a transparent overlay. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art shadow...

  13. Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) Services: Case Management Overlay in a Juvenile Diversion Program (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer


    In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…

  14. Improved Intelligent Underlay-Overlay Combined with Frequency Hopping in GSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard


    IUO (intelligent underlay-overlay) in a combination with random frequency hopping in GSM is analysed. Several improvements to the original IUO concept analysed in Nielsen et al. (1997) are introduced. With the improved IUO concept it is possible to load a network configuration consisting of 4...

  15. The Effects of Letter Spacing and Coloured Overlays on Reading Speed and Accuracy in Adult Dyslexia (United States)

    Sjoblom, Amanda M.; Eaton, Elizabeth; Stagg, Steven D.


    Background: Zorzi et al. (2012, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109, 11455) found evidence that extra-large letter spacing aids children with dyslexia, but the evidence for the coloured overlays is contradictory (e.g., Henderson et al., 2013, "J. Res. Special Educ. Needs," 13, 57; Wilkins, 2002, "Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.," 22,…

  16. Evaluation of a conventional chip seal under an overlay to mitigate reflective cracking (informal). (United States)


    The Billings District initiated an experimental project in placing a conventional : chip seal (as an interlayer) on an existing pavement prior to an overlay : (composed of a 0.25 PMS thickness). The intent of the chip seal (CS) was to : seal exist...

  17. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  18. Heavy Vehicle Simulator aided evaluation of overlays on pavements with active cracks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW


    Full Text Available their effects by means of field data from actual pavements. The South African Heavy Simulator was also used to evaluate a variety of conventional and innovative asphaltic overlays on a severely cracked concrete pavement of which the mechanisms and extent...

  19. Science overlay maps: a new tool for research policy and library management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafols, I.; Porter, A.L.; Leydesdorff, L.


    We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help

  20. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report (United States)

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad


    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions. PMID:26929544

  1. Distributed evaluation of continuous equi-join queries over large structured overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Idreos (Stratos); C. Tryfonopoulos; M. Koubarakis (Manolis)


    textabstractWe study the problem of continuous relational query processing in Internet-scale overlay networks realized by distributed hash tables. We concentrate on the case of continuous two-way equi-join queries. Joins are hard to evaluate in a distributed continuous query environment because data

  2. Overlay excursion management through sample plan optimization and cycle time reduction (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Hung, Ming-Yeon; Kuo, Kelly; Fu, Steven; Shanthikumar, Geoge; Mao, Zhoujie; Deng, Shiming; Hazari, Viral; Monahan, Kevin M.; Slessor, Mike D.; Lev, Amir


    As fabs transition from 200 to 300mm wafers with shrinking design rules, the risk and cost associated with overlay excursions become more severe. This significantly impacts the overall litho-cell efficiency. Effective detection, identification, and reduction of overlay excursions are essential for realizing the productivity and cost benefits of the technology shifts. We have developed a comprehensive overlay excursion management method that encompasses baseline variation analysis, statistical separation and characterization of excursion signatures and their frequencies, as well as selection of sampling plans and control methods that minimize material at risk due to excursion. A novel baseline variance estimation method is developed that takes into account the spatial signature and temporal behavior of the litho-cell overlay correction mechanisms. Spatial and temporal excursion signatures are identified and incorporated in a cost model that estimates the material at risk in an excursion cycle. The material at risk associated with various sampling plans, control charts, and cycle times is assessed considering various lot disposition and routing decisions. These results are then used in determining an optimal sampling and control strategy for effective excursion management. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods using actual 300mm fab overlay data from several critical layers. With a thorough assessment of the actual baseline and excursion distributions, we quantify the amount of wafer-to-wafer and within-wafer sampling necessary for detecting excursions with minimal material at risk. We also evaluate the impact of shorter cycle time and faster response to excursion, which is made possible through automation and alternative metrology configurations.

  3. A novel approach for latent print identification using accurate overlays to prioritize reference prints. (United States)

    Gantz, Daniel T; Gantz, Donald T; Walch, Mark A; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn


    A novel approach to automated fingerprint matching and scoring that produces accurate locally and nonlinearly adjusted overlays of a latent print onto each reference print in a corpus is described. The technology, which addresses challenges inherent to latent prints, provides the latent print examiner with a prioritized ranking of candidate reference prints based on the overlays of the latent onto each candidate print. In addition to supporting current latent print comparison practices, this approach can make it possible to return a greater number of AFIS candidate prints because the ranked overlays provide a substantial starting point for latent-to-reference print comparison. To provide the image information required to create an accurate overlay of a latent print onto a reference print, "Ridge-Specific Markers" (RSMs), which correspond to short continuous segments of a ridge or furrow, are introduced. RSMs are reliably associated with any specific local section of a ridge or a furrow using the geometric information available from the image. Latent prints are commonly fragmentary, with reduced clarity and limited minutiae (i.e., ridge endings and bifurcations). Even in the absence of traditional minutiae, latent prints contain very important information in their ridges that permit automated matching using RSMs. No print orientation or information beyond the RSMs is required to generate the overlays. This automated process is applied to the 88 good quality latent prints in the NIST Special Database (SD) 27. Nonlinear overlays of each latent were produced onto all of the 88 reference prints in the NIST SD27. With fully automated processing, the true mate reference prints were ranked in the first candidate position for 80.7% of the latents tested, and 89.8% of the true mate reference prints ranked in the top ten positions. After manual post-processing of those latents for which the true mate reference print was not ranked first, these frequencies increased to 90

  4. Combined Conjunctival Autograft and Overlay Amniotic Membrane Transplantation; a Novel Surgical Treatment for Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati


    Full Text Available The authors report the long-term results of combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT for treatment of pterygium as a new surgical technique. Nineteen patients including 12 male and 7 female subjects with pterygium (primary, 14 cases; recurrent, 5 cases underwent combined conjunctival autograft and overlay AMT and were followed from 10 to 26 months. Mean age was 44.21±12.49 (range, 29.0-73.0 years. In one patient with grade T3 primary pterygium, the lesion recurred (5.2%, recurrence rate. No intra-and postoperative complication developed. This procedure seems a safe and effective surgical technique for pterygium treatment. Protection of the ocular surface during the early postoperative period reduces the friction-induced inflammation and might be helpful to prevent the recurrence.

  5. Combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation; a novel surgical treatment for pterygium. (United States)

    Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Shousha, Mohamed Abou; Betancurt, Carolina; Perez, Victor L


    The authors report the long-term results of combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for treatment of pterygium as a new surgical technique. Nineteen patients including 12 male and 7 female subjects with pterygium (primary, 14 cases; recurrent, 5 cases) underwent combined conjunctival autograft and overlay AMT and were followed from 10 to 26 months. Mean age was 44.21±12.49 (range, 29.0-73.0) years. In one patient with grade T3 primary pterygium, the lesion recurred (5.2%, recurrence rate). No intra-and postoperative complication developed. This procedure seems a safe and effective surgical technique for pterygium treatment. Protection of the ocular surface during the early postoperative period reduces the friction-induced inflammation and might be helpful to prevent the recurrence.

  6. Impact of organic overlayers on a-Si:H/c-Si surface potential

    KAUST Repository

    Seif, Johannes P.


    Bilayers of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon, deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces, simultaneously provide contact passivation and carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells. Recently, we have shown that the presence of overlaying transparent conductive oxides can significantly affect the c-Si surface potential induced by these amorphous silicon stacks. Specifically, deposition on the hole-collecting bilayers can result in an undesired weakening of contact passivation, thereby lowering the achievable fill factor in a finished device. We test here a variety of organic semiconductors of different doping levels, overlaying hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers and silicon-based hole collectors, to mitigate this effect. We find that these materials enhance the c-Si surface potential, leading to increased implied fill factors. This opens opportunities for improved device performance.

  7. Impact of Improper Gaussian Signaling on the Achievable Rate of Overlay Cognitive Radio

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama


    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in underlay cognitive radio systems as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. For the first time, this paper implements IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to support the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio that employs IGS to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the minimum rate requirement of the primary network. In particular, we derive closed form expressions for the circularity coefficient used in the IGS scheme and the power distribution parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  8. Automatic Generation of Overlays and Offset Values Based on Visiting Vehicle Telemetry and RWS Visuals (United States)

    Dunne, Matthew J.


    The development of computer software as a tool to generate visual displays has led to an overall expansion of automated computer generated images in the aerospace industry. These visual overlays are generated by combining raw data with pre-existing data on the object or objects being analyzed on the screen. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses this computer software to generate on-screen overlays when a Visiting Vehicle (VV) is berthing with the International Space Station (ISS). In order for Mission Control Center personnel to be a contributing factor in the VV berthing process, computer software similar to that on the ISS must be readily available on the ground to be used for analysis. In addition, this software must perform engineering calculations and save data for further analysis.

  9. Problems with using overlay mapping for planning and their implications for geographic information systems (United States)

    Bailey, Robert G.


    As part of the planning process, maps of natural factors are often superimposed in order to identify areas which are suitable or unsuitable for a particular type of resource management. Overlay maps may also be used to identify analysis areas for predictive modeling of resource productivity and ecological response to management. Current interest in applying computer-assisted mapping technology to making overlay maps is drawing attention to geographic information systems for this purpose. The resultant maps, however, may be so inaccurate or unable to capture significant units of productivity and ecological response that they could lead to imperfect or false conclusions. Recommendations are made on how to proceed in light of these problems.

  10. Clinical Applications of a CT Window Blending Algorithm: RADIO (Relative Attenuation-Dependent Image Overlay). (United States)

    Mandell, Jacob C; Khurana, Bharti; Folio, Les R; Hyun, Hyewon; Smith, Stacy E; Dunne, Ruth M; Andriole, Katherine P


    A methodology is described using Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Extendscript to process DICOM images with a Relative Attenuation-Dependent Image Overlay (RADIO) algorithm to visualize the full dynamic range of CT in one view, without requiring a change in window and level settings. The potential clinical uses for such an algorithm are described in a pictorial overview, including applications in emergency radiology, oncologic imaging, and nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  12. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Overlay Composite Alloy with Addition of Carbide Powders


    Tadao, ARAKI; Minoru, NISHIDA; Akio, HIROSE; Kouji, YANO; HIroshi, FUJITA; Faculty of Eng., Ehime University; Faculty of Eng., Ehime University; Faculty of Eng., Osaka University; Kawasaki Steel Co., Ltd.; Tokuden Co., Ltd.


    The overall objective of this project is to provide data showing how carbide powder in addition to base alloy powder can be used effectively to increase hardness of overlay alloy and resistance to abrasive wear. An experimental study was performed to examine combinations of base alloy powders and reinforcing powders. The base alloy powders considered were stainless steel, Ni-base alloy, Co-base alloy and high speed steel powder, while reinforcing powders considered were metal-carbide and cera...

  13. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling (United States)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein


    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  14. Ellipsometric study of ambient-produced overlayer growth rate on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films (United States)

    Sieg, Robert M.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Warner, Joseph D.


    An ellipsometric study of ambient-reaction-produced BaCO3 overlayer growth on laser-ablated YBCO is presented as a function of time. The effects of the anisotropy of YBCO on the ellipsometric data inversion process are discussed, and it is concluded that with certain restrictions on the data acquisition method, the anisotropic substrate can be adequately modeled by its isotropic pseudodielectric function for the purpose of overlayer thickness estimation. It is found that after an initial period of rapid growth attributed to the chemical reaction of the exposed surface bonds, the BaCO3 overlayer growth is linear at 1-2 A per day. This slow growth rate is attributed to the complexity of the BaCO3-forming reaction, together with the need for ambient reactants to diffuse through the overlayer.

  15. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : interim report for phases 2 and 3 - data collection and model calibration. (United States)


    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 : highway test sections around the state of Texas, incorporating both flexible pavements and overlays. Besides : being used to calibrate and v...

  16. Enhancement of electron-phonon coupling in Cs-overlayered intercalated bilayer graphene. (United States)

    Kleeman, J; Sugawara, K; Sato, T; Takahashi, T


    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on cesium (Cs) intercalated bilayer graphene with a Cs overlayer (Cs-C8CsC8). Low-energy electron diffraction shows a (2  ×  2) pattern consistent with intercalation of a Cs layer similar to bulk C8Cs, in addition to the signature of a nearly commensurate superstructure created by the Cs overlayer. ARPES results reveal folding of the π bands due to the periodic (2  ×  2) potential of the intercalated Cs atoms, together with a free-electron-like state at the [Formula: see text] point. Significant mass renormalization is observed in the band dispersion near the Fermi level, indicative of strong electron-phonon coupling. Based on analysis of the self-energy, we find anisotropic electron-phonon coupling with an estimated strength of [Formula: see text]  ±  0.02 in the K-[Formula: see text] direction, and [Formula: see text] in the K-M direction. This coupling is much larger than that of other doped graphenes, and comparable to superconducting bulk GICs. We attribute this large electron-phonon coupling constant to the presence of the Cs overlayer, which highly dopes [Formula: see text] bands, and creates a structure similar to stage-I graphite intercalation compounds.

  17. Restoration of the Occlusal Vertical Dimension with an Overlay Removable Partial Denture: A Clinical Report. (United States)

    Zanardi, Piero Rocha; Santos, Mayara Silva; Stegun, Roberto Chaib; Sesma, Newton; Costa, Bruno; Laganá, Dalva Cruz


    The process of tooth loss throughout life associated with severe occlusal wear may pose a challenge in the rehabilitation of partially edentulous arches. In these cases, many therapeutic procedures are necessary because each tooth must be restored to obtain the correct anatomical contour and recover the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). A removable partial denture (RPD) with occlusal/incisal coverage, also known as an overlay RPD, is an alternative treatment option with fewer interventions, and, consequently, lower cost. This clinical report reviews the principles involved in the clinical indication for an overlay RPD, as well as the necessary planning and execution, to discuss the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of this treatment, identifying the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this procedure through the presentation of a clinical case. The overlay RPD can be an alternative treatment for special situations involving partially edentulous arches in patients who need reestablishment of the OVD and/or realignment of the occlusal plane, and it can be used as a temporary or definitive treatment. The main advantages of this type of treatment are its simplicity, reversibility, and relatively low cost; however, further studies are needed to ensure the efficacy of this treatment option. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Use of the Soft-agar Overlay Technique to Screen for Bacterially Produced Inhibitory Compounds. (United States)

    Hockett, Kevin L; Baltrus, David A


    The soft-agar overlay technique was originally developed over 70 years ago and has been widely used in several areas of microbiological research, including work with bacteriophages and bacteriocins, proteinaceous antibacterial agents. This approach is relatively inexpensive, with minimal resource requirements. This technique consists of spotting supernatant from a donor strain (potentially harboring a toxic compound(s)) onto a solidified soft agar overlay that is seeded with a bacterial test strain (potentially sensitive to the toxic compound(s)). We utilized this technique to screen a library of Pseudomonas syringae strains for intraspecific killing. By combining this approach with a precipitation step and targeted gene deletions, multiple toxic compounds produced by the same strain can be differentiated. The two antagonistic agents commonly recovered using this technique are bacteriophages and bacteriocins. These two agents can be differentiated using two simple additional tests. Performing a serial dilution on a supernatant containing bacteriophage will result in individual plaques becoming less in number with greater dilution, whereas serial dilution of a supernatant containing bacteriocin will result a clearing zone that becomes uniformly more turbid with greater dilution. Additionally, a bacteriophage will produce a clearing zone when spotted onto a fresh soft agar overlay seeded with the same strain, whereas a bacteriocin will not produce a clearing zone when transferred to a fresh soft agar lawn, owing to the dilution of the bacteriocin.

  19. Energy Efficiency in MIMO Underlay and Overlay Device-to-Device Communications and Cognitive Radio Systems (United States)

    Zappone, Alessio; Matthiesen, Bho; Jorswieck, Eduard Axel


    This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation for systems in which a primary and a secondary link share the available spectrum by an underlay or overlay approach. After observing that such a scenario models both cognitive radio and D2D communications, we formulate the problem as the maximization of the secondary energy efficiency subject to a minimum rate requirement for the primary user. This leads to challenging non-convex, fractional problems. In the underlay scenario, we obtain the global solution by means of a suitable reformulation. In the overlay scenario, two algorithms are proposed. The first one yields a resource allocation fulfilling the first-order optimality conditions of the resource allocation problem, by solving a sequence of easier fractional problems. The second one enjoys a weaker optimality claim, but an even lower computational complexity. Numerical results demonstrate the merits of the proposed algorithms both in terms of energy-efficient performance and complexity, also showing that the two proposed algorithms for the overlay scenario perform very similarly, despite the different complexity.

  20. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center


    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  1. Intra-field on-product overlay improvement by application of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections (United States)

    Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Graitzer, Erez; Perets, Yuval; Gorhad, Kujan; van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki E.; Mulkens, Jan


    The on product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) is getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Spacer Assisted Double Patterning (SADP) and multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When the latter is considered, most of the intrafield overlay contributors drop out of the overlay budget. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the scanner settings (like dose, illumination settings, etc.) as well as the subsequent processing steps can be made very similar for two consecutive Litho-Etch layers. The major overlay contributor that may require additional attention is the Image Placement Error (IPE). When the inter-layer overlay is considered, controlling the intra-field overlay contribution gets more complicated. In addition to the IPE contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is going to play a role as well. Generally speaking, two subsequent functional layers have different exposure settings. This results in a (non-reticle) additional overlay contribution. In this paper, we have studied the wafer overlay correction capability by RegC® in addition to the TWINSCANTM intrafield corrections to improve the on product overlay performance. RegC® is a reticle intra-volume laser writing technique that causes a predictable deformation element (RegC® deformation element) inside the quartz (Qz) material of a reticle. This technique enables to post-process an existing reticle to correct for instance for IPE. Alternatively, a pre-determined intra-field fingerprint can be added to the reticle such that it results in a straight field after exposure. This second application might be very powerful to correct for instance for (cold) lens fingerprints that cannot be corrected by the scanner itself. Another possible application is the intra-field processing fingerprint. One should realize that a RegC® treatment of a

  2. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging overlay to assist with percutaneous transhepatic access at the time of cardiac catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Whiteside


    Full Text Available Multimodality image overlay is increasingly used for complex interventional procedures in the cardiac catheterization lab. We report a case in which three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI overlay onto live fluoroscopic imaging was utilized to safely obtain transhepatic access in a 12-year-old patient with prune belly syndrome, complex and distorted abdominal anatomy, and a vascular mass within the liver.

  3. Marginal quality and fracture strength of root-canal treated mandibular molars with overlay restorations after thermocycling and mechanical loading. (United States)

    Dere, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mutlu; Göhring, Till N


    To evaluate marginal quality, fracture modes, and loads-to-failure of different overlay restorations in rootcanal treated molars in a laboratory setup. Thirty-two mandibular first molars were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): UTR= untreated (control), RCT-COM= root canal treated (RCT)+ lab-made composite overlay, RCT-FRC= RCT+composite resin overlay with two layers of multidirectional woven glass fibers; RCT-CER: RCT+ceramic overlay. The teeth in all groups were subjected to thermocycling and mechanical loading (TCML) in a computer-controlled masticator (1,200,000 loads, 49 N, 1.7 Hz, 3000 temperature cycles of 5°C to 50°C). Marginal adaptation was evaluated before and after TCML with scanning electron microscopy at 200X at the tooth-to-luting composite (IF1) and luting composite-to restoration (IF2) interfaces. After TCML, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Marginal adaptation decreased from 93 ± 3.4 to 82 ± 6.5 % at IF1 after TCML (p > 0.001) but the decrease was not significant between the groups (p = 0.8130). At IF2, ceramic overlays showed about 10% lower marginal adaptation than composite overlays (p composite delamination from the glass-fiber weaver layer. As cusp-covering overlay restorations in root canal treated molars, composite resin overlays with and without fiber reinforcement performed similar to intact teeth with varying failure types. While intact teeth failed exclusively in reparable modes, all other restorations failed in a catastrophic manner, except half of the fiber reinforced composite group.

  4. Pattern recognition and data mining techniques to identify factors in wafer processing and control determining overlay error (United States)

    Lam, Auguste; Ypma, Alexander; Gatefait, Maxime; Deckers, David; Koopman, Arne; van Haren, Richard; Beltman, Jan


    On-product overlay can be improved through the use of context data from the fab and the scanner. Continuous improvements in lithography and processing performance over the past years have resulted in consequent overlay performance improvement for critical layers. Identification of the remaining factors causing systematic disturbances and inefficiencies will further reduce overlay. By building a context database, mappings between context, fingerprints and alignment & overlay metrology can be learned through techniques from pattern recognition and data mining. We relate structure (`patterns') in the metrology data to relevant contextual factors. Once understood, these factors could be moved to the known effects (e.g. the presence of systematic fingerprints from reticle writing error or lens and reticle heating). Hence, we build up a knowledge base of known effects based on data. Outcomes from such an integral (`holistic') approach to lithography data analysis may be exploited in a model-based predictive overlay controller that combines feedback and feedforward control [1]. Hence, the available measurements from scanner, fab and metrology equipment are combined to reveal opportunities for further overlay improvement which would otherwise go unnoticed.

  5. Visually assessed colour overlay features in shear-wave elastography for breast masses: quantification and diagnostic performance. (United States)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah


    To determine whether colour overlay features can be quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity measured in shear-wave elastography (SWE) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance for breast masses. One hundred thirty-three breast lesions in 119 consecutive women who underwent SWE before US-guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were analysed. SWE colour overlay features were assessed using two different colour overlay pattern classifications. Quantitative SD of the elasticity value was measured with the region of interest including the whole breast lesion. For the four-colour overlay pattern, the area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.947; with a cutoff point between pattern 2 and 3, sensitivity and specificity were 94.4 % and 81.4 %. According to the homogeneity of the elasticity, the Az was 0.887; with a cutoff point between reasonably homogeneous and heterogeneous, sensitivity and specificity were 86.1 % and 82.5 %. For the SD of the elasticity, the Az was 0.944; with a cutoff point of 12.1, sensitivity and specificity were 88.9 % and 89.7 %. The colour overlay features showed significant correlations with the quantitative SD of the elasticity (P colour overlay features and the SD of the elasticity in SWE showed excellent diagnostic performance and showed good correlations between them.

  6. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of alloy 625 weld overlay on ASTM A516 grade 70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Mohammad J. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Ketabchi, Mostafa [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Dept.


    Nickel-based alloys are a crucial class of materials because of their excellent corrosion resistance. In the present study, single layer and two layers alloy 625 weld overlays were deposited by GTAW process on A516 grade 70 carbon steel. The dilution in terms of Fe, Ni, Mo and Nb content was calculated in 30 points of weld overlay. Microstructure observations showed that alloy 625 had austenitic structure with two types of Laves and NbC secondary phases. The uniform and pitting corrosion resistance of alloy 625 weld overlay as casted and as forged were evaluated in accordance with ASTM G48-2011 standard at different temperatures to determine the weight loss and critical pitting temperature. For achieving a better comparison, samples from alloy 625 as casted and as forged were tested under the same conditions. The results point out that single layer alloy 625 weld overlay is not suitable for chloride containing environments, two layers alloy 625 weld overlay and alloy 625 as casted have acceptable corrosion resistance and almost the same critical pitting temperature. Alloy 625 as forged has the best corrosion resistance and the highest critical pitting temperature among all test specimens. Also, the corrosion behavior was evaluated in accordance with ASTM G28 standard. The corrosion rate of single layer weld overlay was unacceptable. The average corrosion rate of two layers weld overlay and in casted condition were 35.82 and 33.01 mpy, respectively. [German] Nickellegierungen sind aufgrund ihres exzellenten Korrosionswiderstandes eine bedeutende Werkstoffklasse. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden mittels WIG-Schweissens ein- und zweilagige Schweissplattierungen auf den Kohlenstoffstahl A516 (Grade 70) aufgebracht. Die Vermischung in Form des Fe-, Ni-, Mo- und Nb-Gehaltes wurde an 30 Punkten der Schweissplattierungen berechnet. Die mikrostrukturellen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass die Legierung 625 eine austenitische Struktur mit zwei Arten von

  7. A Production Proven Technique For Machine-To-Machine Overlay Matching (United States)

    Cummings, Michael J.; Haley, Norman J.; Ngo, Ken T.; Schaller, John W.


    The natural progression of today's semiconductor industry is toward smaller geometric features and registration requirements. Typically, this progression results in high capital equipment investments, along with a large capacity reduction per investment dollar for most lithographic exposure processes. One major cause for the capacity loss is the industry's willingness to migrate from full-field scanning projection printers to a lower throughput field-by-field alignment step-and-repeat exposure system. Standard Microsystems Corporation (SMC) sought to achieve higher performance on its scanners without compromising throughput. The original goal at SMC was to improve Perkin-Elmer's Micralign 641 HT machine-to-machine registration specification of ± 0.30 micron to less than ± 0.25 micron. With this in mind, we set out to investigate the true alignment and registration limitations of a Micralign Model 600 HT Series Projection Aligner. Although SMC was apparently successful at matching two Micralign 641 HT systems to ± 0.25 micron by manually reading verniers, this technique proved to be time consuming and prone to human error. Electrical probing of wafers was considered, but the special masks and processing steps and its destructive nature were considered undesirable. For this study, an automatic optical overlay measurement system was used to optimize overlay on the SMC Micralign systems. The results were enlightening. The specified overlay of ± 0.30 micron for 98% of the data improved to better than ± 0.25 micron, 3 sigma. These results were achieved without the use of Automatic Magnification Compensation (AVM/AMC). We also discovered that many otherwise transparent mechanical/optical anomalies, such as contamination and scan interference, could be readily identified. Experimental data is presented and the beneficial application of this technique to a production process is discussed.

