WorldWideScience

Sample records for network water quality

  1. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  2. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  3. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  4. Coordinating standards and applications for optical water quality sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.; Pellerin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Joint USGS-CUAHSI Workshop: In Situ Optical Water Quality Sensor Networks; Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 8-10 June 2011; Advanced in situ optical water quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for advancing scientific understanding of aquatic systems through measurements of important biogeochemical parameters at the time scales over which they vary. High-frequency and real-time water quality data also provide the opportunity for early warning of water quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), convened a 3-day workshop to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, as well as handling, storage, and analysis of the continuous data they produce.

  5. Surface Water Quality Trends from EPA's LTM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Lynch, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water chemistry provides direct indicators of the potential effects of anthropogenic impacts, such as acid deposition and climate change, on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems. Long-term surface water monitoring networks provide a host of environmental data that can be used, in conjunction with other networks, to assess how water bodies respond to stressors and if they are potentially at risk (e.g., receiving pollutant deposition beyond its critical load). Two EPA-administered monitoring programs provide information on the effects of acidic deposition on headwater aquatic systems: the Long Term Monitoring (LTM) program and the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program, designed to track the effectiveness of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in reducing the acidity of surface waters in acid sensitive ecoregions of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic. Here we present regional variability of long term trends in surface water quality in response to substantial reductions in atmospheric deposition. Water quality trends at acid sensitive LTM sites exhibit decreasing concentrations of sulfate at 100% of monitored sites in the Adirondack Mountains and New England, 80% of Northern Appalachian Plateau sites, and yet only 15% of sites in the Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces over the 1990-2011 period of record. Across all regions, most LTM sites exhibited constant or only slightly declining nitrate concentrations over the same time period. Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) levels improved at 68% and 45% of LTM sites in the Adirondacks and Northern Appalachian Plateau, respectively, but few sites showed increases in New England or the Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces due to lagging improvements in base cation concentration. The ANC of northeastern TIME lakes was also evaluated from 1991 to 1994 and 2008 to 2011. The percentage of lakes with ANC values below 50 μeq/L, lakes of acute or elevated concern, dropped by about 7%, indicating improvement

  6. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...... particular sensitive towards water quality deterioration. The analysis revealed sampling locations within steady clusters, which increased samples' comparability over time. Furthermore, the method provided a simplified overview of water movement in complex distribution networks, and could assist...

  7. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... method, which identifies the regions with relatively poor water quality and highlights the potential locations for ... intelligent decision-making based on the results and the imple- ... A water supply system where water is treated.

  8. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  9. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  10. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-02-01

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  11. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  12. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  13. Status of and changes in water quality monitored for the Idaho statewide surface-water-quality network, 1989—2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.; Parliman, Deborah J.; O'Dell, Ivalou

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho statewide surface-water-quality monitoring network consists of 56 sites that have been monitored from 1989 through 2002 to provide data to document status and changes in the quality of Idaho streams. Sampling at 33 sites has covered a wide range of flows and seasons that describe water-quality variations representing both natural conditions and human influences. Targeting additional high- or low-flow sampling would better describe conditions at 20 sites during hydrologic extremes. At the three spring site types, sampling covered the range of flow conditions from 1989 through 2002 well. However, high flows at these sites since 1989 were lower than historical high flows as a result of declining ground-water levels in the Snake River Plain. Summertime stream temperatures at 45 sites commonly exceeded 19 and 22 degrees Celsius, the Idaho maximum daily mean and daily maximum criteria, respectively, for the protection of coldwater aquatic life. Criteria exceedances in stream basins with minimal development suggest that such high temperatures may occur naturally in many Idaho streams. Suspended-sediment concentrations were generally higher in southern Idaho than in central and northern Idaho, and network data suggest that the turbidity criteria are most likely to be exceeded at sites in southern Idaho and other sections of the Columbia Plateaus geomorphic province. This is probably because this province has more fine-grained soils that are subject to erosion and disturbance by land uses than the Northern Rocky Mountains province of northern and central

  14. Abnormal quality detection and isolation in water distribution networks using simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nejjari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model based detection and localisation method to deal with abnormal quality levels based on the chlorine measurements and chlorine sensitivity analysis in a water distribution network. A fault isolation algorithm which correlates on line the residuals (generated by comparing the available chlorine measurements with their estimations using a model with the fault sensitivity matrix is used. The proposed methodology has been applied to a District Metered Area (DMA in the Barcelona network.

  15. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  16. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disinfection with chlorine is a common practice to ensure secured drinking water, but results in potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs), when excess chlorination is done. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has established Stage 1 and Stage 2 disinfection by-product Rules (DBP rules) to control ...

  17. PREDICTION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX USING BACK PROPAGATION NETWORK ALGORITHM. CASE STUDY: GOMBAK RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIS GORASHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to enable prediction of water quality parameters with conjunction to land use attributes and to find a low-end alternative for water quality monitoring techniques, which are typically expensive and tedious. It also aims to ensure sustainable development, which is essentially has effects on water quality. The research approach followed in this study is via using artificial neural networks, and geographical information system to provide a reliable prediction model. Back propagation network algorithm was used for the purpose of this study. The proposed approach minimized most of anomalies associated with prediction methods and provided water quality prediction with precision. The study used 5 hidden nodes in this network. The network was optimized to complete 23145 cycles before it reaches the best error of 0.65. Stations 18 had shown the greatest fluctuation among the three stations as it reflects an area of on-going rapid development of Gombak river watershed. The results had shown a very close prediction with best error of 0.67 in a sensitivity test that was carried afterwards.

  18. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Chen, Shaoli; Zhu, Xiaomin

    2015-11-19

    Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  19. Assessment and rationalization of water quality monitoring network: a multivariate statistical approach to the Kabbini River (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavukkandy, Musthafa Odayooth; Karmakar, Subhankar; Harikumar, P S

    2014-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient surface water quality monitoring (WQM) network is a critical component in the assessment, restoration and protection of river water quality. A periodic evaluation of monitoring network is mandatory to ensure effective data collection and possible redesigning of existing network in a river catchment. In this study, the efficacy and appropriateness of existing water quality monitoring network in the Kabbini River basin of Kerala, India is presented. Significant multivariate statistical techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) have been employed to evaluate the efficiency of the surface water quality monitoring network with monitoring stations as the evaluated variables for the interpretation of complex data matrix of the river basin. The main objective is to identify significant monitoring stations that must essentially be included in assessing annual and seasonal variations of river water quality. Moreover, the significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network was also investigated to capture valuable information on water quality from the network. Results identified few monitoring stations as insignificant in explaining the annual variance of the dataset. Moreover, the seasonal redesign of the monitoring network through a multivariate statistical framework was found to capture valuable information from the system, thus making the network more efficient. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the sampling sites into different groups based on similarity in water quality characteristics. The PCA/PFA identified significant latent factors standing for different pollution sources such as organic pollution, industrial pollution, diffuse pollution and faecal contamination. Thus, the present study illustrates that various multivariate statistical techniques can be effectively employed in sustainable management of water resources. The effectiveness of existing river water quality monitoring

  20. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  1. A water-quality monitoring network for Vallecitos Valley, Alameda County, California. Water-resources investigations (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A water-quality monitoring network is proposed to detect the presence of and trace the movement of radioisotopes in the hydrologic system in the vicinity of the Vallecitos Nuclear Center. The source of the radioisotopes is treated industrial wastewater from the Vallecitos Nuclear Center that is discharged into an unnamed tributary of Vallecitos Creek. The effluent infiltrates the alluvium along the stream course, percolates downward to the water table, and mixes with the native ground water in the subsurface. The average daily discharge of effluent to the hydrologic system in 1978 was about 100,000 gallons. The proposed network consists of four surface-water sampling sites and six wells to sample the ground-water system. Samples collected monthly at each site and analyzed for tritium and for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation would provide adequate data for monitoring

  2. Use of neural networks for monitoring surface water quality changes in a neotropical urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Oliveira Souza; Silva, Priscila Ferreira; Sabará, Millôr Godoy; da Costa, Esly Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports the using of neural networks for water quality analysis in a tropical urban stream before (2002) and after sewerage building and the completion of point-source control-based sanitation program (2003). Mathematical modeling divided water quality data in two categories: (a) input of some in situ water quality variables (temperature, pH, O2 concentration, O2 saturation and electrical conductivity) and (b) water chemical composition (N-NO2(-); N-NO3(-); N-NH4(+) Total-N; P-PO4(3-); K+; Ca2+; Mg+2; Cu2+; Zn2+ and Fe+3) as the output from tested models. Stream water data come from fortnightly sampling in five points along the Ipanema stream (Southeast Brazil, Minas Gerais state) plus two points downstream and upstream Ipanema discharge into Doce River. Once the best models are consistent with variables behavior we suggest that neural networking shows potential as a methodology to enhance guidelines for urban streams restoration, conservation and management.

  3. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  4. System-Aware Smart Network Management for Nano-Enriched Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive water quality monitoring system that employs a smart network management, nano-enriched sensing framework, and intelligent and efficient data analysis and forwarding protocols for smart and system-aware decision making. The presented system comprises two main subsystems, a data sensing and forwarding subsystem (DSFS, and Operation Management Subsystem (OMS. The OMS operates based on real-time learned patterns and rules of system operations projected from the DSFS to manage the entire network of sensors. The main tasks of OMS are to enable real-time data visualization, managed system control, and secure system operation. The DSFS employs a Hybrid Intelligence (HI scheme which is proposed through integrating an association rule learning algorithm with fuzzy logic and weighted decision trees. The DSFS operation is based on profiling and registering raw data readings, generated from a set of optical nanosensors, as profiles of attribute-value pairs. As a case study, we evaluate our implemented test bed via simulation scenarios in a water quality monitoring framework. The monitoring processes are simulated based on measuring the percentage of dissolved oxygen and potential hydrogen (PH in fresh water. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed HI-based methodology at learning different water quality classes.

  5. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  6. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom Summary The challenge of improving water quality (WQ) is a growing global concern [1]. Poor WQ is mainly attributed to poor water management and outdated agricultural activities. We propose that collaborative sensor networks spread across an entire catchment can allow cooperation among individual activities for integrated WQ monitoring and management. We show that sharing information on critical parameters among networks of water bodies and farms can enable identification and quantification of the contaminant sources, enabling better decision making for agricultural practices and thereby reducing contaminants fluxes. Motivation and results Nutrient losses from land to water have accelerated due to agricultural and urban pursuits [2]. In many cases, the application of fertiliser can be reduced by 30-50% without any loss of yield [3]. Thus information about nutrient levels and trends around the farm can improve agricultural practices and thereby reduce water contamination. The use of sensor networks for monitoring WQ in a catchment is in its infancy, but more applications are being tested [4]. However, these are focussed on local requirements and are mostly limited to water bodies. They have yet to explore the use of this technology for catchment-scale monitoring and management decisions, in an autonomous and dynamic manner. For effective and integrated WQ management, we propose a system that utilises local monitoring networks across a catchment, with provision for collaborative information sharing. This system of networks shares information about critical events, such as rain or flooding. Higher-level applications make use of this information to inform decisions about nutrient management, improving the quality of monitoring through the provision of richer datasets of catchment information to local networks. In the full paper, we present example scenarios and analyse how the benefits of

  8. A general framework for a collaborative water quality knowledge and information network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanale, Fernanda; Fontane, Darrell; Csapo, Jorge

    2011-03-01

    Increasing knowledge about the environment has brought about a better understanding of the complexity of the issues, and more information publicly available has resulted into a steady shift from centralized decision making to increasing levels of participatory processes. The management of that information, in turn, is becoming more complex. One of the ways to deal with the complexity is the development of tools that would allow all players, including managers, researchers, educators, stakeholders and the civil society, to be able to contribute to the information system, in any level they are inclined to do so. In this project, a search for the available technology for collaboration, methods of community filtering, and community-based review was performed and the possible implementation of these tools to create a general framework for a collaborative "Water Quality Knowledge and Information Network" was evaluated. The main goals of the network are to advance water quality education and knowledge; encourage distribution and access to data; provide networking opportunities; allow public perceptions and concerns to be collected; promote exchange of ideas; and, give general, open, and free access to information. A reference implementation was made available online and received positive feedback from the community, which also suggested some possible improvements.

  9. Assessment of the water quality monitoring network of the Piabanha River experimental watersheds in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using autoassociative neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Mariana D; Olivera, Francisco; de Azevedo, Jose Paulo S

    2017-09-01

    Water quality monitoring is a complex issue that requires support tools in order to provide information for water resource management. Budget constraints as well as an inadequate water quality network design call for the development of evaluation tools to provide efficient water quality monitoring. For this purpose, a nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) based on an autoassociative neural network was performed to assess the redundancy of the parameters and monitoring locations of the water quality network in the Piabanha River watershed. Oftentimes, a small number of variables contain the most relevant information, while the others add little or no interpretation to the variability of water quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for this purpose. However, conventional PCA is not able to capture the nonlinearities of water quality data, while neural networks can represent those nonlinear relationships. The results presented in this work demonstrate that NLPCA performs better than PCA in the reconstruction of the water quality data of Piabanha watershed, explaining most of data variance. From the results of NLPCA, the most relevant water quality parameter is fecal coliforms (FCs) and the least relevant is chemical oxygen demand (COD). Regarding the monitoring locations, the most relevant is Poço Tarzan (PT) and the least is Parque Petrópolis (PP).

  10. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  11. Tracing disturbance impacts on water quantity and quality through a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew; Nippgen, Fabian; McGlynn, Brian; Bernhardt, Emily

    2017-04-01

    By dismantling and redistributing 100s of meters of bedrock to mine coal from the surface, mountaintop mining with valley fills has dramatically changed catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry over more than 5,000 km2 in Central Appalachia. Throughout this expansive coal region, mining operators deposit tens of millions of m3 of crushed bedrock into headwater valleys, creating valley fills, which have substantial subsurface water storage potential. Streams draining mines have reduced peakflows, elevated baseflows, and lower event runoff ratios on average. The water stored in and percolating through valley fills drives the dissolution and oxidation of pyrite into sulfuric acid which reacts with carbonate-rich materials to rapidly weather out a suite of elements including Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, SO42-, HCO3-, and the pollutant Selenium. Together these ions increase the average specific conductance of mined streams from 60 to 1,500 µS/cm, 25-times higher than unmined streams, exporting 45-times more total dissolved solids. Together, the increased catchment storage, consequent elevated baseflow, and elevated weathering rates from mining have the potential to lower water quality throughout river networks in Central Appalachia, especially during the summer low flow period. To better understand the water quality impacts of mining at the river network scale, we used the paired catchment approach. Working in the Mud River, West Virginia, we instrumented a 4th order catchment 35 km2, that was 46% mined. Within the large catchment we instrumented 8 additional 1st-3rd order sub-catchments that varied in catchment size, mining cover, mine size, and mine age. At each site we measured stream discharge and specific conductance (SC). Using SC as a trace for mining we did simple hydrograph separations at our largest catchments, partitioning the hydrograph between mined and unmined water. Our results suggest that on an annual scale, mine water contributes a disproportionate percentage of

  12. Water quality modelling and optimisation of wastewater treatment network using mixed integer programming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlathi, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Instream water quality management encompasses field monitoring and utilisation of mathematical models. These models can be coupled with optimisation techniques to determine more efficient water quality management alternatives. Among these activities...

