WorldWideScience

Sample records for network trust amanet

  1. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  2. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical...

  3. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  4. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  5. Modeling trust context in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Adali, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    We make complex decisions every day, requiring trust in many different entities for different reasons. These decisions are not made by combining many isolated trust evaluations. Many interlocking factors play a role, each dynamically impacting the others.? In this brief, 'trust context' is defined as the system level description of how the trust evaluation process unfolds.Networks today are part of almost all human activity, supporting and shaping it. Applications increasingly incorporate new interdependencies and new trust contexts. Social networks connect people and organizations throughout

  6. Quantifying and Qualifying Trust: Spectral Decomposition of Trust Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Degano, Pierpaolo; Etalle, Sandro; Guttman, Joshua

    In a previous FAST paper, I presented a quantitative model of the process of trust building, and showed that trust is accumulated like wealth: the rich get richer. This explained the pervasive phenomenon of adverse selection of trust certificates, as well as the fragility of trust networks in

  7. Online networks destroy social trust

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Studies in the social capital literature have documented two stylised facts: first, a decline in measures of social participation has occurred in many OECD countries. Second, and more recently, the success of social networking sites (SNSs) has resulted in a steep rise in online social participation. Our study adds to this body of research by conducting the first empirical assessment of how online networking affects two economically relevant aspects of social capital, i.e. trust and sociabilit...

  8. Towards Trust-based Cognitive Networks: A Survey of Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    of trust. First, social trust refers to properties derived from social relationships . Examples of social networks are strong social ... relationships such as colleagues or relatives or loose social relationships such as school alumni or friends with common interests [44]. Social trust may...also use social relationships in evaluating the trust metric among group members by employing the concept of social networks. Yu et al. [44] define

  9. Mining Trust Relationships from Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Tong Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the growing popularity of online social network,trust plays a more and more important role in connecting people to each other.We rely on our personal trust to accept recommendations,to make purchase decisions and to select transaction partners in the online community.Therefore,how to obtain trust relationships through mining online social networks becomes an important research topic.There are several shortcomings of existing trust mining methods.First,trust is category-dependent.However,most of the methods overlook the category attribute of trust relationships,which leads to low accuracy in trust calculation.Second,since the data in online social networks cannot be understood and processed by machines directly,traditional mining methods require much human effort and are not easily applied to other applications.To solve the above problems,we propose a semantic-based trust reasoning mechanism to mine trust relationships from online social networks automatically.We emphasize the category attribute of pairwise relationships and utilize Semantic Web technologies to build a domain ontology for data communication and knowledge sharing.We exploit role-based and behavior-based reasoning functions to infer implicit trust relationships and category-specific trust relationships.We make use of path expressions to extend reasoning rules so that the mining process can be done directly without much human effort.We perform experiments on real-life data extracted from Epinions.The experimental results verify the effectiveness and wide application use of our proposed method.

  10. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  11. Collaborative Trust Networks in Engineering Design Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Simon Reay; Maier, Anja; Caldwell, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    ); applying the Change Prediction Method (CPM) tool. It posits the idea of the ‘Networks-in-Being’ with varying individual and collective characteristics. [Social] networks are considered to facilitate information exchange between actors. At the same time, networks failing to provide trusted-information can...... hinder effective communication and collaboration. Different combinations of trust may therefore improve or impair the likelihood of information flow, transfer and subsequent action (cause and effect). This paper investigates how analysing different types of network-structures-in-being can support......Within organisations, decision makers have to rely on collaboration with other actors from different disciplines working within highly dynamic and distributed associated networks of varying size and scales. This paper develops control and influence networks within Design Structure Matrices (DSM...

  12. Modelling Users` Trust in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob Cătoiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (McKnight, Lankton and Tripp, 2011; Liao, Lui and Chen, 2011 have shown the crucial role of trust when choosing to disclose sensitive information online. This is the case of online social networks users, who must disclose a certain amount of personal data in order to gain access to these online services. Taking into account privacy calculus model and the risk/benefit ratio, we propose a model of users’ trust in online social networks with four variables. We have adapted metrics for the purpose of our study and we have assessed their reliability and validity. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS based structural equation modelling analysis, which validated all our initial assumptions, indicating that our three predictors (privacy concerns, perceived benefits and perceived risks explain 48% of the variation of users’ trust in online social networks, the resulting variable of our study. We also discuss the implications and further research opportunities of our study.

  13. Learning to trust : network effects through time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, D.; Bunt, G. van de

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of information originating from social networks on the development of interpersonal trust relations in the context of a dialysis department of a Dutch medium-sized hospital. Hypotheses on learning effects are developed from existing theories and tested using

  14. Learning to trust: network effects through time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, D.; van de Bunt, G

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of information originating from social networks on the development of interpersonal trust relations in the context of a dialysis department of a Dutch medium-sized hospital. Hypotheses on learning effects are developed from existing theories and tested using

  15. Managing Trust in Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Touhid; Josang, Audun; Xu, Yue

    In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online social networks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online social networks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social networks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online social networks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online social networks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations

  16. An Efficient Dynamic Trust Evaluation Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwang Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust evaluation is an effective method to detect malicious nodes and ensure security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this paper, an efficient dynamic trust evaluation model (DTEM for WSNs is proposed, which implements accurate, efficient, and dynamic trust evaluation by dynamically adjusting the weights of direct trust and indirect trust and the parameters of the update mechanism. To achieve accurate trust evaluation, the direct trust is calculated considering multitrust including communication trust, data trust, and energy trust with the punishment factor and regulating function. The indirect trust is evaluated conditionally by the trusted recommendations from a third party. Moreover, the integrated trust is measured by assigning dynamic weights for direct trust and indirect trust and combining them. Finally, we propose an update mechanism by a sliding window based on induced ordered weighted averaging operator to enhance flexibility. We can dynamically adapt the parameters and the interactive history windows number according to the actual needs of the network to realize dynamic update of direct trust value. Simulation results indicate that the proposed dynamic trust model is an efficient dynamic and attack-resistant trust evaluation model. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed dynamic trust model performs better in defending multiple malicious attacks.

  17. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  18. TRUST MODEL FOR SOCIAL NETWORK USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Bundi Ntwiga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix. Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings. Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network. Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

  19. Integrating Subjective Trust into Networked Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    architectural framework for hexperimenting wit trust. • Use of semantic technologies incorporated into h b id b d t t t ta y r - ase rus managemen ...Language for Operation PI Persistent Identifier PILOW P i t t Id tifi T blers s en en er a es PINL Persistent Identifier Networking Layer SBIR Small...Investigate and propose an architecture to determine/measure and convey th t t l l f th i l t ie rus eve o e var ous e emen s n a distributed or

  20. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  1. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach.

  2. ReTrust: attack-resistant and lightweight trust management for medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-07-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (MSNs) enable ubiquitous health monitoring of users during their everyday lives, at health sites, without restricting their freedom. Establishing trust among distributed network entities has been recognized as a powerful tool to improve the security and performance of distributed networks such as mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks. However, most existing trust systems are not well suited for MSNs due to the unique operational and security requirements of MSNs. Moreover, similar to most security schemes, trust management methods themselves can be vulnerable to attacks. Unfortunately, this issue is often ignored in existing trust systems. In this paper, we identify the security and performance challenges facing a sensor network for wireless medical monitoring and suggest it should follow a two-tier architecture. Based on such an architecture, we develop an attack-resistant and lightweight trust management scheme named ReTrust. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol using our proposed system in a network of TelosB motes, which show that ReTrust not only can efficiently detect malicious/faulty behaviors, but can also significantly improve the network performance in practice.

  3. Hierarchical Trust Management of COI in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Report: Hierarchical Trust Management of COI in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...Institute & State University Title: Hierarchical Trust Management of COI in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks Report Term: 0-Other Email: irchen@vt.edu...Reconfigurability, Survivability and Intrusion Tolerance for Community of Interest (COI) Applications – Our proposed COI trust management protocol will

  4. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    expects, trust is dangerous implying the possible betrayal of trust. In his comments on Lagerspetz’s book titled Trust: The Tacit Demand, Lahno [24...AODV Zouridaki et al. (2005 ) [79] (2006) [80] Secure routing Direct observation [79][80] Reputation by secondhand information [80] Packet dropping...areas of signal processing, wireless communications, sensor and mobile ad hoc networks. He is co-editor of the book Wireless Sensor Networks: Signal

  5. Trust framework for a secured routing in wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila Hoceini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques to eliminate insider attacks developed for wired and wireless ad hoc networks are not well suited for wireless sensors networks due to their resource constraints nature. In order to protect WSNs against malicious and selfish behavior, some trust-based systems have recently been modeled. The resource efficiency and dependability of a trust system are the most fundamental requirements for any wireless sensor network (WSN. In this paper, we propose a Trust Framework for a Secured Routing in Wireless Sensor Network (TSR scheme, which works with clustered networks. This approach can effectively reduce the cost of trust evaluation and guarantee a better selection of safest paths that lead to the base station. Theoretical as well as simulation results show that our scheme requires less communication overheads and consumes less energy as compared to the current typical trust systems for WSNs. Moreover, it detects selfish and defective nodes and prevents us of insider attacks

  6. Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.

  7. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  8. A robust trust establishment scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won; Nam, Seung Yeob

    2015-03-23

    Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms.

  9. A Robust Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms.

  10. Dynamic Trust Models between Users over Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In this project, by focusing on a number of word -of- mouth communication websites, we attempted to...analyzed evolution of trust networks in social media sites from a perspective of mediators. To this end, we proposed two stochastic models that...focusing on a number of word -of- mouth communication websites, we first attempt to construct dynamic trust models between users that enable to explain trust

  11. On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Cai-Nicolas

    The age of information glut has fostered the proliferation of data and documents on the Web, created by man and machine alike. Hence, there is an enormous wealth of minable knowledge that is yet to be extracted, in particular, on the Semantic Web. However, besides understanding information stated by subjects, knowing about their credibility becomes equally crucial. Hence, trust and trust metrics, conceived as computational means to evaluate trust relationships between individuals, come into play. Our major contribution to Semantic Web trust management through this work is twofold. First, we introduce a classification scheme for trust metrics along various axes and discuss advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches for Semantic Web scenarios. Hereby, we devise an advocacy for local group trust metrics, guiding us to the second part, which presents Appleseed, our novel proposal for local group trust computation. Compelling in its simplicity, Appleseed borrows many ideas from spreading activation models in psychology and relates their concepts to trust evaluation in an intuitive fashion. Moreover, we provide extensions for the Appleseed nucleus that make our trust metric handle distrust statements.

  12. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  13. Trust as networking knowledge: precedents from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Porras, S.; Crawford, J.

    2004-01-01

    Trust, rather than being simply a resource for establishing collaborative relationships between organizations, is an essential component of their constitution. At base, trust involves interpersonal relations of a specific type. These are relations where there is sufficient probability that a person

  14. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior.

  15. Social Network Culture Needs the Lens of Critical Trust Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer , Natasha; Marsh , Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Full Papers; International audience; Trust is essential to the success of the social networks that are aggregating and applying masses of information about us. In this position paper, we argue that a critical approach to exploring trust and social networks is required; this entails genuinely working in the interests of users and acknowledging the power relations and wider social context of this form of technology that is impacting more and more of our everyday life. Without a critical...

  16. Integrated Social and Quality of Service Trust Management of Mobile Groups in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    high resiliency to malicious attacks and misbehaving nodes. Keywords—trust management; mobile ad hoc networks; QoS trust; social trust; trust...paper we address an importance issue of trust management protocol design for MANETs: trust bias minimization despite misbehaving nodes performing

  17. Protru: Leveraging Provenance to Enhance Network Trust in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gulustan

    2013-01-01

    Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…

  18. Security management based on trust determination in cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwu; Feng, Zebing; Wei, Zhiqing; Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Security has played a major role in cognitive radio networks. Numerous researches have mainly focused on attacking detection based on source localization and detection probability. However, few of them took the penalty of attackers into consideration and neglected how to implement effective punitive measures against attackers. To address this issue, this article proposes a novel penalty mechanism based on cognitive trust value. The main feature of this mechanism has been realized by six functions: authentication, interactive, configuration, trust value collection, storage and update, and punishment. Data fusion center (FC) and cluster heads (CHs) have been put forward as a hierarchical architecture to manage trust value of cognitive users. Misbehaving users would be punished by FC by declining their trust value; thus, guaranteeing network security via distinguishing attack users is of great necessity. Simulation results verify the rationality and effectiveness of our proposed mechanism.