  8. Association of Lateral Crural Overlay Technique With Strength of the Lower Lateral Cartilages. (United States)

    Insalaco, Louis; Rashes, Emma R; Rubin, Samuel J; Spiegel, Jeffrey H


    The lateral crural overlay technique is a powerful technique for altering nasal tip projection and rotation. By overlapping and thus shortening the lateral crura, the nasal tip is shortened and rotated upward, thus decreasing projection and increasing rotation. There is no data to show the association of this technique with the strength of the lower lateral cartilage. Strengthening of the lower lateral cartilages would presumably lead to resistance to external nasal valve collapse and improved airway. In this cadaver study, we set out to determine the differences in the strength and resilience of the lateral crura after performing lateral crural overlay using 2 different techniques. Seven individual lower lateral cartilages were harvested from 6 cadavers for analysis. Each of the 7 cartilages was included sequentially in 3 test groups in the following order: a preprocedure group (preP), a postprocedure group (postP) in which the lateral crural overlay technique was performed, and a postprocedure with glue group (postPG) in which cyanoacrylate glue was added to the postP cartilages to simulate cartilage healing. A force gauge was used to measure the force required to deflect the lower lateral cartilages distances from 1 to 6 mm. Differences measured in newtons (N) for strength and resilience of lateral crura between the preP, postP, and postPG groups. A statistically significant increase in lower lateral cartilage resilience was noted between the preP and postPG groups at all distances of tip deflection (1 mm, 0.20 vs 0.70 N; P strength and resilience to the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages, which should in turn decrease the likelihood of external nasal valve collapse postoperatively. NA.

  9. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian


    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  10. Formate stability and carbonate hydrogenation on strained Cu overlayers on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Nana Maria Pii; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Nerlov, Jesper


    Formate (HCOO) synthesis, decomposition and the hydrogenation of carbonate (CO3) on Cu overlayers deposited on a Pt(111) single crystal are investigated to examine the reactivity of a Cu surface under tensile strain with defects present. Formate is synthesized from a 0.5 bar mixture of 70% CO2 an...... of formate on the surface, or any other hydrogenation product, could not be established during or after H2 exposure by PM-IRRAS, EELS or TPD. Even so, the results suggest that carbonate and its hydrogenation may constitute a relevant pathway to methanol production....

  11. Stabilizing hybrid perovskites against moisture and temperature via non-hydrolytic atomic layer deposited overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Soo; Martinson, Alex B. F.


    A novel non-hydrolytic (nh) surface chemistry is utilized to allow the direct synthesis of pinhole-fee oxide overlayers directly on conventional hybrid perovskite halide absorbers without damage. Utilizing water-free ALD Al2O3 passivation, a minimum of ten-fold increase in stability against relative humidity (RH) 85% was achieved along with a dramatically improved thermal resistance (up to 250 °C). Moreover, we extend this approach to synthesize nh-TiO2 directly on hybrid perovskites to establish its potential in inverted photovoltaic devices as a dual stabilizing and electron accepting layer, as evidenced by photoluminescence (PL) quenching.

  12. Morphological and chemical stability of silicon nanostructures and their molecular overlayers under physiological conditions: towards long-term implantable nanoelectronic biosensors. (United States)

    Peled, Anna; Pevzner, Alexander; Peretz Soroka, Hagit; Patolsky, Fernando


    The detection of biological and chemical species is of key importance to numerous areas of medical and life sciences. Therefore, a great interest exists in developing new, rapid, miniature, biocompatible and highly sensitive sensors, capable to operate under physiological conditions and displaying long-term stabilities (e.g. in-body implantable sensors). Silicon nanostructures, nanowires and nanotubes, have been extensively explored as building blocks for the creation of improved electrical biosensing devices, by virtue of their remarkably high surface-to-volume ratios, and have shown exceptional sensitivity for the real time label-free detection of molecular species adsorbed on their surfaces, down to the sensitivity of single molecules.Yet, till this date, almost no rigorous studies have been performed on the temporal morphological stability of these nanostructures, and their resulting electrical devices, under physiological conditions (e.g. serum, blood), as well as on the chemical stability of the molecular recognition over-layers covering these structures. Here, we present systematic time-resolved results on the morphological stability of bare Si nanowire building blocks, as well on the chemical stability of siloxane-based molecular over-layers, under physiological conditions. Furthermore, in order to overcome the observed short-term morpho-chemical instabilities, we present on the chemical passivation of the Si nanostructures by thin metal oxide nanoshells, in the range of 3-10 nm. The thickness of the metal oxide layer influences on the resulting electrical sensitivity of the fabricated FETs (field effect transistors), with an optimum thickness of 3-4 nm. The core-shell structures display remarkable long-term morphological stability, preventing both, the chemical hydrolytic dissolution of the silicon under-structure and the concomitant loss of the siloxane-based chemical over-layers, for periods of at least several months. Electrical devices constructed

  13. A comparative study of three commonly used two-dimensional overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis (United States)

    Pajnigara, Nilufer Gev; Balpande, Apeksha S; Motwani, Mukta B; Choudhary, Anuraag; Thakur, Samantha; Pajnigara, Natasha G


    Aim: The present study attempts to compare the bite mark overlays generated by three different methods. The objectives of the study were to compare the three commonly used techniques for overlay generation and to evaluate the interobserver reliability in assessing bite marks by these methods. Materials and Methods: Overlays were produced from the biting surfaces of six upper and six lower anterior teeth of 30 dental study models using the following three methods: (a) Hand tracing from wax impressions, (b) radiopaque impression method and (c) computer-based method. Results: The computer-based method was found to be the most accurate method. Of the two hand tracing methods, radiopaque wax impression method was better than the wax impression method for overlay generation. Conclusions: It is recommended that forensic odontologists use computerized method, but the use of hand tracing overlays in bite mark comparison cases using radiopaque wax impression method can also be done where sophisticated software and trained persons in forensic odontology are not available. PMID:29391724

  14. Modeling and simulation of adaptive Neuro-fuzzy based intelligent system for predictive stabilization in structured overlay networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Intelligent prediction of neighboring node (k well defined neighbors as specified by the dht protocol dynamism is helpful to improve the resilience and can reduce the overhead associated with topology maintenance of structured overlay networks. The dynamic behavior of overlay nodes depends on many factors such as underlying user’s online behavior, geographical position, time of the day, day of the week etc. as reported in many applications. We can exploit these characteristics for efficient maintenance of structured overlay networks by implementing an intelligent predictive framework for setting stabilization parameters appropriately. Considering the fact that human driven behavior usually goes beyond intermittent availability patterns, we use a hybrid Neuro-fuzzy based predictor to enhance the accuracy of the predictions. In this paper, we discuss our predictive stabilization approach, implement Neuro-fuzzy based prediction in MATLAB simulation and apply this predictive stabilization model in a chord based overlay network using OverSim as a simulation tool. The MATLAB simulation results present that the behavior of neighboring nodes is predictable to a large extent as indicated by the very small RMSE. The OverSim based simulation results also observe significant improvements in the performance of chord based overlay network in terms of lookup success ratio, lookup hop count and maintenance overhead as compared to periodic stabilization approach.

  15. Use of Hydrogen Chemisorption and Ethylene Hydrogenation as Predictors for Aqueous Phase Reforming of Lactose over Ni@Pt and Co@Pt Bimetallic Overlayer Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Qinghua; Skoglund, Michael D.; Zhang, Chen; Morris, Allen R.; Holles, Joseph H.


    Overlayer Pt on Ni (Ni@Pt) or Co (Co@Pt) were synthesized and tested for H2 generation from APR of lactose. H2 chemisorption descriptor showed that Ni@Pt and Co@Pt overlayer catalysts had reduced H2 adsorption strength compared to a Pt only catalyst, which agree with computational predictions. The overlayer catalysts also demonstrated lower activity for ethylene hydrogenation than the Pt only catalyst, which likely resulted from decreased H2 binding strength decreasing the surface coverage of H2. XAS results showed that overlayer catalysts exhibited higher white line intensity than the Pt catalyst, which indicates a negative d-band shift for the Pt overlayer, further providing evidence for overlayer formation. Lactose APR studies showed that lactose can be used as feedstock to produce H2 and CO under desirable reaction conditions. The Pt active sites of Ni@Pt and Co@Pt overlayer catalysts showed significantly enhanced H2 production selectivity and activity when compared with that of a Pt only catalyst. The single deposition overlayer with the largest d-band shift showed the highest H2 activity. The results suggest that overlayer formation using directed deposition technique could modify the behavior of the surface metal and ultimately modify the APR activity.

  16. Constructed Wetlands (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  17. Optimización multiobjetivo para enrutamiento multicast en overlay networks utilizando algoritmos evolutivos Multiobjective Optimization for Multicast Routing in Overlay Networks using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montoya M.


    Full Text Available Multicast juega un papel muy importante para soportar una nueva generación de aplicaciones. En la actualidad y por diferentes razones, técnicas y no técnicas, multicast IP no ha sido totalmente adoptado en Internet. Durante los últimos a˜nos, un área de investigación activa es la de implementar este tipo de tráfico desde la perspectiva del nivel de aplicación, donde la funcionalidad de multicast no es responsabilidad de los enrutadores sino de los hosts, a lo que se le conoce como Multicast Overlay Network (MON. En este artículo se plantea el enrutamiento en MON como un problema de Optimización Multiobjetivo (MOP donde se optimizan dos funciones: 1 el retardo total extremo a extremo del árbol multicast, y 2 la máxima utilización de los enlaces. La optimización simultánea de estas dos funciones es un problema NP completo y para resolverlo se propone utilizar Algoritmos Evolutivos Multiobjetivos (MOEA, específicamente NSGAIMulticast plays an important role in supporting a new generation of applications. At present and for different reasons, technical and non–technical, multicast IP hasn’t yet been totally adopted for Internet. During recent years, an active area of research is that of implementing this kind of traffic in the application layer where the multicast functionality isn´t a responsibility of the routers but that of the hosts, which we know as Multicast Overlay Networks (MON. In this article, routing in an MON is put forward as a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP where two functions are optimized: 1 the total end to end delay of the multicast tree and 2 the maximum link utilization. The simultaneous optimization of these two functions is an NP–Complete problem and to solve this we suggest using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA, specifically NSGA–II.

  18. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang


    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  19. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.


    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  20. A high-accuracy surgical augmented reality system using enhanced integral videography image overlay. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen


    Image guided surgery has been used in clinic to improve the surgery safety and accuracy. Augmented reality (AR) technique, which can provide intuitive image guidance, has been greatly evolved these years. As one promising approach of surgical AR systems, integral videography (IV) autostereoscopic image overlay has achieved accurate fusion of full parallax guidance into surgical scene. This paper describes an image enhanced high-accuracy IV overlay system. A flexible optical image enhancement system (IES) is designed to increase the resolution and quality of IV image. Furthermore, we introduce a novel IV rendering algorithm to promote the spatial accuracy with the consideration of distortion introduced by micro lens array. Preliminary experiments validated that the image accuracy and resolution are improved with the proposed methods. The resolution of the IV image could be promoted to 1 mm for a micro lens array with pitch of 2.32 mm and IES magnification value of 0.5. The relative deviation of accuracy in depth and lateral directions are -4.68 ± 0.83% and -9.01 ± 0.42%.

  1. Electron coincidence studies of sulfur-overlayers on Cu(001) and Ni(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Filippo, G., E-mail: [Max-Planck Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Schumann, F.O.; Patil, S.; Wei, Z. [Max-Planck Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Stefani, G. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Fratesi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Trioni, M.I. [CNR – National Research Council of Italy, ISTM, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)


    Highlights: • The LVV Auger decay of different sulfur-overlayers is investigated. • The decay can be described within a two-step model. • The Auger line shapes furnish information on the electronic structure at the surface. • The e–e correlation energy is hardly affected by coverage or substrate variations. - Abstract: We have prepared different sulfur-overlayers on Cu(001) and Ni(001) surfaces which differ in their coverage and local environment of the S adatoms. Via photon absorption we excited the S 2p level and studied the subsequent Auger decay with a coincidence spectrometer. We discuss the variation of the coincidence rate as a function of the energy sum of the photo-Auger electron pair. This is linked to the binding energy of the double-hole state. We find that the photon energy has no dramatic influence on the spectra. Differences are observed when the local environment of sulfur is changed. The observed spectral changes are mainly ascribable to the variation of the density of states at the different surfaces. On the contrary, the strength of electron–electron correlation at the surface states is hardly affected by coverage or substrate variation.

  2. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.


    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In our framework, we propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as an amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are used to support PUs to achieve their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. More specifically, CUs acts as relays for the PUs and gain some spectrum as long as they respect a specific power budget and primary quality-of-service constraints. In this context, we first derive closed-form expressions for optimal transmit power allocated to PUs and CUs in order to maximize the cognitive objective. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal relay amplification gains and optimal cognitive released bandwidths as well. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed algorithm for different utility metrics and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance.

  3. Composite optical fiber polarizer with ternary copolymer overlay for large range modulation of phase difference (United States)

    Cui, Minxin; Tian, Xiujie; Zou, Gang; Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Qijin


    In this work, a ternary copolymer composed of (E)-2-(4-((4-isocyanophenyl) diazenyl) phenoxy) ethyl methacrylate (2-CN), methacrylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEMA) is synthesized and used as the overlay for composite optical fiber, in which cage-like POSS component and fluorine-containing component are used to reduce refractive index, and azobenzene component is used to finely manipulate the refractive indices in two orthogonal directions through photo-induced orientation under irradiation of polarized light. Before irradiation, the refractive index of terpolymer (1.4503) is slightly higher than that of the core material (1.4489) of commercial silica single-mode fiber, which is obtained by optimizing the amount of each monomer. After the irradiation of 435 nm polarized light, refractive indices of the overlay in two orthogonal directions decrease, and two values have been finely manipulated so that one is higher and another is lower than the refractive index of the fiber core by optimizing irradiation time. In this way, a radial loss type fiber polarization modulator is obtained. By changing the polarization direction of the irradiation at 435 nm, the polarization of propagating light at 1550 nm in the fiber can also be modulated continuously. The maximum change of phase difference is about 300°, making the device useful as a quarter-wave plate or a half-wave plate.

  4. Hot Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Cladding in Smelting Off-Gas Environment (United States)

    Mohammadi Zahrani, E.; Alfantazi, A. M.


    Degradation mechanisms and hot corrosion behavior of weld overlay alloy 625 were studied. Phase structure, morphology, thermal behavior, and chemical composition of deposited salt mixture on the weld overlay were characterized utilizing XRD, SEM/EDX, DTA, and ICP/OES, respectively. Dilution level of Fe in the weldment, dendritic structure, and degradation mechanisms of the weld were investigated. A molten phase formed on the weld layer at the operating temperature range of the boiler, which led to the hot corrosion attack in the water wall and the ultimate failure. Open circuit potential and weight-loss measurements and potentiodynamic polarization were carried out to study the hot corrosion behavior of the weld in the simulated molten salt medium at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). Internal oxidation and sulfidation plus pitting corrosion were identified as the main hot corrosion mechanisms in the weld and boiler tubes. The presence of a significant amount of Fe made the dendritic structure of the weld susceptible to preferential corrosion. Preferentially corroded (Mo, Nb)-depleted dendrite cores acted as potential sites for crack initiation from the surface layer. The penetration of the molten phase into the cracks accelerated the cracks' propagation mainly through the dendrite cores and further crack branching/widening.

  5. Development of a novel accelerometer based on an overlay detection bridge (United States)

    Chunhui, Du; Changde, He; Xiaoyang, Ge; Yongping, Zhang; Jiaqi, Yu; Xiaopeng, Song; Wendong, Zhang


    This paper describes the design, simulation, processing and test result of a high sensitivity accelerometer based on the piezoresistive effect which uses an overlay bridge detection method. The structure of this accelerometer is supersymmetric “mass-beams". This accelerometer has 8 beams, where two varistors are put in the two ends. Four varistors compose a Wheatstone bridge and the output voltages of the 4 Wheatstone bridges have been superimposed as the final output voltage. The sensitivity of the accelerometer can be improved effectively by these clever methods. A simplified mathematical model has been created to analyze the mechanical properties of the sensor, then the finite element modeling and simulation have been used to verify the feasibility of the accelerometer. The results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is 1.1381 mV/g, which is about four times larger than that of the single bridge accelerometers and series bridge sensor. The bandwidth is 0-1000 Hz which is equal to that of the single bridge accelerometers and the series bridge sensor. The comparison reveals that the new overlay detection bridge method can improve the sensitivity of the sensor in the same bandwidth. Meanwhile, this method provides an effective method to improve the sensitivity of piezoresistive sensors.

  6. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva


    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.


    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  8. Evaluating the mechanical performance of Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO as a sustainable rehabilitation strategy in urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sol-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO has been introduced as an alternative to traditional thick overlays, seal coats, and micro-surfacings. Nonetheless, there are some challenges that still remain regarding the application of VTAOs (such as mixture type, cohesiveness, wear resistance, cracking and durability, particularly in heavy traffic urban areas. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive comparative evaluation of the mechanical performance, durability and safety issues (cohesiveness, adhesiveness, ageing, cracking, plastic deformation, permeability, macrotexture, skid and wear resistance, and fuel resistance of a VTAO (20 mm thick and a high performance BBTM 11B (35 mm thick, commonly used as an open-graded mixture for pavement overlays. The results demonstrated that VTAO is an appropriate material for urban pavements as it provides good durability and resistance to the propagation of defects. Nonetheless, further studies are required to improve its behavior under distresses related to plastic deformations and safety properties.

  9. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses. (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran


    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, pbite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín


    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tateishi


    Full Text Available A new geospatial data sharing/overlay system, CEReS Gaia, has developed. The purpose of the system development is to promote land surface environmental studies. The system has developed to meet the requirements by academic users who wish easy data analysis by using his/her own data with existing other data. The system has the following features; a internationally unlimited expansion of servers, b multi-language capability (currently, only English, c free access without user registration, d data upload/download by registered users, e capability to overlay user’s data on other registered data, f option of open or selective data distribution.

  12. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2000) : effectiveness of fiber reinforced and plain, ultra-thin concrete overlays on Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP). (United States)


    The objective of the research was to compare the performance of fiber reinforced and plain PCC concrete overlay when used as a thin non-dowelled overlay on top of a rubblized, distressed concrete pavement. The experiment was conducted at the Accelera...

  13. Behaviour of Parallel Coupled Microstrip Band Pass Filter and Simple Microstripline due to Thin-Film Al2O3 Overlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Rane


    Full Text Available The X-band behaviour of a seven-section parallel-coupled microstrip band pass filter and microstripline due to thin-film Al2O3 overlay of different thickness is reported in this paper. This Al2O3 film can give a homogeneous overlay structure. There is a substantial increase in the bandwidth due to the overlay, the pass band extending towards higher frequency side. In most of the cases, an increase in the pass band transmittance of a microstripline also increases due to a thin-film Al2O3 overlay, especially for frequencies less than 9.0 GHz. At higher frequencies, random variations are observed. It is felt that thin-film overlays can be used to modify the microstripline circuit properties, thereby avoiding costly and time consuming elaborate design procedures.

  14. Processing moldable tasks on the grid: Late job binding with lightweight user-level overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, J T; Sloot, P M A; Lamanna, M


    Independent observations and everyday user experience indicate that performance and reliability of large grid infrastructures may suffer from large and unpredictable variations. In this paper we study the impact of the job queuing time on processing of moldable tasks which are commonly found in large-scale production grids. We use the mean value and variance of makespan as the quality of service indicators. We develop a general task processing model to provide a quantitative comparison between two models: early and late job binding in a user-level overlay applied to the EGEE Grid infrastructure. We find that the late-binding model effectively defines a transformation of the distribution of makespan according to the Central Limit Theorem. As demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulations using real job traces, this transformation allows to substantially reduce the mean value and variance of makespan. For certain classes of applications task granularity may be adjusted such that a speedup of an order of magnitude or m...

  15. Application of Groundwater Vulnerability Overlay and Index Methods to the Jijel Plain Area (Algeria). (United States)

    Boufekane, Abdelmadjid; Saighi, Omar


    Today, scientists are deeply concerned by the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs to pollution. Relatively simple overlay and index methods can be used to produce groundwater vulnerability maps in geographic information system. In addition, this study deals with contamination from nonpoint sources. In this study, two such models, DRASTIC and GOD, were applied in the Jijel Plain area of northeast Algeria and compared with measured groundwater nitrate concentrations. This showed that results from DRASTIC were better than GOD, 69% correlation with nitrate compared to 56%. DRASTIC was better able to identify vulnerable zones along the river valleys. The DRASTIC model was then modified using the nitrate concentrations to optimize the rating score given within each parameter range and sensitivity analysis to change the weighting given for each parameter. These combined changes gave a final Pearson's correlation of 83% with nitrate. This showed that recharge, aquifer type, and topography were the key factors in controlling vulnerability to nitrate pollution. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Secret Forwarding of Events over Distributed Publish/Subscribe Overlay Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yoon

    Full Text Available Publish/subscribe is a communication paradigm where loosely-coupled clients communicate in an asynchronous fashion. Publish/subscribe supports the flexible development of large-scale, event-driven and ubiquitous systems. Publish/subscribe is prevalent in a number of application domains such as social networking, distributed business processes and real-time mission-critical systems. Many publish/subscribe applications are sensitive to message loss and violation of privacy. To overcome such issues, we propose a novel method of using secret sharing and replication techniques. This is to reliably and confidentially deliver decryption keys along with encrypted publications even under the presence of several Byzantine brokers across publish/subscribe overlay networks. We also propose a framework for dynamically and strategically allocating broker replicas based on flexibly definable criteria for reliability and performance. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is done through a case study on social networks using the real trace of interactions among Facebook users.

  17. Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Overlay Coatings for GRCop-84 Combustion Chamber Liners for Reusable Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B.; Robinson,; Thorn, G.


    An advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center, and designated as GRCop-84, is currently being considered for use as combustor chamber liners and nozzle ramps in NASA s future generations of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). However, past experience has shown that unprotected copper alloys undergo an environmental attack called "blanching" in rocket engines using liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Potential for sulfidation attack of the liners in hydrocarbon-fueled engines is also of concern. Protective overlay coatings alloys are being developed for GRCop-84. The development of this coatings technology has involved a combination of modeling, coatings development and characterization, and process optimization. Coatings have been low pressure plasma sprayed on GRCop-84 substrates of various geometries and shapes. Microstructural, mechanical property data and thermophysical results on the coated substrates are presented and discussed.

  18. Interactive Overlays: A New Method for Generating Global Journal Maps from Web-of-Science Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet


    Recent advances in methods and techniques enable us to develop an interactive overlay to the global map of science based on aggregated citation relations among the 9,162 journals contained in the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index 2009 combined. The resulting mapping is provided by VOSViewer. We first discuss the pros and cons of the various options: cited versus citing, multidimensional scaling versus spring-embedded algorithms, VOSViewer versus Gephi, and the various clustering algorithms and similarity criteria. Our approach focuses on the positions of journals in the multidimensional space spanned by the aggregated journal-journal citations. A number of choices can be left to the user, but we provide default options reflecting our preferences. Some examples are also provided; for example, the potential of using this technique to assess the interdisciplinarity of organizations and/or document sets.

  19. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  20. Accelerated construction (United States)


    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  1. Large-Scale Overlays and Trends: Visually Mining, Panning and Zooming the Observable Universe. (United States)

    Luciani, Timothy Basil; Cherinka, Brian; Oliphant, Daniel; Myers, Sean; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Labrinidis, Alexandros; Marai, G Elisabeta


    We introduce a web-based computing infrastructure to assist the visual integration, mining and interactive navigation of large-scale astronomy observations. Following an analysis of the application domain, we design a client-server architecture to fetch distributed image data and to partition local data into a spatial index structure that allows prefix-matching of spatial objects. In conjunction with hardware-accelerated pixel-based overlays and an online cross-registration pipeline, this approach allows the fetching, displaying, panning and zooming of gigabit panoramas of the sky in real time. To further facilitate the integration and mining of spatial and non-spatial data, we introduce interactive trend images-compact visual representations for identifying outlier objects and for studying trends within large collections of spatial objects of a given class. In a demonstration, images from three sky surveys (SDSS, FIRST and simulated LSST results) are cross-registered and integrated as overlays, allowing cross-spectrum analysis of astronomy observations. Trend images are interactively generated from catalog data and used to visually mine astronomy observations of similar type. The front-end of the infrastructure uses the web technologies WebGL and HTML5 to enable cross-platform, web-based functionality. Our approach attains interactive rendering framerates; its power and flexibility enables it to serve the needs of the astronomy community. Evaluation on three case studies, as well as feedback from domain experts emphasize the benefits of this visual approach to the observational astronomy field; and its potential benefits to large scale geospatial visualization in general.