  13. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  14. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms

  15. In situ optical water-quality sensor networks - Workshop summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced in situ optical water-quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for furthering scientific understanding of aquatic systems. These sensors measure important biogeochemical parameters for long deployments, enabling the capture of data at time scales over which they vary most meaningfully. The high-frequency, real-time water-quality data they generate provide opportunities for early warning of water-quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) convened a joint 3-day workshop (June 8-10, 2011) at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepardstown, West Virginia, to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, and improve handling, storing, and analyzing the continuous data they produce. The workshop brought together more than 60 scientists, program managers, and vendors from universities, government agencies, and the private sector. Several important outcomes emerged from the presentations and breakout sessions. There was general consensus that making intercalibrated measurements requires that both manufacturers and users better characterize and calibrate the sensors under field conditions. For example, the influence of suspended particles, highly colored water, and temperature on optical sensors remains poorly understood, but consistently accounting for these factors is critical to successful deployment and for interpreting results in different settings. This, in turn, highlights the lack of appropriate standards for sensor calibrations, field checks, and characterizing interferences, as well as methods for

  16. Quality assessment and artificial neural networks modeling for characterization of chemical and physical parameters of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Marjan; Salami Shahid, Esmaeel; Afzali, Seied Hosein; Ehteshami, Majid; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Derakhshan, Zahra; Sheibani, Solmaz Nikbakht

    2018-04-22

    Today, due to the increase in the population, the growth of industry and the variety of chemical compounds, the quality of drinking water has decreased. Five important river water quality properties such as: dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (ALK) and turbidity (TU) were estimated by parameters such as: electric conductivity (EC), temperature (T), and pH that could be measured easily with almost no costs. Simulate water quality parameters were examined with two methods of modeling include mathematical and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Mathematical methods are based on polynomial fitting with least square method and ANN modeling algorithms are feed-forward networks. All conditions/circumstances covered by neural network modeling were tested for all parameters in this study, except for Alkalinity. All optimum ANN models developed to simulate water quality parameters had precision value as R-value close to 0.99. The ANN model extended to simulate alkalinity with R-value equals to 0.82. Moreover, Surface fitting techniques were used to refine data sets. Presented models and equations are reliable/useable tools for studying water quality parameters at similar rivers, as a proper replacement for traditional water quality measuring equipment's. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  18. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  19. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  20. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  1. Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, M.; Kelderman, P.; O´keeffe, J. H.

    The measurement of chemical, physical and biological parameters is important for the characterization of streams health. Thus, cost-effective and targeted water quality (WQ) monitoring programmes are required for proper assessment, restoration and protection of such systems. This research proposes a WQ monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) in Mozambique located in Southern Africa, a region prone to severe droughts. In this Basin both anthropogenic and natural driven processes, exacerbated by the increased water demand by the four riparian countries (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) are responsible for the degradation of surface waters, impairing their downstream use, either for aquatic ecosystem, drinking, industrial or irrigation. Hence, physico-chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics at 23 sites within the basin were studied in November 2006 and January 2007. The physico-chemical and microbiological samples were analyzed according to American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the biological monitoring working party method (BMWP) was used for biological assessment. The assessment of the final WQ condition at sampled points was done taking into account appropriate indexes, the Mozambican standards for receiving waters and the WHO guidelines for drinking WQ. The assessed data indicated that sites located at proximities to the border with upstream countries were contaminated with heavy metals. The Elephants subcatchment was found with a relatively better WQ, whereas the Changane subcatchment together with the effluent point discharges in the basin were found polluted as indicated by the low dissolved oxygen and high total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio and low benthic macroinvertebrates taxa. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found for some parameters when the concentrations recorded in November and January were tested, therefore, indicating

  2. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  3. Real Time Assessment of Potable Water Quality in Distribution Network based on Low Cost Multi-Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Khatri, Punit

    2018-03-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameters measurement systems. This paper proposed a new way of potable water quality assessment in distribution network using Multi Sensor Array (MSA). Extensive research suggests that following parameters i.e. pH, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), Conductivity, Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP), Temperature and Salinity are most suitable to detect overall quality of potable water. Commonly MSA is not an integrated sensor array on some substrate, but rather comprises a set of individual sensors measuring simultaneously different water parameters all together. Based on research, a MSA has been developed followed by signal conditioning unit and finally, an algorithm for easy user interfacing. A dedicated part of this paper also discusses the platform design and significant results. The Objective of this proposed research is to provide simple, efficient, cost effective and socially acceptable means to detect and analyse water bodies regularly and automatically.

  4. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  5. A study of electrical power network of renewable energies and water desalination research center using power quality phenomena and indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segayer, Ali Mehemmed

    2008-08-01

    Renewable energies and water distillation research center (REWDRC) is a very strategic research facility and contains many important and critical industrial and electrical loads that must to be operated as a group to fulfill the requirements and the needs of the center in the operation of the main research facility of the center which a 10 MW reactor. Faults on the electrical or the industrial system can occur on many ways such as a malfunction in the questioned system, power quality related problem, or a failure of any of the loads (such as central ventilation or water circulation system or one of the substations) have a great diverse effect on the operation of the main research facility (reactor). In this research common problems due to power quality phenomena were studied, assessed through a assigning some power quality indices to the electrical network of the center so that the operational condition of the REWDRC electrical and industrial network could be evaluated. power quality indices (PQI) were assigned based on results of real time measurements at the points of common coupling of the network (PCC) and the initial power quality survey report. indices analysis was done using three methods which were the normalization method, method of comparing to the limit value and analysis of measurement data time function profile. As a result of this research a recommendation for safe operation against power quality disturbances was pointed out through a continuous monitoring of assigned power quality indices. (Author)

  6. Optimal spatio-temporal design of water quality monitoring networks for reservoirs: Application of the concept of value of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymandi, Nahal; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimizing Water Quality Monitoring (WQM) networks of reservoirs and lakes using the concept of the value of information (VOI) and utilizing results of a calibrated numerical water quality simulation model. With reference to the value of information theory, water quality of every checkpoint with a specific prior probability differs in time. After analyzing water quality samples taken from potential monitoring points, the posterior probabilities are updated using the Baye's theorem, and VOI of the samples is calculated. In the next step, the stations with maximum VOI is selected as optimal stations. This process is repeated for each sampling interval to obtain optimal monitoring network locations for each interval. The results of the proposed VOI-based methodology is compared with those obtained using an entropy theoretic approach. As the results of the two methodologies would be partially different, in the next step, the results are combined using a weighting method. Finally, the optimal sampling interval and location of WQM stations are chosen using the Evidential Reasoning (ER) decision making method. The efficiency and applicability of the methodology are evaluated using available water quantity and quality data of the Karkheh Reservoir in the southwestern part of Iran.

  7. Geostatistical prediction of microbial water quality throughout a stream network using meteorology, land cover, and spatiotemporal autocorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Andrew; Messier, Kyle P; Serre, Marc L; Rowny, Jakob G; Stewart, Jill R

    2018-06-11

    Predictive modeling is promising as an inexpensive tool to assess water quality. We developed geostatistical predictive models of microbial water quality that empirically modelled spatiotemporal autocorrelation in measured fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations to improve prediction. We compared five geostatistical models featuring different autocorrelation structures, fit to 676 observations from 19 locations in North Carolina's Jordan Lake watershed using meteorological and land cover predictor variables. Though stream distance metrics (with and without flow-weighting) failed to improve prediction over the Euclidean distance metric, incorporating temporal autocorrelation substantially improved prediction over the space-only models. We predicted FC throughout the stream network daily for one year, designating locations "impaired", "unimpaired", or "unassessed" if the probability of exceeding the state standard was >90%, 10% but <90%, respectively. We could assign impairment status to more of the stream network on days any FC were measured, suggesting frequent sample-based monitoring remains necessary, though implementing spatiotemporal predictive models may reduce the number of concurrent sampling locations required to adequately assess water quality. Together, these results suggest that prioritizing sampling at different times and conditions using geographically sparse monitoring networks is adequate to build robust and informative geostatistical models of water quality impairment.

  8. A feed-forward Hopfield neural network algorithm (FHNNA) with a colour satellite image for water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal Kzar, Ahmed; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Hwee San, Lim; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Mutter, Kussay N.; Hassan Al-Saleh, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    There are many techniques that have been given for water quality problem, but the remote sensing techniques have proven their success, especially when the artificial neural networks are used as mathematical models with these techniques. Hopfield neural network is one type of artificial neural networks which is common, fast, simple, and efficient, but it when it deals with images that have more than two colours such as remote sensing images. This work has attempted to solve this problem via modifying the network that deals with colour remote sensing images for water quality mapping. A Feed-forward Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (FHNNA) was modified and used with a satellite colour image from type of Thailand earth observation system (THEOS) for TSS mapping in the Penang strait, Malaysia, through the classification of TSS concentrations. The new algorithm is based essentially on three modifications: using HNN as feed-forward network, considering the weights of bitplanes, and non-self-architecture or zero diagonal of weight matrix, in addition, it depends on a validation data. The achieved map was colour-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the new algorithm has found out by the higher correlation coefficient (R=0.979) and the lower root mean square error (RMSE=4.301) between the validation data that were divided into two groups. One used for the algorithm and the other used for validating the results. The comparison was with the minimum distance classifier. Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in Penang strait, Malaysia, can be performed using FHNNA with remote sensing technique (THEOS). It is a new and useful application of HNN, so it is a new model with remote sensing techniques for water quality mapping which is considered important environmental problem.

  9. Ditch network maintenance in peat-dominated boreal forests: Review and analysis of water quality management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mika; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sikström, Ulf; Löfgren, Stefan; Marttila, Hannu; Sarkkola, Sakari; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of different water management options to mitigate sediment and nutrient exports from ditch network maintenance (DNM) areas in boreal peatland forests. Available literature was reviewed, past data reanalyzed, effects of drainage intensity modeled, and major research gaps identified. The results indicate that excess downstream loads may be difficult to prevent. Water protection structures constructed to capture eroded matter are either inefficient (sedimentation ponds) or difficult to apply (wetland buffers). It may be more efficient to decrease erosion, either by limiting peak water velocity (dam structures) or by adjusting ditch depth and spacing to enable satisfactory drainage without exposing the mineral soil below peat. Future research should be directed towards the effects of ditch breaks and adjusted ditch depth and spacing in managing water quality in DNM areas.

  10. The aquatic real-time monitoring network; in-situ optical sensors for monitoring the nation's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Downing, Bryan D.; Saraceno, John Franco; Aiken, George R.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Floods, hurricanes, and longer-term changes in climate and land use can have profound effects on water quality due to shifts in hydrologic flow paths, water residence time, precipitation patterns, connectivity between rivers and uplands, and many other factors. In order to understand and respond to changes in hydrology and water quality, resource managers and policy makers have a need for accurate and early indicators, as well as the ability to assess possible mechanisms and likely outcomes. In-situ optical sensors-those making continuous measurements of constituents by absorbance or fluorescence properties in the environment at timescales of minutes to years-have a long history in oceanography for developing highly resolved concentrations and fluxes, but are not commonly used in freshwater systems. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the Aquatic Real-Time Monitoring Network, with high-resolution optical data collection for organic carbon, nutrients, and sediment in large coastal rivers, along with continuous measurements of discharge, water temperature, and dissolved inorganic carbon. The collecting of continuous water-quality data in the Nation?s waterways has revealed temporal trends and spatial patterns in constituents that traditional sampling approaches fail to capture, and will serve a critical role in monitoring, assessment and decision-making in a rapidly changing landscape.

  11. Water quality in irrigation and drainage networks of Thessaloniki plain in Greece related to land use, water management, and agroecosystem protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litskas, Vassilis D; Aschonitis, Vassilis G; Antonopoulos, Vassilis Z

    2010-04-01

    A representative agricultural area of 150 ha located in a protected ecosystem (Axios River Delta, Thermaikos Gulf-N. Aegean, Greece) was selected in order to investigate water quality parameters [pH, electrical conductivity (EC(w)), NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, total phosphorus (TP)] in irrigation and drainage water. In the study area, the cultivated crops are mainly rice, maize, cotton, and fodder. Surface irrigation methods are applied using open channels network, and irrigation water is supplied by Axios River, which is facing pollution problems. The return flow from surface runoff and the surplus of irrigation water are collected to drainage network and disposed to Thermaikos Gulf. A 2-year study (2006-2007) was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of land use and irrigation water management on the drainage water quality. The average pH and NO(3)-N concentration was higher in the irrigation water (8.0 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively) than that in the drainage water (7.6 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively). The average EC(W), NH(4)-N, and TP concentration was higher in the drainage water (1,754 muS/cm, 90.3 microg/L, and 0.2 mg/L, respectively) than that in the irrigation water (477.1 muS/cm, 46.7 microg/L, and 0.1 mg/L, respectively). Average irrigation efficiency was estimated at 47% and 51% in 2006 and 2007 growing seasons (April-October), respectively. The loads of NO(3)-N in both seasons were higher in the irrigation water (35.1 kg/ha in 2006 and 24.9 kg/ha in 2007) than those in the drainage water (8.1 kg/ha in 2006 and 7.6 kg/ha in 2007). The load of TP was higher in the irrigation water in season 2006 (2.8 kg/ha) than that in the drainage water (1.1 kg/ha). Total phosphorus load in 2007 was equal in irrigation and drainage water (1.2 kg/ha). Wetland conditions, due to rice irrigation regime, drainage network characteristics, and the crop distribution in the study area, affect the drainage water ending in the protected ecosystem of Thermaikos Gulf.

  12. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tongxin; Xia, Min; Chen, Jiahong; Silva, Clarence de

    2017-11-05

    Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA) is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA), while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME), DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  13. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Sampling Algorithm in a Sensor Network for Automated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxin Shu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power management is crucial in the monitoring of a remote environment, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested to sustain a monitoring system. However, without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and, as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. This paper develops and applies a novel adaptive sampling algorithm for power management in the automated monitoring of the quality of water in an extensive and remote aquatic environment. Based on the data collected on line using sensor nodes, a data-driven adaptive sampling algorithm (DDASA is developed for improving the power efficiency while ensuring the accuracy of sampled data. The developed algorithm is evaluated using two distinct key parameters, which are dissolved oxygen (DO and turbidity. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery lifetime can be effectively prolonged while maintaining a required level of sampling accuracy. According to the simulation results, compared to a fixed sampling rate, approximately 30.66% of the battery energy can be saved for three months of continuous water quality monitoring. Using the same dataset to compare with a traditional adaptive sampling algorithm (ASA, while achieving around the same Normalized Mean Error (NME, DDASA is superior in saving 5.31% more battery energy.

  14. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  15. Water-quality data for the ground-water network in eastern Broward County, Florida, 1983-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, B.G.; Cannon, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    During 1983-84, groundwater from 63 wells located at 31 sites throughout eastern Broward County, Florida, was sampled and analyzed to determine baseline water quality conditions. The physical and chemical parameters analyzed included field measurements (pH and temperature), physical characteristics (color, turbidity, and specific conductance), major inorganic ions, nutrients, (nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon), selected metals, and total phenolic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected at the end of the dry season (April) and during the wet season (July and September). These data are tabulated, by well, in this report. (USGS)

  16. Prediction ofWater Quality Parameters (NO3, CL in Karaj Riverby Usinga Combinationof Wavelet Neural Network, ANN and MLRModels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rajaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe water quality is an issue of ongoing concern. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of running waters is considerable in hydro-environmental management.The prediction and control of the quality of Karaj river water, as one of the important needed water supply sources of Tehran, possesses great importance. In this study, Performance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Wavelet Neural Network combination (WANN and multi linear regression (MLR models, to predict next month the Nitrate (NO3 and Chloride (CL ions of "gate ofBylaqan sluice" station located in Karaj River has been evaluated. Materials and MethodsIn this research two separate ANN models for prediction of NO3 and CL has been expanded. Each one of the parameters for prediction (NO3 / CL has been put related to the past amounts of the same time series (NO3 / CL and its amounts of Q in past months.From astatisticalperiod of10yearswas usedforthe input of the models. Hence 80% of entire data from (96 initial months of data as training set, next 10% of data (12 months and 10% of the end of time series (terminal 12 months were considered as for validation and test of the models, respectively. In WANNcombination model, the real monthly observed time series of river discharge (Q and mentioned qualityparameters(NO3 / CL were decomposed to some sub-time series at different levels by wavelet analysis.Then the decomposed quality parameters to predict and Q time series were used at different levels as inputs to the ANN technique for predicting one-step-ahead Nitrate and Chloride. These time series play various roles in the original time series and the behavior of each is distinct, so the contribution to the original time series varies from each other. In addition, prediction of high NO3 and CL values greater than mean of data that have great importancewere investigated by the models. The capability of the models was evaluated by Coefficient of Efficiency (E and the Root Mean Square

  17. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  18. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  19. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  20. GIS-based spatial regression and prediction of water quality in river networks: A case study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Jin, W.