  19. Rumor Spreading Model with Trust Mechanism in Complex Social Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ya-Qi; Yang Xiao-Yuan; Han Yi-Liang; Wang Xu-An

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, to study rumor spreading, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model by introducing the trust mechanism. We derive mean-field equations that describe the dynamics of the SIR model on homogeneous networks and inhomogeneous networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the critical threshold and the final size of the rumor spreading. We show that the introduction of trust mechanism reduces the final rumor size and the velocity of rumor spreading, but increases the critical thresholds on both networks. Moreover, the trust mechanism not only greatly reduces the maximum rumor influence, but also postpones the rumor terminal time, which provides us with more time to take measures to control the rumor spreading. The theoretical results are confirmed by sufficient numerical simulations. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Rumor Spreading Model with Trust Mechanism in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Han, Yi-Liang; Wang, Xu-An

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, to study rumor spreading, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model by introducing the trust mechanism. We derive mean-field equations that describe the dynamics of the SIR model on homogeneous networks and inhomogeneous networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the critical threshold and the final size of the rumor spreading. We show that the introduction of trust mechanism reduces the final rumor size and the velocity of rumor spreading, but increases the critical thresholds on both networks. Moreover, the trust mechanism not only greatly reduces the maximum rumor influence, but also postpones the rumor terminal time, which provides us with more time to take measures to control the rumor spreading. The theoretical results are confirmed by sufficient numerical simulations.

  1. Generating private recommendations in a social trust network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Z.; Veugen, P.J.M.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly important in e-commerce as they can guide customers with finding personalized services and products. A variant of recommender systems that generates recommendations from a set of trusted people is recently getting more attention in social networks.

  2. Software authentication to enhance trust in body sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.A.; Bui, T.V.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Lukkien, J.J.; Verhoeven, R.; Jøsang, A.; Samarati, P.; Petrocchi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies an approach to enhance the trust in the widespread use of Body Sensor Networks (BSN) in Healthcare. To address the wide variety in medical indications and differences between patients, we assume that such BSNs are programmable and highly flexible in their functionality. Yet this

  3. Generating Predictive Movie Recommendations from Trust in Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    .... Using the FilmTrust system as a foundation, they show that these recommendations are more accurate than other techniques when the user's opinions about a film are divergent from the average. They discuss this technique both as an application of social network analysis and how it suggests other analyses that can be performed to help improve collaborative filtering algorithms of all types.

  4. Group Recommendation Systems Based on External Social-Trust Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.

  5. Building Trust-Based Sustainable Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    entities to build sustainable networks with limited resources or misbehaving entities by learning from the lessons in the social sciences. We discuss...their individuality); and ■ Misbehaving nodes in terms of environmental, economic, and social perspectives. The sustainable network concerns...equitable access to particular services which are otherwise abused by misbehaving or malicious users. Such approaches provide a fair and

  6. Networking quality and trust in professional services

    OpenAIRE

    Toryanto, Agustinus A.; Hasyim

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to offer an outward-looking insight of the extent the knowledge management and value creation developed within professional organizations that is perceived to be able to influence networking behaviors and organizational performance. By using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS, and conducting survey with non-probability sampling techniques of 300 law firms in several cities in Indonesia, the study proposed the networking capability as the mediating variable of...

  7. A game theory-based trust measurement model for social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjie; Cai, Zhipeng; Yin, Guisheng; Gao, Yang; Tong, Xiangrong; Han, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, trust is a complex social network. Participants in online social networks want to share information and experiences with as many reliable users as possible. However, the modeling of trust is complicated and application dependent. Modeling trust needs to consider interaction history, recommendation, user behaviors and so on. Therefore, modeling trust is an important focus for online social networks. We propose a game theory-based trust measurement model for social networks. The trust degree is calculated from three aspects, service reliability, feedback effectiveness, recommendation credibility, to get more accurate result. In addition, to alleviate the free-riding problem, we propose a game theory-based punishment mechanism for specific trust and global trust, respectively. We prove that the proposed trust measurement model is effective. The free-riding problem can be resolved effectively through adding the proposed punishment mechanism.

  8. Leveraging Social Links for Trust and Privacy in Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Molva, Refik; Strufe, Thorsten

    Existing on-line social networks (OSN) such as Facebook suffer from several weaknesses regarding privacy and security due to their inherent handling of personal data. As pointed out in [4], a preliminary analysis of existing OSNs shows that they are subject to a number of vulnerabilities, ranging from cloning legitimate users to sybil attacks through privacy violations. Starting from these OSN vulnerabilities as the first step of a broader research activity, we came up with a new approach that is very promising in re-visiting security and privacy problems in distributed systems and networks. We suggest a solution that both aims at avoiding any centralized control and leverages on the real life trust between users, that is part of the social network application itself. An anonymization technique based on multi-hop routing among trusted nodes guarantees privacy in data access and, generally speaking, in all the OSN operations.

  9. Improved Recommendations Based on Trust Relationships in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to alleviate the pressure of information overload and enhance consumer satisfaction, personalization recommendation has become increasingly popular in recent years. As a result, various approaches for recommendation have been proposed in the past few years. However, traditional recommendation methods are still troubled with typical issues such as cold start, sparsity, and low accuracy. To address these problems, this paper proposed an improved recommendation method based on trust relationships in social networks to improve the performance of recommendations. In particular, we define trust relationship afresh and consider several representative factors in the formalization of trust relationships. To verify the proposed approach comprehensively, this paper conducted experiments in three ways. The experimental results show that our proposed approach leads to a substantial increase in prediction accuracy and is very helpful in dealing with cold start and sparsity.

  10. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Söllner, Matthias; Benbasat, Izak; Gefen, David; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Pavlou, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Trust is the enabler of social interaction. Although the origins of research on trust traditionally lie outside the Information Systems (IS) domain, the importance of trust for IS research rapidly grew in the late 1990s, and it is still growing with the increasing ubiquity and advancement of technology in organizations, virtual teams, online markets, and user-technology interactions. Theoretically, the central role of trust is tied to the growing social change that Information and Communicati...

  11. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtů, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    This rigorous thesis is focused on a status of trust in an application practise in a Czech legislation with a context of historical aspects of institutes similar to trusts as well as actual legislation. The thesis includes also analyses of more difficult provisions concerning the trust, including economic impacts representing accounting and tax consequences. Also comparison with established modifications trusts in Europe and their possible utilization of the Czech point of view of the settlor...

  12. Modelling trading networks and the role of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Rafael A.; Govezensky, Tzipe; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Kaski, Kimmo K.

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple dynamical model for describing trading interactions between agents in a social network by considering only two dynamical variables, namely money and goods or services, that are assumed conserved over the whole time span of the agents' trading transactions. A key feature of the model is that agent-to-agent transactions are governed by the price in units of money per goods, which is dynamically changing, and by a trust variable, which is related to the trading history of each agent. All agents are able to sell or buy, and the decision to do either has to do with the level of trust the buyer has in the seller, the price of the goods and the amount of money and goods at the disposal of the buyer. Here we show the results of extensive numerical calculations under various initial conditions in a random network of agents and compare the results with the available related data. In most cases the agreement between the model results and real data turns out to be fairly good, which allow us to draw some general conclusions as how different trading strategies could affect the distribution of wealth in different kinds of societies. Our calculations reveal the striking effects of trust in commercial relations, namely that trust makes trading links more robust and the wealth distribution more even as well as allows for the existence of a healthy middle class.

  13. Security and trust in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Barbara; Viviani, Marco; Viviani, Marco; Carminati, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The enormous success and diffusion that online social networks (OSNs) are encountering nowadays is vastly apparent. Users' social interactions now occur using online social media as communication channels; personal information and activities are easily exchanged both for recreational and business purposes in order to obtain social or economic advantages. In this scenario, OSNs are considered critical applications with respect to the security of users and their resources, for their characteristics alone: the large amount of personal information they manage, big economic upturn connected to thei

  14. Research on trust calculation of wireless sensor networks based on time segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yaoxin; Gao, Xiufeng; Qiao, Wenxin

    2017-05-01

    Because the wireless sensor network is different from the traditional network characteristics, it is easy to accept the intrusion from the compromise node. The trust mechanism is the most effective way to defend against internal attacks. Aiming at the shortcomings of the existing trust mechanism, a method of calculating the trust of wireless sensor networks based on time segmentation is proposed. It improves the security of the network and extends the life of the network

  15. ABS-TrustSDN: An Agent-Based Simulator of Trust Strategies in Software-Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván García-Magariño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networks (SDNs have become a mechanism to separate the control plane and the data plane in the communication in networks. SDNs involve several challenges around their security and their confidentiality. Ideally, SDNs should incorporate autonomous and adaptive systems for controlling the routing to be able to isolate network resources that may be malfunctioning or whose security has been compromised with malware. The current work introduces a novel agent-based framework that simulates SDN isolation protocols by means of trust and reputation models. This way, SDN programmers may estimate the repercussions of certain isolation protocols based on trust models before actually deploying the protocol into the network.

  16. Trust Building Mechanisms for Electronic Business Networks and Their Relation to eSkills

    OpenAIRE

    Radoslav Delina; Michal Tkáč

    2010-01-01

    Globalization, supported by information and communication technologies, changes the rules of competitiveness and increases the significance of information, knowledge and network cooperation. In line with this trend, the need for efficient trust-building tools has emerged. The absence of trust building mechanisms and strategies was identified within several studies. Through trust development, participation on e-business network and usage of network services will increase a...

  17. From Subjective Trust to Objective Trustworthiness in On-line Social Networks: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zejda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays dozens of people share their content in the current Web 2.0 space, talk with friends in social networking sites such as Facebook and live on the Net in many other ways. They do all this quite naturally, forgetting the healthy cautiousness sometimes. In real life we rely on trusted people. Do we know how to reflect real-world trust mechanisms into on-line social software? In the article we focused to bring overview on state of the art in main ideas behind a trust processing in online social networking systems. What are common sources of subjective trust, how the trust emerges and what are the sources of trust dynamics? How can be trust captured into the systems, how can be explicit trust processed to infer indirect trust, the trust between users who do not know each other? And what are the ways to infer objective metrics of trust, the reputation or trustworthiness? Finally, we point out selected challenges related to the trust in current highly dynamic social networks.

  18. Social Network Analysis: a practical measurement and evaluation of Trust in a classroom environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giandini, Roxana Silvia; Kuz, Antonieta

    2012-01-01

    A social network is formed by a set of actors and the relationships established by them. SNA leads to distinct goals and perspectives of social network analysis and computer science. This paper introduces the study of social networks and their relationship with trust. We study the methods of detection and description of structural properties. This covers the concepts, methods and data analysis techniques of social networks analysis. After that, we introduce the concept of trust and its relati...

  19. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bentham, R

    2016-01-01

    Rachel Bentham's 'Let All Tongues Flower' won her many new admirers for its 'openness to form' and 'strong yet subtle feminine sensibility'. It was also a Top 3 selling book on Amazon Kindle Women's Poetry. Here, in her new book 'Trust', she shows she is equally at home with the increasingly popular haiku form - using both classic 5-7-5 and free form haiku, she gives us more treasured and crafted glimpses into her 'unhindered and mostly joyful life'.

  20. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Carro, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Il lavoro eseguito ha per oggetto il trust, istituto, come noto, estraneo alla nostra cultura giuridica, tipico dei sistemi di common law, riconosciuto e regolato dalla Convenzione dell’ Aja, firmata il 1°luglio 1985, ratificata in Italia con L. 16 ottobre 1989, n. 364, ed entrata in vigore il 1° giugno 1992. La ricerca svolta ha, in primo luogo, esaminato la fattispecie, con un approccio comparatistico, analizzando, nella prima parte, il contenuto e la controversa natura giuridica della c...

  1. A context-sensitive trust model for online social networking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Danny, MN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of privacy attacks. In the quest to address this problem, this paper proposes a context-sensitive trust model. The proposed trust model was designed using fuzzy logic theory and implemented using MATLAB. Contrary to existing trust models, the context...

  2. A Cloud Theory-Based Trust Computing Model in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to develop a trust management model and then to efficiently control and manage nodes is an important issue in the scope of social network security. In this paper, a trust management model based on a cloud model is proposed. The cloud model uses a specific computation operator to achieve the transformation from qualitative concepts to quantitative computation. Additionally, this can also be used to effectively express the fuzziness, randomness and the relationship between them of the subjective trust. The node trust is divided into reputation trust and transaction trust. In addition, evaluation methods are designed, respectively. Firstly, the two-dimension trust cloud evaluation model is designed based on node’s comprehensive and trading experience to determine the reputation trust. The expected value reflects the average trust status of nodes. Then, entropy and hyper-entropy are used to describe the uncertainty of trust. Secondly, the calculation methods of the proposed direct transaction trust and the recommendation transaction trust involve comprehensively computation of the transaction trust of each node. Then, the choosing strategies were designed for node to trade based on trust cloud. Finally, the results of a simulation experiment in P2P network file sharing on an experimental platform directly reflect the objectivity, accuracy and robustness of the proposed model, and could also effectively identify the malicious or unreliable service nodes in the system. In addition, this can be used to promote the service reliability of the nodes with high credibility, by which the stability of the whole network is improved.