  2. Minus Piggyback Lens Overlaying ReSTOR® Multifocal Lens in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient treated with implantation of the Acrysof® IQ ReSTOR® lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA with overlaying Acrysof EXpand® minus piggyback lens (Alcon. Methods: The patient had high myopia and was diagnosed with presbyopia and bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. She desired to be spectacle-free and opted to undergo bilateral placement of the ReSTOR multifocal lens. The necessary intraocular lens (IOL power was +3.5 in the right eye and +4.0 in the left eye, though the range of commercially available ReSTOR lenses is +6.0 to +34.0 D. In order to achieve emmetropia in this case of high myopia, it was determined that an EXpand minus piggyback lens would be necessary. Results: Implantation of the ReSTOR lens with overlaying EXpand minus piggyback lens was performed successfully and without complication. At 5 months postoperatively, the patient had 20/20 uncorrected visual acuity in both eyes. She reported a high level of satisfaction and was able to return to her daily activities including reading and driving without spectacles. Conclusion: We report successful primary implantation of AcrySof EXpand minus piggyback lenses overlying the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR lens in a patient with high myopia. Long-term follow-up and further evaluation is necessary to establish piggyback IOL implantation with multifocal IOL as an accepted treatment for high myopia with presbyopia.

  3. Influence of overlay restorative materials and load cusps on the fatigue resistance of endodontically treated molars. (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Knezevic, Alena


    To assess the influence of restorative materials and load cusps on the fatigue resistance of endodontically treated molars. Thirty extracted molars received root canal treatment followed by a standardized tooth preparation (3-mm cuspal reduction and immediate dentin sealing). Twenty Cerec 3 overlays (Sirona Dental Systems) were milled in the ceramic Vita MKII block (Vident; groups MKIIGL and MKIIGL-Z, oven-glazed), and 10 restorations were duplicated with a composite resin (Miris 2, Coltane/Whaledent; group M2). The fitting surfaces of the restorations were hydrofluoric acid etched (porcelain only) and silanated. Preparations were airborne-particle abraded and etched. All restorations were luted with preheated Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE) and subjected to cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) starting at 200 N (5,000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. A stainless steel load sphere was used for groups MKIIGL and M2, while a composite resin load sphere was used in group MKIIGL-Z. All samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves (P = .05). None of the molars restored with porcelain withstood all 185,000 loading cycles (survival = 0%). The mean fracture load for MKIIGL was 1,060 N and for MKIIGL-Z, 1,280 N. In group M2, the survival rate was 50%. The rate of fracture below the CEJ was 40%, 30%, and 20% for MKIIGL, MKIIGL-Z, and M2, respectively. Miris 2 overlays showed higher fatigue resistance than MKII porcelain (P = .01) when loaded with a stainless steel antagonist.

  4. An Efficient, Scalable and Robust P2P Overlay for Autonomic Communication (United States)

    Li, Deng; Liu, Hui; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    The term Autonomic Communication (AC) refers to self-managing systems which are capable of supporting self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization. However, information reflection and collection, lack of centralized control, non-cooperation and so on are just some of the challenges within AC systems. Since many self-* properties (e.g. selfconfiguration, self-optimization, self-healing, and self-protecting) are achieved by a group of autonomous entities that coordinate in a peer-to-peer (P2P) fashion, it has opened the door to migrating research techniques from P2P systems. P2P's meaning can be better understood with a set of key characteristics similar to AC: Decentralized organization, Self-organizing nature (i.e. adaptability), Resource sharing and aggregation, and Fault-tolerance. However, not all P2P systems are compatible with AC. Unstructured systems are designed more specifically than structured systems for the heterogeneous Internet environment, where the nodes' persistence and availability are not guaranteed. Motivated by the challenges in AC and based on comprehensive analysis of popular P2P applications, three correlative standards for evaluating the compatibility of a P2P system with AC are presented in this chapter. According to these standards, a novel Efficient, Scalable and Robust (ESR) P2P overlay is proposed. Differing from current structured and unstructured, or meshed and tree-like P2P overlay, the ESR is a whole new three dimensional structure to improve the efficiency of routing, while information exchanges take in immediate neighbors with local information to make the system scalable and fault-tolerant. Furthermore, rather than a complex game theory or incentive mechanism, asimple but effective punish mechanism has been presented based on a new ID structure which can guarantee the continuity of each node's record in order to discourage negative behavior on an autonomous environment as AC.

  5. Overlay accuracy on a flexible web with a roll printing process based on a roll-to-roll system. (United States)

    Chang, Jaehyuk; Lee, Sunggun; Lee, Ki Beom; Lee, Seungjun; Cho, Young Tae; Seo, Jungwoo; Lee, Sukwon; Jo, Gugrae; Lee, Ki-yong; Kong, Hyang-Shik; Kwon, Sin


    For high-quality flexible devices from printing processes based on Roll-to-Roll (R2R) systems, overlay alignment during the patterning of each functional layer poses a major challenge. The reason is because flexible substrates have a relatively low stiffness compared with rigid substrates, and they are easily deformed during web handling in the R2R system. To achieve a high overlay accuracy for a flexible substrate, it is important not only to develop web handling modules (such as web guiding, tension control, winding, and unwinding) and a precise printing tool but also to control the synchronization of each unit in the total system. A R2R web handling system and reverse offset printing process were developed in this work, and an overlay between the 1st and 2nd layers of ±5μm on a 500 mm-wide film was achieved at a σ level of 2.4 and 2.8 (x and y directions, respectively) in a continuous R2R printing process. This paper presents the components and mechanisms used in reverse offset printing based on a R2R system and the printing results including positioning accuracy and overlay alignment accuracy.

  6. Interactive overlays of journals and the measurement of interdisciplinarity on the basis of aggregated journal-journal citations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I.; Chen, C.


    Using the option Analyze Results with the Web of Science, one can directly generate overlays onto global journal maps of science. The maps are based on the 10,000+ journals contained in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science and Social Sciences Citation Indices (2011). The disciplinary

  7. Fracture patterns of glass-ionomer cement overlays versus stainless steel bands during endodontic treatment: an ex-vivo study. (United States)

    Pakdeethai, S; Abuzar, M; Parashos, P


    To compare fracture patterns of posterior teeth temporized with: mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) glass-ionomer cement (GIC) interim restorations, stainless steel (SS) bands, GIC dome overlays and GIC dome overlays with occlusal temporary restorations. The root canals of 92 extracted human premolars and molars were prepared with rotary NiTi instruments and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste prior to cavity preparation for standardized MOD restorations. Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 23) and temporarily restored with: GIC interim restorations (GIC group), stainless steel bands (SS group), GIC dome overlays (GIC-O group) or GIC dome overlays with intermediate restorative material (IRM) in the access cavities (GIC-IRM group). Teeth were subjected to compressive axial load until fracture; fracture forces and fracture modes were recorded. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox proportional hazards model, one-way analysis of variance, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. There was a significantly higher risk of failure in the GIC group compared with the SS (P steel bands may only need to be used in extensively broken-down teeth or in the presence of parafunctional habits. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy on Low Carbon Steel by Heat Treatment after Overlay Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungpil; Jang, Jaeho; Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Byung Jun; Sohn, Keun Yong; Nam, Dae-Geun [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Overlay welding technique is one of methods used to improve metal mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Generally, Inconel 625 alloy is used for overlay welding layer on low carbon steels for economic consideration. However, the method produces some problems in the microstructure of the cast structure and some defects, caused by the elevated temperatures of the overlay process. To resolve these problems, heat treatments are required. In this study, Inconel 625 alloy was welded on a low carbon steel by the overlay welding process to investigate the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. A double heat treatment was performed to improve the mechanical properties of the welding and substrate layers. It was found that Inconel 625 alloy had an austenite microstructure after the first heat treatment, but the low carbon steel had a ferrite-pearlite microstructure after the second heat treatment. After the double heat treatment, the sample showed the optimum hardness because of grain refinement and homogenization of the microstructure.

  9. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)


    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  10. Coloured overlays and precision-tinted lenses: poor repeatability in a sample of adults and children diagnosed with visual stress (United States)

    Suttle, Catherine M; Barbur, John; Conway, Miriam L


    Visual stress consists of perceived distortions or discomfort while reading. It is claimed that these symptoms are alleviated by viewing through coloured lenses or overlays, with a specific colour required for each individual. This has been explained on the basis of altered visual cortex excitation as affected by the spectral content of the viewing light. If symptoms are indeed alleviated by a particular colour that has an impact on the individual's visual system, we would expect that selection of the most beneficial colour would be repeatable. The aim of this study was to determine whether this is the case. Twenty-one participants (mean age 26 years (range 8-55 years); 12 female, nine male) with visual stress and no other uncorrected ocular or visual anomaly were recruited. Each participant selected the colour most beneficial in alleviating their symptoms from a standard set of 10 coloured overlays, and underwent intuitive colorimetry in which the most beneficial of a wide range of chromatic illuminance settings was selected. Without prescribing an overlay at the first appointment, this process was repeated on a second occasion at a mean of 25 days later. About half of the participants (n = 10) chose the same (n = 7) or similar (with one common colour in both choices; n = 3) coloured overlay on the two occasions, while 11 participants chose a completely different overlay colour. Across all participants, the colorimetry setting shifted by, on average, 9.6 just noticeable differences, indicating that the colours were perceptually very different. These findings suggest that people with visual stress are unlikely to find exactly the same colour to be optimal on different occasions, and raise questions about the need for precise colour specification in tinted lenses for visual stress. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  11. A Facile Surface Passivation of Hematite Photoanodes with TiO2 Overlayers for Efficient Solar Water Splitting. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmoud G; Kretschmer, Imme E; Kandiel, Tarek A; Ahmed, Amira Y; Rashwan, Farouk A; Bahnemann, Detlef W


    The surface modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes with passivation overlayers has recently attracted great attention as an effective strategy to improve the charge-separation and charge-transfer processes across semiconductor-liquid interfaces. It is usually carried out by employing the sophisticated atomic layer deposition technique, which relies on reactive and expensive metalorganic compounds and vacuum processing, both of which are significant obstacles toward large-scale applications. In this paper, a facile water-based solution method has been developed for the modification of nanostructured hematite photoanode with TiO2 overlayers using a water-soluble titanium complex (i.e., titanium bis(ammonium lactate) dihydroxide, TALH). The thus-fabricated nanostructured hematite photoanodes have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that a nanostructured hematite photoanodes modified with a TiO2 overlayer exhibited a photocurrent response ca. 4.5 times higher (i.e., 1.2 mA cm(-2) vs RHE) than that obtained on the bare hematite photoanode (i.e., 0.27 mA cm(-2) vs RHE) measured under standard illumination conditions. Moreover, a cathodic shift of ca. 190 mV in the water oxidation onset potential was achieved. These results are discussed and explored on the basis of steady-state polarization, transient photocurrent response, open-circuit potential, intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy measurements. It is concluded that the TiO2 overlayer passivates the surface states and suppresses the surface electron-hole recombination, thus increasing the generated photovoltage and the band bending. The present method for the hematite electrode modification with a TiO2 overlayer is effective and simple and might find broad applications in the development of stable and high-performance photoelectrodes.

  12. Investigation of the weldability of iron-aluminum-chromium overlay coatings for corrosion protection in oxidizing/sulfidizing environments (United States)

    Regina, Jonathan R.

    The current study investigated the effect of chromium additions on the hydrogen cracking susceptibility of Fe-Al weld overlay claddings containing chromium additions. It was found that the weldability of FeAlCr claddings was a function of both the aluminum and chromium concentrations of the weld coatings. Weld overlay compositions that were not susceptible to hydrogen cracking were identified and the underlying mechanism behind the hydrogen cracking phenomenon was investigated further. It was concluded that the cracking behavior of the FeAlCr welds depended strongly on the microstructure of the weld fusion zone. Although it was found that the cracking susceptibility was influenced by the presence of Fe-Al intermetallic phases (namely Fe3 Al and FeAl), the cracking behavior of FeAlCr weld overlay claddings also depended on the size and distribution of carbide and oxide particles present within the weld structure. These particles acted as hydrogen trapping sites, which are areas where free hydrogen segregates and can no longer contribute to the hydrogen embrittlement of the metal. It was determined that in practical applications of these FeAlCr weld overlay coatings, carbon should be present within these welds to reduce the amount of hydrogen available for hydrogen cracking. Based on the weldability results of the FeAlCr weld claddings, coating compositions that were able to be deposited crack-free were used for long-term corrosion testing in a simulated low NOx environment. These alloys were compared to a Ni-based superalloy (622), which is commonly utilized as boiler tube coatings in power plant furnaces for corrosion protection. It was found that the FeAlCr alloys demonstrated superior corrosion resistance when compared to the Ni-based superalloy. Due to the excellent long-term corrosion behavior of FeAlCr weld overlays that were immune to hydrogen cracking, it was concluded that select FeAlCr weld overlay compositions would make excellent corrosion resistant

  13. Construction Management. (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  14. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server


    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. N. Aniekwu. Civil Engineering Department,. University of Benin,. Benin City. Nigeria. ABSTRACT. This paper deals with safety in the Nigerian construction industry. Three aspects of safety were identified as paramount in the study and include accident causations, accident prevention and the.

  16. Equipment stainless steel entire versus steels bimetallics clad or overlay; Utilizacao de equipamentos de processo construidos em aco inoxidavel integral versus acos bimetalicos cladeado ou 'overlay'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Itamar da Silva; Lima, Jadival Carneiro de; Leal, Murilo Fonseca; Cardoso, Amauri dos Santos; Jorjan, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Sao Francisco do Conde, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves Mataripen (RLAM)


    This study does not recommend the use of a pressure vessel made of integral stainless steel, due to the failure mechanisms under stress corrosion assisted by chlorides or polythionic acid. Are presented case studies of literature and analysis of reports of proceedings of RLAM reactors, showing that the materials produced by bimetallic clad overlay or are more appropriate, in terms of integrity, for use in equipment that the internal environment requires austenitic stainless steel specification.

  17. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi


    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  18. Stellite weld overlay of valves: analysis of the damaging process; Depots stellites de robinetterie: synthese des mecanismes de degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleurennec, M.; Cauvin, R. [Electricite de France (EDF/GDL), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Groupe des Labs


    Up to day, morethan 150 expertises have been performed on Stellite sealing surfaces of valves from EDF PWR units. These expertises deal with valves coming from many different pipes of the primary circuit. Expertises are decided following leaks during operation or defects observed during maintenance. The first step of our work leads to a characterization and classification of the different types of defects of Stellite weld overlay. We mainly find two types of defects: defects produced during fabrication, linked to the welding process, and defects developed during operation, mainly mechanical cracking and generalized corrosion. A data base was created; the analysis shows a correlation between fabrication defects and severe operating loadings or environments giving a qualitative understanding of damaging process of Stellites weld overlay. The corrective solutions involve both conception or fabrication and operating conditions. (authors)

  19. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan


    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  20. Structure determination of a multilayer with an island-like overlayer using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, N., E-mail:; Kataoka, K.; Horibuchi, K.; Dohmae, K.; Kitazumi, K.; Takahashi, N.; Kimoto, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Oji, H.; Cui, Y.-T.; Son, J.-Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    We use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to obtain the surface structure of a multilayer Au/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate sample with an island-like overlayer. Photoelectron intensities are measured as a function of incident photon energy (PE) and take-off angle (TOA, measured from the sample surface). The Au layer coverage and Au and SiO{sub 2} layer thicknesses are obtained by the PE dependence, and are used for the following TOA analysis. The Au island lateral width in the cross section is obtained by the TOA dependence, including information about surface roughness, in consideration of the island shadowing at small TOAs. In both cases, curve-fitting analysis is conducted. The surface structure, which consists of layer thicknesses, overlayer coverage and island width, is determined nondestructively by a combination of PE and TOA dependent HAXPES measurements.

  1. Theoretical simulations of atomic and polyatomic bombardment of an organic overlayer on a metallic substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Krantzman, K D; Delcorte, A; Garrison, B J


    Our previous molecular dynamics simulations on initial test systems have laid the foundation for understanding some of the effects of polyatomic bombardment. In this paper, we describe simulations of the bombardment of a more realistic model system, an overlayer of sec-butyl-terminated polystyrene tetramers on a Ag left brace 1 1 1 right brace substrate. We have used this model system to study the bombardment with Xe and SF sub 5 projectiles at kinetic energies ranging from 0.50 to 5.0 keV. SF sub 5 sputters more molecules than Xe, but a higher percentage of these are damaged rather than ejected intact when the bombarding energy is greater than 0.50 keV. Therefore, at energies comparable to experimental values, the efficiency, measured as the yield-to-damage ratio, is greater with Xe than SF sub 5. Stable and intact molecules are generally produced by upward moving substrate atoms, while fragments are produced by the upward and lateral motion of reflected projectile atoms and fragments from the target molecul...

  2. 3-D augmented reality for MRI-guided surgery using integral videography autostereoscopic image overlay. (United States)

    Liao, Hongen; Inomata, Takashi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi


    A 3-D augmented reality navigation system using autostereoscopic images was developed for MRI-guided surgery. The 3-D images are created by employing an animated autostereoscopic image, integral videography (IV), which provides geometrically accurate 3-D spatial images and reproduces motion parallax without using any supplementary eyeglasses or tracking devices. The spatially projected 3-D images are superimposed onto the surgical area and viewed via a half-silvered mirror. A fast and accurate spatial image registration method was developed for intraoperative i.v. image-guided therapy. Preliminary experiments showed that the total system error in patient-to-image registration was 0.90 +/- 0.21 mm, and the procedure time for guiding a needle toward a target was shortened by 75%. An animal experiment was also conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. The feasibility studies showed that augmented reality of the image overlay system could increase the surgical instrument placement accuracy and reduce the procedure time as a result of intuitive 3-D viewing.

  3. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O2 molecules. (United States)

    Friedlein, R; Van Bui, H; Wiggers, F B; Yamada-Takamura, Y; Kovalgin, A Y; de Jong, M P


    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O2 molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB2(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O2 gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O2 molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  4. Efficient content distribution for peer-to-peer overlays on mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Mawji


    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks existing on a MANET are a natural evolution since both are decentralized and have dynamic topologies. As MANETs grow in use due to the increasing popularity of wireless mesh and 4G networks, it is expected that P2P applications will remain as a popular means of obtaining files. Network coding has been shown as an efficient means of sharing large files in a P2P network. With network coding, all file blocks have the same relative importance. This paper presents an efficient content distribution scheme that uses network coding to share large files in a P2P overlay running on a MANET. Peers request file blocks from multiple server nodes and servers multicast blocks to multiple receivers, providing efficient multipoint-to-multipoint communication. Simulation results show that compared to other common download techniques, the proposed scheme performs very well, having lower download time and energy consumption. Also, more peers participate in uploading the file, resulting in greater fairness.

  5. Overlay of neuromagnetic current-density images and morphological MR images (United States)

    Fuchs, Manfred; Wischmann, Hans-Aloys; Doessel, Olaf


    Neuromagnetic imaging is a relatively new diagnostic tool for examination of electric activities in the nervous system. It is based on the noninvasive detection of extremely weak magnetic fields around the human body with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detectors. `Equivalent current dipoles' and linear estimation reconstructions of current distributions both with spherical volume conductor models are used to localize the neural activity. For practical use in medical diagnosis a combination of the abstract neuromagnetic images with magnetic resonance (MR)- or computer tomography (CT)-images is required in order to match the functional activity with anatomy and morphology. The neuromagnetic images can be overlayed onto three-dimensional morphological images with spatially arbitrarily selectable slices. The matching of both imaging modalities is discussed. Based on the detection of auditory evoked magnetic fields, neuromagnetic images are reconstructed with linear estimation theory algorithms. The MR images are used as a-priori information of the volume conductor geometry and they allow an attachment of functional and morphological properties.

  6. COMMUNICATION: Multielectrode arrays with elastomeric microstructured overlays for extracellular recordings from patterned neurons (United States)

    Claverol-Tinturé, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Fiumara, F.; Rosell, X.; Cabestany, J.


    Multielectrode array technology constitutes a promising approach for the characterization of the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity underlying information processing in the nervous system. For this purpose, long-term monitoring and stimulation of cultured neuronal networks with one-to-one neuron-sensor interfacing is advantageous. Existing neurochips that meet these specifications have made use of custom 3D structures requiring clean-room intensive microfabrication techniques. Low-cost fabrication procedures with potential for mass production would facilitate progress in the area. To this end, we have developed a sandwich structure comprising an elastomeric film, microstructured by replica moulding and microhole punching, for neuronal patterning, and a standard planar microelectrode array (MEA), for stimulation and recording. The elastomeric film includes microwells for cell body confinement, and microchannels capable of guiding neurites for network topology specification. The device is formed by overlaying the elastomeric structures on planar arrays. The combination of replica moulding, rapid prototyping and planar MEAs results in low-cost neurochips accessible to most neurophysiology labs. Single neuron patterning and recordings of extracellular potentials are demonstrated.

  7. Optical resonance analysis of reflected long period fiber gratings with metal film overlay (United States)

    Zhang, Guiju; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinua; Zhao, Minfu


    We present the experimental results of a novel single-ended reflecting surface plasma resonance (SPR) based long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. A long period fiber grating sensing device is properly designed and fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser writing system. Different nm-thick thin metal films are deposited on the fiber cladding and the fiber end facet for the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) and the reflection of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with doubled interaction between metal-dielectric interfaces of the fiber to enhance the SPW of the all-fiber SPR-LPFG sensing system. Different thin metal films with different thicknesses are investigated. The effect of the excited SPW transmission along the fiber cladding-metal interface with silver and aluminum films is observed. It is found that different thicknesses of the metal overlay show different resonant behaviors in terms of resonance peak situation, bandwidth and energy loss. Within a certain range, thinner metal film shows narrower bandwidth and deeper peak loss.

  8. Structured P2P Overlay of Mobile Brokers for Realizing Publish/Subscribe Communication in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Pandey


    Full Text Available Publish/subscribe communication paradigm provides asynchrony and decoupling, making it an elegant alternative for designing applications in distributed and dynamic environment such as vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. In this paradigm, the broker is the most important component that decouples other two components, namely, publisher and subscriber. Previous research efforts have either utilized the deployment of distributed brokers on stationary road side info-stations or have assigned the role of broker to any moving vehicle on ad hoc basis. In one approach, lots of preinstalled infrastructures are needed whereas, in another, the quality of service is not guaranteed due to unpredictable moving and stopping patterns of vehicles. In this paper, we present the architecture of distributed mobile brokers which are dynamically reconfigurable in the form of structured P2P overlay and act as rendezvous points for matching publications and subscriptions. We have taken city buses in urban settings to act as mobile brokers whereas other vehicles are considered to be in role of publishers and subscribers. These mobile brokers also assist in locating a vehicle for successful and timely transfer of notifications. We have performed an extensive simulation study to compare our approach with previously proposed approaches. Simulation results establish the applicability of our approach.

  9. Overlay Cognitive Radios With Channel-Aware Adaptive Link Selection and Buffer-Aided Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad


    The aim of this work is to maximize the long-term average achievable rate region of a primary and a secondary source-destination pairs operating in an overlay setup over block-fading channels. To achieve this objective, we propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary sources based on the channel conditions in order to exploit the available multiple-link diversity gains in the system. The secondary source has causal knowledge of the primary messages and it acts as a relay of the primary source in return for getting access to the channel. To maximize the gains of relaying, the relay and destination are equipped with buffers to enable the use of channel-aware adaptive link selection. We propose and optimize different link selection policies and characterize their expected achievable rates. Also, we provide several numerical results to demonstrate the evident mutual benefits of buffer-aided cooperation and adaptive link selection to the primary and the secondary source-destination pairs. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  10. Ultra-Deep Bone Diagnostics with Fat-Skin Overlayers Using New Pulsed Photothermal Radar (United States)

    Sreekumar, K.; Mandelis, A.


    The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal (PT) signal and making use of the PT radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced. At low frequencies fixed-pulse-width chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal energy modalities, with an SNR improvement by up to two orders of magnitude. Compared to radar peak delay and amplitude, the long-delayed radar output amplitude is found to be more sensitive to subsurface conditions. Two-dimensional spatial plots of this parameter depicting the back-surface conditions of bones with and without fat tissue overlayers are presented. Pulsed-chirp radar thermography has been demonstrated to monitor the degree of demineralization in goat rib bone with a substantial SNR and spatial resolution that is not practicable with harmonic radars of the same energy density.