    2010-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of the U.S.'s water quality problems. One important component of nonpoint source pollution control is an understanding of what and how watershed-scale conditions influence ambient water quality. This paper investigated the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration in the Cedar River Watershed, Iowa. An Arc Hydro geodatabase was constructed to organize various datasets on the watershed. Spatial regression models were developed to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration and predict NO3NO2-N concentration at unmonitored locations. Unlike the traditional ordinary least square (OLS) method, the spatial regression method incorporates the potential spatial correlation among the observations in its coefficient estimation. Study results show that NO3NO2-N observations in the Cedar River Watershed are spatially correlated, and by ignoring the spatial correlation, the OLS method tends to over-estimate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration. In conjunction with kriging, the spatial regression method not only makes better stream NO3NO2-N concentration predictions than the OLS method, but also gives estimates of the uncertainty of the predictions, which provides useful information for optimizing the design of stream monitoring network. It is a promising tool for better managing and controlling nonpoint source pollution. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  2. Monthly water quality forecasting and uncertainty assessment via bootstrapped wavelet neural networks under missing data for Harbin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Tong; Zhao, Ying; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Liang; Wang, Peng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, bootstrapped wavelet neural network (BWNN) was developed for predicting monthly ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Harbin region, northeast of China. The Morlet wavelet basis function (WBF) was employed as a nonlinear activation function of traditional three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) structure. Prediction intervals (PI) were constructed according to the calculated uncertainties from the model structure and data noise. Performance of BWNN model was also compared with four different models: traditional ANN, WNN, bootstrapped ANN, and autoregressive integrated moving average model. The results showed that BWNN could handle the severely fluctuating and non-seasonal time series data of water quality, and it produced better performance than the other four models. The uncertainty from data noise was smaller than that from the model structure for NH(4+)-N; conversely, the uncertainty from data noise was larger for DO series. Besides, total uncertainties in the low-flow period were the biggest due to complicated processes during the freeze-up period of the Songhua River. Further, a data missing-refilling scheme was designed, and better performances of BWNNs for structural data missing (SD) were observed than incidental data missing (ID). For both ID and SD, temporal method was satisfactory for filling NH(4+)-N series, whereas spatial imputation was fit for DO series. This filling BWNN forecasting method was applied to other areas suffering "real" data missing, and the results demonstrated its efficiency. Thus, the methods introduced here will help managers to obtain informed decisions.

  3. The Contribution of GIS to Display and Analyze the Water Quality Data Collected by a Wireless Sensor Network: Case of Bouregreg Catchment, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, S.; Rhinane, H.

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring of water quality is, in most cases, managed in the laboratory and not on real time bases. Besides this process being lengthy, it doesn't provide the required specifications to describe the evolution of the quality parameters that are of interest. This study presents the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with wireless sensor networks (WSN) aiming to create a system able to detect the parameters like temperature, salinity and conductivity in a Moroccan catchment scale and transmit information to the support station. This Information is displayed and evaluated in a GIS using maps and spatial dashboard to monitor the water quality in real time.

  4. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GIS TO DISPLAY AND ANALYZE THE WATER QUALITY DATA COLLECTED BY A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK: CASE OF BOUREGREG CATCHMENT, MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubakri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of water quality is, in most cases, managed in the laboratory and not on real time bases. Besides this process being lengthy, it doesn’t provide the required specifications to describe the evolution of the quality parameters that are of interest. This study presents the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS with wireless sensor networks (WSN aiming to create a system able to detect the parameters like temperature, salinity and conductivity in a Moroccan catchment scale and transmit information to the support station. This Information is displayed and evaluated in a GIS using maps and spatial dashboard to monitor the water quality in real time.

  5. NETWORKS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Hadžistević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tools used in the past to analyze business value creation, such as value chain and process models, are simply too slow, inadequate, or inappropriate to address this new level of business complexity. In stead of that, company has to find way to create quality management system in a multi-layered supply chain. The problem can be solved by networking in the cluster. Cluster can be known as a competitive cooperation in the purpose to gain higher level of competitiveness and success. Bat there is another problem: Organization of the production process in a company is extremely complex process itself, and when we transfer it to the cluster level, we get a complex task which is difficult to solve. For that purpose, this paper analyses the conditions and possibilities that would enable those structures to adapt to changes in the surroundings - flexibility and management adequacy of production and organizational structures - by creating network value system.

  6. User’s manual for the Automated Data Assurance and Management application developed for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The generation of Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from over 240 water-level stations. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface maps, the Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) tool was created by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science. The ADAM tool is used to provide accurate quality-assurance review of the real-time data from the EDEN network and allows estimation or replacement of missing or erroneous data. This user’s manual describes how to install and operate the ADAM software. File structure and operation of the ADAM software is explained using examples.

  7. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  8. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  9. Stochastic water demand modelling for a better understanding of hydraulics in water distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the water distribution network water quality process take place influenced by de flow velocity and residence time of the water in the network. In order to understand how the water quality changes in the water distribution network, a good understanding of hydraulics is required. Specifically in

  10. An interdisciplinary political ecology of drinking water quality. Exploring socio-ecological inequalities in Lilongwe's water supply network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusca, Maria; Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Loftus, Alex; Ferrero, Giuliana; van der Zaag, P.

    2017-01-01

    Urban political ecology attempts to unravel and politicize the socio-ecological processes that produce uneven waterscapes. At the core of this analysis are the choreographies of power that influence how much water flows through urban infrastructure as well as where it flows, thereby shaping

  11. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  13. Agricultural practice and water quality on farms registered for derogation : results for 2007 in the derogation monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.H.; Doornewaard, G.J.; Boumans, L.J.M.; Leeuwen, van T.C.; Fraters, B.; Reijs, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fertilisation practices and water quality in 2007 on grassland farms that are allowed to use more livestock manure than the limit set in European legislation (derogation). Data in this report can be used to study the consequences of this derogation on the water

  14. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  15. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  16. A software sensor model based on hybrid fuzzy neural network for rapid estimation water quality in Guangzhou section of Pearl River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunshan; Zhang, Chao; Tian, Di; Wang, Ke; Huang, Mingzhi; Liu, Yanbiao

    2018-01-02

    In order to manage water resources, a software sensor model was designed to estimate water quality using a hybrid fuzzy neural network (FNN) in Guangzhou section of Pearl River, China. The software sensor system was composed of data storage module, fuzzy decision-making module, neural network module and fuzzy reasoning generator module. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was employed to capture the character of model, and optimize network architecture for enhancing network performance. The results indicate that, on basis of available on-line measured variables, the software sensor model can accurately predict water quality according to the relationship between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and NH 4 + -N. Owing to its ability in recognizing time series patterns and non-linear characteristics, the software sensor-based FNN is obviously superior to the traditional neural network model, and its R (correlation coefficient), MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) and RMSE (root mean square error) are 0.8931, 10.9051 and 0.4634, respectively.

  17. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  18. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  19. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  20. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  1. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  2. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  3. Enabling proactive agricultural drainage reuse for improved water quality through collaborative networks and low-complexity data-driven modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Zia, Huma

    2015-01-01

    With increasing prevalence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in agriculture and hydrology, there exists an opportunity for providing a technologically viable solution for the conservation of already scarce fresh water resources. In this thesis, a novel framework is proposed for enabling a proactive management of agricultural drainage and nutrient losses at farm scale where complex models are replaced by in-situ sensing, communication and low complexity predictive models suited to an autonomo...

  4. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  5. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  6. Agricultural practice and water quality on farms registered for derogation : results for 2009 in the derogation monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.H.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Boumans, L.J.M.; Doornewaard, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fertilisation practices in 2009 and of water quality in 2009 and 2010 on grassland farms that are allowed to use more animal manure than the limit set in the European Nitrates Directive (derogation). Data from this research can be used to study the consequences

  7. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  8. Quality and food network configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how the emergence of distinct quality conventions relates to particular network relations within two selected Danish organic dairy enterprises. The paper starts out from the assumption that the distinct qualities, which distinguish organic food, can be viewed...... as a form of symbolic capital. In order to be recognized and thus qualified as symbolic capital, mediation of quality takes place throughout the selected networks, all the way from cow to cup. At some point, symbolic capital will be converted into economic capital. In practical terms, management of quality...... is thus extremely important and even more so if the product chain in question is a ‘high-quality’ food chain of a relatively high level of complexity, such as an organic food network. Analytically, our main focus is on the relation between network structure and the qualities mediated from cow to cup...

  9. Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  10. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  11. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  12. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  13. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality: a case for collaborative catchment-scale management using integrated wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff V.; Rivers, Mark; Coles, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of improving water quality is a growing global concern, typified by the European Commission Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act. The main drivers of poor water quality are economics, poor water management, agricultural practices and urban development. This paper reviews the extensive role of non-point sources, in particular the outdated agricultural practices, with respect to nutrient and contaminant contributions. Water quality monitoring (WQM) is cu...

  14. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  15. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  16. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  17. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  19. SATWG networked quality function deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don

    1992-01-01

    The initiative of this work is to develop a cooperative process for continual evolution of an integrated, time phased avionics technology plan that involves customers, technologists, developers, and managers. This will be accomplished by demonstrating a computer network technology to augment the Quality Function Deployment (QFD). All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  20. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Manasbayeva, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in

  1. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1994-01-01

    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  2. Synthesis of Industrial Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennati, A.; Quaglia, Alberto; Gani, Rafiqul

    of the water networks proposed comprise few contaminants and do not consider critical parameters for wastewater treatment equipment, such as limiting inlet concentrations, flow rates, and other specific design constraints. Thus, these networks are arguably not fit to manage the complexity of a real industrial...... case (in terms of number of contaminants, number of processing options, design constraints etc.). In this work, a systematic framework for the formulation and solution of water networks problems is proposed, based on the modification of an earlier work [3]. The optimization problem is formulated...

  3. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  4. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  5. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  6. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  7. Results of Geoenvironmental Studies (2013-2014) Applied to a Monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time in the Atoyac River (upstream) Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Tavera, E. M.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Results of geoenvironment studies, referents to geochemistry, weathering, size, mineral composition, and metals contained in sediments and physicochemical parameters of water in urban rivers associated with dam are presented. Emphasis on the interpretation of these results, was detect environmental susceptibility areas associated at the water quality in Upper basin of Atoyac River, Puebla, Mexico. The environmental sub secretary of the state government of Puebla, Mexico has initiated actions to clean up the urban Atoyac River, with measurements of physicochemical parameters associated of the water quality in real-time monitoring and sampling network along the river. The results identified an important role in the rivers, not only to receive and transport the contaminants associated with sedimentological and geochemical conditions, but magnified the effects of pollutant discharges. A significant concentration of hazardous metals in sediments of the dam, reflecting the geo-environmental conditions of anthropogenic Valsequillo Dam induction was determined. For example, a moderately contaminated Pb contaminated extreme class, and Cu and Zn contaminated with moderate to heavy contaminated under geoenvironment class index. Large concentration of clay minerals with larger surface areas was found there in the study, the minerals are definitely the fittest in nature to accept on their surfaces constitution of metals, metalloids and other contaminants which were reflected in the Geoenvironmental index. The results of the studies performed here enable us to locate monitoring stations and sampling network to physicochemical parameters in real time, in the areas of higher contamination found in geoenvironmental studies Atoyac High River Basin. Similarly, we can elucidate the origin of pollutants and monitoring agents reflected in BOD5 (223 mg / l) and COD (610 mg / l), suspended solids totals (136 mg / l) and dissolved solids totals (840 mg / l), in others. Recent hydrometric

  8. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  9. Minerals Policy Monitoring Programme : : results for 2006 on water quality and fertilisation practices : within the framework of the derogation monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.; Reijs, J.W.; Leeuwen, van T.C.; Bouwmans, L.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fertilisation practices and water quality in 2006 on grassland farms using more animal manure than the limit set in European legislation. Water quality measured in 2006 is related to agricultural practices in previous years, and the reported values do not reveal

  10. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  11. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  12. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  13. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  14. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  15. Entropy Applications to Water Monitoring Network Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Keum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable water monitoring networks is an essential component of water resources and environmental management. A standardized process for the design of water monitoring networks does not exist with the exception of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO general guidelines about the minimum network density. While one of the major challenges in the design of optimal hydrometric networks has been establishing design objectives, information theory has been successfully adopted to network design problems by providing measures of the information content that can be deliverable from a station or a network. This review firstly summarizes the common entropy terms that have been used in water monitoring network designs. Then, this paper deals with the recent applications of the entropy concept for water monitoring network designs, which are categorized into (1 precipitation; (2 streamflow and water level; (3 water quality; and (4 soil moisture and groundwater networks. The integrated design method for multivariate monitoring networks is also covered. Despite several issues, entropy theory has been well suited to water monitoring network design. However, further work is still required to provide design standards and guidelines for operational use.

  16. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  17. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  18. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  20. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  1. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  2. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area ... All the mean nutrient values for Densu, Birim and Ayensu were not significantly .... variability in the composition of the river.

  3. Water quality. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 o C. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters and can be extended to saline or mineralized waters, but with a reduced sensitivity. The range of application depends on the amount of inorganic material in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 o C. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchette and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard. (author)

  4. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  5. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF EXTRACTING SURFACE WATER QUALITY LEVELS (SWQLs USING REMOTE SENSING AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE STUDY IN THE SAINT JOHN RIVER, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharaf El Din

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair and 59 (Marginal for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  6. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  7. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  8. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  9. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  10. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  11. An ANN application for water quality forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, Sundarambal; Liong, Shie-Yui; Tkalich, Pavel

    2008-09-01

    Rapid urban and coastal developments often witness deterioration of regional seawater quality. As part of the management process, it is important to assess the baseline characteristics of the marine environment so that sustainable development can be pursued. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict and forecast quantitative characteristics of water bodies. The true power and advantage of this method lie in its ability to (1) represent both linear and non-linear relationships and (2) learn these relationships directly from the data being modeled. The study focuses on Singapore coastal waters. The ANN model is built for quick assessment and forecasting of selected water quality variables at any location in the domain of interest. Respective variables measured at other locations serve as the input parameters. The variables of interest are salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-alpha. A time lag up to 2Delta(t) appeared to suffice to yield good simulation results. To validate the performance of the trained ANN, it was applied to an unseen data set from a station in the region. The results show the ANN's great potential to simulate water quality variables. Simulation accuracy, measured in the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (R(2)), ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 for the training and overfitting test data. Thus, a trained ANN model may potentially provide simulated values for desired locations at which measured data are unavailable yet required for water quality models.

  12. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  13. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  14. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  15. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  17. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  18. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  20. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  1. Review on water quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Terrestrial life may be carbon-based, but most of its mass is made up of water. Access to clean water is essential to all aspects of maintaining life. Mainly due to human activity, the strain on the water resources of our planet has increased substantially, requiring action in water management and purification. Water quality sensors are needed in order to quantify the problem and verify the success of remedial actions. This review summarizes the most common chemical water quality parameters, and current developments in sensor technology available to monitor them. Particular emphasis is on technologies that lend themselves to reagent-free, low-maintenance, autonomous and continuous monitoring. Chemiresistors and other electrical sensors are discussed in particular detail, while mechanical, optical and electrochemical sensors also find mentioning. The focus here is on the physics of chemical signal transduction in sensor elements that are in direct contact with the analyte. All other sensing methods, and all other elements of sampling, sample pre-treatment as well as the collection, transmission and analysis of the data are not discussed here. Instead, the goal is to highlight the progress and remaining challenges in the development of sensor materials and designs for an audience of physicists and materials scientists.

  2. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  3. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  4. Using turbidity for designing water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J A; Higuita, J C

    2016-05-01

    Some methods to design water networks with minimum fresh water consumption are based on the selection of a key contaminant. In most of these "single contaminant methods", a maximum allowable concentration of contaminants must be established in water demands and water sources. Turbidity is not a contaminant concentration but is a property that represents the "sum" of other contaminants, with the advantage that it can be cheaper and easily measured than biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, dissolved solids, among others. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that turbidity can be used directly in the design of water networks just like any other contaminant concentration. A mathematical demonstration is presented and in order to validate the mathematical results, the design of a water network for a guava fudge production process is performed. The material recovery pinch diagram and nearest neighbors algorithm were used for the design of the water network. Nevertheless, this water network could be designed using other single contaminant methodologies. The maximum error between the expected and the real turbidity values in the water network was 3.3%. These results corroborate the usefulness of turbidity in the design of water networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  6. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A

  7. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  8. Water quality status and trends in agriculture dominated headwaters; a national monitoring network for assessing the effectiveness of national and European manure legislation in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Klein, J.