  3. The transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks: disruption, reconstruction, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Yu. Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety issues in China have received much scholarly attention, yet few studies systematically examined this matter through the lens of trust. More importantly, little is known about the transformation of different types of trust in the dynamic process of food production, provision, and consumption. We consider trust as an evolving interdependent relationship between different actors. We used the Beijing County Fair, a prominent ecological farmers' market in China, as an example to examine the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. We argue that although there has been a disruption of institutional trust among the general public since 2008 when the melamine-tainted milk scandal broke out, reconstruction of individual trust and development of organizational trust have been observed, along with the emergence and increasing popularity of alternative food networks. Based on more than six months of fieldwork on the emerging ecological agriculture sector in 13 provinces across China as well as monitoring of online discussions and posts, we analyze how various social factors - including but not limited to direct and indirect reciprocity, information, endogenous institutions, and altruism - have simultaneously contributed to the transformation of trust in China's alternative food networks. The findings not only complement current social theories of trust, but also highlight an important yet understudied phenomenon whereby informal social mechanisms have been partially substituting for formal institutions and gradually have been building trust against the backdrop of the food safety crisis in China.

  4. Key Exchange Trust Evaluation in Peer-to-Peer Sensor Networks With Unconditionally Secure Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    As the utilization of sensor networks continue to increase, the importance of security becomes more profound. Many industries depend on sensor networks for critical tasks, and a malicious entity can potentially cause catastrophic damage. We propose a new key exchange trust evaluation for peer-to-peer sensor networks, where part of the network has unconditionally secure key exchange. For a given sensor, the higher the portion of channels with unconditionally secure key exchange the higher the trust value. We give a brief introduction to unconditionally secured key exchange concepts and mention current trust measures in sensor networks. We demonstrate the new key exchange trust measure on a hypothetical sensor network using both wired and wireless communication channels.

  5. Trust and Its Impact on Cooperation in Alliance Networks:Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz SROKA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At present we can observe the increasing role of cooperation among companies all around the world. Cooperation includes many forms, such as alliances, joint ventures, networks, clusters, outsourcing and others. Trust is one of the most important factors of success of any cooperation activity, because it can lower transaction costs, increase productivity and innovativeness, facilitate inter-organizational relationships and resolve conflicts. Therefore the paper discusses the basic problems of trust in alliance networks. The text consists of theoretical deliberations devoted to alliance networks and trust. The practical case of the company from machine industry that formed a portfolio of alliances based on trust is also an important part of the text. The conclusion of the paper is that portfolio of alliances based on trust is worth pursuing.

  6. Networking for conservation: social capital and perceptions of organizational success among land trust boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana B. Ruseva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important component in collaborative natural resource management and nonprofit governance, social capital is expected to be related to variations in the performance of land trusts. Land trusts are charitable organizations that work to conserve private land locally, regionally, or nationally. The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of structural and cognitive social capital among local land trusts, and how these two types of social capital relate to the perceived success of land trusts. The analysis integrates data for land trusts operating in the U.S. south-central Appalachian region, which includes western North Carolina, southwest Virginia, and east Tennessee. We use factor analysis to elicit different dimensions of cognitive social capital, including cooperation among board members, shared values, common norms, and communication effectiveness. Measures of structural social capital include the size and diversity of organizational networks of both land trusts and their board members. Finally, a hierarchical linear regression model is employed to estimate how cognitive and structural social capital measures, along with other organizational and individual-level attributes, relate to perceptions of land trust success, defined here as achievement of the land trusts' mission, conservation, and financial goals. Results show that the diversity of organizational partnerships, cooperation, and shared values among land trust board members are associated with higher levels of perceived success. Organizational capacity, land trust accreditation, volunteerism, and financial support are also important factors influencing perceptions of success among local, nonprofit land trusts.

  7. The Carbon Trust and DTI Renewables network impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Mott

    2005-11-15

    The study's key objectives, as set by the Renewables Advisory Board, the Carbon Trust and DTI, are as follows: To undertake a forward renewables capacity mapping exercise derived from the generation companies' investment plans to 2010, and if the capacity mapping exercise indicates that the planned level of activity is unlikely to meet the 2010 target, to devise and consider a small number of scenarios whereby the 10% target could be achieved; To determine how the transmission and distribution networks need to evolve to enable the Government's 2010 target of 10% of electricity supplied from renewable sources and the aspiration to double that percentage; To investigate the network issues regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation and the characterisation of renewable generation with regard to grid code compliance; To provide insights into the actions and the stepping stones required between now and 2020 for the key decisions and investments relating to the transformation of the transmission and distribution network, and those issues likely to affect the rate of progress toward the targets. The study also analyses whether there are potential network impacts on renewables expansion from a simultaneous expansion of the UK's CHP capacity to meet the Government target of 10GW of CHP by 2010. The study (which was largely completed ahead of the Government's announcement on extension of the Renewables Obligation Order to 2015, and the raising of the renewables target to 15% of electricity sales by 2015) has found that based on business plans, developers can meet about 72% of the 2010 target by 20061. The Government's announcement has been welcomed by the renewables community and is expected to give added confidence to developers and investors that the Government is intent on creating a long term stable regime to incentivise investment in renewable energy technologies. However, in parallel with tackling what was a decline in

  8. Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Minyou; Perc, Matjaž; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2013-10-01

    We study the impact of adaptive degrees of trust on the evolution of cooperation in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game. In addition to the strategies, links between players are also subject to evolution. Starting with a scale-free interaction network, players adjust trust towards their neighbors based on received payoffs. The latter governs the strategy adoption process, while trust governs the rewiring of links. As soon as the degree of trust towards a neighbor drops to zero, the link is rewired to another randomly chosen player within the network. We find that for small temptations to defect cooperators always dominate, while for intermediate and strong temptations a single quantum strategy is able to outperform all other strategies. In general, reciprocal trust remains within close relationships and favors the dominance of a single strategy. Due to coevolution, the power-law degree distributions transform to Poisson distributions.

  9. User-friendly Establishment of Trust in Distributed Home Automation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg Hjorth, Theis; Torbensen, Rune; Madsen, Per Printz

    2014-01-01

    Current wireless technologies use a variety of methods to locally exchange and verify credentials between devices to establish trusted relationships. Scenarios in home automation networks also require this capability over the Internet, but the necessary involvement of non-expert users to setup...... these relationships can lead to misconfiguration or breaches of security. We outline a security system for Home Automation called Trusted Domain that can establish and maintain cryptographically secure relationships between devices connected via IP-based networks and the Internet. Trust establishment is presented...

  10. Exploring the Combination of Dempster-Shafer Theory and Neural Network for Predicting Trust and Distrust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In social media, trust and distrust among users are important factors in helping users make decisions, dissect information, and receive recommendations. However, the sparsity and imbalance of social relations bring great difficulties and challenges in predicting trust and distrust. Meanwhile, there are numerous inducing factors to determine trust and distrust relations. The relationship among inducing factors may be dependency, independence, and conflicting. Dempster-Shafer theory and neural network are effective and efficient strategies to deal with these difficulties and challenges. In this paper, we study trust and distrust prediction based on the combination of Dempster-Shafer theory and neural network. We firstly analyze the inducing factors about trust and distrust, namely, homophily, status theory, and emotion tendency. Then, we quantify inducing factors of trust and distrust, take these features as evidences, and construct evidence prototype as input nodes of multilayer neural network. Finally, we propose a framework of predicting trust and distrust which uses multilayer neural network to model the implementing process of Dempster-Shafer theory in different hidden layers, aiming to overcome the disadvantage of Dempster-Shafer theory without optimization method. Experimental results on a real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  11. Modeling cascading failures with the crisis of trust in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Bao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Jingchi; Xue, Yibo

    2015-10-01

    In social networks, some friends often post or disseminate malicious information, such as advertising messages, informal overseas purchasing messages, illegal messages, or rumors. Too much malicious information may cause a feeling of intense annoyance. When the feeling exceeds a certain threshold, it will lead social network users to distrust these friends, which we call the crisis of trust. The crisis of trust in social networks has already become a universal concern and an urgent unsolved problem. As a result of the crisis of trust, users will cut off their relationships with some of their untrustworthy friends. Once a few of these relationships are made unavailable, it is likely that other friends will decline trust, and a large portion of the social network will be influenced. The phenomenon in which the unavailability of a few relationships will trigger the failure of successive relationships is known as cascading failure dynamics. To our best knowledge, no one has formally proposed cascading failures dynamics with the crisis of trust in social networks. In this paper, we address this potential issue, quantify the trust between two users based on user similarity, and model the minimum tolerance with a nonlinear equation. Furthermore, we construct the processes of cascading failures dynamics by considering the unique features of social networks. Based on real social network datasets (Sina Weibo, Facebook and Twitter), we adopt two attack strategies (the highest trust attack (HT) and the lowest trust attack (LT)) to evaluate the proposed dynamics and to further analyze the changes of the topology, connectivity, cascading time and cascade effect under the above attacks. We numerically find that the sparse and inhomogeneous network structure in our cascading model can better improve the robustness of social networks than the dense and homogeneous structure. However, the network structure that seems like ripples is more vulnerable than the other two network

  12. A Protocol Layer Trust-Based Intrusion Detection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. Unlike existing work, the trust value of a sensor node is evaluated according to the deviations of key parameters at each protocol layer considering the attacks initiated at different protocol layers will inevitably have impacts on the parameters of the corresponding protocol layers. For simplicity, the paper mainly considers three aspects of trustworthiness, namely physical layer trust, media access control layer trust and network layer trust. The per-layer trust metrics are then combined to determine the overall trust metric of a sensor node. The performance of the proposed intrusion detection mechanism is then analyzed using the t-distribution to derive analytical results of false positive and false negative probabilities. Numerical analytical results, validated by simulation results, are presented in different attack scenarios. It is shown that the proposed protocol layer trust-based intrusion detection scheme outperforms a state-of-the-art scheme in terms of detection probability and false probability, demonstrating its usefulness for detecting cross-layer attacks.

  13. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Liu

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks.

  14. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks.

  15. A Sentiment Delivering Estimate Scheme Based on Trust Chain in Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available User sentiment analysis has become a flourishing frontier in data mining mobile social network platform since the mobile social network plays a significant role in users’ daily communication and sentiment interaction. This study studies the scheme of sentiment estimate by using the users’ trustworthy relationships for evaluating sentiment delivering. First, we address an overview of sentiment delivering estimate scheme and propose its related definitions, that is, trust chain among users, sentiment semantics, and sentiment ontology. Second, this study proposes the trust chain model and its evaluation method, which is composed of evaluation of atomic, serial, parallel, and combined trust chains. Then, we propose sentiment modeling method by presenting its modeling rules. Further, we propose the sentiment delivering estimate scheme from two aspects: explicit and implicit sentiment delivering estimate schemes, based on trust chain and sentiment modeling method. Finally, examinations and results are given to further explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  16. Trust, Privacy, and Frame Problems in Social and Business E-Networks, Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Buechner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Privacy issues in social and business e-networks are daunting in complexity—private information about oneself might be routed through countless artificial agents. For each such agent, in that context, two questions about trust are raised: Where an agent must access (or store personal information, can one trust that artificial agent with that information and, where an agent does not need to either access or store personal information, can one trust that agent not to either access or store that information? It would be an infeasible task for any human being to explicitly determine, for each artificial agent, whether it can be trusted. That is, no human being has the computational resources to make such an explicit determination. There is a well-known class of problems in the artificial intelligence literature, known as frame problems, where explicit solutions to them are computationally infeasible. Human common sense reasoning solves frame problems, though the mechanisms employed are largely unknown. I will argue that the trust relation between two agents (human or artificial functions, in some respects, is a frame problem solution. That is, a problem is solved without the need for a computationally infeasible explicit solution. This is an aspect of the trust relation that has remained unexplored in the literature. Moreover, there is a formal, iterative structure to agent-agent trust interactions that serves to establish the trust relation non-circularly, to reinforce it, and to “bootstrap” its strength.

  17. Trust and Control Dynamics in Agrifood Supply Networks: Communication Strategies for Electronic Transaction Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Melanie; Hausen, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Agrifood supply networks are dynamic structures where firms regularly face the need to search for new market partners. A decision for a transaction with a new partner requires the existence of appropriate control and safeguard mechanisms as well as trust to overcome perceived risk and uncertainties. Electronic transaction environments offer new potentials for the identification of new transaction partners. However, trust and control need to be communicated appropriately in electronic transact...

  18. On Deep Learning for Trust-Aware Recommendations in Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Xu, Guandong; Wu, Xindong; Wu, Zhaohui

    2017-05-01

    With the emergence of online social networks, the social network-based recommendation approach is popularly used. The major benefit of this approach is the ability of dealing with the problems with cold-start users. In addition to social networks, user trust information also plays an important role to obtain reliable recommendations. Although matrix factorization (MF) becomes dominant in recommender systems, the recommendation largely relies on the initialization of the user and item latent feature vectors. Aiming at addressing these challenges, we develop a novel trust-based approach for recommendation in social networks. In particular, we attempt to leverage deep learning to determinate the initialization in MF for trust-aware social recommendations and to differentiate the community effect in user's trusted friendships. A two-phase recommendation process is proposed to utilize deep learning in initialization and to synthesize the users' interests and their trusted friends' interests together with the impact of community effect for recommendations. We perform extensive experiments on real-world social network data to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our proposed approach in comparison with other state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Inferring Trust Relationships in Web-Based Social Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The growth of web-based social networking and the properties of those networks have created great potential for producing intelligent software that integrates a user's social network and preferences...