  11. Structured P2P Overlay of Mobile Brokers for Realizing Publish/Subscribe Communication in VANET (United States)

    Pandey, Tulika; Garg, Deepak; Gore, Manoj Madhava


    Publish/subscribe communication paradigm provides asynchrony and decoupling, making it an elegant alternative for designing applications in distributed and dynamic environment such as vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this paradigm, the broker is the most important component that decouples other two components, namely, publisher and subscriber. Previous research efforts have either utilized the deployment of distributed brokers on stationary road side info-stations or have assigned the role of broker to any moving vehicle on ad hoc basis. In one approach, lots of preinstalled infrastructures are needed whereas, in another, the quality of service is not guaranteed due to unpredictable moving and stopping patterns of vehicles. In this paper, we present the architecture of distributed mobile brokers which are dynamically reconfigurable in the form of structured P2P overlay and act as rendezvous points for matching publications and subscriptions. We have taken city buses in urban settings to act as mobile brokers whereas other vehicles are considered to be in role of publishers and subscribers. These mobile brokers also assist in locating a vehicle for successful and timely transfer of notifications. We have performed an extensive simulation study to compare our approach with previously proposed approaches. Simulation results establish the applicability of our approach. PMID:24523629

  12. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of metal overlayers on hydrogenated amorphous silicon at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, J.


    In this dissertation, metals deposited on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film at room temperature are studied. The purpose of this work is mainly understanding the electronic properties of the interface, using high-resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission techniques as a probe. Atomic hydrogen plays an important role in passivating dangling bonds of a-Si:H films, thus reducing the gap-state distribution. In addition, singly bonded hydrogen also reduces states at the top of the valence band which are now replaced by deeper Si-H bonding states. The interface is formed by evaporating metal on an a-Si:H film in successive accumulations at room temperature. Au, Ag, and Cr were chosen as the deposited metals. Undoped films were used as substrates. Since some unique features can be found in a-Si:H, such as surface enrichment of hydrogen diffused from the bulk and instability of the free surface, we do not expect the metals/a-Si:H interface to behave exactly as its crystalline counterpart. Metal deposits, at low coverages, are found to gather preferentially around regions deficient in hydrogen. As the thickness is increased, some Si atoms in those regions are likely to leave their sites to intermix with metal overlayers like Au and Cr. 129 refs., 30 figs.

  13. Wafer-based aberration metrology for lithographic systems using overlay measurements on targets imaged from phase-shift gratings. (United States)

    van Haver, Sven; Coene, Wim M J; D'havé, Koen; Geypen, Niels; van Adrichem, Paul; de Winter, Laurens; Janssen, Augustus J E M; Cheng, Shaunee


    In this paper, a new methodology is presented to derive the aberration state of a lithographic projection system from wafer metrology data. For this purpose, new types of phase-shift gratings (PSGs) are introduced, with special features that give rise to a simple linear relation between the PSG image displacement and the phase aberration function of the imaging system. By using the PSGs as the top grating in a diffraction-based overlay stack, their displacement can be measured as an overlay error using a standard wafer metrology tool. In this way, the overlay error can be used as a measurand based on which the phase aberration function in the exit pupil of the lithographic system can be reconstructed. In practice, the overlay error is measured for a set of different PSG targets, after which this information serves as input to a least-squares optimization problem that, upon solving, provides estimates for the Zernike coefficients describing the aberration state of the lithographic system. In addition to a detailed method description, this paper also deals with the additional complications that arise when the method is implemented experimentally and this leads to a number of model refinements and a required calibration step. Finally, the overall performance of the method is assessed through a number of experiments in which the aberration state of the lithographic system is intentionally detuned and subsequently estimated by the new method. These experiments show a remarkably good agreement, with an error smaller than 5  mλ, among the requested aberrations, the aberrations measured by the on-tool aberration sensor, and the results of the new wafer-based method.

  14. Distributed fiber optic sensor-enhanced detection and prediction of shrinkage-induced delamination of ultra-high-performance concrete overlay (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Valipour, Mahdi; Meng, Weina; Khayat, Kamal H.; Chen, Genda


    This study develops a delamination detection system for smart ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) overlays using a fully distributed fiber optic sensor. Three 450 mm (length) × 200 mm (width) × 25 mm (thickness) UHPC overlays were cast over an existing 200 mm thick concrete substrate. The initiation and propagation of delamination due to early-age shrinkage of the UHPC overlay were detected as sudden increases and their extension in spatial distribution of shrinkage-induced strains measured from the sensor based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. The distributed sensor is demonstrated effective in detecting delamination openings from microns to hundreds of microns. A three-dimensional finite element model with experimental material properties is proposed to understand the complete delamination process measured from the distributed sensor. The model is validated using the distributed sensor data. The finite element model with cohesive elements for the overlay-substrate interface can predict the complete delamination process.

  15. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Rozmus-Górnikowska; M. Blicharski


    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method...

  16. Assessment of Weld Overlays for Mitigating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking at Nickel Alloy Butt Welds in Piping Systems Approved for Leak-Before-Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Edward J.; Anderson, Michael T.


    This TLR provides an assessment of weld overlays as a mitigation strategy for PWSCC, and includes an assessment of the WOL-related inspection requirements of Code Case N-770-1, as conditioned in §50.55a.

  17. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Single-Pass Weld Overlay and Girth Welding in Lined Pipe (United States)

    Obeid, Obeid; Alfano, Giulio; Bahai, Hamid


    The paper presents a nonlinear heat-transfer and mechanical finite-element (FE) analyses of a two-pass welding process of two segments of lined pipe made of a SUS304 stainless steel liner and a C-Mn steel pipe. The two passes consist of the single-pass overlay welding (inner lap weld) of the liner with the C-Mn steel pipe for each segment and the single-pass girth welding (outer butt weld) of the two segments. A distributed power density of the moving welding torch and a nonlinear heat-transfer coefficient accounting for both radiation and convection have been used in the analysis and implemented in user subroutines for the FE code ABAQUS. The modeling procedure has been validated against previously published experimental results for stainless steel and carbon steel welding separately. The model has been then used to determine the isotherms induced by the weld overlay and the girth welding and to clarify their influence on the transient temperature field and residual stress in the lined pipe. Furthermore, the influence of the cooling time between weld overlay and girth welding and of the welding speed have been examined thermally and mechanically as they are key factors that can affect the quality of lined pipe welding.

  18. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart


    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...... constructs and how they can be combined with more advanced constructs. Second, it will help combining different modelling notations with each other. Note that, though we introduce a notation for blocks in this chapter, we are not so much interested in promoting this notation here. The notation should just...

  19. A path-following driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics, including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering angle overlay (United States)

    Cole, David J.


    An existing driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha-gamma co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver's reflex response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance. The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input. Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results highlight the significance of a driver's neuromuscular dynamics in determining the vehicle response to disturbances.

  20. Giant positive magneto-crystalline anisotropy in ferromagnetic Mn/W(001) overlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondracek, Martin; Shick, Alexander; Maca, Frantisek; Jungwirth, Tomas [Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Proposal of the ferromagnetic (FM) ground state for Mn monatomic overlayer on W(001) is reported recently by Ferriani et al. on the basis of first-principles calculations. We study the magneto-crystalline anisotropy (MAE), spin (M{sub S}) and orbital (M{sub L}) magnetic moments, and tunneling anisotropic magneto-resistance (TAMR) of FM-Mn/W(001). The anisotropic properties of Mn/W(001) were investigated making use of the relativistic version of the FP-LAPW method, in which SO coupling is included in a self-consistent second-variational procedure. The magnetic force theorem was used to evaluate the MAE and the DOS anisotropy. For the Mn atom, out-of-plane M{sub S}=3.18 {mu}{sub B} and M{sub L}=0.09 {mu}{sub B} are calculated. There is a strong induced W-interface M{sub S}=-0.34 {mu}{sub B} and M{sub L}=-0.06 {mu}{sub B}. The spin and orbital polarizations of W are quickly decaying away from the interface, showing slow oscillations. When the magnetization is rotated in-plane, there is no anisotropy in M{sub S}, and a pronounced reduction of in-plane M{sub L}. Accordingly, the very big positive MAE of 5.6 meV per Mn-atom is calculated, which is shown to originate from the W contribution. In addition, the TAMR is estimated from the densities of states anisotropy.

  1. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: from overlay methods to statistical methods in the Lombardy Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi


    Full Text Available Groundwater is among the most important freshwater resources. Worldwide, aquifers are experiencing an increasing threat of pollution from urbanization, industrial development, agricultural activities and mining enterprise. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions to protect groundwater from these anthropogenic sources are widely required. The most efficient tool, which helps supporting land use planning, while protecting groundwater from contamination, is represented by groundwater vulnerability assessment. Over the years, several methods assessing groundwater vulnerability have been developed: overlay and index methods, statistical and process-based methods. All methods are means to synthesize complex hydrogeological information into a unique document, which is a groundwater vulnerability map, useable by planners, decision and policy makers, geoscientists and the public. Although it is not possible to identify an approach which could be the best one for all situations, the final product should always be scientific defensible, meaningful and reliable. Nevertheless, various methods may produce very different results at any given site. Thus, reasons for similarities and differences need to be deeply investigated. This study demonstrates the reliability and flexibility of a spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination at a regional scale. The Lombardy Plain case study is particularly interesting for its long history of groundwater monitoring (quality and quantity, availability of hydrogeological data, and combined presence of various anthropogenic sources of contamination. Recent updates of the regional water protection plan have raised the necessity of realizing more flexible, reliable and accurate groundwater vulnerability maps. A comparison of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through different approaches and developed in a time span of several years has demonstrated the relevance of the

  2. Evaluation of a portable image overlay projector for the visualisation of surgical navigation data: phantom studies. (United States)

    Gavaghan, K; Oliveira-Santos, T; Peterhans, M; Reyes, M; Kim, H; Anderegg, S; Weber, S


    Presenting visual feedback for image-guided surgery on a monitor requires the surgeon to perform time-consuming comparisons and diversion of sight and attention away from the patient. Deficiencies in previously developed augmented reality systems for image-guided surgery have, however, prevented the general acceptance of any one technique as a viable alternative to monitor displays. This work presents an evaluation of the feasibility and versatility of a novel augmented reality approach for the visualisation of surgical planning and navigation data. The approach, which utilises a portable image overlay device, was evaluated during integration into existing surgical navigation systems and during application within simulated navigated surgery scenarios. A range of anatomical models, surgical planning data and guidance information taken from liver surgery, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, orthopaedic surgery and biopsy were displayed on patient-specific phantoms, directly on to the patient's skin and on to cadaver tissue. The feasibility of employing the proposed augmented reality visualisation approach in each of the four tested clinical applications was qualitatively assessed for usability, visibility, workspace, line of sight and obtrusiveness. The visualisation approach was found to assist in spatial understanding and reduced the need for sight diversion throughout the simulated surgical procedures. The approach enabled structures to be identified and targeted quickly and intuitively. All validated augmented reality scenes were easily visible and were implemented with minimal overhead. The device showed sufficient workspace for each of the presented applications, and the approach was minimally intrusiveness to the surgical scene. The presented visualisation approach proved to be versatile and applicable to a range of image-guided surgery applications, overcoming many of the deficiencies of previously described AR approaches. The approach presents an initial step

  3. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man


    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  4. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia


    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  5. Incommensurate Moiré overlayer with strong local binding: CoO(111) bilayer on Ir(100) (United States)

    Tröppner, C.; Schmitt, T.; Reuschl, M.; Hammer, L.; Schneider, M. A.; Mittendorfer, F.; Redinger, J.; Podloucky, R.; Weinert, M.


    Incommensurate relaxed overlayer Moiré structures are often interpreted as systems with weak lateral variations of the binding potential and thus no structural modulations in the overlayer material. We discuss here the example of a CoO(111) bilayer on Ir(100), which is a relaxed overlayer with strong structural response to the lateral modulation of interface properties but nevertheless is incommensurate. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we quantitatively reproduce all the structural parameters of the CoO(111) bilayer on Ir(100) as proposed by a recent low-energy electron diffraction analysis [Ebensperger , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.235405 81, 235405 (2010)]. The calculations predict energetic degeneracies with respect to registry shifts of the CoO(111) film along [011¯]. Large-scale, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy topographies reveal that the true structure of the film is incommensurate in this direction, exhibiting a one-dimensional Moiré pattern with a period of about 9.4 aIr. From DFT calculations for limiting (periodic) models, we can sample the potential landscape of the cobalt and oxygen atoms in the Moiré structure across the Ir(100) unit cell. We find that despite the non-commensurability of the film, the binding to the substrate is site specific with strong attraction and repulsion points for both cobalt and oxygen atoms, leading to severe local distortions in the film. The lateral modulation of the structural elements within the oxide film can be understood as a combination of the lateral variation in the Co-Ir binding potential and additional O-Ir binding.

  6. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin


    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  7. Laser-induced ferroelectric domain engineering in LiNbO3 crystals using an amorphous silicon overlayer (United States)

    Zisis, G.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Franz, Y.; Healy, N.; Masaud, T. M.; Chong, H. M. H.; Soergel, E.; Peacock, A. C.; Mailis, S.


    We report laser-induced poling inhibition and direct poling in lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3), covered with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) light-absorbing layer, using a visible (488 nm) continuous wave laser source. Our results show that the use of the a-Si overlayer produces deeper poling inhibited domains with minimum surface damage, as compared to previously reported UV laser writing experiments on uncoated crystals, thus increasing the applicability of this method in the production of ferroelectric domain engineered structures for nonlinear optical applications. The characteristics of the poling inhibited domains were investigated using differential etching and piezoresponse force microscopy.

  8. Gas selectivity control in Co3O4 sensor via concurrent tuning of gas reforming and gas filtering using nano-scale hetero-overlayer of catalytic oxides. (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Jeong, Seong-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Bo-Young; Kim, Jun-Sik; Abdel-Hady, Faissal; Wazzan, Abdulaziz A; Al-Turaif, Hamad Ali; Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Jong-Heun


    Co3O4 sensors with a nanoscale TiO2 or SnO2 catalytic overlayer were prepared by screen printing of Co3O4 yolk-shell spheres and subsequent e-beam evaporation of TiO2 and SnO2. The Co3O4 sensors with 5 nm thick TiO2 and SnO2 overlayers showed high responses (resistance ratios) to 5 ppm xylene (14.5 and 28.8) and toluene (11.7 and 16.2) at 250°C with negligible responses to interference gases such as ethanol, HCHO, CO, and benzene. In contrast, the pure Co3O4 sensor did not show remarkable selectivity toward any specific gas. The response and selectivity to methylbenzenes and ethanol could be systematically controlled by selecting the catalytic overlayer material, varying the overlayer thickness, and tuning the sensing temperature. The significant enhancement of the selectivity for xylene and toluene was attributed to the reforming of less reactive methylbenzenes into more reactive and smaller species and oxidative filtering of other interference gases, including ubiquitous ethanol. The concurrent control of the gas reforming and oxidative filtering processes using a nano-scale overlayer of catalytic oxides provides a new, general, and powerful tool for designing highly selective and sensitive oxide semiconductor gas sensors.

  9. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips


    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  10. Constructing dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte


    The concept of montage is proposed as a driver for establishing heterogeneous, open and dynamic new-industrial architecture. Drawing parallels between the intense industrialization that occurred in Denmark in the 1960s and current scenarios of IT-based production methods, montage is unfolded both...... as an aesthetic strategy and a technical procedure, taking inspiration from both visual arts and architecture. Montage is presented as a means of creating active, architectural interactions - material as well as in terms of meaning - not only in the realm of industrialization but also in the intersection between...... industrial production methods and on-site, craft-based fields of construction....

  11. Constructing History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Riber


    The Icelandic sagas can be read and interpreted in many ways. This article examines the sagas both as literary expressions of a longstanding oral tradition and as part of a collective and cultural memory. The focus in the first part is on people and places in the sagas as ‘realms of memory’: things...... that help construct a common past and a common identity. The second part of the article explores the role of the sagas in medieval Iceland as ‘key myths’ that explain the origin and uniqueness of a society, and as moral and legal role models legitimizing the current social order....

  12. [A simple and reliable technique for the treatment of rhinoliquorrhoea from small defects: Free nasal mucosa overlay graft]. (United States)

    Armengot, Miguel; Gómez-Gómez, M José; García-Lliberós, Ainhoa


    Cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the sinonasal cavities (rhinoliquorrhoea) represent a process with diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The endoscopic transnasal approach is the method of choice, but with many possible variants. The purpose of this paper was to make a critical review of our diagnostic and therapeutic protocol used for 11years. We operated on 31patients. The diagnosis was based on the biochemical analysis of rhinorrhoea, CT and MRI. endoscopic nasal surgery after preoperative intrathecal injection of 5% fluorescein (2cc). Closure was performed using a free overlay graft from middle turbinate mucosa. Two patients had meningitis as the first sign. All patients were diagnosed by biochemical analysis of rhinorrhoea. CT and MRI gave clear evidence of the leakage location. The skull base defect was always less than 1cm. Fluorescein allowed clear visualisation of the fistulous area without other instruments and produced no side effects. One patient had a postoperative frontal abscess, which evolved favourably. All fistulas were closed and there was only one recurrence at 10years, which debuted as pneumococcal meningitis. Our surgical protocol, based on the use of intrathecal fluorescein and free grafting of middle turbinate mucosa overlay onto the fistulous area, achieves successful long-term results in the management of rhinoliquorrhoea secondary to small skull base defects. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Augmented reality navigation with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay for dental surgery. (United States)

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen


    Computer-assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) has been rapidly evolving since the last decade. State-of-the-art surgical navigation in OMS still suffers from bulky tracking sensors, troublesome image registration procedures, patient movement, loss of depth perception in visual guidance, and low navigation accuracy. We present an augmented reality navigation system with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay and stereo tracking for dental surgery. A customized stereo camera is designed to track both the patient and instrument. Image registration is performed by patient tracking and real-time 3-D contour matching, without requiring any fiducial and reference markers. Real-time autostereoscopic 3-D imaging is implemented with the help of a consumer-level graphics processing unit. The resulting 3-D image of the patient's anatomy is overlaid on the surgical site by a half-silvered mirror using image registration and IP-camera registration to guide the surgeon by exposing hidden critical structures. The 3-D image of the surgical instrument is also overlaid over the real one for an augmented display. The 3-D images present both stereo and motion parallax from which depth perception can be obtained. Experiments were performed to evaluate various aspects of the system; the overall image overlay error of the proposed system was 0.71 mm.

  14. Combined Excimer Laser Photoablation and Amniotic Membrane Overlay for Relief of Symptomatic Discomfort in Gelatinous Drop-like Corneal Dystrophy. (United States)

    Alex, Anne F; Eter, Nicole; Uhlig, Constantin E


    To describe the efficacy of combined excimer laser photoablation and amniotic overlay membrane in the relief of symptomatic discomfort in a 17-year-old patient who had gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured with Snellen letters. Slit-lamp examination of the ocular surface and anterior chamber was performed at baseline. Results were photodocumented. Excimer laser photoablation was performed and subsequently 2 amniotic membranes were transconjunctivally fixated with 10.0 nylon sutures. Investigations and documentation were performed at baseline, every 2 months in the first year, and then every 6 months. The duration of follow-up was 22 months. At baseline, the BCVA was 20/70 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye. The patient reported distinct photophobia. Slit-lamp examination was difficult because of blepharospasm. Although gelatinous drops developed again and the BCVA decreased to 2/200, the patient reported significant relief after both microsurgical treatments and remained comfortable at 20 and 22 months. Excimer laser photocoagulation combined with amniotic membrane overlay does not stop the development of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy but may improve subjective comfort. Such treatment does not hinder subsequent lamellar or penetrating grafts and is helpful in providing the necessary time for preparation of matched keratoplasties.

  15. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia; Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi


    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  16. An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Faisal


    Full Text Available The United Nations estimates that the global population is going to be double in the coming 40 years, which may cause a negative impact on the environment and human life. Such an impact may instigate increased water demand, overuse of power, anthropogenic noise, etc. Thus, modelling the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ becomes indispensable for a better city planning and an efficient urban sprawl control. This study aims to investigate the ability of using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques to model the UEQ with a case study in the city of Toronto via deriving different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Two techniques, GIS overlay and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Socio-economic parameters including family income, higher education and land value were used as a reference to assess the outcomes derived from the two integration methods. The outcomes were assessed through evaluating the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Preliminary findings showed that the GIS overlay represents a better precision and accuracy (71% and 65%, respectively, comparing to the PCA technique. The outcomes of the research can serve as a generic indicator to help the authority for better city planning with consideration of all possible social, environmental and urban requirements or constraints.

  17. Computer-based production of comparison overlays from 3D-scanned dental casts for bite mark analysis. (United States)

    Martin-de las Heras, Stella; Valenzuela, Aurora; Ogayar, Carlos; Valverde, A Javier; Torres, Juan Carlos


    Bite mark analysis assumes the uniqueness of the dentition can be accurately recorded on skin or an object. However, biting is a dynamic procedure involving three moving systems, the maxilla, the mandible, and the victim's reaction. Moreover, bite marks can be distorted by the anatomic location of the injury or the elasticity of the skin tissue. Therefore, the same dentition can produce bite marks that exhibit variations in appearance. The complexity of this source of evidence emphasizes the need for new 3D imaging technologies in bite mark analysis. This article presents a new software package, DentalPrint (2004, University of Granada, Department of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Odontology, Granada, Spain) that generates different comparison overlays from 3D dental cast images depending on the pressure of the bite or the distortion caused by victim-biter interaction. The procedure for generating comparison overlays is entirely automatic, thus avoiding observer bias. Moreover, the software presented here makes it impossible for third parties to manipulate or alter the 3D images, making DentalPrint suitable for bite mark analyses to be used in court proceedings.

  18. Antibacterial effects of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils in tomato films determined by overlay and vapor-phase methods. (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Mandrell, R; Friedman, Mendel


    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film-forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor-phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: oregano oil > allspice oil > garlic oil. Listeria monocytogenes was less resistant to EO vapors, while E. coli O157:H7 was more resistant to EOs as determined by both overlay and vapor-phase diffusion tests. The presence of plant EO antimicrobials reduced the viscosity of TPFFS at the higher shear rates, but did not affect water vapor permeability of films. EOs increased elongation and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that the 3 plant-derived EOs can be used to prepare tomato-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  19. Colored overlays for visual perceptual deficits in children with reading disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are they differentially effective? (United States)

    Iovino, I; Fletcher, J M; Breitmeyer, B G; Foorman, B R


    The Transient Channel Deficit (TCD) model of reading disability was evaluated by examining the effects of color overlays on the reading ability of four groups of children (n = 15 each) with reading disability and comorbid conditions involving math and ADHD. These 60 children were evaluated for reading accuracy and rate on measures of word decoding and reading comprehension under three color transparency conditions (blue, red, no overlay). Results indicated that color overlays did not differentially affect the reading performance of individuals with and without reading disabilities. However, blue transparencies significantly improved reading comprehension in all groups, and reduced reading rate. These findings indicate that the TCD model may need to be reexamined. An alternative hypothesis for the observed effects, involving facilitation of attention processes, was posted.

  20. A complete methodology towards accuracy and lot-to-lot robustness in on-product overlay metrology using flexible wavelength selection (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; den Boef, Arie; Noot, Marc; Adam, Omer; Grzela, Grzegorz; Fuchs, Andreas; Jak, Martin; Liao, Sax; Chang, Ken; Couraudon, Vincent; Su, Eason; Tzeng, Wilson; Wang, Cathy; Fouquet, Christophe; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Wang, Y. C.; Cheng, Kevin; Ke, Chih-Ming; Terng, L. G.


    The optical coupling between gratings in diffraction-based overlay triggers a swing-curve1,6 like response of the target's signal contrast and overlay sensitivity through measurement wavelengths and polarizations. This means there are distinct measurement recipes (wavelength and polarization combinations) for a given target where signal contrast and overlay sensitivity are located at the optimal parts of the swing-curve that can provide accurate and robust measurements. Some of these optimal recipes can be the ideal choices of settings for production. The user has to stay away from the non-optimal recipe choices (that are located on the undesirable parts of the swing-curve) to avoid possibilities to make overlay measurement error that can be sometimes (depending on the amount of asymmetry and stack) in the order of several "nm". To accurately identify these optimum operating areas of the swing-curve during an experimental setup, one needs to have full-flexibility in wavelength and polarization choices. In this technical publication, a diffraction-based overlay (DBO) measurement tool with many choices of wavelengths and polarizations is utilized on advanced production stacks to study swing-curves. Results show that depending on the stack and the presence of asymmetry, the swing behavior can significantly vary and a solid procedure is needed to identify a recipe during setup that is robust against variations in stack and grating asymmetry. An approach is discussed on how to use this knowledge of swing-curve to identify recipe that is not only accurate at setup, but also robust over the wafer, and wafer-to-wafer. KPIs are reported in run-time to ensure the quality / accuracy of the reading (basically acting as an error bar to overlay measurement).

  1. New overlay measurement technique with an i-line stepper using embedded standard field image alignment marks for wafer bonding applications (United States)

    Kulse, P.; Sasai, K.; Schulz, K.; Wietstruck, M.