    2016-12-01

    Large nutrient losses to groundwater and surface waters are a major drawback of the highly productive agricultural sector in The Netherlands. The resulting high nutrient concentrations in water resources threaten their ecological, industrial, and recreational functions. To mitigate eutrophication problems, legislation on nutrient application in agriculture was enforced in 1986 in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to evaluate this manure policy by assessing the water quality status and trends in agriculture dominated headwaters. We used datasets from 5 agricultural test catchments and from 167 existing monitoring locations in agricultural headwaters. Trend analysis for these locations showed a fast reduction of nutrient concentrations after the enforcement of the manure legislation (median slopes of -0.55 mg/L per decade for total nitrogen (N-tot) and -0.020 mg/L per decade for total phosphorus (P-tot)). Still, up to 76% of the selected locations currently do not comply with either the environmental quality standards (EQSs) for nitrogen (N-tot) or phosphorus (P-tot). This indicates that further improvement of agricultural water quality is needed. We observed that weather-related variations in nutrient concentrations strongly influence the compliance testing results, both for individual locations and for the aggregated results at the national scale. Another important finding is that testing compliance for nutrients based on summer average concentrations may underestimate the agricultural impact on ecosystem health. The focus on summer concentrations does not account for the environmental impact of high winter loads from agricultural headwaters towards downstream water bodies.

  9. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  10. Impact of Water Quality on Chlorine Demand of Corroding Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper is the most widely used material in drinking water premise plumbing systems. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect ag...

  11. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  12. Application of a Weighted Regression Model for Reporting Nutrient and Sediment Concentrations, Fluxes, and Trends in Concentration and Flux for the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network, Results Through Water Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Langland, Michael J.

    2016-01-13

    In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, estimated fluxes of nutrients and sediment from the bay’s nontidal tributaries into the estuary are the foundation of decision making to meet reductions prescribed by the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and are often the basis for refining scientific understanding of the watershed-scale processes that influence the delivery of these constituents to the bay. Two regression-based flux and trend estimation models, ESTIMATOR and Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS), were compared using data from 80 watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network (CBNTN). The watersheds range in size from 62 to 70,189 square kilometers and record lengths range from 6 to 28 years. ESTIMATOR is a constant-parameter model that estimates trends only in concentration; WRTDS uses variable parameters estimated with weighted regression, and estimates trends in both concentration and flux. WRTDS had greater explanatory power than ESTIMATOR, with the greatest degree of improvement evident for records longer than 25 years (30 stations; improvement in median model R2= 0.06 for total nitrogen, 0.08 for total phosphorus, and 0.05 for sediment) and the least degree of improvement for records of less than 10 years, for which the two models performed nearly equally. Flux bias statistics were comparable or lower (more favorable) for WRTDS for any record length; for 30 stations with records longer than 25 years, the greatest degree of improvement was evident for sediment (decrease of 0.17 in median statistic) and total phosphorus (decrease of 0.05). The overall between-station pattern in concentration trend direction and magnitude for all constituents was roughly similar for both models. A detailed case study revealed that trends in concentration estimated by WRTDS can operationally be viewed as a less-constrained equivalent to trends in concentration estimated by ESTIMATOR. Estimates of annual mean flow

  13. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality...

  14. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  15. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  16. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  17. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  18. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  19. Ecological network analysis for a virtual water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delin; Chen, Bin

    2015-06-02

    The notions of virtual water flows provide important indicators to manifest the water consumption and allocation between different sectors via product transactions. However, the configuration of virtual water network (VWN) still needs further investigation to identify the water interdependency among different sectors as well as the network efficiency and stability in a socio-economic system. Ecological network analysis is chosen as a useful tool to examine the structure and function of VWN and the interactions among its sectors. A balance analysis of efficiency and redundancy is also conducted to describe the robustness (RVWN) of VWN. Then, network control analysis and network utility analysis are performed to investigate the dominant sectors and pathways for virtual water circulation and the mutual relationships between pairwise sectors. A case study of the Heihe River Basin in China shows that the balance between efficiency and redundancy is situated on the left side of the robustness curve with less efficiency and higher redundancy. The forestation, herding and fishing sectors and industrial sectors are found to be the main controllers. The network tends to be more mutualistic and synergic, though some competitive relationships that weaken the virtual water circulation still exist.

  20. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  1. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  2. Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): a semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, V; Collon-Drouaillet, P; Fabriol, R

    2008-02-19

    The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more

  3. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ability to close mass balances, to represent sessile bacteria and other benthic processes......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  5. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  7. Image quality assessment using deep convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yezhou; Ye, Xiang; Li, Yong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a method of accurately assessing image quality without a reference image by using a deep convolutional neural network. Existing training based methods usually utilize a compact set of linear filters for learning features of images captured by different sensors to assess their quality. These methods may not be able to learn the semantic features that are intimately related with the features used in human subject assessment. Observing this drawback, this work proposes training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) with labelled images for image quality assessment. The ReLU in the CNN allows non-linear transformations for extracting high-level image features, providing a more reliable assessment of image quality than linear filters. To enable the neural network to take images of any arbitrary size as input, the spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) is introduced connecting the top convolutional layer and the fully-connected layer. In addition, the SPP makes the CNN robust to object deformations to a certain extent. The proposed method taking an image as input carries out an end-to-end learning process, and outputs the quality of the image. It is tested on public datasets. Experimental results show that it outperforms existing methods by a large margin and can accurately assess the image quality on images taken by different sensors of varying sizes.

  8. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Dominic C.Y.; Ng, Denny K.S.; Leong, Malwynn K.Y.; Chew, Irene M.L.; Subramaniam, Mahendran; Aziz, Ramlan; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  9. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  10. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  11. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  12. Reduction of water losses by rehabilitation of water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Mahmud; Yarar, Ufuk; Firat, Mahmut

    2017-09-11

    Physical or real losses may be indicated as the most important component of the water losses occurring in a water distribution network (WDN). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of piping material management and network rehabilitation on the physical water losses and water losses management in a WDN. For this aim, the Denizli WDN consisting of very old pipes that have exhausted their economic life is selected as the study area. The fact that the current network is old results in the decrease of pressure strength, increase of failure intensity, and inefficient use of water resources thus leading to the application of the rehabilitation program. In Denizli, network renewal works have been carried out since the year 2009 under the rehabilitation program. It was determined that the failure rate at regions where network renewal constructions have been completed decreased down to zero level. Renewal of piping material enables the minimization of leakage losses as well as the failure rate. On the other hand, the system rehabilitation has the potential to amortize itself in a very short amount of time if the initial investment cost of network renewal is considered along with the operating costs of the old and new systems, as well as water loss costs. As a result, it can be stated that renewal of piping material in water distribution systems, enhancement of the physical properties of the system, provide significant contributions such as increase of water and energy efficiency and more effective use of resources.

  13. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  14. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  15. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  16. Radon levels in a water distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, relies on both desalinated sea water as well as treated groundwater to meet all its water requirements. About 66% of the water demand is met by desalinated sea water, and the remaining is supplied by six groundwater treatment plants located in the vicinity of the city and supplied with water from 161 wells. The desalinated sea water is blended with only one plant product water and pumped to the distribution network, whereas the other five plants product water is pumped directly to the network. A study of 222 Rn levels in the city distribution network was carried out in which 89 samples were collected from different locations representing the city districts. All samples have shown low radon levels with an average concentration of 0.2 Bq l -1 and a range values of 0.1-1.0 Bq l -1 . The level of radon in different parts of the network was found to be influenced by the water sources to which they are supplied. The lowest radon levels were observed in districts supplied mostly by desalinated sea water. (Author)

  17. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanović, Lj; Hoek, van der J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the

  18. The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Jetoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974 and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972, respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions.

  19. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  20. Optimal Intermittent Operation of Water Distribution Networks under Water Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Solgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to exercise water consumption management practices in water distribution networks (WDN. Intermittent supply of water is one such practice that makes it possible to supply consumption nodal demands with the required pressure via water cutoff to some consumers during certain hours of the day. One of the most important issues that must be observed in this management practice is the equitable and uniform water distribution among the consumers. In the present study, uniformity in water distribution and minimum supply of water to all consumers are defined as justice and equity, respectively. Also, an optimization model has been developed to find an optimal intermittent supply schedule that ensures maximum number of demand nodes are supplied with water while the constraints on the operation of water distribution networks are also observed. To show the efficiency of the proposed model, it has been used in the Two-Loop distribution network under several different scenarios of water shortage. The optimization model has been solved using the honey bee mating optimization algorithm (HBMO linked to the hydraulic simulator EPANET. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed model in achieving an optimal intermittent supply schedule. Moreover, the model is found capable of distributing the available water in an equitable and just manner among all the consumers even under severe water shoratges.

  1. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  2. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  3. WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.; Belvedere, D. R.; Pozzi, W. H.; Imam, B.; Schiffer, R.; Lawford, R.; Schlosser, C. A.; Gupta, H.; Welty, C.; Vorosmarty, C.; Matthews, D.

    2007-12-01

    Water is essential to life and directly impacts and constrains society's welfare, progress, and sustainable growth, and is continuously being transformed by climate change, erosion, pollution, and engineering practices. The water cycle is a critical resource for industry, agriculture, natural ecosystems, fisheries, aquaculture, hydroelectric power, recreation, and water supply, and is central to drought, flood, transportation-aviation, and disease hazards. It is therefore a national priority to use advancements in scientific observations and knowledge to develop solutions to the water challenges faced by society. NASA's unique role is to use its view from space to improve water and energy cycle monitoring and prediction. NASA has collected substantial water cycle information and knowledge that must be transitioned to develop solutions for all twelve National Priority Application (NPA) areas. NASA cannot achieve this goal alone -it must establish collaborations and interoperability with existing networks and nodes of research organizations, operational agencies, science communities, and private industry. Therefore, WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. WaterNet is a catalyst for discovery and sharing of creative solutions to water problems. It serves as a creative, discovery process that is the entry-path for a research-to-solutions systems engineering NASA framework, with the end result to ultimately improve decision support.

  4. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  5. WATGIS: A GIS-Based Lumped Parameter Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2002-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)­based, lumped parameter water quality model was developed to estimate the spatial and temporal nitrogen­loading patterns for lower coastal plain watersheds in eastern North Carolina. The model uses a spatially distributed delivery ratio (DR) parameter to account for nitrogen retention or loss along a drainage network. Delivery...

  6. Quality of service in optical packet switched networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbar, Akbar G

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive study on OPS networks, its architectures, and developed techniques for improving its quality of switching and managing quality of service.  The book includes: Introduction to OPS networks, OOFDM networks, GMPLS-enabled optical networks, QoS in OPS networks Hybrid contention avoidance/resolution schemes in both long-haul and metro optical networks Hybrid optical switching schemes

  7. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.

    2001-01-01

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  8. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  9. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  10. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  11. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  12. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  13. Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Mun; Kim, Hi Gon; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Ho Young; Hur, Soon Ock; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2008-12-15

    Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system.

  14. Network-based production quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Tseng, Bill; Chiou, Richard

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of remote quality control using a host of advanced automation equipment with Internet accessibility. Recent emphasis on product quality and reduction of waste stems from the dynamic, globalized and customer-driven market, which brings opportunities and threats to companies, depending on the response speed and production strategies. The current trends in industry also include a wide spread of distributed manufacturing systems, where design, production, and management facilities are geographically dispersed. This situation mandates not only the accessibility to remotely located production equipment for monitoring and control, but efficient means of responding to changing environment to counter process variations and diverse customer demands. To compete under such an environment, companies are striving to achieve 100%, sensor-based, automated inspection for zero-defect manufacturing. In this study, the Internet-based quality control scheme is referred to as "E-Quality for Manufacturing" or "EQM" for short. By its definition, EQM refers to a holistic approach to design and to embed efficient quality control functions in the context of network integrated manufacturing systems. Such system let designers located far away from the production facility to monitor, control and adjust the quality inspection processes as production design evolves.

  15. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  16. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  17. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  18. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is ...

  19. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  20. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  1. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  2. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... downstream Obigbo station show: consistent time-trends in degree of contamination; linear and non-linear relationships for water quality models against total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended sediment (TSS), chloride, pH and sulphate; and non-linear relationship for streamflow and water quality transport models.

  3. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  5. Setting water quality criteria for agricultural water reuse purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation is practiced worldwide and will increase in the future. The definition of water quality limits is a useful instrument for the assessment of water quality regarding its suitability for irrigation purposes and the performance of wastewater treatment steps. This study elaborates water quality objectives for a water reuse project in a setting where national guidelines do not exist. Internationally established guidelines are therefore applied to the local context. Additional limits for turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and potassium are suggested to meet the requirements of water reuse projects. Emphasis is put on water quality requirements prior to UV disinfection and nutrient requirements of cultivated crops. The presented values can be of assistance when monitoring reclaimed water quality. To facilitate the realization of water reuse projects, comprehensive and more detailed information, in particular on water quality requirements prior to disinfection steps, should be provided as well as regarding the protection of the irrigation infrastructure.

  6. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  7. SOME ASPECTS REGARING CHLORINE DECAY IN WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANA IOANA VUŢĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The combination of conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. The quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap is influenced by a number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes during transport of treated water via the distribution system. All natural waters and even treated drinking water exerts disinfectant demand due to the reactions with NOM and other constituents in water. Therefore, the applied disinfectant dose must be sufficient to meet the inherent demand in the treated water, to provide sufficient protection against microbial infection. Thus, controlling free residual chlorine properly is definitely important to ensure meeting regulatory requirements and satisfying customer needs.This paper presents the main aspects regarding chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks and, also a free chlorine decay simulation with EPANET2 on Ramnicu Valcea water distribution system.

  8. Topological Taxonomy of Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giudicianni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water Distribution Networks (WDNs can be regarded as complex networks and modeled as graphs. In this paper, Complex Network Theory is applied to characterize the behavior of WDNs from a topological point of view, reviewing some basic metrics, exploring their fundamental properties and the relationship between them. The crucial aim is to understand and describe the topology of WDNs and their structural organization to provide a novel tool of analysis which could help to find new solutions to several arduous problems of WDNs. The aim is to understand the role of the topological structure in the WDNs functioning. The methodology is applied to 21 existing networks and 13 literature networks. The comparison highlights some topological peculiarities and the possibility to define a set of best design parameters for ex-novo WDNs that could also be used to build hypothetical benchmark networks retaining the typical structure of real WDNs. Two well-known types of network ((a square grid; and (b random graph are used for comparison, aiming at defining a possible mathematical model for WDNs. Finally, the interplay between topology and some performance requirements of WDNs is discussed.

  9. Water quality in okara and its suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.; Imtiaz, N.; Athar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

  10. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  11. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  12. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  13. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...