  20. Representing Network Trust and Using It to Improve Anonymous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    identified by that behavior . References 1. Augustin, B., Krishnamurthy, B., Willinger, W.: IXPs: Mapped? In: Internet Mea- surement Conference ( IMC ’09...empty attributes (e.g., labeling countries by their larger geographic region). The user’s beliefs may incorporate boolean predicates that are evaluated on...and behaviors are. The most useful information about Tor relays for setting a default level of trust is probably relay longevity. Running a relay in

  1. The Trust-Committment-Flexibility Link in Transnational Buyer-Supplier Relationships: A Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the manner in which trust and commitment impact relationship flexibility in a transnational buyer-supplier network context. There is an abundance of research on trust and commitment related to buyer-supplier relationships in the marketing literature; however, their link to relationship flexibility in particular has not attracted much attention within the marketing field to date. Whereas the marketing literature tends to focus on traditional performance outcomes in buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. financial performance, satisfaction, loyalty, the supply chain management literature emphasizes the importance of flexibility as fundamental characteristics of well-performing supply networks. In this paper, a novel network analysis approach is employed for the marketing literature to analyze the link between trust, commitment and relationship flexibility. The analyzed network is a two-mode, egocentric and valued network, consisting of 11 purchasing managers and 53 suppliers connected to a transnational company in the steel construction industry with headquarters in Slovenia. To analyze the impact of trust and commitment on buyer-supplier relationship flexibility, a Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP approach was used. Results show that trust and commitment are not just important determinants of buyer-supplier relationship flexibility in a network context, but also how their impact on relationship flexibility changes depending on the importance of the buyer-supplier relationship. In high importance relationships trust is the overwhelming determinant of relationship flexibility, while in low importance relationships commitment is a more important determinant of relationship flexibility.

  2. Mutual trust method for forwarding information in wireless sensor networks using random secret pre-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsueh Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensing information must be transmitted from sensor nodes to the base station by multiple hopping. Every sensor node is a sender and a relay node that forwards the sensing information that is sent by other nodes. Under an attack, the sensing information may be intercepted, modified, interrupted, or fabricated during transmission. Accordingly, the development of mutual trust to enable a secure path to be established for forwarding information is an important issue. Random key pre-distribution has been proposed to establish mutual trust among sensor nodes. This article modifies the random key pre-distribution to a random secret pre-distribution and incorporates identity-based cryptography to establish an effective method of establishing mutual trust for a wireless sensor network. In the proposed method, base station assigns an identity and embeds n secrets into the private secret keys for every sensor node. Based on the identity and private secret keys, the mutual trust method is utilized to explore the types of trust among neighboring sensor nodes. The novel method can resist malicious attacks and satisfy the requirements of wireless sensor network, which are resistance to compromising attacks, masquerading attacks, forger attacks, replying attacks, authentication of forwarding messages, and security of sensing information.

  3. A survey of trust, control and information in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    This paper focuses on which characteristics managers take into account when they choose and evaluate business partners, and the interrelationship between the constructs trust, control and information. The paper is based on a survey which includes 101 small and middle-sized manufacturing companies...... and information is found. The findings indicate that the three constructs are relevant, and the level of embeddedness is found to influence both the absolute and the relative importance of the three constructs, and thereby the role of management accounting at different development stages of relationships....

  4. User-friendly establishment of trust in distributed home automation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Madsen, Per Printz; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Current wireless technologies use a variety of methods to locally exchange and verify credentials between devices to establish trusted relationships. Scenarios in home automation networks also require this capability over the Internet, but the necessary involvement of non-expert users to setup...... these relationships can lead to misconfiguration or breaches of security. We outline a security system for Home Automation called Trusted Domain that can establish and maintain cryptographically secure relationships between devices connected via IP-based networks and the Internet. Trust establishment is presented...... of predefined pictograms. This method is designed to scale from smart-phones and tablets down to low-resource embedded systems. The presented approach is supported by an extensive literature study, and the ease of use and feasibility of the method has been indicated through a preliminary user study...

  5. Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. Version 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    for Secure Computer Systema, MTR-3153, The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA, June 1975. 1 See, for example, M. D. Abrams and H. J. Podell , Tutorial...References References Abrams, M. D. and H. J. Podell , Tutorial: Computer and Network Security, IEEE Com- puter Society Press, 1987. Addendum to the

  6. The primacy of trust in the social networks and livelihoods of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The women valued long-term relationships with over 70% of the business ... of building trust while expanding “who you know” networks to create social and economic capital in ...

  7. Cambodian Parental Involvement: The Role of Parental Beliefs, Social Networks, and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Mulsow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The role of social capital (parental beliefs, social networks, and trust) as a predictor of parental involvement in Cambodian children's education was examined, controlling for human capital (family socioeconomic status). Parents of elementary students (n = 273) were interviewed face to face in Cambodia. Teacher contact scored highest, followed by…

  8. Concept for trusted personal devices in a mobile and networked environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormann, Frank C.; Manteau, Laurent; Linke, Andreas; Pailles, Jean C.; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a concept for Trusted Personal Devices, which are intended to be the common platform for the next generation of Smart Cards and other secure devices in mobile and networked environments. The concept is based on a classification of technical profiles for different potential

  9. Secure grid-based computing with social-network based trust management in the semantic web

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špánek, Roman; Tůma, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2006), s. 475-488 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA MŠk 1M0554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic web * grid computing * trust management * reconfigurable networks * security * hypergraph model * hypergraph algorithms Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  11. Trust in social computing. The case of peer-to-peer file sharing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Social computing and online communities are changing the fundamental way people share information and communicate with each other. Social computing focuses on how users may have more autonomy to express their ideas and participate in social exchanges in various ways, one of which may be peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing. Given the greater risk of opportunistic behavior by malicious or criminal communities in P2P networks, it is crucial to understand the factors that affect individual’s use of P2P file sharing software. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a research model that includes trust beliefs and perceived risks as two major antecedent beliefs to the usage intention. Six trust antecedents are assessed including knowledge-based trust, cognitive trust, and both organizational and peer-network factors of institutional trust. Our preliminary results show general support for the model and offer some important implications for software vendors in P2P sharing industry and regulatory bodies.

  12. The Role of Trust in Costly Network Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Sarangi, S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider game theoretic models of social network formation.In this paper we limit our investigation to game theoretic models of network formation that are based on individual actions only.Our approach is based on three simple and realistic principles: (1) Link formation is a binary process of

  13. Feedback Models for Collaboration and Trust in Crisis Response Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudgens, Bryan J; Bordetsky, Alex

    2008-01-01

    .... Coordination within disaster response networks is difficult for several reasons, including the chaotic nature of the crisis, a need for the various organizations to balance shared goals (crisis amelioration...

  14. Energy service companies in China. The role of social networks and trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia [Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). East-West Centre of Business Studies and Cultural Science; Shin, Kyoung [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Political Sciences

    2011-06-15

    China's energy-service companies (ESCOs) have developed only modestly despite favorable political and market conditions. We argue that with sophisticated market institutions still evolving in China, trust-based relations between ESCOs and energy customers are essential for successful implementation of energy efficiency projects. Chinese ESCOs, who are predominantly small and private enterprises, perform poorly in terms of trust-building because they are disembedded from local business, social, and political networks. We conclude that in the current institutional setting, the ESCO model based on market relations has serious limitations and is unlikely to lead to large-scale implementation of energy efficiency projects in China. (orig.)

  15. Towards Effective Trust-Based Packet Filtering in Collaborative Network Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Kwok, Lam-For

    2017-01-01

    compromised by insider attacks. In this paper, we adopt the existing CIDN framework and aim to apply a collaborative trust-based approach to reduce unwanted packets. More specifically, we develop a collaborative trust-based packet filter, which can be deployed in collaborative networks and be robust against...... typical insider attacks (e.g., betrayal attacks). Experimental results in various simulated and practical environments demonstrate that our filter can perform effectively in reducing unwanted traffic and can defend against insider attacks through identifying malicious nodes in a quick manner, as compared...

  16. A Distributed Energy-Aware Trust Management System for Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelios, Yannis; Papayanoulas, Nikos; Trakadas, Panagiotis; Maniatis, Sotiris; Leligou, Helen C.; Zahariadis, Theodore

    Wireless sensor networks are inherently vulnerable to security attacks, due to their wireless operation. The situation is further aggravated because they operate in an infrastructure-less environment, which mandates the cooperation among nodes for all networking tasks, including routing, i.e. all nodes act as “routers”, forwarding the packets generated by their neighbours in their way to the sink node. This implies that malicious nodes (denying their cooperation) can significantly affect the network operation. Trust management schemes provide a powerful tool for the detection of unexpected node behaviours (either faulty or malicious). Once misbehaving nodes are detected, their neighbours can use this information to avoid cooperating with them either for data forwarding, data aggregation or any other cooperative function. We propose a secure routing solution based on a novel distributed trust management system, which allows for fast detection of a wide set of attacks and also incorporates energy awareness.

  17. Applying Trusted Network Technology To Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhravi, Hamed; Nicol, David

    Interconnections between process control networks and enterprise networks expose instrumentation and control systems and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Several architectural standards and security best practices have been proposed for industrial control systems. However, they are based on older architectures and do not leverage the latest hardware and software technologies. This paper describes new technologies that can be applied to the design of next generation security architectures for industrial control systems. The technologies are discussed along with their security benefits and design trade-offs.

  18. Questions of trust in health research on social capital: what aspects of personal network social capital do they measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Electronic Trust on Purchase Intentions in Online Social Review Networks: The Case of Tripadvisor.com

    OpenAIRE

    Öztüren, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the effects of trust beliefs on purchase intentions of trip planners within the context of online social review network by analyzing dimensions of e-trust and effects on purchase intentions. With the intention to test these effects a survey was executed and the data collected from 320 participants. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the hypotheses related to the factors affecting the overall electronic trust level and purchas...

  20. B-iTRS: A Bio-Inspired Trusted Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In WSNs, routing algorithms need to handle dynamical changes of network topology, extra overhead, energy saving, and other requirements. Therefore, routing in WSNs is an extremely interesting and challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel bio-inspired trusted routing scheme (B-iTRS based on ant colony optimization (ACO and Physarum autonomic optimization (PAO. For trust assessment, B-iTRS monitors neighbors’ behavior in real time, receives feedback from Sink, and then assesses neighbors’ trusts based on the acquired information. For routing scheme, each node finds routes to the Sink based on ACO and PAO. In the process of path finding, B-iTRS senses the load and trust value of each node and then calculates the link load and link trust of the found routes to support the route selection. Moreover, B-iTRS also assesses the route based on PAO to maintain the route table. Simulation results show how B-iTRS can achieve the effective performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  1. A Trust Evaluation Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Node Behaviors and D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwen Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless sensor networks (WSNs, many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that ‘hard to acquire and easy to lose’. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.

  2. A trust evaluation algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on node behaviors and D-S evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Renjian; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiang; Wan, Jiangwen

    2011-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm) is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that 'hard to acquire and easy to lose'. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.

  3. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  4. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  5. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  6. Social networks and health among older adults in Lebanon: the mediating role of support and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one's network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  8. Expert Game experiment predicts emergence of trust in professional communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Uekermann, Florian; Haerter, Jan O

    2016-10-25

    Strong social capital is increasingly recognized as an organizational advantage. Better knowledge sharing and reduced transaction costs increase work efficiency. To mimic the formation of the associated communication network, we propose the Expert Game, where each individual must find a specific expert and receive her help. Participants act in an impersonal environment and under time constraints that provide short-term incentives for noncooperative behavior. Despite these constraints, we observe cooperation between individuals and the self-organization of a sustained trust network, which facilitates efficient communication channels with increased information flow. We build a behavioral model that explains the experimental dynamics. Analysis of the model reveals an exploitation protection mechanism and measurable social capital, which quantitatively describe the economic utility of trust.

  9. Trust-Based Information Risk Management in a Supply Chain Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yanjun Zuo; Wen-Chen Hu

    2009-01-01

    Information risk management is crucial for an organization operating in an increasingly integrated and intensively communicated environment to mitigate risks and ensure core business functions. Given the open and dynamic nature of a supply chain network, information risk management is challenging and various factors must be considered. This article introduces a trust-based approach to facilitate supply chain participants to perform effective risk management. The major components of the propos...