    In the last decades the semiconductor technology has been driven by Moore's law leading to high performance CMOS technologies with feature sizes of less than 10 nm [1]. It has been pointed out that not only scaling but also the integration of novel components and technology modules into CMOS/BiCMOS technologies is becoming more attractive to realize smart and miniaturized systems [2]. Driven by new applications in the area of communication, health and automation, new components and technology modules such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Sibased microfluidics and InP-SiGe BiCMOS heterointegration have been demonstrated [3-6]. In contrast to standard VLSI processes fabricated on front side of the silicon wafer, these new technology modules require addition backside processing of the wafer; thus an accurate alignment between the front and backside of the wafer is mandatory. In previous work an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation into IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS backside process module has been presented [7]. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the backside of BiCMOS wafer for additional backside processing. In addition to the aforementioned back side process technologies, new applications like Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) for interposers and advanced substrate technologies for 3D heterogeneous integration demand not only single wafer fabrication but also processing of wafer stacks provided by temporary and permanent wafer bonding [8]. Therefore, the available overlay measurement techniques are not suitable if overlay and alignment marks are realized at the bonding interface of a wafer stack which consists of both a silicon device and a silicon carrier wafer. The former used EVG 40NT automated overlay measurement system, which use two opposite positioned microscopes inspecting simultaneous the wafer back and front side, is not capable measuring embedded overlay

  2. Improved charge separation efficiency of hematite photoanodes by coating an ultrathin p-type LaFeO3 overlayer (United States)

    Fang, Tao; Guo, Yongsheng; Cai, Songhua; Zhang, Ningsi; Hu, Yingfei; Zhang, Shiying; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang


    Many metal-oxide candidates for photoelectrochemical water splitting exhibit localized small polaron carrier conduction. Especially hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes often suffer from low carrier mobility, which causes the serious bulk electron-hole recombination and greatly limits their PEC performances. In this study, the charge separation efficiency of hematite was enhanced greatly by coating an ultrathin p-type LaFeO3 overlayer. Compared to the hematite photoanodes, the solar water splitting photocurrent of the Fe2O3/LaFeO3 n-p junction exhibits a 90% increase at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, due to enlarging the band bending and expanding the depletion layer.

  3. Road-runoff metal concentrations in Toledo, Ohio, and their relation to average daily traffic and age of pavement overlay. (United States)

    Apul, D S; Miller, E; Jain, V


    Road runoff can contain metal concentrations and sampling of it can be expensive if auto-samplers are used. In this study, an inexpensive storm water sampling apparatus was developed and used for collecting the road runoff at eleven different sites in Toledo area. Sites were selected with the purpose of evaluating the effects of average daily traffic (ADT) and the age of pavement overlay on road runoff metal concentrations. Ag, As, Cd, and Mo concentrations were primarily below detection limit. Ba, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn were observed in higher concentrations but lower than pavement surface; with time, as the pavement aged, these sources appeared to be depleted as observed by lower runoff concentrations in older pavements.

  4. Development of diagnostic concentrations for insecticide resistance monitoring in soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae using an artificial diet overlay bioassay. (United States)

    Mascarenhas, R N; Boethel, D J


    Diagnostic concentrations for several standard and experimental insecticides were determined for a laboratory reference strain of soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), using an insecticide diet overlay bioassay to evaluate the relative susceptibility of field (P) and F1 generations of four field-collected strains of third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar soybean loopers in 1996 and 1997. Diagnostic concentrations were defined as concentrations that killed 90-95% of the susceptible individuals and were 5 ppm for permethrin, 1,300 ppm for thiodicarb, 60 ppm for chlorfenapyr, 5 ppm for emamectin benzoate, and 60 ppm for spinosad. Field strains exhibited significantly greater percentage survival than the laboratory reference strain in the permethrin bioassays in 1996 and 1997 in both the P and F1 generation bioassays and in the thiodicarb bioassays in 1997. Larvae exposed to diagnostic concentrations of the experimental insecticides chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad usually did not exhibit significantly higher percentage survival than the reference strain.

  5. Influence of different cavity preparation designs on fracture resistance of onlay and overlay restorations using different CAD/CAM materials. (United States)

    Ön Salman, Gizem; Tacír, Ɣbrahim Halil; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Salman, Afşin


    To evaluate fracture strength of different preparation designed onlay and overlay restorations produced by Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and three different new ceramic-polymer blocks. Ninety-one extracted human mandibular molars were used in this study. Preparations were made as (1) Only functional cusps reduction, (2) Only functional cusps reduction+rounded shoulder finish line, (3) All cusps reduction, or (4) All cusps reduction+rounded shoulder finish line. Then these four cavity types were restored with three different materials: VITA Enamic, GC Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate. Thirteen groups were created by added control group (n= 7). Adhesive cementation was achieved by using a dual cured composite resin adhesive cement RelyX Ultimate. All samples were subjected to thermocycling for 5,000 cycles in water baths between 50°C and 55°C. The fracture resistance of specimens was determined under compressive loads along the long axis of the restored teeth at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture with a universal test machine. Fracture types of restored groups were evaluated. For fracture resistance data, one-way ANOVA; for correlation between material type and preparation design, two-way ANOVA were used. Percentage table and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for analysis of fracture types. There was no significant difference between all the groups (one-way ANOVA, P> 0.05). Group 4 showed statistically higher fracture strength values than Group 1 and no significant difference was found among other preparation designs by two-way ANOVA that compared all types of preparation designs regardless of material difference (Pmaterials and type of preparations should be selected for onlay and overlay restorations produced with newly introduced ceramic-polymer CAD/CAM materials.

  6. Aggregated journal–journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.

    We compare the network of aggregated journal–journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2

  7. Scopus and Web-of-Science 2012 compared in terms of aggregated journal-journal citation relations: Global maps and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.; Noyons, E.


    We compare the networks of aggregated journal-journal citation relations as provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science and Social Science Citation Indexes (SCI and SSCI) with similar data for 2012 based on Scopus. First, we develop basemaps and overlays for the two sets

  8. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, G.T.; Saratti, C.M.; Cattani-Lorente, M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Scherrer, S.; Krecji, I.


    Objectives To evaluate the fracture strength and the mode of failure of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM overlays with fiber reinforced composite build-up of the pulp chamber. Methods 40 Devitalized molars were cut over the CEJ and divided into five groups (n = 8). The pulp

  9. Improved antifouling properties and selective biofunctionalization of stainless steel by employing heterobifunctional silane-polyethylene glycol overlayers and avidin-biotin technology (United States)

    Hynninen, Ville; Vuori, Leena; Hannula, Markku; Tapio, Kosti; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Isoniemi, Tommi; Lehtonen, Elina; Hirsimäki, Mika; Toppari, J. Jussi; Valden, Mika; Hytönen, Vesa P.


    A straightforward solution-based method to modify the biofunctionality of stainless steel (SS) using heterobifunctional silane-polyethylene glycol (silane-PEG) overlayers is reported. Reduced nonspecific biofouling of both proteins and bacteria onto SS and further selective biofunctionalization of the modified surface were achieved. According to photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the silane-PEGs formed less than 10 Å thick overlayers with close to 90% surface coverage and reproducible chemical compositions. Consequently, the surfaces also became more hydrophilic, and the observed non-specific biofouling of proteins was reduced by approximately 70%. In addition, the attachment of E. coli was reduced by more than 65%. Moreover, the potential of the overlayer to be further modified was demonstrated by successfully coupling biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (bAP) to a silane-PEG-biotin overlayer via avidin-biotin bridges. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was shown to be well preserved without compromising the achieved antifouling properties. Overall, the simple solution-based approach enables the tailoring of SS to enhance its activity for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  10. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method


    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.; Blicharski M.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam).

  11. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam.

  12. Adsorption and dissociation of SO3 on N-doped TiO2 supported Au overlayers investigated by van der Waals corrected DFT (United States)

    Abbasi, Amirali; Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin


    We present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the reactivity towards SO3 adsorption and dissociation over the TiO2 supported Au overlayers. We model different adsorption configurations of SO3 on the considered structures. For all adsorption systems, we find that the interaction of SO3 molecule with the surfaces of Au atoms is strongly favored. On the TiO2 supported Au overlayer, SO3 also dissociated into SO2 and adsorbed atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen binds directly to the Au atoms. The structural properties are explained in terms of the bond lengths, bond angles and adsorption energies. The electronic structure of the system and Mulliken population analysis were also studied for the discussion of results. The results indicate that the SO3 interaction with N-doped TiO2-supported Au overlayer is more favorable in energy than the interaction with undoped one, suggesting the increased sensing capability of N-doped TiO2-supported Au towards detection of SO3 molecule. The oxygen atoms of the SO3 molecule bind to the Au and Ti atoms of the TiO2 supported Au overlayer in a bridge geometry. The significant overlaps in the PDOSs of the Au and oxygen atoms of the SO3 molecule, as well as titanium and oxygen atoms indicate the formation of chemical bonds between these atoms. Our DFT study therefore provides a theoretical basis for why the reactivity of SO3 molecule with N-doped TiO2 supported Au overlayer may increase, thus being a helpful procedure in the development of efficient sensor devices for SO3 detection.

  13. Generation of nanocrystalline surface layer in short pulse laser processing of metal targets under conditions of spatial confinement by solid or liquid overlayer (United States)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Shih, Cheng-Yu; Karim, Eaman T.; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V.


    The effect of spatial confinement by a solid or liquid overlayer on short pulse laser-induced surface microstructure modification is investigated in a series of large-scale atomistic simulations performed for Ag targets irradiated in the regime of melting and resolidification, below the thresholds for laser spallation and ablation. For Ag targets with free surfaces, the formation of a nanocrystalline region with random crystallographic grain orientation is observed under irradiation conditions leading to the generation of numerous sub-surface voids that slow down the solidification process. When no voids are generated, the resolidification produces grains misoriented with respect to the bulk of the target by just several degrees and separated from each other by low angle grain boundaries or dislocation walls. The presence of a liquid or solid overlayer suppresses nucleation of sub-surface voids, provides an additional pathway for cooling through the heat conduction to the overlayer, and facilitates the formation of nanocrystalline structure in a region of the metal target adjacent to the overlayer. Moreover, the stabilizing effect of the solid overlayer may result in an incomplete melting of metal in the vicinity of the interface, making it possible for grains growing from the interface to retain ;memory; of the target orientation and to produce nanocrystalline interfacial region with small misorientation of grains with respect to the bulk of the target. In all simulations, the nanocrystalline layers generated by laser processing of single crystal Ag targets are characterized by a high density of stacking faults, twin boundaries, and point defects produced in the course of the rapid resolidification.

  14. TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, S; Kireeff Covo, M; Jackson, A; Qadadha, Y; Campbell, K; Albright, R; Bloemhard, P; Donoghue, A; Siero, C; Gimpel, T; Small, S; Ninemire, B; Johnson, M; Phair, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Purpose: The potential of particle therapy has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying thermoacoustic localization of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. Methods: Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the inflector of the 88″ cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 2 Gy were delivered in 2 µs by a beam with peak current of 2 µA. Thermoacoustic emissions were detected by a cardiac array and Verasonics V1 ultrasound system, which also generated a grayscale ultrasound image. 1024 thermoacoustic pulses were averaged before filtering and one-way beamforming focused signal onto the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Experiments were performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil. Results: In the waterbath overlays of the Bragg peak agreed with Monte Carlo simulations to within 800±170 µm. Agreement within 1.3 ± 0.2 mm was achieved in the gelatin phantom, although relative stopping powers were estimated only to first order from CT scans. Protoacoustic signals were detected after travel from the Bragg peak through 29 mm and 65 mm of phantom material when the cavity was empty and full of olive oil, respectively. Conclusion: Protoacoustic range verification is feasible with a commercial clinical ultrasound array, but at doses exceeding the clinical realm. Further optimization of both transducer array and injection line chopper is required to enable range verification within a 2 Gy dose limit, which would enable online adaptive treatment. This work was supported in part by a UWM Intramural Instrumentation Grant and by the Director, Office

  15. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin


    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  16. Identification of an incommensurate FeAl{sub 2} overlayer on FeAl(110) using x-ray diffraction and reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baddorf, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chandavarkar, S.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy


    FeAl, like NiAl, crystallizes in the CsCl structure. Consequently the (110) planes contain equal amounts of Fe and Al distributed as interlocking rectangles. Unlike the NiAI(110) surface, which retains the (1{times}l) in-plane symmetry of the bulk, FeAl(l10) reconstructs to form an ordered, incommensurate overlayer. The reconstructed layer introduces x-ray diffraction rods at half-order positions along the [1{bar 1}0] direction, and displaced {plus_minus}0.2905 from integer positions along the [001] direction. Peak widths reveal excellent long range order. Specular reflectivity measurements above and below the Fe K{alpha} edge can be reproduced using a model containing a single reconstructed overlayer with an Fe:Al ratio of 1:2, consistent with FeA{sub I}2.

  17. Microstructural changes of a thermally aged stainless steel submerged arc weld overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Kameda, J.; Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K.


    The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes in stainless steel submerged arc weld-overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels was investigated using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to post-welding heat treatments (PWHTs), with a subsequent furnace cooling, a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was observed due to spinodal decomposition in the δ-ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the δ-ferrite phase. The degree of the spinodal decomposition in the submerged arc weld sample was similar to that in the electroslag weld one reported previously. We also observed a carbide on the γ-austenite and δ-ferrite interface. There were no Cr depleted zones around the carbide.

  18. TinCan: User-Defined P2P Virtual Network Overlays for Ad-hoc Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre St Juste


    Full Text Available Virtual private networking (VPN has become an increasingly important component of a collaboration environment because it ensures private, authenticated communication among participants, using existing collaboration tools, where users are distributed across multiple institutions and can be mobile. The majority of current VPN solutions are based on a centralized VPN model, where all IP traffic is tunneled through a VPN gateway. Nonetheless, there are several use case scenarios that require a model where end-to-end VPN links are tunneled upon existing Internet infrastructure in a peer-to-peer (P2P fashion, removing the bottleneck of a centralized VPN gateway. We propose a novel virtual network — TinCan — based on peerto-peer private network tunnels. It reuses existing standards and implementations of services for discovery notification (XMPP, reflection (STUN and relaying (TURN, facilitating configuration. In this approach, trust relationships maintained by centralized (or federated services are automatically mapped to TinCan links. In one use scenario, TinCan allows unstructured P2P overlays connecting trusted end-user devices — while only requiring VPN software on user devices and leveraging online social network (OSN infrastructure already widely deployed. This paper describes the architecture and design of TinCan and presents an experimental evaluation of a prototype supporting Windows, Linux, and Android mobile devices. Results quantify the overhead introduced by the network virtualization layer, and the resource requirements imposed on services needed to bootstrap TinCan links.

  19. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece (United States)

    Tziritis, E.; Lombardo, L.


    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  20. Strain distribution and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with fully distributed fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda


    This study aims at evaluating the feasibility of strain measurement and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with pulse prepump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. Single-mode optical fibers with two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively, were applied as fully distributed sensors, their performances were compared with analytical predictions. They were successfully protected from damage during concrete casting of three full-scale concrete panels when 5 to 10-cm-thick protective mortar covers had been set for 2 h. Experimental results from three-point loading tests of the panels indicated that the strain distributions measured from the two types of sensors were in good agreement, and cracks can be detected at sharp peaks of the measured strain distributions. The two-layer and three-layer coated fibers can be used to measure strains up to 2.33% and 2.42% with a corresponding sensitivity of 5.43×10-5 and 4.66×10-5 GHz/μɛ, respectively. Two cracks as close as 7 to 9 cm can be clearly detected. The measured strains in optical fiber were lower than the analytical prediction by 10% to 25%. Their difference likely resulted from strain transfer through various coatings, idealized point loading, varying optical fiber embedment, and concrete heterogeneity.

  1. Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite DVB/IP Infrastructure in Overlay Constellations for Triple-Play Services Access in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pallis


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the convergence of digital broadcasting and Internet technologies, by elaborating on the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking infrastructure, enabling triple-play services access in rural areas. At local/district level, the paper proposes the exploitation of DVB-T platforms in regenerative configurations for creating terrestrial DVB/IP backhaul between the core backbone (in urban areas and a number of intermediate communication nodes distributed within the DVB-T broadcasting footprint (in rural areas. In this way, triple play services that are available at the core backbone, are transferred via the regenerative DVB-T/IP backhaul to the entire district and can be accessed by rural users via the corresponding intermediate node. On the other hand, at regional/national level, the paper proposes the exploitation of a satellite interactive digital video broadcasting platform (DVB S2/RCS as an overlay network that interconnects the regenerative DVB-T/IP platforms, as well as individual users, and services providers, to each other. Performance of the proposed hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking environment is validated through experimental tests that were conducted under real transmission/reception conditions (for the terrestrial segment and via simulation experiments (for the satellite segment at a prototype network infrastructure.

  2. Joint Bandwidth and Power Allocation for MIMO Two-Way Relays-Assisted Overlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad


    This paper studies the achievable cognitive sum rate of an overlay cognitive radio (CR) system assisted with multiple antennas two-way relays in which primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In this context, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation is investigated. We propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are exploited to support PUs to reach their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. Power expressions for optimal transmit power allocated per PU and CU antenna are derived under primary quality-of-service constraint in addition to bandwidth and power budget constraints. More specifically, CUs act as relays for the PUs transmission and gain some spectrum as long as they respect these constraints. After deriving the optimal transmit powers, we employ a strong optimization tool based on swarm intelligence to optimize the full and complex relay amplification gain matrices in addition to the bandwidths released to primary and cognitive transmission. Furthermore, three different utility functions are considered in our optimization problems depending on the level of fairness among CUs.

  3. Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructures and hardness of stainless steel weld-overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kakubo, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Katsuyama, J.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    The microstructures and the hardness of stainless steel weld overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels subjected to neutron irradiation at a dose of 7.2 × 10{sup 19} n cm{sup −2} (E > 1 MeV) and a flux of 1.1 × 10{sup 13} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} at 290 °C were investigated by atom probe tomography and by a nanoindentation technique. To isolate the effects of the neutron irradiation, we compared the results of the measurements of the neutron-irradiated samples with those from a sample aged at 300 °C for a duration equivalent to that of the irradiation. The Cr concentration fluctuation was enhanced in the δ-ferrite phase of the irradiated sample. In addition, enhancement of the concentration fluctuation of Si, which was not observed in the aged sample, was observed. The hardening in the δ-ferrite phase occurred due to both irradiation and aging; however, the hardening of the irradiated sample was more than that expected from the Cr concentration fluctuation, which suggested that the Si concentration fluctuation and irradiation-induced defects were possible origins of the additional hardening.

  4. Effects of thermal aging on microstructure and hardness of stainless steel weld-overlay claddings of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kakubo, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Katsuyama, J.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    The effects of thermal aging of stainless steel weld-overlay claddings of nuclear reactor pressure vessels on the microstructure and hardness of the claddings were investigated using atom probe tomography and nanoindentation testing. The claddings were aged at 400 °C for periods of 100–10,000 h. The fluctuation in Cr concentration in the δ-ferrite phase, which was caused by spinodal decomposition, progressed rapidly after aging for 100 h, and gradually for aging durations greater than 1000 h. On the other hand, NiSiMn clusters, initially formed after aging for less than 1000 h, had the highest number density after aging for 2000 h, and coarsened after aging for 10,000 h. The hardness of the δ-ferrite phase also increased rapidly for short period of aging, and saturated after aging for longer than 1000 h. This trend was similar to the observed Cr fluctuation concentration, but different from the trend seen in the formation of the NiSiMn clusters. These results strongly suggest that the primary factor responsible for the hardening of the δ-ferrite phase owing to thermal aging is Cr spinodal decomposition.

  5. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    KAUST Repository

    Tziritis, E.


    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  6. A Treatment Protocol for Restoring Occlusal Vertical Dimension Using an Overlay Removable Partial Denture as an Alternative to Extensive Fixed Restorations: A Clinical Report


    Patel, Mit B; Bencharit, Sompop


    Treatment options for patients with severe attrition resulting in reduced occlusal vertical dimension are often limited to fixed prosthesis to reestablish proper occlusal vertical dimension and functional occlusion. In some cases such as when there are limited finances, minimal esthetic concerns, and medical considerations fixed prosthesis may not be the ideal treatment option. Overlay removable partial dentures (ORPDs) can be used as a provisional or interim prosthesis as well as permanent p...

  7. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G


    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  8. Dissimilar steel welding and overlay covering with nickel based alloys using SWAM (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) and GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) processes in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Chilque, Angel Rafael [Centro Tecnico de Engenharia e Inovacao Empresarial Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bracarense, Alexander Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca [Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Marconi, Guilherme [Federal Center of Technological Education (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    This work presents the welding of dissimilar ferritic steel type A508 class 3 and austenitic stainless steel type AISI 316 L using Inconel{sup R} 600 (A182 and A82) and overlay covering with Inconel{sup R} 690 (A52) as filler metal. Dissimilar welds with these materials without defects and weldability problems such as hot, cold, reheat cracking and Ductility Dip Crack were obtained. Comparables mechanical properties to those of the base metal were found and signalized the efficiency of the welding procedure and thermal treatment selected and used. This study evidences the importance of meeting compromised properties between heat affected zone of the ferritic steel and the others regions presents in the dissimilar joint, to elaborate the dissimilar metal welding procedure specification and weld overlay. Metallographic studies with optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness were carried out to justified and support the results, showing the efficiency of the technique of elaboration of dissimilar metal welding procedure and overlay. The results are comparables and coherent with the results found by others. Some alternatives of welding procedures are proposed to attain the efficacy. Further studies are proposed like as metallographic studies of the fine microstructure, making use, for example, of scanning electron microscope (SEM adapted with an EDS) to explain looking to increase the resistance to primary water stress corrosion (PWSCC) in nuclear equipment. (author)

  9. Overlay Tool© for aCGHViewer©: An Analysis Module Built for aCGHViewer© used to Perform Comparisons of Data Derived from Different Microarray Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken C. Lo


    Full Text Available The Overlay Tool© has been developed to combine high throughput data derived from various microarray platforms. This tool analyzes high-resolution correlations between gene expression changes and either copy number abnormalities (CNAs or loss of heterozygosity events detected using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Using an overlay analysis which is designed to be performed using data from multiple microarray platforms on a single biological sample, the Overlay Tool© identifi es potentially important genes whose expression profiles are changed as a result of losses, gains and amplifi cations in the cancer genome. In addition, the Overlay Tool© will incorporate loss of heterozygosity (LOH probability data into this overlay procedure. To facilitate this analysis, we developed an application which computationally combines two or more high throughput datasets (e.g. aCGH/expression into a single categorized dataset for visualization and interrogation using a gene-centric approach. As such, data from virtually any microarray platform can be incorporated without the need to remap entire datasets individually. The resultant categorized (overlay data set can be conveniently viewed using our in-house visualization tool, aCGHViewer© (Shankar et al. 2006, which serves as a conduit to public databases such as UCSC and NCBI, to rapidly investigate genes of interest.

  10. Determination of thickness of thin turbid painted over-layers using micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Conti, Claudia; Realini, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Botteon, Alessandra; Bertasa, Moira; Striova, Jana; Barucci, Marco; Matousek, Pavel


    We present a method for estimating the thickness of thin turbid layers using defocusing micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS). The approach, applicable to highly turbid systems, enables one to predict depths in excess of those accessible with conventional Raman microscopy. The technique can be used, for example, to establish the paint layer thickness on cultural heritage objects, such as panel canvases, mural paintings, painted statues and decorated objects. Other applications include analysis in polymer, biological and biomedical disciplines, catalytic and forensics sciences where highly turbid overlayers are often present and where invasive probing may not be possible or is undesirable. The method comprises two stages: (i) a calibration step for training the method on a well characterized sample set with a known thickness, and (ii) a prediction step where the prediction of layer thickness is carried out non-invasively on samples of unknown thickness of the same chemical and physical make up as the calibration set. An illustrative example of a practical deployment of this method is the analysis of larger areas of paintings. In this case, first, a calibration would be performed on a fragment of painting of a known thickness (e.g. derived from cross-sectional analysis) and subsequently the analysis of thickness across larger areas of painting could then be carried out non-invasively. The performance of the method is compared with that of the more established optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique on identical sample set. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  11. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.