  14. Evaluation of drinking water quality in Rawalpindi and Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzaira, R.; Sumreen, I.; Uzma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Drinking water quality of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was determined in terms of its microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. Water samples were collected from fifty schools of cantonment area Rawalpindi and fifty houses of Sector G-9/4 Islamabad. Survey revealed that surface and ground water are the two major sources of drinking water. Efficiency of domestic filtration units was determined by taking samples before and after filtration, whereas, level of contamination was assessed by collecting samples from storage and dispensing devices in schools. Water quality was determined by pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, concentration of anions and cations, coliforms, viable and colony counts using multiple tube fermentation, titrimetry, UV-Visible spectrophotometry and flame emission photometry. Drinking water quality of Islamabad was found to be better than Rawalpindi. However filtration showed no significant impact in improving water quality due to improper cleaning of filters. Samples were found to exceed WHO guidelines and EPA standards for total dissolved solids and microbiological parameters (WHO, 1996 and EPA, 1980) making water unfit for use due to poor sanitation and cross contamination with sewers in distribution network. (author)

  15. The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Moore, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  16. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  17. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  18. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  19. Modeling and optimization of potable water network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebedjian, B.; Rayan, M.A. [Mansoura Univ., El-Mansoura (Egypt); Herrick, A. [Suez Canal Authority, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Software was developed in order to optimize the design of water distribution systems and pipe networks. While satisfying all the constraints imposed such as pipe diameter and nodal pressure, it was based on a mathematical model treating looped networks. The optimum network configuration and cost are determined considering parameters like pipe diameter, flow rate, corresponding pressure and hydraulic losses. It must be understood that minimum cost is relative to the different objective functions selected. The determination of the proper objective function often depends on the operating policies of a particular company. The solution for the optimization technique was obtained by using a non-linear technique. To solve the optimal design of network, the model was derived using the sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) of Fiacco and McCormick, which decreased the number of iterations required. The pipe diameters initially assumed were successively adjusted to correspond to the existing commercial pipe diameters. The technique was then applied to a two-loop network without pumps or valves. Fed by gravity, it comprised eight pipes, 1000 m long each. The first evaluation of the method proved satisfactory. As with other methods, it failed to find the global optimum. In the future, research efforts will be directed to the optimization of networks with pumps and reservoirs. 24 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  1. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  2. Groundwater-quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2014 and select quality-control data from May 2012 through December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Kingsbury, James A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Fleming, Brandon J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-10-05

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 559 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from January through December 2014. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which are used to assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which are used to evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radionuclides, and some constituents of special interest (arsenic speciation, chromium [VI] and perchlorate). These groundwater-quality data, along with data from quality-control samples, are tabulated in this report and in an associated data release.

  3. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  4. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    ... design of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using ..... self cleansing drinking water distribution system is set at 0.4m/s, .... distribution network offers advantages over manual ...

  5. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  6. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  7. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  8. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  10. Aggradation, Degradation, and Water Quality Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compile a record of pertinent data and information relative to aggradation, degradation, and water quality within the system of six Missouri River mainstem reservoirs...

  11. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  12. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  13. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...

  14. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  15. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala

    2017-05-01

    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  16. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  17. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  18. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  19. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of water-level gages, interpolation models that generate daily water-level and water-depth data, and applications that compute derived hydrologic data across the freshwater part of the greater Everglades landscape. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN in order for EDEN to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  20. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  1. SIMULATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE WAVE PROPAGATION IN WATER PIPE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Van Lam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: factors such as pipe wall roughness, mechanical properties of pipe materials, physical properties of water affect the pressure surge in the water supply pipes. These factors make it difficult to analyze the transient problem of pressure evolution using simple programming language, especially in the studies that consider only the magnitude of the positive pressure surge with the negative pressure phase being neglected. Research objectives: determine the magnitude of the negative pressure in the pipes on the experimental model. The propagation distance of the negative pressure wave will be simulated by the valve closure scenarios with the help of the HAMMER software and it is compared with an experimental model to verify the quality the results. Materials and methods: academic version of the Bentley HAMMER software is used to simulate the pressure surge wave propagation due to closure of the valve in water supply pipe network. The method of characteristics is used to solve the governing equations of transient process of pressure change in the pipeline. This method is implemented in the HAMMER software to calculate the pressure surge value in the pipes. Results: the method has been applied for water pipe networks of experimental model, the results show the affected area of negative pressure wave from valve closure and thereby we assess the largest negative pressure that may appear in water supply pipes. Conclusions: the experiment simulates the water pipe network with a consumption node for various valve closure scenarios to determine possibility of appearance of maximum negative pressure value in the pipes. Determination of these values in real-life network is relatively costly and time-consuming but nevertheless necessary for identification of the risk of pipe failure, and therefore, this paper proposes using the simulation model by the HAMMER software. Initial calibration of the model combined with the software simulation results and

  2. Putting people into water quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Noble, B.; Baulch, H. M.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water quality in the Qu'Appelle River Basin, Saskatchewan is under pressure due to nutrient pollution entering the river system from major cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Among these stressors, agricultural activities are basin-wide; therefore, they are the largest non-point source of water pollution in this region. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of two distinct stakeholder groups, namely grain farmers and cattle producers, which have different business plans, values, and attitudes towards water quality. As a result, improving water quality in this basin requires engaging with stakeholders to: (1) understand their perspectives regarding a range of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) that can improve water quality in the region, (2) show them the potential consequences of their selected BMPs, and (3) work with stakeholders to better understand the barriers and incentives to implement the effective BMPs. In this line, we held a series of workshops in the Qu'Appelle River Basin with both groups of stakeholders to understand stakeholders' viewpoints about alternative agricultural BMPs and their impact on water quality. Workshop participants were involved in the statement sorting activity (Q-sorts), group discussions, as well as mapping activity. The workshop outcomes show that stakeholder had four distinct viewpoints about the BMPs that can improve water quality, i.e., flow and erosion control, fertilizer management, cattle site management, as well as mixed cattle and wetland management. Accordingly, to simulate the consequences of stakeholder selected BMPs, a conceptual water quality model was developed using System Dynamics (SD). The model estimates potential changes in water quality at the farm, tributary and regional scale in the Qu'Appelle River Basin under each and/or combination of stakeholder selected BMPs. The SD model was then used for real

  3. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.

    1998-08-01

    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  4. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.

    1996-01-01

    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  5. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  6. Industry disagrees with water quality recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1992-01-01

    Industry groups are distancing themselves from recommendations on cleaning up the nation's waters issued by Water Quality 2000, a coalition of more than 80 organizations representing industry, environmental groups, government, academia, and professional and scientific societies. The report, open-quotes A National Water Agenda for the 21st Centuryclose quotes, is a result of work begun in 1989. It recommends an approach to water quality that emphasizes pollution prevention, increased individual and collective responsibility for protecting water resources, and reorienting water resource programs and institutions along natural, rather than political, watershed boundaries. It includes 85 specific recommendations, many of which are to be implemented locally. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) open-quotes wholeheartedly endorses not only the specific solutions offered today but the process by which these proposals were reached,close quotes says Robert W. Adler, NRDC senior attorney and vice chairman of Water Quality 2000. John B. Coleman, corporate environmental affairs manager for Du Pont and a member of the groups's steering committee, says open-quotes Du Pont and the other industry members of Water Quality 2000 are committedclose quotes to working to make continuous improvements

  7. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  8. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  9. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  10. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  11. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  12. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  13. Quality assurance and quality control for Hydro-Quebec's ambient air monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.; Varfalvy, L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro Quebec has three ambient air monitoring networks to determine the contribution of some of its thermal plants to ambient air quality. They are located in Becancour (gas turbines), Iles-de-la-Madeleine (diesel), and Tracy (conventional oil-fired). To ensure good quality results and consistency between networks, a quality assurance/quality control program was set up. A description is presented of the ambient air quality monitoring network and the quality assurance/quality control program. A guide has been created for use by the network operators, discussing objectives of the individual network, a complete description of each network, field operation for each model of instrument in use, treatment of data for each data logger in use, global considerations regarding quality assurance and control, and reports. A brief overview is presented of the guide's purpose and contents, focusing on the field operation section and the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide monitors. 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  16. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  17. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  18. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  19. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-15

    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p supply, with 0.7% of tap samples positive compared to 31.7% of intermittent water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  1. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using. WaterCAD ..... Table 1: Criteria Relating Population to Water Demand (NWSP, 2000) ..... timely manner ... Department, Middle East Technical.

  2. Quality assurance network: The European pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavaudra, J.; Derreumaux, S.; Brider, A.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ''Europe against Cancer'', has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 60 Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 60 Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations (≥ 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Quality assurance network: The European pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavaudra, J; Derreumaux, S; Brider, A [Institut Gustave Roussa, Villejuif (France). Service de Physique; Dutreix, A; Schueren, E van der [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    1996-08-01

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ``Europe against Cancer``, has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 {sup 60}Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 {sup 60}Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations ({>=} 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  4. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  5. Optimum Layout for Sensors in Water Distribution Networks through Ant Colony Algorithm: A Dual Use Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Miri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accidental or intentional entry of contaminants or self-deterioration of the water quality within the network itself can severely harm public health. Efficient water quality monitoring is one of the most important tools to guarantee a reliable potable water supply to consumers of drinking water distribution systems. Considering the high purchase, installation and maintenance cost of sensors in water distribution networks deploying two independent sensor networks within one distribution system is not only bounded by physical constraints but also is not a cost-effective approach. Therefore, need for combining different objectives and designing sensor network to simultaneity satisfying these objectives is felt. Sensors should comply with dual use benefits. Sensor locations and types should be integrated not only for achieving water security goals but also for accomplishing other water utility objectives, such as satisfying regulatory monitoring requirements or collecting information to solve water quality problems. In this study, a dual use vision for the sensor layout problem in the municipal water networks, is formulated and solved with the ant colony algorithm.

  6. Node vulnerability of water distribution networks under cascading failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuang, Qing; Zhang, Mingyuan; Yuan, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) are important in modern lifeline system. Its stability and reliability are critical for guaranteeing high living quality and continuous operation of urban functions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nodal vulnerability of WDNs under cascading failures. Vulnerability is defined to analyze the effects of the consequent failures. A cascading failure is a step-by-step process which is quantitatively investigated by numerical simulation with intentional attack. Monitored pressures in different nodes and flows in different pipes have been used to estimate the network topological structure and the consequences of nodal failure. Based on the connectivity loss of topological structure, the nodal vulnerability has been evaluated. A load variation function is established to record the nodal failure reason and describe the relative differences between the load and the capacity. The proposed method is validated by an illustrative example. The results revealed that the network vulnerability should be evaluated with the consideration of hydraulic analysis and network topology. In the case study, 70.59% of the node failures trigger the cascading failures with different failure processes. It is shown that the cascading failures result in severe consequences in WDNs. - Highlights: • The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nodal vulnerability of water distribution networks under cascading failures. • Monitored pressures and flows have been used to estimate the network topological structure and the consequences of nodal failure. • Based on the connectivity loss of topological structure, the nodal vulnerability has been evaluated. • A load variation function is established to record the failure reason and describe the relative differences between load and capacity. • The results show that 70.59% of the node failures trigger the cascading failures with different failure processes

  7. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  8. Water and water quality management in the cholistan desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Water scarcity is the main problem in Cholistan desert. Rainfall is scanty and sporadic and groundwater is saline in most of the area. Rainwater is collected in man made small storages, locally called tobas during rainy season for human and livestock consumption. These tobas usually retain rainwater for three to four months at the maximum, due to small storage capacity and unfavorable location. After the tobas become dry, people use saline groundwater for human and livestock consumption where marginal quality groundwater is available. In complete absence of water they migrate towards canal irrigated areas till the next rains. During migration humans and livestock suffer from hunger, thirst and diseases. In order to overcome this problem Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has introduced improved designs of tobas. The PCRWR is collecting more than 13.0 million cubic meter rainwater annually from only ninety hectare catchment area. As a result, water is available for drinking of human and livestock population as well as to wild life through out the year for the village of Dingarh in Cholistan desert. However, water collected in these tobas is usually muddy and full of impurities. To provide good quality drinking water to the residents of Cholistan, PCRWR has launched a Project under which required quantity of drinkable water will be provided at more than seventy locations by rainwater harvesting, pumping of good and marginal quality groundwater and desalination of moderately saline water through Reverse Osmosis Plants. After the completion of project, more then 380 million gallons of fresh rainwater and more than 1300 million gallons of good and marginal quality groundwater will be available annually. Intervention to collect the silt before reaching to the tobas are also introduced, low cost filter plants are designed and constructed on the tobas for purification of water. (author)

  9. Perceptual tools for quality-aware video networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovik, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and controlling the quality of the viewing experience of videos transmitted over increasingly congested networks (especially wireless networks) is a pressing problem owing to rapid advances in video-centric mobile communication and display devices that are straining the capacity of the network infrastructure. New developments in automatic perceptual video quality models offer tools that have the potential to be used to perceptually optimize wireless video, leading to more efficient video data delivery and better received quality. In this talk I will review key perceptual principles that are, or could be used to create effective video quality prediction models, and leading quality prediction models that utilize these principles. The goal is to be able to monitor and perceptually optimize video networks by making them "quality-aware."

  10. A national look at water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Zogorski, John S.; Ryker, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Most water-quality problems we face today result from diffuse "nonpoint" sources of pollution from agricultural land, urban development, forest harvesting and the atmosphere (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers et al., 1999). It is difficult to quantify nonpoint sources because the contaminants they deliver vary in composition and concentrations from hour to hour and season to season. Moreover, the nature of the contamination is complex and varied. When Congress enacted the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, attention was focused on water-quality issues related to the sanitation of rivers and streams - bacteria counts, oxygen in the water for fish, nutrients, temperature, and salinity. Now, attention is turning to the hundreds of synthetic organic compounds like pesticides used in agricultural and residential areas, volatile organics in solvents and gasoline, microbial and viral contamination, and pharmaceuticals and hormones.

  11. Utility service quality - telecommincations, electricity, water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Public Utility Research Center

    2005-09-01

    This survey of quality-of-service issues raised by regulation identifies 12 steps for promoting efficient sector performance. First, regulators must identify objectives and prioritize them. Inter-agency coordination is often required to establish targets. Regulators must also determine a process for selecting measures and an appropriate method for evaluating them. Finally, performance incentives must be established and outcomes periodically reviewed. Telecommunications, electricity, and water all have multiple dimensions of quality that warrant careful attention. (Author)

  12. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  13. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  14. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  15. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  16. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  17. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  18. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na

    2018-02-01

    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  19. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water quality was analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes (LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro- invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  20. Influence of an Extended Domestic Drinking Water System on the Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Zlatanović

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water and fire safety are strongly bonded to each other. Actual drinking water demand and fire flows are both delivered through the same network, and are both devoted to public health and safety. In The Netherlands, the discussion about fire flows supplied by the drinking water networks has drawn fire fighters and drinking water companies together, searching for novel approaches to improve public safety. One of these approaches is the application of residential fire sprinkler systems fed by drinking water. This approach has an impact on the layout of domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs, as extra plumbing is required. This study examined the influence of the added plumbing on quality of both fresh and 10 h stagnant water in two full scale DDWSs: a conventional and an extended system. Overnight stagnation was found to promote copper and zinc leaching from pipes in both DDWSs. Microbial numbers and viability in the stagnant water, measured by heterotrophic plate count (HPC, flow cytometry (FCM and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, depended on the temperature of fresh water, as increased microbial numbers and viability was measured in both DDWSs when the temperature of fresh water was below the observed tipping point (15 °C for the HPC and 17 °C for the FCM and ATP measurements respectively and vice versa. A high level of similarity between water and biofilm communities, >98% and >70–94% respectively, indicates that the extension of the DDWS did not affect either the microbial quality of fresh drinking water or the biofilm composition.

  1. A Review of the Topologies Used in Smart Water Meter Networks: A Wireless Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Jaco; Malekian, Reza; Ye, Ning; Wang, Ruchuan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents several proposed and existing smart utility meter systems as well as their communication networks to identify the challenges of creating scalable smart water meter networks. Network simulations are performed on 3 network topologies (star, tree, and mesh) to determine their suitability for smart water meter networks. The simulations found that once a number of nodes threshold is exceeded the network’s delay increases dramatically regardless of implemented topology. This thr...

  2. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  3. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    water, and expressing them to non-technical people may not always be easy. ... parameters for a case study; dissolved oxygen, pH, total coliforms, ... Several national agencies responsible for water supply and water pollution, have strongly .... good quality and required proper treatment if it were to be consumed as potable.

  4. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  5. Better Water Demand and Pipe Description Improve the Distribution Network Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution system modeling simplifies pipe network in skeletonization and simulates the flow and water quality by using generalized water demand patterns. While widely used, the approach has not been examined fully on how it impacts the modeling fidelity. This study intends to ...