  10. Trust Threshold Based Public Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    detection 49 [6,7] , authentication, access control, key management, iso- 50 lating misbehaving nodes for effective routing [6,8,9] , and 51 many other...83 84 85 aims to achieve: (a) resiliency against misbehaving nodes 86 in the network to maintain minimum security vulnerabil- 87 ity; (b...neighbor will decreas the misbehaving node’s direct competence trust. Fur thermore, this neighbor when acting as a recommended public key management in

  11. Zero Trust Cloud Networks using Transport Access Control and High Availability Optical Bypass Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimer DeCusatis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyberinfrastructure is undergoing a radical transformation as traditional enterprise and cloud computing environments hosting dynamic, mobile workloads replace telecommunication data centers. Traditional data center security best practices involving network segmentation are not well suited to these new environments. We discuss a novel network architecture, which enables an explicit zero trust approach, based on a steganographic overlay, which embeds authentication tokens in the TCP packet request, and first-packet authentication. Experimental demonstration of this approach is provided in both an enterprise-class server and cloud computing data center environment.

  12. Secure Trust Based Key Management Routing Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugminder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is always a major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Several trust based routing protocols are designed that play an important role in enhancing the performance of a wireless network. However they still have some disadvantages like limited energy resources, susceptibility to physical capture, and little protection against various attacks due to insecure wireless communication channels. This paper presents a secure trust based key management (STKF routing framework that establishes a secure trustworthy route depending upon the present and past node to node interactions. This route is then updated by isolating the malicious or compromised nodes from the route, if any, and a dedicated link is created between every pair of nodes in the selected route with the help of “q” composite random key predistribution scheme (RKPS to ensure data delivery from source to destination. The performance of trust aware secure routing framework (TSRF is compared with the proposed routing scheme. The results indicate that STKF provides an effective mechanism for finding out a secure route with better trustworthiness than TSRF which avoids the data dropping, thereby increasing the data delivery ratio. Also the distance required to reach the destination in the proposed protocol is less hence effectively utilizing the resources.

  13. Towards Assisted Moderation in Online Healthcare Social Networks: Improving Trust in YouTube Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon, Daniel E; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Moderation of content in online Health Social Networks (HSN) is critical because information is not only published and produced by experts or health professionals, but also by users of that information. The objective of this paper is to propose a semi-automatic moderation Web Service for assessing the quality (trustworthiness) of health-related videos published on the YouTube social network. The service is relevant for moderators or community managers, who get enabled to control the quality of videos published on their online HSN sites. The HealthTrust metric was selected as the metric to be implemented in the service in order to support the assessment of trustworthiness of videos in Online HSN. The service is a RESTful service which can be integrated into open source Virtual Social Network Platforms, therefore improving trust in the process of searching and publishing content extracted from YouTube. A preliminary pilot evaluation in a simple use case demonstrated that the relevance of videos retrieved using the moderation service was higher compared to the relevance of the videos retrieved using the YouTube search engine.

  14. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  15. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungsoo Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information.

  16. Channel Selection Based on Trust and Multiarmed Bandit in Multiuser, Multichannel Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanzi Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a channel selection scheme for the multiuser, multichannel cognitive radio networks. This scheme formulates the channel selection as the multiarmed bandit problem, where cognitive radio users are compared to the players and channels to the arms. By simulation negotiation we can achieve the potential reward on each channel after it is selected for transmission; then the channel with the maximum accumulated rewards is formally chosen. To further improve the performance, the trust model is proposed and combined with multi-armed bandit to address the channel selection problem. Simulation results validate the proposed scheme.

  17. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  18. Network strength, transaction-specific investments, inter-personal trust, and relationship satisfaction in Chinese agrifood SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of network strength, transaction-specific investments and inter-personal trust on business relationship satisfaction for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in agri-food processing and exporting in China.

  19. Identifying the Effective Factors in Making Trust in Online Social Networks on the perspective of Iranian experts Using Fuzzy ELECTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haghighi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available this paper attempts to rank the effective factors in making trust in social networks to provide the possibility of attracting and increasing users’ trust on these social networks for providers and designers of online social networks. Identifying the effective factors in making trust in social networks is a multi-criteria decision making problem and most of effective factors are ambiguous and uncertain, thereby this article uses Fuzzy ELECTRE to rank them. By implementing Fuzzy ELECTRE on gathered data, respectively «usability factor», «supporting up to date technology factor», «integrity» and «the rate of ethics factor» are on the top of effective factors in making trust in users. In general, «web features» and «technology features» have a higher degree of importance than «security features», «individual-social features» and «cultural features». Ranking of Fuzzy ELECTRE comparison ranking of Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy ELECTRE method becomes validate because Spearman correlation coefficients is 0/867. Result of sensitivity analysis on changing weight of criteria shows that Fuzzy ELECTRE isn’t affected by ambiguity and uncertainty in inputs.

  20. Enhancing Network Data Obliviousness in Trusted Execution Environment-based Stream Processing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsibyani, Hassan M.

    2018-05-15

    Cloud computing usage is increasing and a common concern is the privacy and security of the data and computation. Third party cloud environments are not considered fit for processing private information because the data will be revealed to the cloud provider. However, Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs), such as Intel SGX, provide a way for applications to run privately and securely on untrusted platforms. Nonetheless, using a TEE by itself for stream processing systems is not sufficient since network communication patterns may leak properties of the data under processing. This work addresses leaky topology structures and suggests mitigation techniques for each of these. We create specific metrics to evaluate leaks occurring from the network patterns; the metrics measure information leaked when the stream processing system is running. We consider routing techniques for inter-stage communication in a streaming application to mitigate this data leakage. We consider a dynamic policy to change the mitigation technique depending on how much information is currently leaking. Additionally, we consider techniques to hide irregularities resulting from a filtering stage in a topology. We also consider leakages resulting from applications containing cycles. For each of the techniques, we explore their effectiveness in terms of the advantage they provide in overcoming the network leakage. The techniques are tested partly using simulations and some were implemented in a prototype SGX-based stream processing system.

  1. The Handicap Principle for Trust in Computer Security, the Semantic Web and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Krings, Axel W.; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    Communication is a fundamental function of life, and it exists in almost all living things: from single-cell bacteria to human beings. Communication, together with competition and cooperation,arethree fundamental processes in nature. Computer scientists are familiar with the study of competition or 'struggle for life' through Darwin's evolutionary theory, or even evolutionary computing. They may be equally familiar with the study of cooperation or altruism through the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. However, they are likely to be less familiar with the theory of animal communication. The objective of this article is three-fold: (i) To suggest that the study of animal communication, especially the honesty (reliability) of animal communication, in which some significant advances in behavioral biology have been achieved in the last three decades, should be on the verge to spawn important cross-disciplinary research similar to that generated by the study of cooperation with the PD game. One of the far-reaching advances in the field is marked by the publication of "The Handicap Principle: a Missing Piece of Darwin's Puzzle" by Zahavi (1997). The 'Handicap' principle [34][35], which states that communication signals must be costly in some proper way to be reliable (honest), is best elucidated with evolutionary games, e.g., Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) game [23]. Accordingly, we suggest that the Handicap principle may serve as a fundamental paradigm for trust research in computer science. (ii) To suggest to computer scientists that their expertise in modeling computer networks may help behavioral biologists in their study of the reliability of animal communication networks. This is largely due to the historical reason that, until the last decade, animal communication was studied with the dyadic paradigm (sender-receiver) rather than with the network paradigm. (iii) To pose several open questions, the answers to which may bear some refreshing insights to trust research in

  2. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  3. TANDEM: A Trust-Based Agent Framework for Networked Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-10

    selective (20–80 %), while the rest are good citizens, trust acts as a method to isolate misbehaving agents. If the majority of the agents have high...competence and low selectivity, then they can use trust to isolate route information around the misbehaving agents, improving Comm and Steps. The impact is...more dramatic when only 20–40 % of the agents are misbehaving . However, using trust results in reduced SA as the information available at the

  4. Trust Management V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    from 42 submissions. The papers feature both theoretical research and real-world case studies from academia, business and government focusing on areas such as: trust models, social and behavioral aspects of trust, trust in networks, mobile systems and cloud computation, privacy, reputation systems...

  5. Looking for Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    Trust and surveillance are often seen as opposites. Trust is regularly characterized as the glue that holds society together, while surveillance is seen as corrosive. However, in Scandinavia high levels of trust and surveillance coexist. It is therefore interesting to investigate...... if there is a connection between these phenomena and ask what is the role of trust in the spread of surveillance in Scandinavia? The aim of this paper is: 1) to investigate the role of trust in the history of the Danish DNA database and 2) to experiment with Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) as an ap-proach in studies of trust....

  6. Trusted Data Communication and Security Issues in Gnss Network of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakici, S.; Erkek, B.; Manti, V.; Altekin, A.

    2017-11-01

    There are three main activities of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. These are Mapping, Land Registry and Cadastre. Geomatic Department is responsible for mapping activities. The most important projects like TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr), Metadata Geoportal, Orthophoto Production and orthophoto web services and preparation of Turkish NSDI Feasibility Report have been conducted and completed by this department's specialists since 2005. TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr) System, serves location information at cm level accuracy in Turkey and TR Nortern Cyprus in few seconds, where adequate numbers of GNSS satellites are observed and communication possibilities are present. No ground control points and benchmarks are necessary. There are 146 permanent GNSS stations within the CORS-Tr System. Station data are transferred online to the main control center located in the Mapping Department of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre and to the control center located in the General Command of Mapping. Currently CORS-Tr has more than 9000 users. Most of them are private companies working for governmental organization. Providing data communication between control center and both GNSS station and users via trusted and good substructure is important. Additionally, protection of the system and data against cyber attacks from domestic and foreign sources is important. This paper focuses on data communication and security issues of GNSS network named TUSAGA-Aktif.

  7. TRUSTED DATA COMMUNICATION AND SECURITY ISSUES IN GNSS NETWORK OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are three main activities of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. These are Mapping, Land Registry and Cadastre. Geomatic Department is responsible for mapping activities. The most important projects like TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr, Metadata Geoportal, Orthophoto Production and orthophoto web services and preparation of Turkish NSDI Feasibility Report have been conducted and completed by this department’s specialists since 2005. TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr System, serves location information at cm level accuracy in Turkey and TR Nortern Cyprus in few seconds, where adequate numbers of GNSS satellites are observed and communication possibilities are present. No ground control points and benchmarks are necessary. There are 146 permanent GNSS stations within the CORS-Tr System. Station data are transferred online to the main control center located in the Mapping Department of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre and to the control center located in the General Command of Mapping. Currently CORS-Tr has more than 9000 users. Most of them are private companies working for governmental organization. Providing data communication between control center and both GNSS station and users via trusted and good substructure is important. Additionally, protection of the system and data against cyber attacks from domestic and foreign sources is important. This paper focuses on data communication and security issues of GNSS network named TUSAGA-Aktif.

  8. On structure-exploiting trust-region regularized nonlinear least squares algorithms for neural-network learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Eiji; Demmel, James W

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces our numerical linear algebra approaches for solving structured nonlinear least squares problems arising from 'multiple-output' neural-network (NN) models. Our algorithms feature trust-region regularization, and exploit sparsity of either the 'block-angular' residual Jacobian matrix or the 'block-arrow' Gauss-Newton Hessian (or Fisher information matrix in statistical sense) depending on problem scale so as to render a large class of NN-learning algorithms 'efficient' in both memory and operation costs. Using a relatively large real-world nonlinear regression application, we shall explain algorithmic strengths and weaknesses, analyzing simulation results obtained by both direct and iterative trust-region algorithms with two distinct NN models: 'multilayer perceptrons' (MLP) and 'complementary mixtures of MLP-experts' (or neuro-fuzzy modular networks).

  9. Relationship between trusting behaviors and psychometrics associated with social network and depression among young generation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Motoki; Kato, Takahiro A; Teo, Alan R; Horikawa, Hideki; Tateno, Masaru; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive social interaction and its related psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. In Japan, novel expressive forms of psychiatric phenomena such as "modern-type depression" and "hikikomori" (a syndrome of severe social withdrawal lasting for at least six months) have been reported especially among young people. Economic games such as the trust game have been utilized to evaluate real-world interpersonal relationships as a novel candidate for psychiatric evaluations. To investigate the relationship between trusting behaviors and various psychometric scales, we conducted a trust game experiment with eighty-one Japanese university students as a pilot study. Participants made a risky financial decision about whether to trust each of 40 photographed partners. Participants then answered a set of questionnaires with seven scales including the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS)-6 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Consistent with previous research, male participants trusted partners more than female participants. Regression analysis revealed that LSNS-family (perceived support from family) for male participants, and item 8 of PHQ-9 (subjective agitation and/or retardation) for female participants were associated with participants' trusting behaviors. Consistent with claims by social scientists, our data suggest that, for males, support from family was negatively associated with cooperative behavior toward non-family members. Females with higher subjective agitation (and/or retardation) gave less money toward males and high attractive females, but not toward low attractive females in interpersonal relationships. We believe that our data indicate the possible impact of economic games in psychiatric research and clinical practice, and validation in clinical samples including modern-type depression and hikikomori should be investigated.