    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  12. Polyester polymer concrete overlay. (United States)


    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  13. Image Understanding Using Overlays (United States)


    Codes from Quadtrees." TR-732, February 19 79. 29. Ann Scher, Flavio R. D. Velasco, and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Some New Image Smoothing Techniques...Techniques for Color Images." TR-748, April 1979. 35. Flavio R. D. Velasco, "Thresholding Using the Isodata Clustering Algorithm." TR-751, March 1979

  14. Enumeration of sublethally injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 and Escherichia coli strain B-41560 using selective agar overlays versus commercial methods. (United States)

    Smith, Amanda R; Ellison, Alysha L; Robinson, Amanda L; Drake, Maryanne; McDowell, Susan A; Mitchell, James K; Gerard, Patrick D; Heckler, Rachel A; McKillip, John L


    Quality control procedures during food processing may involve direct inoculation of food samples onto appropriate selective media for subsequent enumeration. However, sublethally injured bacteria often fail to grow, enabling them to evade detection and intervention measures and ultimately threaten the health of consumers. This study compares traditional selective and nonselective agar-based overlays versus two commercial systems (Petrifilm and Easygel) for recovery of injured E. coli B-41560 and O157:H7 strains. Bacteria were propagated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), ground beef slurry, and infant milk formula to a density of 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml and then were stressed for 6 min either in lactic acid (pH 4.5) or heat shocked for 3 min at 60°C. Samples were pour plated in basal layers of either tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), or violet red bile agar (VRB) and were resuscitated for 4 h prior to addition of agar overlays. Other stressed bacteria were plated directly onto Petrifilm and Easygel. Results indicate that selective and nonselective agar overlays recovered significantly higher numbers (greater than 1 log) of acid- and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 from TSB, ground beef, and infant milk formula compared with direct plating onto selective media, Petrifilm, or Easygel, while no significant differences among these media combinations were observed for stressed E. coli B-41560. Nonstressed bacteria from TSB and ground beef were also recovered at densities significantly higher in nonselective TSA-TSA and in VRB-VRB and SMAC-SMAC compared with Petrifilm and Easygel. These data underscore the need to implement food safety measures that address sublethally injured pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 in order to avoid underestimation of true densities for target pathogens.

  15. Construction project management handbook. (United States)


    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  16. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC


    Full Text Available Advanced Construction Technologies (ACTs) are set to become the sustainable mainstay of the construction industry due to the demand for innovative housing solutions. Like most emerging economies, South Africa from a historical perspective and global...

  17. USAID Construction Assessment (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  18. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  19. Service Robotics in Construction


    Thomas, Bock


    Service robots in construction move from cleaning of the construction site and diagnosing of the building fa?ade as security, logistic and assistive robots into the building and apartment and will in the future share urban environment with humans.

  20. Construction manpower management system. (United States)


    This report traces the development of and explains the operation of a Construction Manpower Management System (CMMS) developed for the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Initial direction for this project was received from the Construction...

  1. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian


    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  2. Construction dust amelioration techniques. (United States)


    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  3. Construction Sector (NAICS 23) (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  4. A bi-overlayer type plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of mesoporous Au/TiO2 and CuO/SnO2 films separately coated on FTO. (United States)

    Naya, Shin-ichi; Kume, Takahiro; Okumura, Nozomi; Tada, Hiroaki


    The principal purpose of this study is to present a new design for preparing highly active immobilized gold nanoparticle-based plasmonic photocatalysts. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on rutile TiO2 particles with a mean size of 80 nm (Au/TiO2) by the deposition precipitation method. The surface of SnO2 particles with a mean size of 100 nm was modified by copper(ii) oxide clusters (CuO/SnO2) with the loading amount (Γ/Cu ions nm(-2)) precisely controlled by the chemisorption-calcination cycle technique. Two mesoporous overlayers of Au/TiO2 and CuO/SnO2 were coated side by side on glass substrates with a fluorine-doped tin oxide film (FTO) using the doctor blade method (Au/mp-TiO2|FTO|CuO/mp-SnO2). As test reactions for assessing the visible-light activity, we carried out gas-phase decomposition of acetaldehyde and liquid-phase oxidation of alcohol. In each reaction, this bi-overlayer type catalyst shows a high level of visible-light activity much exceeding those of Au/TiO2 particles and a Au/mp-TiO2|FTO mono-overlayer type catalyst [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118, 26887]. To confirm the origin of the striking visible-light activity, we studied the electrocatalytic activity of CuO/mp-SnO2|FTO electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Both the visible-light activity of Au/mp-TiO2|FTO|CuO/mp-SnO2 and the electrocatalytic activity of CuO/mp-SnO2|FTO for ORR strongly depend on the Γ value. A good positive correlation has been found between the visible-light activities and the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The striking activity of the present bi-overlayer type catalyst can be attributed to the efficient and long-range charge separation by the vectorial electron transport (Au(oxidation sites) → TiO2→ FTO, SnO2→ CuO(reduction sites)) and the excellent electrocatalytic activity of the CuO clusters.

  5. A Duplicate Construction Experiment. (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  6. Personality Constructs and Measures (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Simcox, April G.; Kim, Na-Young


    A psychological construct, such as personality, is an abstraction that is not directly seen but inferred through observed regularities in cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in various settings. Two assumptions give meaning to the idea of construct validity. First, constructs represent real phenomena that exist apart from the potential…

  7. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered. (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto


    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  8. Application of support vector machine to three-dimensional shape-based virtual screening using comprehensive three-dimensional molecular shape overlay with known inhibitors. (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Yuki, Hitomi; Takaya, Daisuke; Sasaki, Shunta; Tanaka, Akiko; Honma, Teruki


    In this study, machine learning using support vector machine was combined with three-dimensional (3D) molecular shape overlay, to improve the screening efficiency. Since the 3D molecular shape overlay does not use fingerprints or descriptors to compare two compounds, unlike 2D similarity methods, the application of machine learning to a 3D shape-based method has not been extensively investigated. The 3D similarity profile of a compound is defined as the array of 3D shape similarities with multiple known active compounds of the target protein and is used as the explanatory variable of support vector machine. As the measures of 3D shape similarity for our new prediction models, the prediction performances of the 3D shape similarity metrics implemented in ROCS, such as ShapeTanimoto and ScaledColor, were validated, using the known inhibitors of 15 target proteins derived from the ChEMBL database. The learning models based on the 3D similarity profiles stably outperformed the original ROCS when more than 10 known inhibitors were available as the queries. The results demonstrated the advantages of combining machine learning with the 3D similarity profile to process the 3D shape information of plural active compounds.

  9. An Efficient Vector-Raster Overlay Algorithm for High-Accuracy and High-Efficiency Surface Area Calculations of Irregularly Shaped Land Use Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xie


    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface is uneven, and conventional area calculation methods are based on the assumption that the projection plane area can be obtained without considering the actual undulation of the Earth’s surface and by simplifying the Earth’s shape to be a standard ellipsoid. However, the true surface area is important for investigating and evaluating land resources. In this study, the authors propose a new method based on an efficient vector-raster overlay algorithm (VROA-based method to calculate the surface areas of irregularly shaped land use patches. In this method, a surface area raster file is first generated based on the raster-based digital elevation model (raster-based DEM. Then, a vector-raster overlay algorithm (VROA is used that considers the precise clipping of raster cells using the vector polygon boundary. Xiantao City, Luotian County, and the Shennongjia Forestry District, which are representative of a plain landform, a hilly topography, and a mountain landscape, respectively, are selected to calculate the surface area. Compared with a traditional method based on triangulated irregular networks (TIN-based method, our method significantly reduces the processing time. In addition, our method effectively improves the accuracy compared with another traditional method based on raster-based DEM (raster-based method. Therefore, the method satisfies the requirements of large-scale engineering applications.

  10. A Graphic Overlay Method for Selection of Osteotomy Site in Chronic Radial Head Dislocation: An Evaluation of 3D-printed Bone Models. (United States)

    Kim, Hui Taek; Ahn, Tae Young; Jang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kang Hee; Lee, Sung Jae; Jung, Duk Young


    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography imaging is now being used to generate 3D models for planning orthopaedic surgery, but the process remains time consuming and expensive. For chronic radial head dislocation, we have designed a graphic overlay approach that employs selected 3D computer images and widely available software to simplify the process of osteotomy site selection. We studied 5 patients (2 traumatic and 3 congenital) with unilateral radial head dislocation. These patients were treated with surgery based on traditional radiographs, but they also had full sets of 3D CT imaging done both before and after their surgery: these 3D CT images form the basis for this study. From the 3D CT images, each patient generated 3 sets of 3D-printed bone models: 2 copies of the preoperative condition, and 1 copy of the postoperative condition. One set of the preoperative models was then actually osteotomized and fixed in the manner suggested by our graphic technique. Arcs of rotation of the 3 sets of 3D-printed bone models were then compared. Arcs of rotation of the 3 groups of bone models were significantly different, with the models osteotomized accordingly to our graphic technique having the widest arcs. For chronic radial head dislocation, our graphic overlay approach simplifies the selection of the osteotomy site(s). Three-dimensional-printed bone models suggest that this approach could improve range of motion of the forearm in actual surgical practice. Level IV-therapeutic study.

  11. Comparative stress distribution of implant-retained mandibular ball-supported and bar-supported overlay dentures: a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Vafaei, Fariborz; Khoshhal, Masoumeh; Bayat-Movahed, Saeed; Ahangary, Ahmad Hassan; Firooz, Farnaz; Izady, Alireza; Rakhshan, Vahid


    Implant-retained mandibular ball-supported and bar-supported overlay dentures are the two most common treatment options for the edentulous mandible. The superior option in terms of strain distribution should be determined. The three-dimensional model of mandible (based on computerized tomography scan) and its overlying implant-retained bar-supported and ball-supported overlay dentures were simulated using SolidWorks, NURBS, and ANSYS Workbench. Loads A (60 N) and B (60 N) were exerted, respectively, in protrusive and laterotrusive motions, on second molar mesial, first molar mesial, and first premolar. The strain distribution patterns were assessed on (1) implant tissue, (2) first implant-bone, and (3) second implant-bone interfaces. Protrusive: Strain was mostly detected in the apical of the fixtures and least in the cervical when bar design was used. On the nonworking side, however, strain was higher in the cervical and lower in the apical compared with the working side implant. Laterotrusive: The strain values were closely similar in the two designs. It seems that both designs are acceptable in terms of stress distribution, although a superior pattern is associated with the application of bar design in protrusive motion.

  12. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum


    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  13. Risk in construction subcontracting


    Roe, Deborah E


    Risk is inherent in every aspect of the construction industry. This risk is allocated by the contract documents which establish the relationships between the parties in a construction contract. Often, when risk is not appropriately proportioned in a contractual agreement, contractors and subcontractors add significant premiums, or risk allowances, to their bids to reduce the potential negative consequences if the risk event occurs. This paper investigates the risks in construction contract ag...

  14. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  15. Tilt-up construction


    Crompton, Richard E.


    CIVINS Tilt-up construction is a special form of precast concrete construction. The technique is used for constructing buildings by prefabricating concrete wall sections (panels) in a horizontal position on either the building's floor slab or on a temporary casting slab. Once the wall sections have cured, they are tilted to a vertical position using a mobile crane, they are temporarily braced in their final upright position, and finally, they are tied into the building's roof and floor sys...

  16. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper


    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development ...

  17. Problems of Thesaurus Construction (United States)

    Ghose, Amitabha; Dhawle, Anand S.


    Assumptions of different thesaurus construction methods are analyzed from an epistemological point of view as well as from the information retrieval needs of users. Thesaurus construction for social sciences is difficult because of inherent ambituities of terminology. An empirical study of the semantic differential of different sociological groups…

  18. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities (United States)


    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs : construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the le...

  19. Constructional and Conceptual Composition (United States)

    Dodge, Ellen Kirsten


    Goldberg's (1995) recognition that, in addition to various word-level constructions, sentences also instantiate meaningful argument structure constructions enables a non-polysemy-based analysis of various verb 'alternations' (Levin 1993). In such an analysis, meaning variations associated with the use of the same verb in different argument…

  20. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing


    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control is the ...

  1. Assignment of the absolute configuration of hepatoprotective highly oxygenated triterpenoids using X-ray, ECD, NMR J-based configurational analysis and HSQC overlay experiments. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jiabao; Pandey, Pankaj; Chen, Jiabao; Fronczek, Frank R; Parnham, Stuart; Qi, Xinzhu; Doerksen, Robert J; Ferreira, Daneel; Sun, Hua; Li, Shuai; Hamann, Mark T


    The plants of the genus Kadsura are widely distributed in China, South Korea, and Japan. Their roots and stems are traditionally used to treat blood diseases and pain. The main bioactive constituents of Kadsura longipedunculata comprise highly oxygenated triterpenoids. Schiartane-type nortriterpenoids showed anti-HIV, anti-HBV, and cytotoxic bioactivities. For such compounds, the absolute configuration influences the bioactivities, and hence its unambiguous determination is essential. In this work, the absolute configurations of three highly oxygenated schiartane-type nortriterpenoids were unequivocally assigned using X-ray, ECD, and J-based configuration analysis and HSQC overlay data. The ethanol extract of Kadsura longipedunculata Finet et Gagnep was purified by column chromatography using silica, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS as substrates. To help assign the absolute configuration of schiartane-type nortriterpenoids, X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experiment compared to ab initio computed data, DP4+ analysis, HSQC overlay, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis were carried out. Hetero- and homo-nuclear coupling constants were extracted from HETLOC experiments. Three new highly oxygenated triterpenoids, micrandilactone I (1), micrandilactone J (2), and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) were isolated. Their 2D structures were solved using NMR and HRESIMS data and their absolute configurations were elucidated using X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experimental results compared to ab initio computed spectra, HSQC overlay, DP4+, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis. Micrandilactone I (1) and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells with cell survival rates of 53.0 and 50.2%, respectively, at 10μM (bicyclol, 49.0%), while micrandilactone J (2) was inactive. This is the first comprehensive stereochemical assignment of a non-crystalline schiartane-type nortriterpenoid like 3. This

  2. Toward 'socially constructive' social constructions of leadership


    Grint, Keith; Jackson, Brad


    In their introductory editorial essay for this special issue, David Grant and Gail Fairhurst have done us a great service by valiantly producing a "Sailing Guide" to the Social Construction of Leadership (Fairhurst & Grant, 2010). As with rounding the Capes, this is not a task for the faint of heart. A sailing guide is designed to provide vital knowledge about a particular sea or coast, providing us with charts, warnings about potential hazards and an indication where we might find safe haven...

  3. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg


    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  4. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris


    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell


    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  6. COSIM: A Finite-Difference Computer Model to Predict Ternary Concentration Profiles Associated With Oxidation and Interdiffusion of Overlay-Coated Substrates (United States)

    Nesbitt, James A.


    A finite-difference computer program (COSIM) has been written which models the one-dimensional, diffusional transport associated with high-temperature oxidation and interdiffusion of overlay-coated substrates. The program predicts concentration profiles for up to three elements in the coating and substrate after various oxidation exposures. Surface recession due to solute loss is also predicted. Ternary cross terms and concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients are taken into account. The program also incorporates a previously-developed oxide growth and spalling model to simulate either isothermal or cyclic oxidation exposures. In addition to predicting concentration profiles after various oxidation exposures, the program can also be used to predict coating life based on a concentration dependent failure criterion (e.g., surface solute content drops to 2%). The computer code is written in FORTRAN and employs numerous subroutines to make the program flexible and easily modifiable to other coating oxidation problems.

  7. Construction in Occupied Spaces (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik


    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  8. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Andrew E.


    Full Text Available Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  9. Evolution of the SrTiO{sub 3} surface electronic state as a function of LaAlO{sub 3} overlayer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumb, N.C.; Kobayashi, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Insitut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Salluzzo, M. [CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Razzoli, E.; Matt, C.E.; Strocov, V.N.; Zhou, K.J.; Shi, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Insitut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mesot, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institut de la Matiere Complexe, EPF Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Schmitt, T. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Insitut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Patthey, L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Insitut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Radović, M., E-mail: [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Insitut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institut de la Matiere Complexe, EPF Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Highlights: • The close similarities in the electronic structures of the metallic bare surface of STO and the buried interfaces (LAO/STO). • The similar spectroscopic responses of these systems to photon irradiation. • The emergence of 2 × 1 structural ordering in sufficiently thick LAO/STO interfaces. - Abstract: The novel electronic properties emerging at interfaces between transition metal oxides, and in particular the discovery of conductivity in heterostructures composed of LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) band insulators, have generated new challenges and opportunities in condensed matter physics. Although the interface conductivity is stabilized when LAO matches or exceeds a critical thickness of 4 unit cells (uc), other phenomena such as a universal metallic state found on the bare surface of STO single crystals and persistent photon-triggered conductivity in otherwise insulating STO-based interfaces raise important questions about the role of the LAO overlayer and the possible relations between vacuum/STO and LAO/STO interfaces. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in situ prepared samples complemented by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), we study how the metallic STO surface state evolves during the growth of a crystalline LAO overlayer. In all the studied samples, the character of the conduction bands, their carrier densities, the Ti{sup 3+} crystal field, and the response to photon irradiation bear strong similarities. Nevertheless, we report here that studied LAO/STO interfaces exhibit an instability toward an apparent 2 × 1 folding of the Fermi surface at and above a 4 uc thickness threshold, which distinguishes these heterostructures from bare STO and sub-critical-thickness LAO/STO.

  10. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations. (United States)

    Rocca, G T; Saratti, C M; Cattani-Lorente, M; Feilzer, A J; Scherrer, S; Krejci, I


    To evaluate the fracture strength and the mode of failure of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM overlays with fiber reinforced composite build-up of the pulp chamber. 40 Devitalized molars were cut over the CEJ and divided into five groups (n=8). The pulp chamber area was filled with: group 0 (control), no resin build-up; group 1, hybrid composite build-up (G-aenial posterior, GC); group 2, as in group 1 but covered with 3 nets of bi-directional E-glass fibers (EverStickNET, Stick Tech Ltd.); group 3, a FRC resin (EverX posterior, GC); group 4, as in group 3 but covered by the bi-directional fibers. The crowns were restored with CAD-CAM composite restorations (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE). Maximum fracture loads were recorded in Newton and data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test (p0.05). All specimens fractured in a catastrophic way, under the CEJ. The main crack evolved in the corono-apical direction. In groups 2 and 4 secondary fracture paths with apico-coronal direction were detected close to the bi-directional fibers' layer. For the restoration of endodontically treated molars, the incorporation of FRCs did not influence the load-bearing capacity of the tooth-restoration complex. The SEM analysis showed a low ability of the bi-directional fibers net in deviating the fracture but this effect was not sufficient to lead more favorable fracture patterns, over the CEJ. The use of FRCs to reinforce the "core" of devitalized molars against vertical fractures under static loads seems useless when the thickness of the CAD/CAM composite overlay restoration is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic activity and stability of nanometic Rh overlayers prepared by pulsed arc-plasma deposition and r.f. magnetron-sputtering (United States)

    Misumi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Akinori; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato


    50 μm-thick Fe-Cr-Al metal foils covered by 7 nm-thick Rh overlayers were prepared by pulsed arc-plasma (AP) and r.f. magnetron sputtering technique to compare their catalytic activities. As-prepared metal foil catalysts were wrapped into a honeycomb structure with a density of 900 cells per square inches and the stoichiometric NO-CO-C3H6-O2 reaction was performed at space velocity of 1.2 × 105 h-1. During temperature ramp at 10 °C min-1, honeycomb catalysts showed steep light-off of NO, CO, and C3H6 at above 200 °C and their conversions soon reached to almost 100%. Both catalysts exhibited high turnover frequencies close to or more than 50-fold greater compared with those for a reference Rh/ZrO2 powder-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional slurry coating. When the temperature ramping was repeated, however, the catalytic activity was decreased to the different extent depending on the preparation procedure. Significant deactivation occurred only when prepared by sputtering, whereas the sample prepared by AP showed no signs of deactivation. The deactivation is associated with the formation of passivation layers consisting of Fe, Cr, and Al oxides, which covered the surface and decreased the surface concentration of Rh. The Rh overlayer formed by AP was found to be thermally stable because of the strong adhesion to the metal foil surface, compared to the sample prepared by sputtering.

  12. Dielectric over-layer assisted graphene, its oxide and MoS2-based fibre optic sensor with high field enhancement (United States)

    Nayak, Jeeban Kumar; Maharana, Pradeep Kumar; Jha, Rajan


    A high-index fibre-core-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using 2D materials such as graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) on a silicon (Si) over-layer in visible and near infrared is reported. Si was used on silver (Ag) followed by different 2D materials of appropriate thickness on a 600 µm core multimode fibre. Here Si is used to tune the resonance to a higher wavelength, and different 2D materials are used to enhance the performance as well as address the oxidation problem of Si. Moreover, a high-index chalcogenide core helps to decrease the full width at half maxima of the SPR spectra, hence increasing the detection accuracy of the sensor. Both the Ag and Si thickness are optimized, and the effects of different 2D materials on the performance of sensor are studied using the transfer matrix method in terms of electric field intensity, sensitivity, figure of merit (FOM) and resolution. We found that the percentage electric field enhancement for the Ag-Si-GO system is 4.65  ×  104 in the presence of GO. The GO-based sensor is found to have a sensitivity of 202.2 nm RIU-1 in comparison to the graphene based sensor with a sensitivity of 189.4 nm RIU-1. Moreover, the FOM values are found to be as high as 5.57 RIU-1 for GO, and 5.18 RIU-1 and 2.29 RIU-1 for the MoS2 and graphene respectively. We believe that the proposed 2D-material-based sensors will open a new window for the development of high-performance fibre biosensors by utilizing the biocompatibility aspect of different 2D materials along with its high electric field value in the presence of a dielectric over-layer.

  13. Effects of time-specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum vaccination on blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Vance, A M; Branton, S L; Collier, S D; Gerard, P D


    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time-specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treatments were utilized: 1) sham vaccination at 10 wk of age, 2) vaccination of ts-11MG at 10 wk, 3) ts-11MG at 10 wk overlaid by FMG inoculation at 22 wk, and 4) ts-11MG at 10 wk overlaid by FMG at 45 wk. Parameters measured in both trials were whole blood hematocrit, plasma protein, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum calcium. No significant age x treatment interactions and no significant age or treatment main effects were observed for any of the blood parameters investigated, except for serum calcium. At wk 22, serum calcium concentrations were increased by vaccination with ts-11MG at 10 wk, and levels were further increased when the ts-11MG vaccination at 10 wk was overlaid by an FMG inoculation at 22 wk. These results suggest that ts-11MG vaccination at 10 wk of age alone or combined with F-strain inoculum overlays at either 22 or 45 wk may be used without any consequential effects on hematocrit or the lipid and protein levels in the blood of commercial layers. Because elevations in serum calcium were not associated with changes in hen performance, as reported in a previous companion article, it is further suggested that prelay ts-11MG vaccination before FMG inoculation overlays during lay may provide adequate protection against field strain M. gallisepticum infections while being innocuous to layer performance.

  14. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regina, J.R.


    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  15. Sustainability Base Construction Update (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael


    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  16. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph


    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  17. Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types


    P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak


    Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the ...

  18. On the stability of copper overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence on CO and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian Georg; Horch, Sebastian; Chorkendorff, Ib


    We have studied the stability of Cu overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence of CO and CO2 by means of electrochemical STM (EC-STM). For preparation we utilized the well known underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper, which, depending...

  19. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R


    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  20. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.


    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  1. Schildberg Construction Company, Inc. (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Schildberg Construction Company, Inc. for alleged violations at its locations at 1605 218th Avenue, Osceola, IA 50213 and 34466 Elkhorn Trail, Graham, MO 64455.

  2. Caltrans : construction manual (United States)


    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  3. Construction and material specification (United States)


    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Qomariana


    Full Text Available This paper presents applicative constructions found in Javanese spoken in Malang, East Java. It shows that applicative constructions in Malang are marked by suffixes attached to verbs. Suffix –i is used with location and recipient, while suffix –na is used with benefactive and instrumental. This agrees with applicative in Javanese spoken in Semarang with suffix –i and -ake respectively.

  5. Construct Demo Input Deck (United States)


    designed to assist new users in understanding the ConstructML and how it can be used in order to build a successful simulation. Construct is an...agents will not gain transactive memory about others performing the same task. During the simulation, an agent’s success in performing a binary task can...agents more or less likely to interact in order to capture differences in factors such as seniority, career type, introversion , or other factors which

  6. Wage Leadership in Construction. (United States)


    LEADERSHIP IN CONSTRUCTION Wage leadership is the theory that wage increases in one sector lead to imitative increases elsewhere. In this paper we...test this theory in a large industry where wage leadership is supposed to be dominant- construction. Alternate theories of wage determination (excess...demand, real wage bargaining) are also tested, along with %he efficacy of the 1971-73 wagecotls BACKGROUND The theory of wage leadership is an important

  7. Masonry Construction with drones


    Latteur, Pierre; Goessens, Sébastien; Reniers, Milan; Zhao, Ma; Mueller, Caitlin; IASS Annual Symposium 2016 "Spatial Structures in the 21st Century"


    - This paper presents new research in the area of construction of building-scale structures using unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly called drones. The work follows up on a previous paper presented at the 2015 IASS Symposium by Latteur et al. [1], which focused on the feasibility of drone-based construction systems with an emphasis on localization systems and building system units. Since then, the project has continued with a focus on masonry block structures, with new developments in bloc...



    Sujitha Mary; Alaguraj, V.; Krishnaswamy, S


    Aggregation is an inherent property of proteins. Both ordered and disordered proteins have a tendency to aggregate. Protein folding itself starts from the partially folded intermediates. The formation of native structures from these intermediates may be called as constructive aggregation. We describe the design of an intrinsic aggregation scale and its efficiency in finding hot-spots for constructive aggregation. In this paper, we are proposing a new aspect of aggregation, wherein...