  6. How does network design constrain optimal operation of intermittent water supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Urban water distribution systems do not always supply water continuously or reliably. As pipes fill and empty, pressure transients may contribute to degraded infrastructure and poor water quality. To help understand and manage this undesirable side effect of intermittent water supply--a phenomenon affecting hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world--we study the relative contributions of fixed versus dynamic properties of the network. Using a dynamical model of unsteady transition pipe flow, we study how different elements of network design, such as network geometry, pipe material, and pipe slope, contribute to undesirable pressure transients. Using an optimization framework, we then investigate to what extent network operation decisions such as supply timing and inflow rate may mitigate these effects. We characterize some aspects of network design that make them more or less amenable to operational optimization.

  7. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  8. A combined geostatistical-optimization model for the optimal design of a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosionis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation due to extensive agricultural activities. In this work, a simulation-optimization framework is developed based on heuristic optimization methodologies and geostatistical modeling approaches to obtain an optimal design for a groundwater quality monitoring network. Groundwater quantity and quality data obtained from 43 existing observation locations at 3 different hydrological periods in Mires basin in Crete, Greece will be used in the proposed framework in terms of Regression Kriging to develop the spatial distribution of nitrates concentration in the aquifer of interest. Based on the existing groundwater quality mapping, the proposed optimization tool will determine a cost-effective observation wells network that contributes significant information to water managers and authorities. The elimination of observation wells that add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level and quality mapping of the area can be obtain using estimations uncertainty and statistical error metrics without effecting the assessment of the groundwater quality. Given the high maintenance cost of groundwater monitoring networks, the proposed tool could used by water regulators in the decision-making process to obtain a efficient network design that is essential.

  9. Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new Python package designed to simulate and analyze resilience of water distribution networks to a variety of disaster scenarios. WNTR can help water utilities to explore the capacity of their systems to handle disasters and gui...

  10. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification

  11. Klamath River Basin water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2018-05-29

    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  12. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark; George, Robert; Spence, Harry; Nguyen, John

    1992-01-01

    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  13. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.

  14. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  15. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  16. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  17. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  18. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  19. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-03-01

    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.

  20. Quality of Service Metrics in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdh, Itu; Gupta, Nisha

    2016-03-01

    Wireless ad hoc network is characterized by autonomous nodes communicating with each other by forming a multi hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. This paper presents a systematic approach to the interdependencies and the analogy of the various factors that affect and constrain the wireless sensor network. This article elaborates the quality of service parameters in terms of methods of deployment, coverage and connectivity which affect the lifetime of the network that have been addressed, till date by the different literatures. The analogy of the indispensable rudiments was discussed that are important factors to determine the varied quality of service achieved, yet have not been duly focused upon.

  1. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.

    2000-07-01

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  2. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  3. Storm water and wastewater management for improving water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Vojinovic, Zoran; Heikoop, Rick

    Climate change and urbanization will increase the frequency and magnitude of urban flooding and water quality problems in many regions of the world. In coastal and delta areas like The Netherlands and the Philippines, where urbanization is often high, there has been an increase in the adoption of

  4. Explore the advantage of High-frequency Water Quality Data in Urban Surface Water: A Case Study in Bristol, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water system is an essential component in a smart city for its sustainability and resilience. The freshness and beauty of the water body would please people as well as benefit the local aquatic ecosystems. Water quality monitoring approach has evolved from the manual lab-based monitoring approach to the manual in-situ monitoring approach, and finally to the latest wireless-sensor-network (WSN) based solutions in recent decades. The development of the in-situ water quality sensors enable humans to collect high-frequency and real-time water quality data. This poster aims to explore the advantages of the high-frequency water quality data over the low-frequency data collected manually. The data is collected by a remote real-time high-frequency water quality monitor system based on the cutting edge smart city infrastructure in Bristol - `Bristol Is Open'. The water quality of Bristol Floating Harbour is monitored which is the focal area of Bristol with new buildings and features redeveloped in the past decades. This poster will first briefly introduce the water quality monitoring system, followed by the analysis of the advantages of the sub-hourly water quality data. Thus, the suggestion on the monitoring frequency will be given.

  5. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  6. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  7. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...

  8. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  9. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  10. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  11. Stochastic model and method of zoning water networks

    OpenAIRE

    Тевяшев, Андрей Дмитриевич; Матвиенко, Ольга Ивановна

    2014-01-01

    Water consumption at different time of the day is uneven. The model of steady flow distribution in water-supply networks is calculated for maximum consumption and effectively used in the network design and reconstruction. Quasi-stationary modes, in which the parameters are random variables and vary relative to their mean values are more suitable for operational management and planning of rational network operation modes.Leaks, which sometimes exceed 50 % of the volume of water supplied, are o...

  12. 3D Printing-Based Integrated Water Quality Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muinul Banna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The online and accurate monitoring of drinking water supply networks is critically in demand to rapidly detect the accidental or deliberate contamination of drinking water. At present, miniaturized water quality monitoring sensors developed in the laboratories are usually tested under ambient pressure and steady-state flow conditions; however, in Water Distribution Systems (WDS, both the pressure and the flowrate fluctuate. In this paper, an interface is designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology—material extrusion (Trade Name: fused deposition modeling, FDM and material jetting—to provide a conduit for miniaturized sensors for continuous online water quality monitoring. The interface is designed to meet two main criteria: low pressure at the inlet of the sensors and a low flowrate to minimize the water bled (i.e., leakage, despite varying pressure from WDS. To meet the above criteria, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was used to optimize the geometry of the channel. The 3D printed interface, with the embedded miniaturized pH and conductivity sensors, was then tested at different temperatures and flowrates. The results show that the response of the pH sensor is independent of the flowrate and temperature. As for the conductivity sensor, the flowrate and temperature affect only the readings at a very low conductivity (4 µS/cm and high flowrates (30 mL/min, and a very high conductivity (460 µS/cm, respectively.

  13. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  14. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  15. Comparison of 2008-2009 water years and historical water-quality data, upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Patricia A.; Moore, Bryan; Blacklock, Ty D.

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, U.S. Forest Service, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of sites: (1) sites that are considered long term and (2) sites that are considered rotational. Data from the long-term sites assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational sites assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and address local and short-term concerns. Biannual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for stakeholder discussions regarding the location and purpose of water-quality monitoring sites in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This report compares and summarizes the data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 to the historical data available at these sites. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network sites. The remainder of the report is organized around the data collected at individual sites. Data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines

  16. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of water at the household level can be an added advantage.

  17. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  18. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF QUALITY OF SERVICE COMPUTER NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Amandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the basic concepts of QoS. The major research areas of Quality of Service Computer Networks are highlighted. The paper also compares some of the current QoS Routing techniques.

  20. Enhancing Sensor Network Data Quality via Collaborated Circuit and Network Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Vespa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the quality of data gathered by sensor networks is directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the sensor data being transmitted in the networks. Different from the SNR that is often used in measuring the quality of communication links, the SNR used in this work measures how accurately the data in the network packets represent the physical parameters being sensed. Hence, the signal here refers to the physical parameters that are being monitored by sensor networks; the noise is due to environmental interference and circuit noises at sensor nodes, and packet loss during network transmission. While issues affecting SNR at sensor nodes have been intensively investigated, the impact of network packet loss on data SNR has not attracted significant attention in sensor network design. This paper investigates the impact of packet loss on sensor network data SNR and shows that data SNR is dramatically affected by network packet loss. A data quality metric, based on data SNR, is developed and a cross-layer adaptive scheme is presented to minimize data quality degradation in congested sensor networks. The proposed scheme consists of adaptive downsampling and bit truncation at sensor nodes and intelligent traffic management techniques at the network level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  2. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  3. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  4. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts,

  5. Water Pipeline Network Analysis Using Simultaneous Loop Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria ... significant fluid acceleration, the behavior of a network can be ... world water day centers on water and food security as.

  6. Networking quality and trust in professional services

    OpenAIRE

    Toryanto, Agustinus A.; Hasyim

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to offer an outward-looking insight of the extent the knowledge management and value creation developed within professional organizations that is perceived to be able to influence networking behaviors and organizational performance. By using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS, and conducting survey with non-probability sampling techniques of 300 law firms in several cities in Indonesia, the study proposed the networking capability as the mediating variable of...

  7. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  8. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  9. Collaborative Network Management for Enhancing Quality Education of Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikoed, Wisithsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Numnaphol, Kochaporn

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to study the network and collaborative factors that enhance quality education of primary schools. Different methods were used in this research work: (1) Related approaches, theories, and research literatures and (2) Scholars were interviewed on 871 issues in the form of questionnaire, and the collaborative network factors were…

  10. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  11. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  12. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor no...

  13. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  14. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  15. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  16. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1...; developing and reviewing water quality standards, total maximum daily loads, wasteload allocations and load... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4...

  17. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to the Regional Administrator a water quality report in accordance with section 305(b) of the Act...

  18. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDC analysis showed that over 80% of the time, all rivers in the study area would not meet the target community's water demand, without the dams in place. Water quality assessments show biological contamination as the major water quality problem. Significant seasonal variation in water quality is evident, with the dry ...

  19. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  20. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  1. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality control...

  2. 77 FR 71191 - 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-OW-2011-0466; FRL 9756-2] 2012 Recreational Water Quality... Recreational Water Quality Criteria. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality...

  3. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  4. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  5. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  6. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniil, E.I.; Gulliver, J.; Thene, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  7. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko

    1991-01-01

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  8. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  9. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  10. Synthesis and Design of Integrated Process and Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handani, Zainatul B.; Quaglia, Alberto; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the development of a systematic framework for a simultaneous synthesis and design of process and water networks using the superstructure-based optimization approach. In this framework, a new superstructure combining both networks is developed by attempting to consider all...... possible options with respect to the topology of the process and water networks, leading to Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem. A solution strategy to solve the multi-network problem accounts explicitly the interactions between the networks by selecting suitable technologies in order...... to transform raw materials into products and produce clean water to be reused in the process at the early stage of design. Since the connection between the process network and the wastewater treatment network is not a straight forward connection, a new converter interval is introduced in order to convert...

  11. Geospatial Data Quality of the Servir CORS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Teodoro, R.; Mira, N.; Mendes, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The SERVIR Continuous Operation Reference Stations (CORS) network was implemented in 2006 to facilitate land surveying with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning techniques. Nowadays, the network covers all Portuguese mainland. The SERVIR data is provided to many users, such as surveyors, universities (for education and research purposes) and companies that deal with geographic information. By middle 2012, there was a significant change in the network accessing paradigm, the most important of all being the increase in the responsibility of managing the network to guarantee a permanent availability and the highest quality of the geospatial data. In addition, the software that is used to manage the network and to compute the differential corrections was replaced by a new software package. These facts were decisive to perform the quality control of the SERVIR network and evaluate positional accuracy. In order to perform such quality control, a significant number of geodetic monuments spread throughout the country were chosen. Some of these monuments are located in the worst location regarding the network geometry in order to evaluate the accuracy of positions for the worst case scenarios. Data collection was carried out using different GNSS positioning modes and were compared against the benchmark positions that were determined using data acquired in static mode in 3-hour sessions. We conclude the geospatial data calculated and provided to the users community by the network is, within the surveying purposes, accurate, precise and fits the needs of those users.

  12. A Neural Network Model for Prediction of Sound Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen,, Lars Bramsløw

    An artificial neural network structure has been specified, implemented and optimized for the purpose of predicting the perceived sound quality for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. The network was implemented by means of commercially available software and optimized to predict results...... obtained in subjective sound quality rating experiments based on input data from an auditory model. Various types of input data and data representations from the auditory model were used as input data for the chosen network structure, which was a three-layer perceptron. This network was trained by means...... the physical signal parameters and the subjectively perceived sound quality. No simple objective-subjective relationship was evident from this analysis....

  13. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  14. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  15. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.

  16. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  17. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  18. Towards semen quality assessment using neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Christian; Salamon, P.; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology and results from a neural net based classification of human sperm head morphology. The methodology uses a preprocessing scheme in which invariant Fourier descriptors are lumped into “energy” bands. The resulting networks are pruned using optimal brain damage. Pe...

  19. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  20. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chhipa, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality in north-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluoride and potassium, p H, turbidity, temperature) were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70), Lalawas (362.74,396.67), Jaisinghpura area (286.00, 273.78) were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium. Saipura (122.52, 131.00), Naila (120.25, 239.86), Galta (160.9, 204.1) were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  1. Kaolin Quality Prediction from Samples: A Bayesian Network Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, T.; Taboada, J.; Ordonez, C.; Matias, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the results of an expert system applied to the evaluation of samples of kaolin for industrial use in paper or ceramic manufacture. Different machine learning techniques - classification trees, support vector machines and Bayesian networks - were applied with the aim of evaluating and comparing their interpretability and prediction capacities. The predictive capacity of these models for the samples analyzed was highly satisfactory, both for ceramic quality and paper quality. However, Bayesian networks generally proved to be the most useful technique for our study, as this approach combines good predictive capacity with excellent interpretability of the kaolin quality structure, as it graphically represents relationships between variables and facilitates what-if analyses.

  2. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  3. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  4. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  5. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  6. E-Services quality assessment framework for collaborative networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegaru, Georgiana; Danila, Cristian; Sacala, Ioan Stefan; Moisescu, Mihnea; Mihai Stanescu, Aurelian

    2015-08-01

    In a globalised networked economy, collaborative networks (CNs) are formed to take advantage of new business opportunities. Collaboration involves shared resources and capabilities, such as e-Services that can be dynamically composed to automate CN participants' business processes. Quality is essential for the success of business process automation. Current approaches mostly focus on quality of service (QoS)-based service selection and ranking algorithms, overlooking the process of service composition which requires interoperable, adaptable and secure e-Services to ensure seamless collaboration, data confidentiality and integrity. Lack of assessment of these quality attributes can result in e-Service composition failure. The quality of e-Service composition relies on the quality of each e-Service and on the quality of the composition process. Therefore, there is the need for a framework that addresses quality from both views: product and process. We propose a quality of e-Service composition (QoESC) framework for quality assessment of e-Service composition for CNs which comprises of a quality model for e-Service evaluation and guidelines for quality of e-Service composition process. We implemented a prototype considering a simplified telemedicine use case which involves a CN in e-Healthcare domain. To validate the proposed quality-driven framework, we analysed service composition reliability with and without using the proposed framework.

  7. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  8. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  9. Associations between perceptions of drinking water service delivery and measured drinking water quality in rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgworth, Jessica C; Brown, Joe; Johnson, Pauline; Olson, Julie B; Elliott, Mark; Forehand, Rick; Stauber, Christine E

    2014-07-18

    Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure) and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color), providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets) and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available), where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color). Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC) were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure-a risk factor for contamination-may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts.

  10. Associations between Perceptions of Drinking Water Service Delivery and Measured Drinking Water Quality in Rural Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Wedgworth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color, providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available, where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color. Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure—a risk factor for contamination—may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts.

  11. Associations between Perceptions of Drinking Water Service Delivery and Measured Drinking Water Quality in Rural Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgworth, Jessica C.; Brown, Joe; Johnson, Pauline; Olson, Julie B.; Elliott, Mark; Forehand, Rick; Stauber, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure) and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color), providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets) and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available), where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color). Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC) were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure—a risk factor for contamination—may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts. PMID:25046635

  12. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  13. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  14. The development of water quality methods within ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of water quality methods within ecological Reserve ... Water Act (NWA, No 36 of 1998), the ecological Reserve is defined as the quality and quantity ... provide ecologically important flow-related habitat, or geomorphological ...

  15. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  16. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    constraints of the water quality management problem; (ii) a water quality simulation model ... of acceptance and limited implementation of optimisation techniques. .... The response of river system to these sources of pollution can be integrated ...

  17. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity...

  18. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  19. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  20. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, A.; Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.

    2010-01-01

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  1. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  2. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.

    2004-01-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  3. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P

    2004-02-01

    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality.

  4. Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Owens, J.W.

    1975-09-01

    The water quality at nine surface water stations, eight ground water stations, and the drilling operations at the Fenton Hill Site have been studied as a measure of the environmental impact of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal experimental studies in the Jemez Mountains. Surface water quality in the Jemez River drainage area is affected by the quality of the inflow from thermal and mineral springs. Ground water discharges from the Cenozoic Volcanics are similar in chemical quality. Water in the main zone of saturation penetrated by test hole GT-2 is highly mineralized, whereas water in the lower section of the hole, which is in granite, contains a higher concentration of uranium

  5. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management plan...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality...