  10. Relationship between trusting behaviors and psychometrics associated with social network and depression among young generation: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Watabe

    Full Text Available Maladaptive social interaction and its related psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. In Japan, novel expressive forms of psychiatric phenomena such as "modern-type depression" and "hikikomori" (a syndrome of severe social withdrawal lasting for at least six months have been reported especially among young people. Economic games such as the trust game have been utilized to evaluate real-world interpersonal relationships as a novel candidate for psychiatric evaluations. To investigate the relationship between trusting behaviors and various psychometric scales, we conducted a trust game experiment with eighty-one Japanese university students as a pilot study. Participants made a risky financial decision about whether to trust each of 40 photographed partners. Participants then answered a set of questionnaires with seven scales including the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Consistent with previous research, male participants trusted partners more than female participants. Regression analysis revealed that LSNS-family (perceived support from family for male participants, and item 8 of PHQ-9 (subjective agitation and/or retardation for female participants were associated with participants' trusting behaviors. Consistent with claims by social scientists, our data suggest that, for males, support from family was negatively associated with cooperative behavior toward non-family members. Females with higher subjective agitation (and/or retardation gave less money toward males and high attractive females, but not toward low attractive females in interpersonal relationships. We believe that our data indicate the possible impact of economic games in psychiatric research and clinical practice, and validation in clinical samples including modern-type depression and hikikomori should be investigated.

  11. On Tradeoffs between Trust Accuracy and Resource Consumption in Communications and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    length, the use of indirect information to establish trust values, and the impact of misbehaving nodes on both communication overhead and the...evaluated). We consider the impact of misbehaving (selfish or malicious) nodes on the evaluation of trust. We also consider the interaction between

  12. A Fuzzy Collusive Attack Detection Mechanism for Reputation Aggregation in Mobile Social Networks: A Trust Relationship Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While the mechanism of reputation aggregation proves to be an effective scheme for indicating an individual’s trustworthiness and further identifying malicious ones in mobile social networks, it is vulnerable to collusive attacks from malicious nodes of collaborative frauds. To conquer the challenge of detecting collusive attacks and then identifying colluders for the reputation system in mobile social networks, a fuzzy collusive attack detection mechanism (FCADM is proposed based on nodes’ social relationships, which comprises three parts: trust schedule, malicious node selection, and detection traversing strategy. In the first part, the trust schedule provides the calculation method of interval valued fuzzy social relationships and reputation aggregation for nodes in mobile social networks; further, a set of fuzzy valued factors, that is, item judgment factor, node malicious factor, and node similar factor, is given for evaluating the probability of collusive fraud happening and identifying single malicious nodes in the second part; and moreover, a detection traversing strategy is given based on random walk algorithm under the perspectives of fuzzy valued nodes’ trust schedules and proposed malicious factors. Finally, our empirical results and analysis show that the proposed mechanism in this paper is feasible and effective.

  13. Data Fusion Based on Node Trust Evaluation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behavior detection and trust evaluation mode of traditional sensor node have a single function without considering all the factors, and the trust value algorithm is relatively complicated. To avoid these above disadvantages, a trust evaluation model based on the autonomous behavior of sensor node is proposed in this paper. Each sensor node has the monitoring privilege and obligation. Neighboring sensor nodes can monitor each other. Their direct and indirect trust values can be achieved by using a relatively simple calculation method, the synthesis trust value of which could be got according to the composition rule of D-S evidence theory. Firstly, the cluster head assigns different weighted value for the data from each sensor node, then the weight vector is set according to the synthesis trust value, the data fusion processing is executed, and finally the cluster head sensor node transmits the fused result to the base station. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the trust evaluation model can rapidly, exactly, and effectively recognize malicious sensor node and avoid malicious sensor node becoming cluster head sensor node. The proposed algorithm can greatly increase the safety and accuracy of data fusion, improve communication efficiency, save energy of sensor node, suit different application fields, and deploy environments.

  14. Government Agency and Trust in the Formation and Transformation of Interorganizational Entrepreneurial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the role of trust and government agency in the creation and evolution of interoganizational cooperation among entrepreneurial ventures in general and the influence of trust on development trajectories in particular. The multiple-case approach used draws on five in-depth case...... studies adopting a focal firm perspective. Trust is shown to play a critical role in the formation, maintenance and transformation of interorganizational cooperative relationships whereas its absence results in discontinuation. Moreover, the results suggest that government agency may unintentionally...

  15. Trust Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Bias Minimization and Application Performance Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    4 develops a novel model-based approach to de- scribe dynamic behaviors of nodes in MANETs in the pres- ence of misbehaving nodes with the objective...bile node to subjectively yet informatively assess the trust levels of other mobile nodes. Further, SQTrust is resilient against misbehaving nodes. Given...objective trust’’ despite the presence of misbehaving nodes. The desirable output is to achieve high accuracy in peer-to-peer subjective trust evaluation

  16. Information and Reputation in the 17th Century: Establishing Trust in the Social Networks of Portuguese Businessmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro SÁNCHEZ DURÁN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by diverse social and cultural practices in the establishment of interpersonal trust during the Early Modern period. Based on qualitative analysis of social interactions within the ego-centered networks of five Portuguese businessmen living in Madrid during the 17th Century, studied thanks to their epistolary correspondence. Letters allow historians to assess the role of the transmission of information and diverse cultural values in forging trust. Moreover, they also document the crucial importance of personal reputation as a form of subjective valuation of the aptitudes of economic actors, and how these assessments were produced thanks to epistolary interactions. Finally, attention is drawn to how reputations served as a means of selecting and recruiting agents.

  17. Extensive Investigations on Bio-Inspired Trust and Reputation Model over Hops Coefficient Factor in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization requires a substantial consideration for a trust and reputation model to be deployed within a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the evaluation, our attention is focused on the effect of hops coefficient factor estimation on WSN with bio-inspired trust and reputation model (BTRM. We present the state-of-the-art system level evaluation of accuracy and path length of sensor node operations for their current and average scenarios. Additionally, we emphasized over the energy consumption evaluation for static, dynamic and oscillatory modes of BTRM-WSN model. The performance of the hops coefficient factor for our proposed framework is evaluated via analytic bounds and numerical simulations.

  18. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  19. TB-CA: A hybrid method based on trust and context-aware for recommender system in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Keikha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems help users faced with the problem of information overflow and provide personalized recommendations. Social networks are used for providing variety of business or social activities, or sometimes a combination of both. In this paper, by considering social network of users and according to users’ context and items, a new method is introduced that is based on trust and context aware for recommender systems in social networks. The purpose of this paper is to create a recommender system which increases precision of predicted ratings for all users especially for cold start users. In the proposed method, walking on web of trust is done by neighbor users for finding rating of similar items and users’ preference is gotten of items’ context. The results show that suitable recommendation with user’s context is provided by using this method. Also, this system can increase precision of predicted rating for all users and cold starts too and however, do not decrease the rating’s coverage.

  20. Trust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dissertation of the University of Utrecht Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an

  1. Cross-Cultural Trust Networks and Advancing Education Equity in Place-Based Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Amber Joy

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that trust can be a foundational element for the success and sustainability of multi-organizational partnerships focused on advancing education equity in a particular neighborhood or region. As these place-based strategies gain popularity in the U.S., collaborators are increasingly required to navigate relationships where racial…

  2. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  3. The evolution of intra-organizational trust networks : The case of a German paper factory: An empirical test of six trust mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, Gerhard G. van der; Wittek, Rafael P. M.; Klepper, Maurits C. de

    Based on the distinction between expressive and instrumental motives, six theoretical mechanisms for the formation of trust relationships are elaborated and empirically tested. When expressive motives drive tie formation, individuals primarily attach emotional value to social relationships. Three

  4. Enhancing collaborative intrusion detection networks against insider attacks using supervised intrusion sensitivity-based trust management model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam-For

    2017-01-01

    To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which are utili......To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which...... are utilized by insider attacks (e.g., betrayal attacks). In our previous research, we developed a notion of intrusion sensitivity and identified that it can help improve the detection of insider attacks, whereas it is still a challenge for these nodes to automatically assign the values. In this article, we...... of intrusion sensitivity based on expert knowledge. In the evaluation, we compare the performance of three different supervised classifiers in assigning sensitivity values and investigate our trust model under different attack scenarios and in a real wireless sensor network. Experimental results indicate...

  5. Trust Trust Me (The Additivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Mano , Ken; Sakurada , Hideki; Tsukada , Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Trust Metrics; International audience; We present a mathematical formulation of a trust metric using a quality and quantity pair. Under a certain assumption, we regard trust as an additive value and define the soundness of a trust computation as not to exceed the total sum. Moreover, we point out the importance of not only soundness of each computed trust but also the stability of the trust computation procedure against changes in trust value assignment. In this setting, we define tru...

  6. The crumbling or strengthening of social capital? The economic crisis’ impact on social networks and interpersonal trust in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajdeja Iglič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is bringing uncertainty, change, worries and distress into the everyday lives of people, which has an effect on the level and form of social capital. The literature offers two opposing arguments regarding the impact of shocks and material uncertainty on social capital. The first one emphasises the instrumental nature of interpersonal relations and claims that the increased need for mutual help and support that arises during crisis periods strengthens social networks. In contrast, the second argument brings forward the problem of a social networks overload, which threatens to break them up during crises. More importantly, interpersonal dependence can lead to the closing off of social responsibility and solidarity into narrow family networks, thus reducing social capital among social groups and in society in general. In this paper, we empirically confront these two arguments in the context of the econo- mic crisis of 2008 in Slovenia. We compare the characteristics of social networks and interpersonal trust before the crisis with those measured several years after it began.

  7. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  8. Trust Management for Encounter-Based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-15

    8217 4 O-i 0.5 E 1.6 a 90% M 300 i / fc -vfc 0.8:0.2 « 2 1 IDS 6OO5 Oil (0, 2] mis D WS p/DS 0.5% Eo [12,24] hrs I/;.• [160,320 480] min. Below we...34 IEEE Infocom, Barcelona , Spain, Apr. 2006, pp. 1-11. [3] J.H. Cho, A. Swami and I.R. Chen, "Modeling and Analysis of Trust Management for Cognitive

  9. Trusted Spotter Network Austria - a new standard to utilize crowdsourced weather and impact observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennert, Thomas; Kaltenberger, Rainer; Pistotnik, Georg; Holzer, Alois M.; Zeiler, Franz; Stampfl, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Information from voluntary storm spotters has been an increasingly important part for the severe weather warning process at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie and Geodynamik (ZAMG), Austria's National Weather Service, for almost 15 years. In 2010 a collaboration was formalized and an annual training was established to educate voluntary observers into Trusted Spotters. The return of this investment is a higher credibility of their observations after these spotters have undergone a basic meteorological training and have become aware of their responsibility. The European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) was included to this collaboration to adopt their successful quality control system of severe weather reports, which is employed in the European Severe Weather Database ESWD. That way, reports from Trusted Spotters automatically obtain a higher quality flag, which enables a faster processing by forecasters on duty for severe weather warnings, when time is a critical issue. The concept of combining training for voluntary storm spotters and a thorough quality management was recognized as a Best Practice Model by the European Meteorological Society. We propose to apply this concept also in other European countries and present its advancement into an even broader, pan-European approach. The European Weather Observer app EWOB, recently released by ESSL, provides a novel and easy-to-handle tool to submit weather and respective impact observations. We promote its use to provide better data and information for a further real-time improvement of severe weather warnings.

  10. Coordinating collaborative joint efforts with suppliers: the effects of trust transaction specific investment and information network in the Dutch flower industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.; Oliveira Claro, de P.B.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: It is the aim of this paper to discuss the value of trust and the effects of transaction specific investments for the relative degree of collaborative joint efforts, and also to assess the moderating effect of the information network on such joint efforts. Design/methodology/approach: The

  11. Social Networking Sites: College Students' Patterns of Use and Concerns for Privacy and Trust by Gender, Ethnicity, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Blankson, Lydia; Iyer, Kamakshi S.; Subramanian, Lavanya

    2016-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are web-based facilities that allow for social interaction, sharing, communication and collaboration in today's world. In the current study, patterns of use of social media among students at a public Midwestern university are examined. In addition, students were surveyed regarding concerns for privacy and trust and…

  12. Trust and Exchange : Effects of TemporalTrust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an actor provide resources if the other actor

  13. Evaluating challenge-based trust mechanism in medical smartphone networks: an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Fei, Fei; Li, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are one of the widely adopted security tools in protecting computer networks, whereas it is still a big challenge for a single IDS to identify various threats in practice. Collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) are then developed in order to enhance...

  14. Towards Statistical Trust Computation for Medical Smartphone Networks Based on Behavioral Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Au, Man Ho

    2017-01-01

    Due to the popularity of mobile devices, medical smartphone networks (MSNs) have been evolved, which become an emerging network architecture in healthcare domain to improve the quality of service. There is no debate among security experts that the security of Internet-enabled medical devices...