  9. Construction Contract Claims (United States)


    owner, contractor, and design professional should be in attendance. Typical - agenda items would include any problems encountered which need the...34Unraveling Construction Claims", Florida Constructor , September/October 19B2. 70. Callahan, Michael T. and H. Murray Hohns, Construction Schedules...Not Lead to Heartburn", Florida Constructor , January/February * 1985. 77. Cummings, Donald J., "Documentation: The Key to Successful Project

  10. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review


    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve


    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  11. Construction time of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences


    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  12. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.


    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  13. Patient satisfaction constructs. (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the five-factor structure of patients' satisfaction constructs toward private healthcare service providers. This research is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with previous and current Bangladeshi patients. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to extract the underlying constructs. Five underlying dimensions that play a significant role in structuring the satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi private healthcare patients are identified in this study. Practical implications - The main contribution of this study is identifying the dimensions of satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi patients regarding private healthcare service providers. Healthcare managers adopt the five identified underlying construct items in their business practices to improve their respective healthcare efficiency while ensuring overall customer satisfaction.

  14. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  15. Attention: an evolving construct. (United States)

    Joyce, Arthur; Hrin, Skip


    We review the implications of large-scale brain systems on the construct of attention by first focusing on significant theories and discoveries during the previous 150 years and then considering how the comparatively recent discovery of large-scale brain systems may render previous conceptualizations of attention outdated. Seven functional brain networks are briefly reviewed and the implications of emerging principles of brain functioning for test construction and neuropsychological evaluation are considered. To remain a relevant discipline moving into the 21st century, the field of neuropsychology needs to apply the principles that have been discovered about brain networks to better inform our understanding of attention as well as our ever-refining evaluation of this construct.

  16. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities. (United States)

    Day, C. William


    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  17. Construction Manager or General Contractor? (United States)

    McKinley, John


    Unlike the general contractor approach, the construction management firm acts on behalf of the school district in school construction. Examines the development and nature of construction management, and cites its advantages and disadvantages. (MLF)

  18. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika


    This paper explores the role of expertise, the nature of criticality, and their relationship to securitisation as mineral raw materials are classified. It works with the construction of risk along the liberal logic of security to explore how "key materials" are turned into "critical materials......" in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy...

  19. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil


    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  20. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  1. The button graft technique for perforations affecting less than 25% of the tympanic membrane: a non-randomised comparison of a new modification to cartilage tympanoplasty with underlay and overlay grafts. (United States)

    Abdelghany, A M


    To evaluate a new composite cartilage-perichondrium graft (button graft) for repair of small-sized tympanic membrane perforations and to compare its success rate with that of the underlay and overlay techniques with temporal fascia or tragal perichondrium. Prospective, sequential allocation of surgical technique study. Tertiary care university hospital. One hundred 95 patients aged 14-42 years with central, uncomplicated tympanic membrane perforations with completely visualised margins affecting less than 25% of the tympanic membrane, distributed in three groups: 1 (underlay), 2 (overlay) and 3 (button graft). Patients were allocated in sequence to: 1 underlay graft, 2 overlay graft and 3 cartilage tympanoplasty with button graft technique. Patients were operated on under local anaesthesia. Postoperative status of the tympanic membrane, hearing improvement, duration of surgery and incidence of complications at 12 months postoperative. Group 1 (underlay) had 66 patients; group 2 (overlay), 65; and group 3 (cartilage), 66. Success was defined as the complete closure of the tympanic membrane one year after the operation. The success rates were 98.5% (65 of 66), 97% (63 of 65) and 98.5% (65 of 66) cases, and the mean air-bone gap gains were 10.18 (±5.4) dB, 8.5 (+6.5) dB and 9.1 (+5.1) dB for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. No bone conduction threshold or speech discrimination score worsening was noted. The mean durations of the operative procedure were 35 ± 8.4 (range 22,63), 42 ± 6.8 (range 33,75) and 23 ± 6.3 (range 15,41) min for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.02). Tympanic membrane retraction occurred in three cases in underlay group 1, and tympanic membrane cholesteatoma pearls occurred in two cases in overlay group 2. The button graft technique is an effective and fast alternative for the repair of small tympanic membrane perforations if complete visualisation of the margin is possible. The shorter time taken with the button grafts is mainly due to

  2. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam


    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A 15-litre bench-top multipurpose bioreactor was designed and constructed. ... The system incorporates attributes of a good bioreactor design as discussed by ... The aeration system has a perforated pipe sparger discharging directly under agitating impellers (Figure 3). A peristaltic air pump motor type Rena 301 supply air ...

  5. Construction Mechanic 1 & C. (United States)

    Seitz, Thomas E.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Naval Construction Mechanics First and Chief to fulfill the requirements of their rating. (Persons holding these ratings direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in maintaining, repairing, and overhauling automotive,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich


    Full Text Available The paper contains classification of construction computer aided design systems, requirements to the single file format, providing their interaction within the frames of creation of integrated computer aided design systems, main principles and data transformation schemes are given.

  7. Managing Construction Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny McGeorge


    Full Text Available Book ReviewManaging Construction LogisticsGary Sullivan; Stephen Barthorpe and Stephen Robbins Publishers : Wiley-Blackwell 2010, 304 pages, ISBN 978-1-4051-5124-5 (paperback, GBP 49.99, EUR 60.00,  AUD 99.95, NZD  115.00. 

  8. Construction Management: Planning Ahead. (United States)

    Arsht, Steven


    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  9. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.


    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...

  10. Anyonic FRT construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, S. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP); Rodriguez-Plaza, M.J. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H


    The Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan method to construct matrix bialgebras from non-singular solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation is extended to the anyonic or Z{sub n}-graded case. The resulting anyonic quantum matrices are braided groups in which the braiding is given by a phase factor. (orig.).

  11. Questionnaire Construction Manual (United States)


    contained in this manual the following references may bt consulted. 1. Edwards , A. L. Techniques of attitude scale construction. New York: Appleton...516. d. Lorge, I. Predicting readability. Teachers College Record, 1944, 45, 404-419. e. Thorndike , !\\. L., & Lorge, R. the teacher’s word book of

  12. Industry Studies 2002: Construction (United States)


    Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project...are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete

  13. Mental Retardation: Construction Program. (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Federally funded construction programs for the retarded included are the following: 12 research centers in which biological, medical, social, and behavioral research is conducted to investigate the causes and prevention of mental retardation; 18 university-affiliated facilities for inter-disciplinary training of professional and technical…

  14. Neuroeconomics: Constructing identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.


    The paper asks whether neuroeconomics will make instrumental use of neuroscience to adjudicate existing disputes in economics or be more seriously transformed by neuroscience in ways that might transform economics. The paper pursues the question by asking how neuroscience constructs an understanding


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy


    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  16. Mortality table construction (United States)



    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  17. Constructions in Wonderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard; Shibuya, Yoshikata

    -gram analysis to some different texts, including Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (AW), Mark Twain's 1884/5 novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (HF), and some US presidential speeches, to identify frequently (co)occurring words that may be indicative of underlying constructions...

  18. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    of the group to which it belongs. Vygotsky, on the other hand, attended to the ways in which we construct meaningful ―signs‖ as artificial memory aids to solve memory problems that go beyond our natural capacities. These two approaches are brought together to show how we utilize various cultural resources...

  19. Constructive optimality theoretic syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevat, H.; Villadsen, J.; Christiansen, H.


    This paper documents efforts at developing a constructive optimality theory. Several years ago, two 3rd year AI-students, Chris Regenboog and Jacco van Willegen, came up with an idea to implement optimality theory, in a special case —a system partially describing Dutch word order—. Me and some

  20. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig


    hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  1. The Construction of Syllabi. (United States)

    Labour Education, 1983


    The International Labour Organization assigned a staff member to an Asian country to assist the trade unions in strengthening their workers' education programs. One important aspect of his assignment consisted of establishing and testing a viable course program by constructing a set of syllabi for basic, specialized, and advanced courses that…

  2. Constructions of Peripherality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay


    In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort...

  3. The Efficacy of a Viscoelastic Foam Overlay on Prevention of Pressure Injury in Acutely Ill Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Joohee

    The purpose of this study was to compare a viscoelastic foam overlay (VEFO) to a standard hospital mattress for pressure injury (PI) prevention. We also compared interface pressures (IPs) of the VEFO to our facility's standard hospital mattress. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Data analysis was based on 110 participants (55 in each group) who were 19 years or older, had a Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score of 16 or less, and were cared for on a neurology, oncology, or pulmonology inpatient care unit. The research setting was the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group were based on a VEFO on top of the standard hospital mattress used in our facility. Participants in the control group were placed on a standard hospital mattress with/without air overlay. All patients were given standard nursing care for prevention of PI. Skin assessments were completed daily over a period of 2 weeks. In addition, we compared IPs of the standard hospital mattress and the VEFO in participants randomly allocated to the intervention group. Interface pressure was measured over the sacral/coccygeal area with subjects in the supine position. Pressures were measured immediately before and immediately following placement of the VEFO and just before data collection began. Data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014. Pressure injury incidence was compared between groups using the χ test, and IPs were compared using the paired t test. Pressure injury development was determined using the staging system described in guidelines from the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance in 2014. Interface pressure was measured using a device manufactured for this purpose. The incidence of PI development was significantly lower in subjects assigned to the experimental group as compared to those in the control group (3

  4. Utility of the iodine overlay technique and virtual nonenhanced images for the preoperative T staging of colorectal cancer by dual-energy CT with tin filter technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Yun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the potential radiation dose reduction of dual-energy CT (DECT for tumor (T staging of colorectal cancer (CRC using iodine overlay (IO and virtual nonenhanced (VNE images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 103 consecutive patients who underwent nonenhanced CT and enhanced DECT for preoperative CRC staging. Enhanced weighted-average (WA, IO and VNE images were reconstructed from enhanced 80 kVp and Sn140 kVp scans. Two radiologists assessed image qualities of the true nonenhanced (TNE and VNE images. For T-staging, another two radiologists independently interpreted all scans in two separate reading sessions: in the first session, only images derived from the single phase DECT acquisition (IO and VNE images were read. In the second reading session after 30 to 50 (average:42 days, the same assessment was again performed with the TNE and enhanced WA images thereby simulating conventional dual-phase single-energy CT. The tumor node metastasis (TNM system was used for staging with histopathologic reports as gold standard. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs of the tumors and normal reference tissues showed significant correlation between the TNE and VNE images (P<0.01. The mean iodine overlay value (48.4 HU±12.2 and enhancement (49.4 HU±11.8 value of CRCs had no significant difference (P = 0.52.The mean image noise on TNE (5.0±1.1 and VNE (5.3±1.1 images were similar (P = 0.07. The quantitative qualities of the VNE images were mildly inferior to the TNE images. Overall accuracy of T-stage CRC when using single-phase acquisition was slightly better than the dual-phase acquisition (90.3% vs 87.4% (P = 0.51. The mean dose of the single-phase DECT acquisition was 6.2 mSv comparing with 14.3 mSv of dual-phase. CONCLUSION: Single-phase DECT using IO and VNE images yields a high accuracy in T-staging of CRCs

  5. Indigenous lunar construction materials (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein


    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  6. Respiratory motion compensated overlay of surface models from cardiac MR on interventional x-ray fluoroscopy for guidance of cardiac resynchronization therapy procedures (United States)

    Manzke, R.; Bornstedt, A.; Lutz, A.; Schenderlein, M.; Hombach, V.; Binner, L.; Rasche, V.


    Various multi-center trials have shown that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective procedure for patients with end-stage drug invariable heart failure (HF). Despite the encouraging results of CRT, at least 30% of patients do not respond to the treatment. Detailed knowledge of the cardiac anatomy (coronary venous tree, left ventricle), functional parameters (i.e. ventricular synchronicity) is supposed to improve CRT patient selection and interventional lead placement for reduction of the number of non-responders. As a pre-interventional imaging modality, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has the potential to provide all relevant information. With functional information from CMR optimal implantation target sites may be better identified. Pre-operative CMR could also help to determine whether useful vein target segments are available for lead placement. Fused with X-ray, the mainstay interventional modality, improved interventional guidance for lead-placement could further help to increase procedure outcome. In this contribution, we present novel and practicable methods for a) pre-operative functional and anatomical imaging of relevant cardiac structures to CRT using CMR, b) 2D-3D registration of CMR anatomy and functional meshes with X-ray vein angiograms and c) real-time capable breathing motion compensation for improved fluoroscopy mesh overlay during the intervention based on right ventricular pacer lead tracking. With these methods, enhanced interventional guidance for left ventricular lead placement is provided.

  7. Augmented reality and image overlay navigation with OsiriX in laparoscopic and robotic surgery: not only a matter of fashion. (United States)

    Volonté, Francesco; Pugin, François; Bucher, Pascal; Sugimoto, Maki; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe


    New technologies can considerably improve preoperative planning, enhance the surgeon's skill and simplify the approach to complex procedures. Augmented reality techniques, robot assisted operations and computer assisted navigation tools will become increasingly important in surgery and in residents' education. We obtained 3D reconstructions from simple spiral computed tomography (CT) slides using OsiriX, an open source processing software package dedicated to DICOM images. These images were then projected on the patient's body with a beamer fixed to the operating table to enhance spatial perception during surgical intervention (augmented reality). Changing a window's deepness level allowed the surgeon to navigate through the patient's anatomy, highlighting regions of interest and marked pathologies. We used image overlay navigation for laparoscopic operations such cholecystectomy, abdominal exploration, distal pancreas resection and robotic liver resection. Augmented reality techniques will transform the behaviour of surgeons, making surgical interventions easier, faster and probably safer. These new techniques will also renew methods of surgical teaching, facilitating transmission of knowledge and skill to young surgeons.

  8. Dynamic performance of a multi-ribbed belt based on an overlay constitutive model of carbon-black-filled rubber and experimental validation (United States)

    Hu, Yumei; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, W. D.; Li, Changlong; Pi, Yangjun


    The focus of this work is the accurate prediction of dynamic mechanical performances of a multi-ribbed belt span. An overlay constitutive model, which consists of hyperelastic, viscoelastic and elastoplastic parts coupled in parallel, is established to describe mechanical properties of carbon-black-filled rubber material used in the belt. A uniaxial tensile test and a uniaxial compressional test are conducted to obtain the hyperelastic material parameters of the constitutive model, and a simple dynamic shear test is used to identify the viscoplastic material parameters via a standard genetic algorithm. Finite element (FE) simulations with the constitutive model are performed to simulate static and hysteretic dynamic characteristics of rubber specimens in these tests. By comparing the simulation results with experiments, the accuracy of the constitutive model and its material parameters is validated. A three-dimensional FE model based on the constitutive model is established to predict both longitudinal and transverse dynamic performances of the multi-ribbed belt span and its good agreements with experimental results are achieved.

  9. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puccia R.


    Full Text Available We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration by SDS-PAGE, localizing in a region between 69 and 43 kDa. The hydrolytic activity was demonstrable after SDS-PAGE using buffered agarose overlays of Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp, following incubation at 37oC, and detection of fluorescent bands with a UV transilluminator. Hydrolysis was more intense when incubation was carried out at basic pH, and was completely inhibited with 2.5 mM PMSF and partially with sodium 7-hydroxymercuribenzoate (2.5 mM p-HMB, suggesting its serine-thiol nature. A proteolytic band with similar characteristics was observed in conventional gelatin zymograms, but could not be correlated with a silver-stained component. Detection of the serine-thiol proteinase in substrate gels after SDS-PAGE provides a useful way of monitoring purification of the basement membrane degrading enzyme.

  10. Influence of spinel substrate and over-layer for enhanced SAW and AO properties with KNbO3 thin film. (United States)

    Nayak, Ranu; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, Kondepudy


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation characteristics have been studied using modeling calculations for a potassium niobate (KNbO3) thin film-layered structure with (001) and (110) orientation on a single crystal spinel (MgAl2O4) substrate, and a spinel buffer layer on silicon. Variation in the electromechanical coupling and acoustic attenuation has been compared. A significantly high value of coupling factor (k2max = 23%) is obtained for the (001)KNbO3/spinel structure by introducing an optimum thickness of spinel over-layer for potential wide bandwidth SAW device applications. The dispersion characteristics with the (110) KNbO3 orientation indicate an initial peak in the coupling coefficient value (k2max = 8.8%) at a relatively low KNbO3 film thickness that appears attractive for fabricating devices with thinner films. The KNbO3 film with (001) orientation is found attractive for efficient acousto-optic (AO) device application with the formation of a symmetric waveguide structure (spinel(0.5 microm)/KNbO3(1.0 microm)/spinel). A high value of k2 = 23.5% with 50% diffraction efficiency has been obtained for the spinel(0.5 microm)/KNbO3(1.0 microm)/spinel structure at 1 GHz SAW frequency and 633 nm optical wavelength at a very low input drive power of 15.4 mW.

  11. Lean Construction Implementation in the Saudi Arabian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ghazi Sarhan


    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has witnessed a huge increase in construction during the last two decades. However, many projects experienced time delays, cost overruns and the generation of massive amounts of waste. To address these challenges, lean construction has been introduced into the Saudi construction industry; however, it is still in its infancy. This study therefore investigates the current state of lean construction implementation in the construction industry in the KSA. The objectives are to identify: the types of construction waste, level of use of tools that support the implementation of lean construction, stages of application of lean methods, and the benefits of lean construction. To achieve these objectives, a structured questionnaire survey of 282 construction professionals was carried out. After the analysis of the collected data using mean score and Anova test, the following conclusions were made.  In the construction industry in the KSA, waiting is the most common type of waste, while Computer Aided Design (CAD is the conventional tool supporting the implementation of lean construction. Furthermore, the data suggests that lean construction is most commonly used in the construction stage of projects while customer satisfaction is the main benefit derived from lean construction practices. This study concludes that the level of implementation of lean construction in the KSA construction industry is increasing. The results will help benchmark the current state of lean construction implementation, which will enable the construction industry to identify strategies to implement lean construction in Saudi Arabia in accordance with their needs and project goals, to achieve better productivity.

  12. Construction quality assurance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.


    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  13. Construction of the DHCAL (United States)

    Francis, Kurt; CALICE Collaboration

    Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed as a method of improving the jet energy resolution of future colliding beam detectors. PFAs require calorimeters with high granularity to enable three-dimensional imaging of events. The Calorimeter for the Linear Collider Collaboration (CALICE) is developing and testing prototypes of such highly segmented calorimeters. In this context, a large prototype of a Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) was developed and constructed by a group led by Argonne National Laboratory. The DHCAL consists of 52 layers, instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and interleaved with steel absorber plates. The RPCs are read out by 1 x 1 cm2 pads with a 1-bit resolution (digital readout). The DHCAL prototype has approximately 480,000 readout channels. This talk reports on the design, construction and commissioning of the DHCAL. The DHCAL was installed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in fall 2010 and data was collected through the summer 2011.

  14. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center


    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  15. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  16. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch


    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  17. Purchasing in Construction Companies


    Bildsten, Louise


    A significant part of the cost of a construction project, up to 90%, consists of purchased goods and services. Suppliers thereby have a large impact on the quality, price and time of projects. Purchasing management is therefore important for the outcome of a project. The aim of research covered by this thesis is to describe and analyse purchasing management and its interrelation with the supplier relationships and the production process. The research design was twofold: theory building and ca...

  18. Social Construction in Context


    Eberle, Thomas S.


    Der Verfasser würdigt die Bedeutung des Buchs "The Social Construction of Reality" von Berger und Luckmann anlässlich des 25. Jahrestags seines Erscheinens. Er betont vor allem die Bedeutung, die das Buch als Wegbereiter des symbolischen Interaktionismus, der Soziolinguistik, der Ethnomethodologie und des "interpretativen Paradigmas" generell hatte. Alfred Schütz' phänomenologische Analyse der Lebenswelt aufgreifend thematisierten Berger und Luckmann die Tatsache, dass Realität sozial konstru...

  19. 1997 construction & design survey. (United States)

    Pinto, C


    Managed care might seem to be putting a damper on healthcare construction, but in fact it's one of several industry changes creating opportunities for architectural and design firms. One example of a trend toward making surroundings as pleasant as possible is the west campus expansion at East Texas Medical Center in Tyler (left). Designed and built by Ellerbe Becket and completed in 1995, the project, including a nine-story medical office building, features artwork and rooftop gardens.

  20. Conservation of earthen constructions


    Mattone, Manuela; Bignamini, Elena


    Earthen constructions, built in many European, American, Asian and African countries, represent an interesting and important architectural heritage, whose conservation is necessary in order to make possible the transmission of a technological culture which keeps values of the uniqueness of the landscape as well as of their history. A study of the conditions of preservation of many unplastered earthen buildings revealed the need to set-up and test out treatments for the protection of the walls...

  1. Constructing priors in synesthesia. (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M


    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  2. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec


    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  3. Toward a constructive physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.


    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  4. INFINITY construction contract signed (United States)


    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  5. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz


    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  6. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo......C as values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....

  7. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    of the industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  8. [Materials for construction sector]. (United States)

    Macchia, C


    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  9. Assessing the sustainable construction of large construction companies in Malaysia (United States)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nasrun, Mohd Nawi Mohd


    Considering the increasing concerns for the consideration of sustainability issues in construction project delivery within the construction industry, this paper assesses the extent of sustainable construction among Malaysian large contractors, in order to ascertain the level of the industry's impacts on both the environment and the society. Sustainable construction explains the construction industry's responsibility to efficiently utilise the finite resources while also reducing construction impacts on both humans and the environment throughout the phases of construction. This study used proportionate stratified random sampling to conduct a field study with a sample of 172 contractors out of the 708 administered questionnaires. Data were collected from large contractors in the eleven states of peninsular Malaysia. Using the five-level rating scale (which include: 1= Very Low; 2= Low; 3= Moderate; 4= High; 5= Very High) to describe the level of sustainable construction of Malaysian contractors based on previous studies, statistical analysis reveals that environmental, social and economic sustainability of Malaysian large contractors are high.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard


    the building process and includes all participants in the construction project. A general result from the analysis was that critical events that occurred when the site was not using Lean Construction evolved much longer than critical events that occurred in the period when Lean Construction was used. Another......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate...

  11. Construction waste generation in Malaysia construction industry: illegal dumping activities (United States)

    Rahim, M. H. I. A.; Kasim, N.; Mohamed, I.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Saikah, M.


    Nowadays development of construction in Malaysia has been effect to the increasing of construction waste. Additionally, the production of construction waste from construction projects has given negative impact to the environment especially in illegal dumping activities. The increasing number of illegal dumping activities from construction projects in Malaysia gives a sign that Malaysian construction waste management needs to be concerned. To date, a comprehensive criterion for construction waste management, particularly for a construction project in developing countries is still not clearly defined. Therefore, construction waste management in Malaysia needs further research. The objectives of this paper are to explore illegal dumping activities, and discuss the contributory factors of illegal dumping activities. Hence, this research conducted an interview with expertise in the area of construction waste management in order to scrutinise illegal dumping activities in Malaysia. The data from semistructured interviews were analysed by content analysis. Findings from this research will help to find out the strategies to reduce the illegal dumping activities. The final result also expected to increase the awareness and better solution for reducing illegal dumping activities in construction projects among construction players.

  12. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory


    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  13. Probabilistic liver atlas construction. (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E


    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  14. PDG Construction, LLC Information Sheet (United States)

    PDG Construction, LLC d/b/a Princeton Design Guild (the Company) is located in Bell Meade, New Jersey. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Hopewell, New Jersey.

  15. Structural Impact of Construction Loads (United States)


    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  16. Construction inspection manual of procedures (United States)


    This manual provides highway construction personnel with relevant, practical information in order to perform accurate inspections and provide relevant construction procedural information for the various roadway and structures items of work. It is the...

  17. Administrative Freezing of Capital Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropacheva A. V.


    Full Text Available The author estimates administrative freezing of capital construction as a type of punishment for violating laws in this sphere. The article provides the mechanism of freezing of capital construction as a serious alternative for fine sanctions

  18. Inductive types in constructive languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Peter Johan de


    This dissertation deals with constructive languages: languages for the formal expression of mathematical constructions. The concept of construction does not only encompass computations, as expressed in programming languages,but also propositions and proofs, as expressed in a mathematical logic, and

  19. Material Science and Construction (United States)

    Traugott, Alan


    We will review the new materials and technologies that are being applied in the construction of high performance (green) buildings to improve energy efficiency, Indoor Air and Environmental Quality, water conservation and reclamation, and resource conservation. We present an introduction to state-of-the-art building concepts, including ``Net-Zero'' buildings, which generate as much energy as they use, reclaim water, and minimize waste; and ``Waste as Resource,'' including waste to energy plants, biofuels, materials reclamation and recycling. The role of advanced materials and technologies, such as spectrally selective glazing, photocatalytic concrete, solar heating and cooling, and organic solar collectors will be discussed. We also give an overview of advanced analytic tools used in building design, including Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy, and lighting/daylighting computer-based simulation programs.

  20. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh


    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  1. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell


    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...... process), 2.Organisational space (work processes and their spatial-temporal dimension) and; 3. Economic space (cost estimations and budgets). In practice, our findings show that the visualisations of different yet connected project spaces and the development of future clinical practices is related...