  7. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0606; FRL-9839-7] RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator has...

  9. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, water quality information is crucial in setting up guidelines for freshwater ... water quality in the Manjirenji Dam was generally fair, with a CCME value averaging 78.1, ... The current water quality data set for the Manjirenji Dam is vital for ...

  10. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  11. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  12. Studies of Columbia River water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Johanson, P.A.; Baca, R.G.; Hilty, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The program to study the water quality of the Columbia River consists of two separate segments: sediment and radionuclide transport and temperature analysis. Quasi-two dimensional (longitudinal and vertical directions) mathematical simulation models were developed for determining radionuclide inventories, their variations with time, and movements of sediments and individual radionuclides in the freshwater region of the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam. These codes are presently being applied to the river reach between Priest Rapids and McNary Dams for the initial sensitivity analysis. In addition, true two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral directions) models were formulated and are presently being programmed to provide more detailed information on sediment and radionuclide behavior in the river. For the temperature analysis program, river water temperature data supplied by the U. S. Geological Survey for six ERDA-sponsored temperature recording stations have been analyzed and cataloged on storage devices associated with ERDA's CDC 6600 located at Richland, Washington

  13. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C

    2018-07-30

    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Simultaneous optimization of water and heat exchange networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiyou; Hou, Yanlong; Li, Xiaoduan; Wang, Jingtao [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-15

    This paper focuses on the simultaneous optimization of the heat-integrated water allocation networks. A mathematic model is established to illustrate the modified state-space representation of this problem. An easy logical method is employed to help identify the streams of hot or cold ones. In this model, the water exchange networks (WEN), heat exchange networks (HEN), and the interactions between the WEN and HEN combine together as one unity. Thus, the whole network can be solved at one time, which enhances the possibility to get a global optimal result. Examples from the literature and a PVC plant are analyzed to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of this method.

  15. Structural Quality of Service in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    , telephony and data. To meet the requirements of the different applications, and to handle the increased vulnerability to failures, the ability to design robust networks providing good Quality of Service is crucial. However, most planning of large-scale networks today is ad-hoc based, leading to highly...... complex networks lacking predictability and global structural properties. The thesis applies the concept of Structural Quality of Service to formulate desirable global properties, and it shows how regular graph structures can be used to obtain such properties.......Digitalization has created the base for co-existence and convergence in communications, leading to an increasing use of multi service networks. This is for example seen in the Fiber To The Home implementations, where a single fiber is used for virtually all means of communication, including TV...

  16. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  18. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Lj; van der Hoek, J P; Vreeburg, J H G

    2017-10-15

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS. Two sets of stagnation experiments, during winter and summer months, with various stagnation intervals (up to 168 h of stagnation) were carried out. Water and biofilms were sampled at two different taps, a kitchen and a shower tap. Results from this study indicate that temperature and water stagnation affect both chemical and microbial quality in DDWSs, whereas microbial parameters in stagnant water appear to be driven by the temperature of fresh water. Biofilm formed in the shower pipe contained more total and intact cells than the kitchen pipe biofilm. Alphaproteobacteria were found to dominate in the shower biofilm (78% of all Proteobacteria), while in the kitchen tap biofilm Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were evenly distributed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  20. Leakage detection algorithm integrating water distribution networks hydraulic model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, K

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes is inexorable in water distribution networks (WDNs) and has been recognized as a major challenge facing the operation of municipal water services. This is strongly linked with financial costs due to economic loss...

  1. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  2. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total ...

  3. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in ... The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total ... Generally, water pollution not only affects water quality ..... regardless of the natural geology and human activities, it has.

  4. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  5. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  6. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA Water Resources PI Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records.

  7. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  8. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  9. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  10. Effectiveness of the stormwater quality devices to improve water quality at Putrajaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Puad, A H Mohd; Noh, M N Md; Ainan, A

    2013-01-01

    Development of Putrajaya has changed the character of the natural landform by covering the land with impervious surfaces. Houses, office buildings, commercial place and shopping centres have provided places to live and work. The route between buildings is facilitated and encouraged by a complex network of roads and car parks. However, this change from natural landforms and vegetative cover to impervious surfaces has major effect on stormwater which are water quality (non-point source pollution). This paper describes the effectiveness of the stormwater quality devices to improve water quality at selected Putrajaya for demonstration in order to evaluate low cost storm inlet type devices in the Putrajaya Catchment. Five stormwater quality devices were installed and monitored during the study. The devices include Ultra Drain Guard Recycle model, Ultra Curb Guard Plus, Ultra Grate Guard, Absorbent Tarp and Ultra Passive Skimmer. This paper will provide information on the benefits and costs of these devices, including operations and maintenance requirements. Applicability of these devices in gas stations, small convenience stores, residential and small parking lots in the catchment are possible due to their low cost.

  11. Quality of Experience on Smartphones : Network, Application, and Energy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ickin, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have become crucial enablers for users to exploit online services such as learning, leisure, communicating, and socializing. The user-perceived quality of applications and services is an important factor to consider, in order to achieve lean resource management, to prevent user churn and revenue depletion of service or network providers. This is often studied within the scope of Quality of Experience (QoE), which has attracted researchers both in academia and industry. The objecti...

  12. Multiple leakage localization and leak size estimation in water networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, N.; Habibi, H.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Klabbers, M.D.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Water distribution networks experience considerable losses due to leakage, often at multiple locations simultaneously. Leakage detection and localization based on sensor placement and online pressure monitoring could be fast and economical. Using the difference between estimated and measured

  13. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  14. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  15. Evaluation of global water quality - the potential of a data- and model-driven analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärlund, Ilona; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph; Völker, Jeanette; Malsy, Marcus; Kaus, Andrew; Reder, Klara; Büttner, Olaf; Katterfeld, Christiane; Dietrich, Désirée; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing socio-economic development presents a new challenge for water quality worldwide, especially in developing and emerging countries. It is estimated that due to population growth and the extension of water supply networks, the amount of waste water will rise sharply. This can lead to an increased risk of surface water quality degradation, if the wastewater is not sufficiently treated. This development has impacts on ecosystems and human health, as well as food security. The United Nations Member States have adopted targets for sustainable development. They include, inter alia, sustainable protection of water quality and sustainable use of water resources. To achieve these goals, appropriate monitoring strategies and the development of indicators for water quality are required. Within the pre-study for a 'World Water Quality Assessment' (WWQA) led by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a methodology for assessing water quality, taking into account the above-mentioned objectives has been developed. The novelty of this methodology is the linked model- and data-driven approach. The focus is on parameters reflecting the key water quality issues, such as increased waste water pollution, salinization or eutrophication. The results from the pre-study show, for example, that already about one seventh of all watercourses in Latin America, Africa and Asia show high organic pollution. This is of central importance for inland fisheries and associated food security. In addition, it could be demonstrated that global water quality databases have large gaps. These must be closed in the future in order to obtain an overall picture of global water quality and to target measures more efficiently. The aim of this presentation is to introduce the methodology developed within the WWQA pre-study and to show selected examples of application in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

  16. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses......), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6. billion. CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively...

  17. An Optimal Design Model for New Water Distribution Networks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mathematical formulation is a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) which involves the design of a new network of water distribution considering the cost in the form of unit price of pipes, the hydraulic gradient and the loss of pressure. The objective function minimizes the cost of the network which is computed as the sum ...

  18. Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One such approach is the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The advantage of ANNs is that they are robust and can be used to model complex linear and non-linear systems without making implicit assumptions. ANNs can be trained to forecast flow dynamics in a water distribution network. Such flow dynamics ...

  19. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunovi?, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  20. MANAGING MANURE TO IMPROVE AIR AND WATER QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel R.; Johansson, Robert C.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Key, Nigel D.; Ribaudo, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste from confined animal feeding operations is a potential source of air and water quality degradation from evaporation of gases, runoff to surface water, and leaching to ground water. This report assesses the potential economic and environmental tradeoffs between water quality policies and air quality policies that require the animal agriculture sector to take potentially costly measures to abate pollution. A farm-level analysis of hog farms estimates the economic and environmental ...

  1. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  2. Multiple Transcoding Impact on Speech Quality in Ideal Network Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of transcoding on the speech quality. We have focused mainly on the transcoding between codecs without the negative influence of the network parameters such as packet loss and delay. It has ensured objective and repeatable results from our measurement. The measurement was performed on the Transcoding Measuring System developed especially for this purpose. The system is based on the open source projects and is useful as a design tool for VoIP system administrators. The paper compares the most used codecs from the transcoding perspective. The multiple transcoding between G711, GSM and G729 codecs were performed and the speech quality of these calls was evaluated. The speech quality was measured by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method, which provides results in Mean Opinion Score used to describe the speech quality on a scale from 1 to 5. The obtained results indicate periodical speech quality degradation on every transcoding between two codecs.

  3. Water Quality Assessment for Deep-water Channel area of Guangzhou Port based on the Comprehensive Water Quality Identification Index Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The comprehensive water quality identification index method is able to assess the general water quality situation comprehensively and represent the water quality classification; water environment functional zone achieves pollution level and standard objectively and systematically. This paper selects 3 representative zones along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port and applies comprehensive water quality identification index method to calculate sea water quality monitoring data for different selected zones from year 2006 to 2014, in order to investigate the temporal variation of water quality along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port. The comprehensive water quality level from north to south presents an increased trend, and the water quality of the three zones in 2014 is much better than in 2006. This paper puts forward environmental protection measurements and suggestions for Pearl River Estuary, provides data support and theoretical basis for studied sea area pollution prevention and control.

  4. water demand prediction using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Interface for activation and deactivation of valves. •. Interface demand ... process could be done and monitored at the computer terminal as expected of a .... [15] Arbib, M. A.The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural. Networks.

  5. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  6. Modeling of Water Quality 'Almendares River'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez Catasús, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The river Almendares, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the handling of the contamination. In the present work, the advective, steady- state Streeter and Phelps model was validated to simulate the effect of the multiple-point and distributed sources on the carbonaceous oxygen demand, NH4 and dissolved oxygen. For modeling purposes the section of the river located between the point where the waste water treatment station Maria del Carmen discharges to the river and the Bridge El Bosque, was divided in 11 segments. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamine WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modeling purposes. The validated model allows to predict the effect of the sanitary strategies on the water quality of the river. The main conclusions are: 1. The model Streeter and Phelps calibrated and validated in the Almendares between the confluence of the channel 'María del Carmen' and bridge the Forest of Havana, described in more than 90% The behavior of the dissolved oxygen and BODn (in terms of ammonia), and more than 85%, the carbonaceous demand oxygen, which characterizes the process of purification. 2. Model validation Streeter and Phelps, indicates that implicit conceptual model is appropriate. This refers primarily to the considerations relating to the calculation of the kinetic constants and the DOS, the segmentation used, to the location of the discharges and the Standing been about them, to the river morphology and hydrodynamic parameters . 3. The calibration procedure Streeter and Phelps model that determines the least-squares Kr-Kd pair that best fits the OD and uses this Kr to model BOD gets four% increase in

  7. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-17

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use.

  8. Quality of Service in Networks Supporting Cultural Multimedia Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of representative multimedia applications in the cultural heritage sector, as well as research results on quality of service (QoS) mechanisms in internet protocol (IP) networks that support such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a literature review. Findings: Cultural…

  9. Logistics network design for perishable products with heterogeneous quality decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de Marlies; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Haijema, Rene; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of logistics operations, as well as the environmental conditions during these operations, significantly impact the performance of a logistics network for fresh agricultural products. When durations or temperatures increase, product quality decreases and more effort is required to

  10. Outlier Detection in Urban Air Quality Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, V.M.; Stein, A.; Hoek, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly

  11. 42 CFR 494.40 - Condition: Water and dialysate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demonstrate the following: (a) Standard: Water purity. Water and equipment used for dialysis meets the water... Boulevard, Suite 400, Arlington, VA 22201-4598. (b) Standard: Chlorine/chloramines. (1) The water treatment... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Water and dialysate quality. 494.40...

  12. Integrated evolutionary computation neural network quality controller for automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patro, S.; Kolarik, W.J. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    1999-06-01

    With increasing competition in the global market, more and more stringent quality standards and specifications are being demands at lower costs. Manufacturing applications of computing power are becoming more common. The application of neural networks to identification and control of dynamic processes has been discussed. The limitations of using neural networks for control purposes has been pointed out and a different technique, evolutionary computation, has been discussed. The results of identifying and controlling an unstable, dynamic process using evolutionary computation methods has been presented. A framework for an integrated system, using both neural networks and evolutionary computation, has been proposed to identify the process and then control the product quality, in a dynamic, multivariable system, in real-time.

  13. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  14. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  15. Remote control systems for water distribution networks. Effective operation, quality service and customer satisfaction; Il telecontrollo delle reti idriche. Efficienza gestionale, qualita' del servizio e soddisfazione del cliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascetta, F. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Geographic information Systems and Agriculture

    2000-10-01

    The needs of the present Italian marketplace of public utilities drive towards new and more adequate management standards. The main aims of a water Company are very similar to those of any industrial enterprise, i.e. to increase its productivity and to reduce the relative production costs. This modern and rigorous approach of the management of a public utility implies a careful process control. Network facilities (such as water, gas or energy supply) require a flexible and powerful application of the information technology, such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA), as well as Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This paper illustrates a survey on the main benefits introduced by a remote supervisory and control system in water industry. [Italian] In questo lavoro vengono presentate le notevoli potenzialita' degli attuali sistemi di telecontrollo e di supervisione (SCADA) di reti geograficamente distribuite, soprattutto se questi vengono integrati con le tecnologie informatiche territoriali (S.I.T. o GIS). Vengono inoltre definiti e illustrati gli indicatori di prestazione, cosi' utili per una moderna e flessibile gestione del ciclo idrico integrato. Infine, viene delineato un approccio quantitativo per la valutazione dell'efficienza, efficacia ed economicita' della gestione del servizio idrico di pubblica utilita'.

  16. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  17. Microbial quality of agricultural water in Central Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Strawn, Laura K.; Danyluk, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six a...

  18. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  19. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  20. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  1. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  2. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Poole; J.B. Dunham; D.M. Keenan; S.T. Sauter; D.A. McCullough; C. Mebane; J.C. Lockwood; D.A. Essig; M.P. Hicks; D.J. Sturdevant; E.J. Materna; S.A. Spalding; J. Risley; M. Deppman

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type...

  3. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  4. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... A lack of infrastructure, coupled .... munity tankers and its relationship to health outcomes in light of water quality ... delivery, taps at the eThekwini Water and Sanitation laboratory ... relationship between drinking water quality, health, hygiene ... over a 2-week period from the point-of-use and source of each.

  5. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  6. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  7. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  8. Modelling a water purification process for quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der F.H.; Luca, S.; Overal, G.; Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Jongbloed, G.; Dubbeldam, J.; Groenevelt, W.; Heemink, A.W.; Lahaye, D.; Meerman, C.; Meulen, van der F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a quality engineering problem introduced by ‘Waterlaboratorium Noord’ (WLN) situated at the Netherlands. In-terest lies in determining an optimal sampling frequency that provides suÿcient information on the water quality in a drinking water purifica-tion plant. The water

  9. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  10. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof ...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the...

  12. Quality of Services in Integrated UMTS/IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast development and implementation of new telecommunicationservices and Intelligent Transp01t Systems (ITS havecreated new environment for the network telecom operatorsand service providers and logistic and transport enterprises. Thecmcial issue for successful business and other professional applicationsis the provision of the end-to-end quality of service inthe inter-network operation of mobile and fixed networks. Theproblem was less expressed in the traditional networks orientedto telephony, but the issue of different QoS algorithms growswith the spreading of data transmission services and multimediaapplications. The existence of different QoS algorithms andprocedures in the !?-based networks (JP- Internet Protocolalso makes difficult the finding of a single solution for the implementationofQoS in the !?-based networks. In the indicatedcontext this work systemically defines the problem of providinga single end-to-end QoS protocol in the connected UMTS/IPnetworks. The possibilities of its realization are presented on theexample of two protocols. The work gives the basic characteristicsof the two protocols that fulfil the criteria set in the realizationof the new generation of mobile networks.