  15. RAHIM: Robust Adaptive Approach Based on Hierarchical Monitoring Providing Trust Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labraoui, Nabila; Gueroui, Mourad; Aliouat, Makhlouf; Petit, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In-network data aggregation has a great impact on the energy consumption in large-scale wireless sensor networks. However, the resource constraints and vulnerable deployment environments challenge the application of this technique in terms of security and efficiency. A compromised node may forge

  16. A Study on Influence of Trust, Social identity, Perceived Risk and EWOM on Consumer Decision-Making Process in the context of Social Network Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Aizhen

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of Web 2.0 applications, social network sites enable customers to actively participate as market players and reach out to the mass population within a short span of time. The tremendous impact of the rise of social network sites not just shifted the way businesses work, it also changed the manner consumers behave. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the influence of social identity, EWOM (Electronic word-of-mouth), perceived risks, trust and purchase intentions affe...

  17. Enhancing Network Data Obliviousness in Trusted Execution Environment-based Stream Processing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsibyani, Hassan M.

    2018-01-01

    . For each of the techniques, we explore their effectiveness in terms of the advantage they provide in overcoming the network leakage. The techniques are tested partly using simulations and some were implemented in a prototype SGX-based stream processing

  18. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  19. Energy-efficient Trust-based Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghikhaki, Zahra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are often deployed in unattended and noise-prone environments and suffer from energy constraints that limit the quality and quantity of data transmission. Every decision made based on the low quality and low quantity data may have drastic consequence. Therefore,

  20. Transacting in the absence of trust : Uncertainty and network patterns in post-communism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Lehmbruch (Barbara)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper critically discusses the widespread literature focusing on informal post-communist “clans,” “networks,” or “fiefdoms.” Often self-described as determinedly empirical, the “clan” paradigm is crucially shaped by its origins in the analysis of East Asia, as well as by its use as

  1. On Integrated Social and QoS Trust-Based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-15

    according to our protocol. This leads to Tik(t + At) < Tmin because /?j + f32 = 1 and T, fc (t) < Tmin is given (in the if part). Therefore, it is...Disruption-Tolerant Networking," IEEE INFOCOM 2006. Barcelona . Spain. April 2006, pp. 1-11. [3] J.H. Cho, A. Swami and I.R. Chen, "Modeling and

  2. Are maternal social networks and perceptions of trust associated with suspected autism spectrum disorder in offspring? A population-based study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations of maternal social networks and perceptions of trust with the prevalence of suspected autism spectrum disorders in 18-month-old offspring in Japan.Questionnaires included measurements of maternal social networks (number of relatives or friends they could call upon for assistance, maternal perceptions of trust, mutual assistance (i.e. individual measures of "cognitive social capital", and social participation (i.e. individual measures of "structural social capital" as well as the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to detect suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD. These tools were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6061; response rate: 64%. The association between social capital or social network indicators and suspected ASD were analyzed, adjusted for covariates by logistic regression analysis.Low maternal social trust was found to be significantly positively associated with suspected ASD in toddlers compared with high maternal social trust (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 2.40; mutual aid was also significantly positively related (low vs. high: OR, 2.08, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.73 [corrected]. However, maternal community participation showed U-shape association with suspected ASD of offspring. Maternal social network showed consistent inverse associations with suspected ASD of offspring, regardless of the type of social connection (e.g., relatives, neighbors, or friends living outside of their neighborhood.Mothers' cognitive social capital and social networks, but not structural social capital, might be associated with suspected ASD in offspring.

  3. Are maternal social networks and perceptions of trust associated with suspected autism spectrum disorder in offspring? A population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations of maternal social networks and perceptions of trust with the prevalence of suspected autism spectrum disorders in 18-month-old offspring in Japan. Questionnaires included measurements of maternal social networks (number of relatives or friends they could call upon for assistance), maternal perceptions of trust, mutual assistance (i.e. individual measures of "cognitive social capital"), and social participation (i.e. individual measures of "structural social capital") as well as the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to detect suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These tools were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6061; response rate: 64%). The association between social capital or social network indicators and suspected ASD were analyzed, adjusted for covariates by logistic regression analysis. Low maternal social trust was found to be significantly positively associated with suspected ASD in toddlers compared with high maternal social trust (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 2.40); mutual aid was also significantly positively related (low vs. high: OR, 2.08, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.73 [corrected]). However, maternal community participation showed U-shape association with suspected ASD of offspring. Maternal social network showed consistent inverse associations with suspected ASD of offspring, regardless of the type of social connection (e.g., relatives, neighbors, or friends living outside of their neighborhood). Mothers' cognitive social capital and social networks, but not structural social capital, might be associated with suspected ASD in offspring.

  4. Online identity: constructing interpersonal trust and openness through participating in hospitality social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ronzhyn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the results of research on online identity construction during the participation in the hospitality social networks. Specifically the user references are analysed to understand patterns that form the image of a member. CouchSurfing service (couchsurfing.org allows users to leave short texts where the experience of hosting/being hosted by a CS member is described, is an evaluation of the CS members of each other’s personal traits, skills and common experience. Therefore references can become a good instrument for portraying a CouchSurfing member and understanding his or her particular traits. References form an important part of a user’s virtual identity in the network. Using a sample of references of Spanish CouchSurfing users, the research established main characteristics of the references, which are the openness, readiness to share ideas and experiences and trustworthiness. These concepts illustrate the typical traits associated with a user of the network and also shed light on the activities common during offl ine CS meetings

  5. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiawei; Liu, Anfeng; Zhang, Jian; Xiong, Neal N; Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR) scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs). The main contributions of a TBSR are (a) the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b) Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of battery

  6. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of things (IoT is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs. The main contributions of a TBSR are (a the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of

  7. Trust repertoires for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars

    This case study analyses the role of trust in a public private innovation network that involved a private consultancy company as a facilitator. We know that collaboration is a important for innovation, and that collaboration across organizational boundaries is not a trivial issue. But we know very...... little about how such processes develop and how trust, understood as “confident positive expectations” (Lewicki et al. 1998) to collaborative activities, arises out of collaboration. The paper contributes by showing how trust and collaboration are intertwined. The main finding is that a facilitator can...

  8. Summary of : piloting a local dental network across Hampshire and Isle of Wight Primary Care Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Dr Michael

    2014-09-01

    To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.

  9. Piloting a local dental network across Hampshire and Isle of Wight Primary Care Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J H; Easterby-Smith, V; Percival, K R

    2014-09-01

    To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.

  10. Rethinking trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed.

  11. Application of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method in Trust Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunan Ma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trust can play an important role for the sharing of resources and information in open network environments. Trust quantification is thus an important issue in dynamic trust management. By considering the fuzziness and uncertainty of trust, in this paper, we propose a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to quantify trust along with a trust quantification algorithm. Simulation results show that the trust quantification algorithm that we propose can effectively quantify trust and the quantified value of an entity's trust is consistent with the behavior of the entity.

  12. Love Thy Neighbor: Bonding versus Bridging Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Odile; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

    We study how trust is generated in society. In a two-sector model, we analyze two communities. In the bonding community people do not trust people outside their regular networks. In the bridging community people choose to trust strangers when they meet them. The hypothesis is that when trust is only bonding, it cannot accumulate. Our theoretical contribution is to show that when trust is only bonding then the economy’s level of trust moves to an unstable equilibrium that may under certain con...

  13. Time and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    current Africa strategies as part of a long history of a variety of stakeholders on the African continent. I argue that trust and lack of trust based on long term relations influence choices on aid distribution made by African and partner countries. The analysis is based on a reading of OECD statistics...... on aid distribution in combination with select interviews with stakeholders in foreign aid, and archival findings on the historical presence of Japanese, Chinese, Indian, European, and North American people on the African continent. By looking at the impact of historical networks on ODA distribution...

  14. Trust matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the debate about health service utilisation and the role of trust in fostering demand for health services in sub-Saharan Africa. It is framed as a narrative literature review based on a thematic analysis of nine empirical, qualitative studies. For the purposes...... of this article trust is defined as a voluntary course of action, which involves the optimistic expectation that the trustee will do no harm to the trustor and is increasingly perceived as an important influence on health system functioning. The article looks at trust issues in interpersonal, intergroup...... and institutional situations. The findings of the review point to four elements that are important for trust to develop in health sector relationships: the sensitive use of discretionary power by health workers, perceived empathy by patients of the health workers, the quality of medical care and workplace...

  15. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  16. It's better to give than to receive: the role of social support, trust, and participation on health-related social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hether, Heather J; Murphy, Sheila T; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-12-01

    Nearly 60% of American adults and 80% of Internet users have sought health information online. Moreover, Internet users are no longer solely passive consumers of online health content; they are active producers as well. Social media, such as social networking sites, are increasingly being used as online venues for the exchange of health-related information and advice. However, little is known about how participation on health-related social networking sites affects users. Research has shown that women participate more on social networking sites and social networks are more influential among same-sex members. Therefore, this study examined how participation on a social networking site about pregnancy influenced members' health-related attitudes and behaviors. The authors surveyed 114 pregnant members of 8 popular pregnancy-related sites. Analyses revealed that time spent on the sites was less predictive of health-related outcomes than more qualitative assessments such as trust in the sites. Furthermore, providing support was associated with the most outcomes, including seeking more information from additional sources and following recommendations posted on the sites. The implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

  17. Can we trust robots?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Can we trust robots? Responding to the literature on trust and e-trust, this paper asks if the question of trust is applicable to robots, discusses different approaches to trust, and analyses some preconditions for trust. In the course of the paper a phenomenological-social approach to trust is

  18. A Model of Trusted Connection Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to that traditional trusted network connection architecture (TNC has limitations on dynamic network environment and the user behavior support, we develop TCA to propose a trusted connection architecture supporting behavior measurement (TCA-SBM, besides, the structure diagram of network architecture is given. Through introducing user behavior measure elements, TCA-SBM can conduct measurement on the whole network in time dimension periodically, and refine the measurement on network behavior in measure dimension to conduct fine-grained dynamic trusted measurement. As a result, TCA-SBM enhances the TCA’s ability to adapt to the dynamic change of network and makes up the deficiency of trusted computing framework in the network connection.

  19. An Experimentation Platform for On-Chip Integration of Analog Neural Networks: A Pathway to Trusted and Robust Analog/RF ICs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliuk, Dzmitry; Makris, Yiorgos

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the design of an experimentation platform intended for prototyping low-cost analog neural networks for on-chip integration with analog/RF circuits. The objective of such integration is to support various tasks, such as self-test, self-tuning, and trust/aging monitoring, which require classification of analog measurements obtained from on-chip sensors. Particular emphasis is given to cost-efficient implementation reflected in: 1) low energy and area budgets of circuits dedicated to neural networks; 2) robust learning in presence of analog inaccuracies; and 3) long-term retention of learned functionality. Our chip consists of a reconfigurable array of synapses and neurons operating below threshold and featuring sub-μW power consumption. The synapse circuits employ dual-mode weight storage: 1) a dynamic mode, for fast bidirectional weight updates during training and 2) a nonvolatile mode, for permanent storage of learned functionality. We discuss a robust learning strategy, and we evaluate the system performance on several benchmark problems, such as the XOR2-6 and two-spirals classification tasks.

  20. Emergent Trust and Work Life Relationships: How to Approach the Relational Moment of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Bergljot Eikeland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How do we trust? What does the basic mechanism of trust look like? These questions define the starting point for a comparison of the classic ideas of how trust works by Mayer et al. (1995, Möllering’s (2006 re-adaption of Giddens’, Simmel’s, and James’ classic ideas of trust, and a phenomenological approach focusing on “emergent trust.” Introducing the concept of emergent trust, the idea is to suggest a phenomenological approach to studies of trust in work-life relationships in professional organizations, as an alternative to trust as a cognitive attitude, where trust becomes a stable, individual possession. The term “emergent” demonstrates a trust that emerges in meetings between persons, it has an immediate, unconditional quality, and shows itself in situations of life where there is a potential for trust to appear. Trust’s basic relationality makes the person morally responsible for the other. Trust appears between persons, as an event, constituting risk and uncertainty as a natural and positive part of our lives. Still, in larger social settings, the responsibility of trust also disperses on to the work itself, and our wider social networks.

  1. To Trust or Not to Trust? What Drives Public Trust in Science in Social Media Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The erosion of public trust in science is a serious concern today. This climate of distrust has real consequences, from the anti-vaccination movement to climate change denials. The age of social media promises opportunities for improved interactivity between scientists and the public, which experts hope will help improve public confidence in science. However, evidence linking social media engagement and public attitude towards science is scarce. Our study aimed to help fill this gap. We examined Twitter engagement and its impact on public trust in science, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning to analyse the tweets. Results revealed the level of distrust was significantly higher in the climate change tweets. However, in the climate change network, people who engaged with science personalities trust science more than those who did not. This difference in trust levels was not present in the space science network. There the two clusters of people displayed similar levels of trust in science. Additionally, we used machine learning to predict the trust labels of tweets and conducted feature analysis to find the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Our supervised learning algorithm was able to predict trust in science in our sample tweets with 84% accuracy. The strongest predictors of trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) were similarity, presence of URL and authenticity. Contrast this with the findings of our previous study investigating the features of highly engaging space science related social media messages, authenticity is the only feature that also inspires trust. This indicates that what works to promote engagement (e.g. `retweets', `Likes') does not necessarily build trust in science. Social media science communication is not as simple as `we engage, therefore they trust'. We suggest that

  2. Equilibrium Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese

    2009-01-01

    We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...