  2. Collaboratively Constructed Contradictory Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Just, Sine Nørholm


    Based on a mixed-method case study of online communication about the Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk, this article argues that online communication plays out as a centrifugal narration process with centripetal consequences. Through a content analysis of communication about Novo Nordisk......, three dominant online meaning constructions that present themselves as narratives are identified and their convergence into one overarching meta-narrative is identified. The meta-narrative of Novo Nordisk as the ruthlessly profit-seeking socially responsible heavenly work place is made up of the three...... interrelated, yet disparate tales about Novo Nordisk as (1) a socially responsible organization, engaged in society at large; (2) an organization primarily concerned with fulfilling its own objectives – profit maximization; and (3) a great and employee-centred workplace. The article then discusses...

  3. Derailed self-constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Christian


    The chapter focuses on the construction of self amongst a group of young boys in Denmark who have had experience with eating disorders, self- harm, loneli-ness and other manifestations of a lack of well- being. At first glance, these manifestations of a lack of well- being seem rather distinct...... and explore the ways that young boys understand and experience the self, and how they link this self to their lack of well-being. As will become apparent, fear of marginalization seems to be an important part of this connection: The young boys are struggling to live up to expectations in an increasingly...... individualized and competitive society, and their fear of being lost and excluded seems to have a destabilizing effect on their well-being. The young boys in this chapter are not socially excluded in terms of being outside ‘mainstream society’, rather their marginalization is that of insiders, who feel...

  4. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra


    semantically and formally predictable. Despite this difference, [méllo INF], like the other future periphrases, seems to be highly entrenched in the cognition (and grammar) of Early Medieval Greek language users, and consequently a grammatical construction. The syntactic evidence speaking in favor of [méllo......My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting...... presents evidence from historical linguistics, and more specifically diachronic arguments of a syntactic nature, to support the argument of frequency. I demonstrate that contrary to other Medieval Greek future periphrases, the Early Medieval Greek form [méllo (‘I am about to’) INFINITIVE (INF)] was both...

  5. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy


    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  6. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten


    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the communication and sociological values of the actors involved and saw it as essential for their way of cooperating. The cooperation included and combined elements of traditional industrial building production, with concepts and initiatives that had to be understood by means of sociological analysis. Tentatively...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  7. Constructing nonhuman animal emotion. (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza


    Scientists and lay-people alike have long been fascinated with the emotional lives of nonhuman animals. To date, scientific approaches to the study of 'animal' emotion have assumed that emotions are biologically evolutionarily conserved, hardwired and have discrete behavioral and physiological outputs. According to this view, emotions and their outputs are homologous across species, allowing humans to accurately perceive (or 'read') animal emotion using our own concepts of what emotions are. In this paper, I discuss the challenges to that perspective and propose using an alternative theoretical approach to understand animal emotion. Adopting this alternative approach, which represents a collection of similar theories (referred to as 'Theories of Constructed Emotion'), changes the questions that we ask about animal emotion, how we study emotion across phylogeny and advance translational science, and how we understand the evolution of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša


    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  9. TOTEM Construction Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    The winter technical stop saw the final steps of the installation of the TOTEM experiment. After 8 years of development, the inelastic telescope T1 was successfully installed inside CMS at both sides of the interaction point. This detector joins the previously installed inelastic telescope T2 and the Roman Pots (147m and 220m from the CMS interaction point) to study both elastic and inelastic proton scattering.   The Genova team who designed and built the detector in front of the '+' arm of the T1 telescope after final insertion. All the detector chambers were assembled at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Major contributions to the construction of the support structure and the installation process came from CERN. “Installing the T1 detector was an important milestone for TOTEM,” says Joachim Baechler, Technical Coordinator for TOTEM. Enrico Robutti from Genova, responsible for the T1 project, added: "The T1 detector was carefully installed ...

  10. Inspection of Construction Works According to Polish Construction Law (United States)

    Czemplik, A.


    Construction regulations are still different in many European countries, even though the European Union directives have unified many acts for construction works and construction products in the member countries. The scheme of the construction process presented in the paper could be valid for most countries, despite of detailed regulations of legal systems. The number of construction regulations to be followed in order to get the Construction Permit in Poland is rather big, so the time between the start of the investment process and the day when the Construction Permit is issued could be several months. Only licensed professional engineers can play the role of site managers, site inspectors and designers, registered for the given construction project. Duties and responsibilities (civil liability) of these engineers are strictly defined by regulations. The obligatory inspection of construction works should be executed by the licensed site inspectors. Moreover, the works can be incidentally inspected by Authority, banks, insurance companies or designers. Foreign designers and foreign site engineers in order to be allowed by respective Authority to play official roles on Polish construction sites should present documents proving that they can do the same jobs in their countries as per regulations obligatory there.

  11. Sustainable regulation of construction. (United States)


    The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and

  12. [Alcohol and construction workers]. (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Lorenzi, S; Silva, Giulia; Bartolozzi, F; Pavesi, Greta; Bancone, Claudia; Bettineschi, O; Magno, D


    On the basis of the data drawn by national and international literature and the introduction of recent legislation concerning "alcohol and alcohol-related problems", we studied alcohol consumption and the consequences that alcohol abuse has on health, working ability, accidents and absenteeism in construction workers. We studied alcohol consumption in two groups of building workers over different periods (1996-2000; 2006). In 142 workers alcohol concentration was measured in expired air during the periodic health surveillance examination and during work on building sites. We also analyzed the relationship between declared alcohol consumption, accidents and absenteeism. Our study showed a reduction in the average consumption of alcohol over the last ten years but confirmed the role of alcohol-related diseases as a cause of work limitations or work disability. On the other hand, "breathalysing" demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pauses in work is still common. The results of this study confirm the correlation between frequency/seriousness of accidents, absenteeism and average consumption of alcohol.

  13. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    , opportunities, and challenges concerning this new collection of media. I use the general term pervasive media systems for children (PMC), taking ‘medium’ in its broadest sense to cover aspects of communication as well as tangible interaction with the physical environment.             Tracing trends in children......’s popular culture and technology—especially their use of mobile phones and online games, worlds, and social networking sites—I argue that the there is a potential for a new type of medium which focuses on social construction rather than games and instrumental manipulation.             I give special...... divide. However, within some domains, the balance is shifting, with girls using mobile phones and social networking sites more than boys. New digital media should explore and support this shift.             New pervasive technologies offer possibilities to tie activities to the physical, informational...

  14. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater. (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A


    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  15. Surface structure determinations of ordered sulfur overlayers on Mo(100) and Re(0001) by low-energy electron diffraction intensity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentz, David William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A newly developed method for surface structure determination, tensor LEED, combined with automated search was used to analyze the structures. The ordered structures of S on Mo(100) which were studied formed a c(2 x 2), c(4 x 2), and p(2 x l) periodicities at coverages of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 ML (monolayers, of one sulfur atom per one molybdenum atom) respectively. A MO2S-like overlayer, which formed at coverages greater than 1.0 ML, is also discussed. Calculations for the c(2 x 2) structure gave a best fit geometry with S adsorbed in a four-fold symmetric hollow site and the second layer buckled by 0.09Å. The S-Mo bond length is 2.45Å and the Pendry R-factor is 0.21. Preliminary calculations for the c(4 x 2) structure did not yield an acceptable fit. The three models tried are discussed. Calculations for p(2 x l) data did not yield an acceptable geometry either. The types of models that were tried are discussed. Implications of this analysis are discussed along with results of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigation. The ordered structures on the RE(0001) surface studied have p(2 x2) and (2√3 x 2√3)R30° periodicities and occurred at S coverages of 0.25 and 0.5 ML respectively. Best fit structure for p(2 x 2) structure has S adsorbed in a three-fold hollow hcp site and exhibits a buckling of the first and second Re layers. The first layer is buckled by 0.05Å and the second layer is buckled by 0.06Å. Re-S bond length is 2.32Å and Pendry R-factor is 0.21. Preliminary results of dynamical LEED investigation of (2√3 x 2√3)R30° structure show reasonable agreement with a model with a 6-S atom basis.

  16. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories. (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B


    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Media Constructions of Sexual Violence


    White, Rebecca


    The present research analysed how the media, specifically newspaper articles, construct sexual violence towards women, with the aim of investigating why cultural misconceptions about rape persist. Language use in the articles is examined using discursive psychology, and three constructions were closely analysed: the rapist, the rape, and the woman, each containing several themes and descriptive features, with a basis in historical rape myths. Findings suggested that these constructions are ma...

  18. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However...

  19. Compositions of constructed microbial mats (United States)

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.


    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  20. New Ideas for School Construction. (United States)

    Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…

  1. Constructions over localizations of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Logar


    Full Text Available In this paper we construct a category of effective noetherian rings in which linear equations can be “solved”. This category is closed with respect to some important constructions like trascendental extensions, quotientations, finite products and localizations with respect to a large class of multiplicatively closed systems. Hence it gives a definition of “constructive” rings.

  2. Innovations in Construction Personnel Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicał Aleksander


    Full Text Available The Erasmus+ programme, financed by the European Union, encourages international projects focused on education and recognition of professional qualifications. Projects presented in this paper deepen the ideas of Directive 89/48/EWG, which will lead to the creation of a proper European system of comparison, certification and mutual recognition of qualifications in construction. Results of the projects will improve didactic process and qualifications recognition of European Union managers in construction. Paper presents 3 Erasmus+ projects: “The Augmented Reality Formwork Assembly Training” (Project number 2016-1-PL01-KA202-026102, “Common Learning Outcomes for Construction Managers in EU, part IV” (Project number 2015-1-PL01-KA202-016454, and “Continuing V.E.T. Training Programme in Lean Construction to support the transition of the Construction Sector towards a more competitive and productive model” (Project number 2016-1-ES01-KA202-025694.

  3. Constructing leadership identities through stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Hersted, Lone


    This article analyzes the construction of leadership identities through stories found in four narrative interviews from a qualitative study and leadership development project based on social constructionism and action learning. We argue that leadership development and the construction of leadership...... identities in a postmodern paradigm are based on the negotiation and co-construction of meanings, relationships, and stories. The following questions are investigated: What happens when a group of leaders from different organizations construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their identity as leaders through...... narrative interviews about their challenges as leaders? In addition, how do these discursive constructions restrict or enable new perspectives, other voices, and the possibilities for learning and change? Our analysis identified traces of both modern and postmodern leadership discourses. We suggest...

  4. Combinatorial designs constructions and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, Douglas R


    Created to teach students many of the most important techniques used for constructing combinatorial designs, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in combinatorial design theory. The text features clear explanations of basic designs, such as Steiner and Kirkman triple systems, mutual orthogonal Latin squares, finite projective and affine planes, and Steiner quadruple systems. In these settings, the student will master various construction techniques, both classic and modern, and will be well-prepared to construct a vast array of combinatorial designs. Design theory offers a progressive approach to the subject, with carefully ordered results. It begins with simple constructions that gradually increase in complexity. Each design has a construction that contains new ideas or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas previously introduced. A new text/reference covering all apsects of modern combinatorial design theory. Graduates and professionals in computer science, applie...

  5. Constructing leadership identities through stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Hersted, Lone


    This article analyzes the construction of leadership identities through stories found in four narrative interviews from a qualitative study and leadership development project based on social constructionism and action learning. We argue that leadership development and the construction of leadership...... narrative interviews about their challenges as leaders? In addition, how do these discursive constructions restrict or enable new perspectives, other voices, and the possibilities for learning and change? Our analysis identified traces of both modern and postmodern leadership discourses. We suggest...... identities in a postmodern paradigm are based on the negotiation and co-construction of meanings, relationships, and stories. The following questions are investigated: What happens when a group of leaders from different organizations construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their identity as leaders through...

  6. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  7. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John


    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Starting from the humankind’s basic need for shelter, via making continuous progress, construction industry is shaping quality of life and welfare of societies and has reached its today’s level. Turkish construction industry has also a key economic position with its contributions to Turkish economy and Turkish citizen’s welfare. The purpose of this study is to show how supply chain and logistics applied in construction industry to engage attention of researchers and contribute Turkish literature which have limited number of studies about this subject. In this regard secondary data such as scientific literature and industry reports examined and as well as primary data collected from four experts working as executives in construction industry. To summarize the findings of the research: according to experts in their firms planning of logistics and supply chain operations are not given enough attention, logistics techniques are not effectively applied and lack of communication coordination are faced among supply chain actors.

  9. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    . Laland et al. .... architects and their style of architecture exert great influence on the final form that the building takes. Laland's (2015) ..... Hui C. and Yue D. 2005 Niche construction and polymorphism maintenance in.

  10. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  11. I. Monographic Section Constructing territories/constructing identity. Lagoons compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Gelichi (a cura di


    Though fragmented and tied to the specificity of the single contributions, the picture that emerges is one moving towards the construction of a unitary interpretative paradigm, in which the constructed territory is analysed in all its forms and expressions, both material and ideological. The result is an original and in some ways unique story of a significant segment of early medieval Italian history that has until now been largely neglected by historical studies.

  12. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal


    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  13. Rapa Nui Landscapes of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hamilton


    Full Text Available Rapa Nui (Easter Island is the most remote inhabited spot in the world. It is famous for its gigantic stone statues, which have been the focus of much archaeological study. The new Rapa Nui Landscapes of Construction Project, described in this article, adopts a more holistic approach, aiming to place the statues and associated monumental structures in the context of the wider landscape of settlement and cultivation. It also concentrates on the processes of construction as much as the final products, with an emphasis on quarries and other places of construction, approached through multiple methods of field exploration.

  14. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.


    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  15. Mechanical Testing of Cartilage Constructs. (United States)

    Olvera, Dinorath; Daly, Andrew; Kelly, Daniel John


    A key goal of functional cartilage tissue engineering is to develop constructs with mechanical properties approaching those of the native tissue. Herein we describe a number of tests to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue engineered cartilage. Specifically, methods to determine the equilibrium confined compressive (or aggregate) modulus, the equilibrium unconfined compressive (or Young's) modulus, and the dynamic modulus of tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs are described. As these measurements are commonly used in both the articular cartilage mechanics literature and the cartilage tissue engineering literature to describe the mechanical functionality of cartilaginous constructs, they facilitate comparisons to be made between the properties of native and engineered tissues.

  16. Teen Brain: Still Under Construction (United States)

    ... changing brain in youthful drinking, and the relation- ship between youth drinking and the risk of addiction ... 11– 4929 2011 The Teen Brain: STILL UNDER CONSTRUCTION O ne of the ways that scientists have ...

  17. Objective Tests and Their Construction (United States)

    Dimes, R. E.


    Summarizes classifications of educational objectives, types of test items, and principles underlying the construction of tests. Indicates that a combination of essay and objective tests is preferable in the overall evaluation of a course. (CC)

  18. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  19. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment (United States)

    This presentation is a general introductory overview of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Photographs show a wide range of applications and sizes. Summary data on cost and performance from previously published documents by WERF and EPA is presented. Previously pre...

  20. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  1. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  2. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksit Barbara


    Full Text Available Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing “greener” construction without making significant changes in the urban environment.

  3. Construct Measurement in Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard


    Far too often do management scholars resort to crude and often inappropriate measures of fundamental constructs in their research; an approach which calls in question the interpretation and validity of their findings. Scholars often legitimize poor choices in measurement with a lack of availability......, this research note raises important questions about the use of proxies in management research and argues for greater care in operationalizing constructs with particular attention to matching levels of theory and measurement....

  4. Housing and construction chapter 11 (United States)

    Delton Alderman


    Highlights •The new residential and renovation construction markets in the US and the Eurozone were valued at $338.7 billion (305.5 billion euros) and $673.3 billion dollars (614.4 billion euros), respectively, in 2014. •In Europe, 55% of the value of the new residential and renovation construction markets in 2014 was in...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bladimir Díaz Borges


    Full Text Available The paper described the political and historical conditions for the construction of citizenship. To this aim the following aspects are taken in consideration: the evolution of citizenship concept, Citizenship and post modernity: The role of the government and the citizen's role in the construction of citizenship. The paper is based on a literature and online review. We conclude that social settings should be par excellence the space for critical analysis of itself, individual and community knowledge.

  6. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment


    Jan Vymazal


    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  7. Personal construct psychotherapy of addictions. (United States)

    Klion, R E; Pfenninger, D T


    Personal construct psychotherapy and its utility in understanding and treating addictions is explored. Several clinical phenomena related to chemical dependency are discussed from the perspective of constructivism. Framed within the context of Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross' (1992) stages of change model, several psychotherapeutic techniques are outlined. These concepts and techniques are offered as theoretically based heuristics and are intended to illustrate the potential utility of a clinical approach based upon personal construct theory.

  8. Conceptual Model for Systematic Construction Waste Management


    Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah


    Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...

  9. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control (United States)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos


    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier of video delivery transmits a high-quality video stream including all available scalable layers using the most reliable routes through the mesh network ensuring the highest possible video quality. The proposed scheme is implemented in a proven simulator, and the performance of the proposed system is numerically evaluated through extensive simulations. We further present an in-depth analysis of the proposed solutions and potential approaches towards supporting high-quality visual communications in such a demanding context.

  10. Challenging Data Management in CMS Computing with Network-aware Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, Daniele


    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of �?��??Intelligent Network Services�?��?�, including also bandwidt...

  11. Challenging data and workload management in CMS Computing with network-aware systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony


    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of "Intelligent Network Services", including also bandwidth on demand concepts. In this paper, we will ...

  12. Challenging data and workload management in CMS Computing with network-aware systems (United States)

    D, Bonacorsi; T, Wildish


    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of Intelligent Network Services, including also bandwidth on demand concepts. In this paper, we will review the work done in CMS on this, and the next steps.

  13. Network-Aware Mechanisms for Tolerating Byzantine Failures in Distributed Systems (United States)


    algorithms relies on the collision-resistant property of the hash function used. With the rapid improvement in modern cryptanalysis and computational... cryptanalysis . However, the more secure a hash function, the more expensive it is to compute. So the improvement we gain from reducing communica- tion

  14. Integration of a network aware traffic generation device into a computer network emulation platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S


    Full Text Available Flexible, open source network emulation tools can provide network researchers with significant benefits regarding network behaviour and performance. The evaluation of these networks can benefit greatly from the integration of realistic, network...

  15. Constructing a Genome-Wide LD Map of Wild A. gambiae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang


    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae is the major malaria vector in Africa. Examining the molecular basis of A. gambiae traits requires knowledge of both genetic variation and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD map of wild A. gambiae populations from malaria-endemic areas. We sequenced the genomes of nine wild A. gambiae mosquitoes individually using next-generation sequencing technologies and detected 2,219,815 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 88% of which are novel. SNPs are not evenly distributed across A. gambiae chromosomes. The low SNP-frequency regions overlay heterochromatin and chromosome inversion domains, consistent with the lower recombinant rates at these regions. Nearly one million SNPs that were genotyped correctly in all individual mosquitoes with 99.6% confidence were extracted from these high-throughput sequencing data. Based on these SNP genotypes, we constructed a genome-wide LD map for wild A. gambiae from malaria-endemic areas in Kenya and made it available through a public Website. The average size of LD blocks is less than 40 bp, and several large LD blocks were also discovered clustered around the para gene, which is consistent with the effect of insecticide selective sweeps. The SNPs and the LD map will be valuable resources for scientific communities to dissect the A. gambiae genome.

  16. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.


    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  17. 48 CFR 22.804-2 - Construction. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 22.804-2... Construction. (a) Construction contractors that hold a nonexempt (see 22.807) Government construction contract... affirmative action requirements that specify goals for minorities and women in covered construction trades...

  18. 10 CFR 1040.73 - New construction. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 1040.73 Section 1040.73 Energy... § 1040.73 New construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed... the construction was commenced after the effective date of this subpart. (b) Alteration. Each facility...

  19. 23 CFR 660.113 - Construction. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction. 660.113 Section 660.113 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.113 Construction. (a) No construction shall be undertaken on any FH... construction of FHs will be performed by the contract method, unless construction by the FHWA, the FS, or a...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.18 - New construction. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 8b.18 Section 8b.18... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... construction was commenced after the effective date of this part. (b) Alteration. Each facility or part of a...

  1. 46 CFR 160.054-3 - Construction. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 160.054-3 Section 160.054-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Construction. (a) Construction. The container shall be constructed of tough transparent material, not less than...

  2. 45 CFR 84.23 - New construction. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New construction. 84.23 Section 84.23 Public... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... of the facility is readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons, if the construction was...

  3. 38 CFR 18.423 - New construction. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New construction. 18.423... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of, or... facility is readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons, if the construction was commenced...

  4. 50 CFR 29.21-5 - Construction. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 29.21-5 Section 29.21-5... Construction. (a) If construction is not commenced within two (2) years after date of right-of-way grant, the...) Proof of construction: Upon completion of construction, the applicant shall file a certification of...

  5. Construction (United States)


    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...poor track record of service in rural hospitals and nursing homes; certain telecommunications franchises and privatized railroads. Legislative

  6. On the stability of copper overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence on CO and CO2 (United States)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian; Chorkendorff, Ib


    We have studied the stability of Cu overlayers on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes under low potential conditions and in the presence of CO and CO2 by means of electrochemical STM (EC-STM). For preparation we utilized the well known underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper, which, depending on the electrolyte (HClO4 and H2SO4), leads to Cu coverages in the submonolayer to monolayer range. For a Cu submonolayer on Au(1 1 1) we found that independent from the actual gas coadsorbate its closed film-like structure collapses at low potentials due to the desorption of coadsorbed anions. In contrast we found for a full Cu monolayer on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) the formation of an alloy phase under low potential conditions, which also occurs independent from the presence of gas coadsorbates.

  7. Full-mouth composite rehabilitation of a mixed erosion and attrition patient: a case report with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin CAD/CAM composite overlays. (United States)

    Bahillo, Jose; Jané, Luis; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo; Roig, Miguel


    Loss of tooth substance has become a common pathology in modern society. It is of multifactorial origin, may be induced by a chemical process or by excessive attrition, and frequently has a combined etiology. Particular care should be taken when diagnosing the cause of dental tissue loss, in order to minimize its impact. Several publications have proposed the use of minimally invasive procedures to treat such patients in preference to traditional full-crown rehabilitation. The use of composite resins, in combination with improvements in dental adhesion, allows a more conservative approach. In this paper, we describe the step-by-step procedure of full-mouth composite rehabilitation with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)- generated composite overlays in a young patient with a combination of erosion and attrition disorder.

  8. The Construction of Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schimmrigk, R


    The construction of mirror symmetry in the heterotic string is reviewed in the context of Calabi-Yau and Landau-Ginzburg compactifications. This framework has the virtue of providing a large subspace of the configuration space of the heterotic string, probing its structure far beyond the present reaches of solvable models. The construction proceeds in two stages: First all singularities/catastrophes which lead to ground states of the heterotic string are found. It is then shown that not all ground states described in this way are independent but that certain classes of these LG/CY string vacua can be related to other, simpler, theories via a process involving fractional transformations of the order parameters as well as orbifolding. This construction has far reaching consequences. Firstly it allows for a systematic identification of mirror pairs that appear abundantly in this class of string vacua, thereby showing that the emerging mirror symmetry is not accidental. This is important because models with mirro...

  9. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...... delivery, often in combination with the introduction of private finance in hitherto publicly funded buildings and infrastructure works (PPP, PFI). Some construction clients have taken this a step further and adopted a much more collaborative approach towards project delivery, often known as partnering...... of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...

  10. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  11. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim


    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...... publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally...

  12. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor


    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  13. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  14. ATLAS construction: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Sfyrla, Anna


    ATLAS is a general purpose p-p collider detector being constructed for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is located in one of the two high luminosity bunch crossing points (peak luminosity of 1 0 3 4 c m - 2 s _ 1 ) of the LHC. It consists of 3 main sections. Located close to the beam axis, the tracking system employs pixel detectors, silicon microstrip modules and transition radiation straws, all within a 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid. The tracker is surrounded by the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. In the outer part of the detector, 8 superconducting coils define an open toroidal magnetic field for muon detection. The construction status of the ATLAS detector towards being ready for the first collisions in 2007 will be presented, with particular emphasis on the construction and projected performance of the tracking system.

  15. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 6, 2017 ... niche construction; standard evolutionary theory; coevolution; natural selection; philosophy of biology; post-truth. ... Jakkur, Bengaluru 560 064, India; Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, P.O. Manauli, Mohali ...

  16. Construction site chaos : an edutainment game for construction site workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J. (Johannes)


    This paper describes a demo for the Persuasive Conference 2014 (21-23 May, Padua, Italy) which shows the result of a design project in the edutainment field. The tries to raise safety awareness among construction site workers. The purpose of the demo is to raise safety awareness amongst

  17. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya


    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe


    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  19. Construction and demolition waste indicators. (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel


    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  20. Development of Economic Factors in Tunnel Construction (United States)


    The escalating cost of underground construction of urban transportation systems has made transit planning, especially construction cost estimating, difficult. This is a study of the cost of construction of underground, rapid transit tunnels in soft g...