  13. Water quality measure in urban basin of Fossolo; Le misure di qualita` nel bacino urbano Fossolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artina, Sandro; Maglionico, Marco; Marinelli, Alberto [Bologna, Univ. (Italy); Raffaelli, Giuseppe; Anzalone, Claudio [Consorzio A.Co.Se.R., Bologna (Italy); Lanzarini, Sergio; Guzzinati, Ermes [AMIU, Bologna (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Water quantity and quality characteristics of a combined sewer system in a 40 ha urban catchment in the vicinity of Bologna have been studied for two years. The catchment, having residential characteristics with about 10000 inhabitants, is loaded with heavy traffic. The drainage network ends with a main duct having a multicenter cross section of 1800 mm x 1440 mm. The monitoring phase has pointed out how some quality parameters often trespass the Italian regulations on water quality. Moreover, it has been observed how BOD{sub 5}, COD and Suspended Solids are strictly correlated.

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  16. Quality Utilization Aware Based Data Gathering for Vehicular Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicular communication networks, which can employ mobile, intelligent sensing devices with participatory sensing to gather data, could be an efficient and economical way to build various applications based on big data. However, high quality data gathering for vehicular communication networks which is urgently needed faces a lot of challenges. So, in this paper, a fine-grained data collection framework is proposed to cope with these new challenges. Different from classical data gathering which concentrates on how to collect enough data to satisfy the requirements of applications, a Quality Utilization Aware Data Gathering (QUADG scheme is proposed for vehicular communication networks to collect the most appropriate data and to best satisfy the multidimensional requirements (mainly including data gathering quantity, quality, and cost of application. In QUADG scheme, the data sensing is fine-grained in which the data gathering time and data gathering area are divided into very fine granularity. A metric named “Quality Utilization” (QU is to quantify the ratio of quality of the collected sensing data to the cost of the system. Three data collection algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is to ensure that the application which has obtained the specified quantity of sensing data can minimize the cost and maximize data quality by maximizing QU. The second algorithm is to ensure that the application which has obtained two requests of application (the quantity and quality of data collection, or the quantity and cost of data collection could maximize the QU. The third algorithm is to ensure that the application which aims to satisfy the requirements of quantity, quality, and cost of collected data simultaneously could maximize the QU. Finally, we compare our proposed scheme with the existing schemes via extensive simulations which well justify the effectiveness of our scheme.

  17. Coupled Triboelectric Nanogenerator Networks for Efficient Water Wave Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Lin, Pei; Shao, Jia Jia; He, Chuan; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Xiang Yu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-02-27

    Water wave energy is a promising clean energy source, which is abundant but hard to scavenge economically. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) networks provide an effective approach toward massive harvesting of water wave energy in oceans. In this work, a coupling design in TENG networks for such purposes is reported. The charge output of the rationally linked units is over 10 times of that without linkage. TENG networks of three different connecting methods are fabricated and show better performance for the ones with flexible connections. The network is based on an optimized ball-shell structured TENG unit with high responsivity to small agitations. The dynamic behavior of single and multiple TENG units is also investigated comprehensively to fully understand their performance in water. The study shows that a rational design on the linkage among the units could be an effective strategy for TENG clusters to operate collaboratively for reaching a higher performance.

  18. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpel, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  19. Development of wavelet-ANN models to predict water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Kavianpour, Mohamad Reza

    2015-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) and wavelet-neural network (WNN) models for predicting a variety of ocean water quality parameters. In this regard, several water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean, are taken under consideration. Different combinations of water quality parameters are applied as input variables to predict daily values of salinity, temperature and DO as well as hourly values of DO. The results demonstrate that the WNN models are superior to the ANN models. Also, the hourly models developed for DO prediction outperform the daily models of DO. For the daily models, the most accurate model has R equal to 0.96, while for the hourly model it reaches up to 0.98. Overall, the results show the ability of the model to monitor the ocean parameters, in condition with missing data, or when regular measurement and monitoring are impossible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addressing water incidents by using pipe network models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yoyo, Sonwabiso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available quantities like flow rate and pressure with water meters. Such an approach provides a highly exact and realistic understanding, but is potentially very expensive to implement. This is especially so in view of the large number water infrastructure networks...

  1. Water Distribution Network Modelling of a Small Community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using WaterCAD simulator. The analysis included a review of pressures, velocities and head loss gradients under steady state average day demand, maximum day demand conditions, and fire flow under maximum day ...

  2. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities

  3. Mass imbalances in EPANET water-quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas N.

    2018-04-01

    EPANET is widely employed to simulate water quality in water distribution systems. However, in general, the time-driven simulation approach used to determine concentrations of water-quality constituents provides accurate results only for short water-quality time steps. Overly long time steps can yield errors in concentration estimates and can result in situations in which constituent mass is not conserved. The use of a time step that is sufficiently short to avoid these problems may not always be feasible. The absence of EPANET errors or warnings does not ensure conservation of mass. This paper provides examples illustrating mass imbalances and explains how such imbalances can occur because of fundamental limitations in the water-quality routing algorithm used in EPANET. In general, these limitations cannot be overcome by the use of improved water-quality modeling practices. This paper also presents a preliminary event-driven approach that conserves mass with a water-quality time step that is as long as the hydraulic time step. Results obtained using the current approach converge, or tend to converge, toward those obtained using the preliminary event-driven approach as the water-quality time step decreases. Improving the water-quality routing algorithm used in EPANET could eliminate mass imbalances and related errors in estimated concentrations. The results presented in this paper should be of value to those who perform water-quality simulations using EPANET or use the results of such simulations, including utility managers and engineers.

  4. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  5. Stability of Drinking Water Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of R^n. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  6. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  7. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  8. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of...-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-9105-1] RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic...

  9. Assessment of the Quality of Water Treated and Distributed By the Akwa Ibom State Water Company

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Eddy; A. S. Ekop

    2007-01-01

    The quality of water treated and distributed by the Akwa Ibom Water Company has been assessed by analyzing samples of water collected from different distribution points for their physiochemical parameters, major ions, nutrients and bacteriological quality. The observed values were compared with standard values given by the World Health Organization for portable water. The quality of the analysed water is found fit for human consumption.

  10. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...... modeling exploiting additional information like meteorological data can support the decision process as shown in Chapter 10. The question of which information to extract from water sample analyses is closely related to the task of risk assessment for human health. Beach-water quality is often measured......Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from...

  11. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  12. Assessment of quality of drinking water in Amasaman, Accra (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarcoo, G.; Hodgson, I. O. A.; Ampofo, J. A.; Cobbina, S. J.; Koku, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and microbial quality attributes of untreated water samples from hand dug wells and treated water delivered by tankers (mobile services) were assessed to determine the susceptibility of Amasaman community to water borne diseases. The physico-chemical parameters of all the water sources for domestic use were within the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and Ghana Standards (GS), with the exception of turbidity and colour which showed higher values for the well waters. With respect to the microbial quality, the waters from the hand-dug wells and tanker services showed presence of both total and faecal coliforms, at levels higher than WHO and GS values of zero counts per 100 mL for drinking water. The poor microbial quality (presence of coliform bacteria) of all the water samples suggested susceptibility and exposure of the community to waterborne diseases on continuously drinking the available water. (au)

  13. Simulating water quality and ecological status of Lake Vansjø, Norway, under land-use and climate change by linking process-oriented models with a Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Raoul-Marie; Moe, S Jannicke; Lin, Yan; Kaste, Øyvind; Haande, Sigrid; Lyche Solheim, Anne

    2018-04-15

    Excess nutrient inputs and climate change are two of multiple stressors affecting many lakes worldwide. Lake Vansjø in southern Norway is one such eutrophic lake impacted by blooms of toxic blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), and classified as moderate ecological status under the EU Water Framework Directive. Future climate change may exacerbate the situation. Here we use a set of chained models (global climate model, hydrological model, catchment phosphorus (P) model, lake model, Bayesian Network) to assess the possible future ecological status of the lake, given the set of climate scenarios and storylines common to the EU project MARS (Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Resources under Multiple Stress). The model simulations indicate that climate change alone will increase precipitation and runoff, and give higher P fluxes to the lake, but cause little increase in phytoplankton biomass or changes in ecological status. For the storylines of future management and land-use, however, the model results indicate that both the phytoplankton biomass and the lake ecological status can be positively or negatively affected. Our results also show the value in predicting a biological indicator of lake ecological status, in this case, cyanobacteria biomass with a BN model. For all scenarios, cyanobacteria contribute to worsening the status assessed by phytoplankton, compared to using chlorophyll-a alone. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. use of geographic information system and water quality index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Key words: spatial distribution, GIS, WQI, groundwater quality, Hewane, Tigray, Ethiopia. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.2 2013 ..... insignificant role in the water quality assessment.

  15. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1974-01-01

    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  16. Water Quality Drivers in 11 Gulf of Mexico Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. McCarthy; Daniel B. Otis; Pablo Méndez-Lázaro; Frank E. Muller-Karger

    2018-01-01

    Coastal water-quality is both a primary driver and also a consequence of coastal ecosystem health. Turbidity, a measure of dissolved and particulate water-quality matter, is a proxy for water quality, and varies on daily to interannual periods. Turbidity is influenced by a variety of factors, including algal particles, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Identifying which factors drive trends and extreme events in turbidity in an estuary helps environmental managers and...

  17. Differentiating Agar wood Oil Quality Using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Ismail; Nor Azah Mohd Ali; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Agar wood oil is well known as expensive oil extracted from the resinous of fragrant heartwood. The oil is getting high demand in the market especially from the Middle East countries, China and Japan because of its unique odor. As part of an on-going research in grading the agar wood oil quality, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed in this study to analyze agar wood oil quality using its chemical profiles. The work involves of selected agar wood oil from low and high quality, the extraction of chemical compounds using GC-MS and Z-score to identify of the significant compounds as input to the network. The ANN programming algorithm was developed and computed automatically via Matlab software version R2010a. Back-propagation training algorithm and sigmoid transfer function were used to optimize the parameters in the training network. The result obtained showed the capability of ANN in analyzing the agar wood oil quality hence beneficial for the further application such as grading and classification for agar wood oil. (author)

  18. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  19. A multiobjective optimization framework for multicontaminant industrial water network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Marianne; Montastruc, Ludovic; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge

    2011-07-01

    The optimal design of multicontaminant industrial water networks according to several objectives is carried out in this paper. The general formulation of the water allocation problem (WAP) is given as a set of nonlinear equations with binary variables representing the presence of interconnections in the network. For optimization purposes, three antagonist objectives are considered: F(1), the freshwater flow-rate at the network entrance, F(2), the water flow-rate at inlet of regeneration units, and F(3), the number of interconnections in the network. The multiobjective problem is solved via a lexicographic strategy, where a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) procedure is used at each step. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example taken from the literature involving five processes, one regeneration unit and three contaminants. The set of potential network solutions is provided in the form of a Pareto front. Finally, the strategy for choosing the best network solution among those given by Pareto fronts is presented. This Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem is tackled by means of two approaches: a classical TOPSIS analysis is first implemented and then an innovative strategy based on the global equivalent cost (GEC) in freshwater that turns out to be more efficient for choosing a good network according to a practical point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drinking Water Quality in Hospitals and Other Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water quality entering large buildings is generally adequately controlled by the water utility, but localized problems may occur within building or “premise” plumbing. Particular concerns are loss of disinfectant residual and temperature variability, which may enhance pa...

  1. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  2. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  3. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  4. Physico-Chemical and microbial water quality assessment of Densu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment conducted in the Densu basin of Ghana between July ... High nutrient loads observed in the basin were due to domestic, agricultural and ... a pattern which is an intermediate between fresh and sea water systems.

  5. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat...

  6. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Sachet water quality, Protozoan organisms, Faecal coliforms. 1 Introduction. In Ghana ... problems to water production because of the ensuing high pollution ...... Mexico Institute of Mining and. Technology, USA in ...

  7. Design of environmental decision support system and its application to water quality management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    EDSS is a comprehensive software system for water quality management in tidal river networks in general and for the Pearl River Delta in particular. Its purpose is to provide a practical tool that could assist government agencies in decision making for the efficient management of water resources in terms of both quantity and quality. By combining the capabilities of geographical information system (GIS), database management system (DBMS), model base management system (MBMS) and expert system, the aim is to improve the quality of decision making in what is becoming an increasingly complex area. This paper first outlines the basic concepts and philosophy adopted in developing EDSS, the system architecture, design features, implementation techniques and facilities provided. Thereafter, the core part of the system the hydrodynamic and water quality models are described briefly. The final contribution in this paper describes the application of EDSS to the Pearl River Delta, which has the most complicated tidal river network patterns as well as the fastest economic development in the world. Examples are given of the real-world problems that can be addressed using the system, including cross-boundary water pollution analysis, regional drinking water take-up site selection, screening of important polluters, environmental impact assessment, and water quality zoning and planning. It is illustrated that EDSS can provide efficient and scientific analytical tools for planning and decision-making purposes in the information era.

  8. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  10. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  11. Evaluation of physical, chemical and microbial quality of distribution network drinkingwater in Bushehr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shabankareh fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical, chemical and microbial properties of water are the criteria to consider it as drinking water quality. Unfavorable changes in such parameters may threat consumers' health. The aim of this study is to give a clear view of physical, chemical and microbial quality of distribution network drinking water in Bushehr and compare with national and EPA standards. Materials and Methods: This descriptive sectional study was done during Sep 2012 to Feb 2013 (6 months. 50 Samples were collected directly from distribution network drinking water in Bushehr. Physical and chemical analyses were done according to standard methods. Multiple tube fermentation method was used to determine fecal and total coliform bacteria and spread plate method was used to measure heterotrophic bacteria. Results: The mean values of measured parameters were as follow: electrical conductivity 1155.5 µs/cm, turbidity 0.27 NTU, pH 7.12, alkalinity 171.5, total hardness 458.96, calcium hardness 390.96, magnesium hardness 68 mg/L as CaCO3, calcium 156.38, magnesium 16.95, residual chlorine 0.61, chloride 83.26, TDS 577.7, iron 0.115, fluoride 0.48, phosphate 0.059, nitrate 3.08, nitrite 0.003 and sulphate 728.38 mg/L. Total coliform (0, fecal coliform (0 MPN/100 ml and HPC 309.8 CFU/mL. Except TDS and sulphate, all cited results met the national and EPA standards. Conclusion: Quality of water from distribution network in Bushehr was not problematical from health point of view. However, high TDS and sulphate content may increase diarrhea risk in consumer as well as corrosive effect of water.

  12. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  13. Study of Water Quality in Rural Regions of Northeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Nazemi; Jaber Yeganeh; Shima Mohammad Khani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing Safe drinking water is a prime concerninany community. This analytical study was carried out to evaluate the microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of northeastern Iran. Methods: The water microbial quality was determined in all villages (a population of 53047 people), in 3 rounds and based on 3 measurements, i.e. Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and Heterotrophic Plate Count. Census method was used for studying water distribution system too. Results: Re...

  14. Quality assessment of drinking water from different sources in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treated pipe borne water, sachet water and water sold in open containers were also investigated. Standard plate count technique, multiple tube fermentation technique, and membrane filtration technique were employed in determining the microbial quality of the water. The study showed uniform temperature range of 27.5 to ...

  15. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  16. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  17. Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed drinking water ... of fecal contamination and inadequate water treatment or no treatment at all. ... of hygiene criteria were present in the range of 98 and 106 cfu/100ml of water ...

  18. Water quality report of Nordrhein-Westfalen 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.; Holbeck, I.; Vogt, K.

    1992-10-01

    The water quality in Nordrhein-Westfalen improved in 1991. The report, compiled in cooperation with the 8 state Authorities for Water and Waste Management and the Land Authority for the Fishing Industry, shows that water purification measures are successful, and that the technical standard of surface water monitoring in Nordrhein-Westfalen is remarkably high. (orig.) [de

  19. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  20. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...