  3. Enacting Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Small and removed from the Spanish mainland, the Enclave of Ceuta has always depended\\ud on flows of goods and labour out of the Moroccan hinterland, with individuals from\\ud different ethnic and religious groups forming informal, flexible and personal economic\\ud bonds based on mutual ‘confianza’ (trust). Since its entry into the European Union in 1986,\\ud the Spanish government has erected a border-wall around the enclave, and introduced new\\ud migration policies branding many informal work...

  4. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  5. Trusting the state, trusting each other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2016-01-01

    Trust in state institutions is a prominent explanation of social trust. However, previous—mainly cross-sectional—analyses provide limited causal evidence regarding the relationship between institutional trust and social trust and it is thus essentially unknown whether an observed relationship...... reflects reverse causality (social trust forming institutional trust), or both forms of trust reflecting deep-seated dispositions (common confounding). Against the backdrop of the shortcomings of previous cross-sectional analyses, this paper utilizes two Danish panel surveys containing measures of both...... types of trust for the same individuals surveyed at multiple points in time over a long time-span (up to 18 years) to address the potentially reverse and/or spurious relationship. Using individual fixed effects and cross-lagged panel models, the results provide strong evidence of trust in state...

  6. Learning to Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    Trust is full of puzzle and paradox.Trust is both rational and emotional. Trust can go beyond calculative self-interest, but has its limits.People may want to trust, while they may also feel threatened by it.If trust is not in place prior to a relationship, on the basis of institutions, prior

  7. Trust us Trust Thorp Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, John

    1995-01-01

    The history of the nuclear industry in the UK has been dominated by Sellafield reprocessing site in west Cumbria. The site, formerly owned by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was transferred to the newly-formed British Nuclear Fuels plc in 1971. Although trade union representation existed at Sellafield before the emergence of BNFL, it is only after this date that collective trade union activity began to emerge. In 1977, after a long running dispute with management about the issue of radiation dose uptake, the workforce went on strike, forcing the management to question their previous 'need to know' attitude and to improve industrial relations. In 1984, it was recognised that the lobbying influence of trade unions within politics, and especially the Labour party could be used to greater effect to challenge potentially -damaging influence of anti-nuclear campaigners. The National Campaign for the Nuclear Industry (NCNI) was born, combining nine industrial and non-industrial trade unions within the nuclear industry. Its task during the last ten years has been to put forward the interests of its members collectively and to secure the, role of nuclear power. within a balanced energy policy in the political arena. In dome so, it has gained a credible voice within both the trade union movement and the Labour party. The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) received strong support from the NCNI during its construction and commissioning phases. When it became clear that the anti-nuclear lobby had gained the upper hand and were beginning to seriously delay the necessary legal instruments required to start the plant, the power of collective action was once again recognised, and the TRUST US campaign was born. The campaign was run and organised by a clerks committee and fronted by the Trade Unions at Sellafield., and turned out to be one of the most successful] trade union campaigns in recent history. The first task involved getting, the entire workforce on

  8. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  9. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence

  10. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence

  11. Trust in Scientific Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Harry; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2001-01-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organisational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust:

  12. Trust and Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The concept and phenomenon of trust and its relation to leadership has recently come into focus. What role does trust play? Can trust be created strategically? Questions like these are often raised. How we conceive of and conceptualize trust is not as often discussed. Among those conceptualizations...... flexibility of form for example, the idea that one with leadership tools can consciously bring forth trust. In the conclusion, the question about trust communication is addressed. In this section I argue that trust is positively value-laden, becausesincerity is a functional and pragmatic condition...

  13. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  14. LSOT: A Lightweight Self-Organized Trust Model in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in automobile industry and wireless communication technology, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Trust management plays an important role in VANETs. However, it is still at the preliminary stage and the existing trust models cannot entirely conform to the characteristics of VANETs. This work proposes a novel Lightweight Self-Organized Trust (LSOT model which contains trust certificate-based and recommendation-based trust evaluations. Both the supernodes and trusted third parties are not needed in our model. In addition, we comprehensively consider three factor weights to ease the collusion attack in trust certificate-based trust evaluation, and we utilize the testing interaction method to build and maintain the trust network and propose a maximum local trust (MLT algorithm to identify trustworthy recommenders in recommendation-based trust evaluation. Furthermore, a fully distributed VANET scenario is deployed based on the famous Advogato dataset and a series of simulations and analysis are conducted. The results illustrate that our LSOT model significantly outperforms the excellent experience-based trust (EBT and Lightweight Cross-domain Trust (LCT models in terms of evaluation performance and robustness against the collusion attack.

  15. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  16. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  17. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  18. Dimensions of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Georg Simmel is the seminal author on trust within sociology, but though inspired by Simmel, subsequent studies of intersubjective trust have failed to address Simmel’s suggestion that trust is as differentiated as the social relations of which it is part. Rather, trust has been studied within...... limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...

  19. Overview of royalty trusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarites, P.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of royalty trusts as a means of financing exploration, development, production, and refining of oil sand and heavy oil to produce competitively marketable petroleum products, was reviewed. Attributes of the two distinct classes of royalty trusts - reflexive class and the fundamental class royalty trusts - and the considerations underlying each one, were summarized. The overall conclusion was that the future performance of conventional oil and gas royalty trusts (reflexive class) will depend heavily on interest rate levels and management's ability to complete acquisitions financed with new trust unit issues. Fundamental class royalty trusts also offer long term pure exposure to the underlying business, in addition to yield

  20. Trust as the Foundation of Resource Exchange in GENI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Brinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and educators in computer science and other domains are increasingly turning to distributed test beds that offer access to a variety of resources, including networking, computation, storage, sensing, and actuation. The provisioning of resources from their owners to interested experimenters requires establishing sufficient mutual trust between these parties. Building such trust directly between researchers and resource owners will not scale as the number of experimenters and resource owners grows. The NSF GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovation project has focused on establishing scalable mechanisms for maintaining such trust based on common approaches for authentication, authorization and accountability. Such trust reflects the actual trust relationships and agreements among humans or real-world organizations. We describe here GENI’s approaches for federated trust based on mutually trusted authorities, and implemented via cryptographically signed credentials and shared policies.

  1. Developing a Reference Framework for Cybercraft Trust Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Shannon E

    2008-01-01

    .... As a result, network defense remains a high priority for cyber warriors. On the technical side, trust issues for a comprehensive end-to-end network defense solution are abundant and involve multiple layers of complexity...

  2. Trust arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    cycle has a complex of general machine building technologies which permit, if necessary, to organize in a very short period, production of non-traditional articles and avoid limitation of working places. This is well proved by the experience of 'Elemash', where in connection with the decrease of demand for nuclear fuel after the accident in Chernobyl, different products are now produced, equipment for dairy industry, tubular, heating elements, hard-alloy tooling for metal cutting and mining industries, a variety of domestic appliances. This peculiar 'conversion' permitted not only preserve the staff but provide employment of youth. We concentrate our attention on one more social side of activity of our enterprise, more of a few in the town having stable interior and exterior market for its products; this is very important in the period of newly-born market economy in Russia. Annual turnover of 'Elemash', only for export of nuclear fuel, is more tan 200 million dollars. It is natural that the majority of this sum comes as taxes to the municipal budget, where it is used for developing social infrastructure of the town (culture, port, health protection education, i.e. for the welfare of the population). Evaluating te general reaction of the population and public, which was discovered as a result of communicating in the Centre with thousands of inhabitants of the town we can state that it is quite favourable and our task is to strengthen the trust to the enterprise in the future. (author)

  3. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of balancing trust and control becomes an issue that deserve ongoing attention. This paper adds to the discussion on the relation between trust and control by showing that the process perspective reframes the problem of balancing trust and control. More generally, by demonstrating the importance of the process......The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... on trust and control made the problem of finding a balance between trust and control a once and for all decision the process perspective introduced here implies that balancing trust and control is an ongoing process of balancing and rebalancing. The implication for management is that the problem...

  4. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  5. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  7. Trust Drives Internet Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the effect of trust on internet use by studying the general population as well as second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 87 nations. There is a significant positive effect of trust on internet use. The positive trust effect is not universal...

  8. The productivity of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    This paper returns to one of the early questions of the literature on social trust, whether trust affects total factor productivity (TFP). Using both development and growth accounting, we find strong evidence of a causal effect of trust on the level and growth of TFP. Using a three-stage least...

  9. [Crises of trust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thai-Form; Tseng, Hsing-Chau

    2006-02-01

    Extensive media coverage is warning of a crisis of trust that has emerged as a serious issue in our society. This article explores the meaning of "crisis," concepts of crisis management, mechanisms for building trust, and the underlying significance of trust and distrust. Evidence is adduced to testify to the erosion of trust and factors in our society that reflect the potential for crises of trust. Organizational decision makers, including hospital managers, are urged to identify and reflect upon weaknesses in their organizations in order that remedial action can be taken to preempt such crises.

  10. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  11. Trust estimation of the semantic web using semantic web clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgahi, Hossein; Mohsenzadeh, Mehran; Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Development of semantic web and social network is undeniable in the Internet world these days. Widespread nature of semantic web has been very challenging to assess the trust in this field. In recent years, extensive researches have been done to estimate the trust of semantic web. Since trust of semantic web is a multidimensional problem, in this paper, we used parameters of social network authority, the value of pages links authority and semantic authority to assess the trust. Due to the large space of semantic network, we considered the problem scope to the clusters of semantic subnetworks and obtained the trust of each cluster elements as local and calculated the trust of outside resources according to their local trusts and trust of clusters to each other. According to the experimental result, the proposed method shows more than 79% Fscore that is about 11.9% in average more than Eigen, Tidal and centralised trust methods. Mean of error in this proposed method is 12.936, that is 9.75% in average less than Eigen and Tidal trust methods.

  12. Recommendation based on trust diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure.

  13. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  14. Trust in Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of trust in strategic alliances. Adopting a co-evolutionary approach, I developed a framework to show how trust, conceptualised in different forms, plays distinct roles at various evolutionary stages of the alliance relationship....... Emphasising the multi-dimensional and dynamic role of trust, the framework illustrates how initial levels of a particular type of trust may co-evolve with the alliance and influence subsequent phases of the relationship – either on its own or in combination with other types or dimensions of trust....... The theoretical distinction between trust as antecedent, moderator and outcome during the evolution of the alliance relationship leads to research questions that may guide future empirical research....

  15. Trust and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    the behavior or attitudes of others). LIST SUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO: Science of Reliance • Trust in Autonomous Systems/ Autonomy – identify the...error •Humans have trust biases (Lyons & Stokes, 2012) •Little is known about how human trust principles apply to autonomy /robotics...for the model in western context (Colquitt et al., 2007) • Some evidence that benevolence is favored by collectivist culture (Branzei et al., 2007

  16. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  17. Trust and Social Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Y. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Internet commerce has transformed the marketing of goods and services. The separation between point of sale and seller, and the presence of geographically dispersed sellers who do not engage in repeated transactions with the same customers challenge traditional mechanisms for building the trust required for commercial exchanges. In this changing environment, legal rules and institutions play a diminished role in building trust. Instead, new systems and methods are emerging to foster trust in ...

  18. Suspicion, Trust, and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-08

    Pool (IPIP; Goldberg et al., 2006; 87). A sample item is “I trust others.” Each propensity to trust item was assessed on a 7-point scale from 1...1754-6 Goldberg , L. R., Johnson, J. A., Eber, H. W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Gough, H. C. (2006). The International...trust decision. When examining software inspections, Porter, et al. [6] identified one of the causes of variation in the outcome of the inspection

  19. A question of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Trust lies at the heart of modern science. As scientists, we trust that the papers we read are honest and correct as far as the data, results, techniques and theories in them are concerned. We trust that our colleagues and collaborators are acting properly and ethically - and not being devious, secretive or sloppy. But perhaps even more important is the public's trust in science. After all, much research is funded by taxpayers, who, quite rightly, want to know that the work will not harm them and, preferably, do them some good.

  20. SoundMeGood: A Trust Model Supporting Preliminary Trust Establishment Between Mutually Unknown Entities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špánek, Roman; Tyl, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-14 ISSN 2320-401X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0761 Grant - others:ČVUT(CZ) SGS 2011/7821 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : trust * social network * trust management systems * distributed systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.isaet.org/images/extraimages/IJCSEE%200101303.pdf

  1. Trust Discovery in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, John

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover interpersonal trust in online communities. Two novel trust models are built to explain interpersonal trust in online communities drawing theories and models from multiple relevant areas, including organizational trust models, trust in virtual settings, speech act theory, identity theory, and common bond theory. In…

  2. Trusted computing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soudris, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Iraklis

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in trusted computing for embedded systems. It shows how a variety of security and trusted computing problems are addressed currently and what solutions are expected to emerge in the coming years. The discussion focuses on attacks aimed at hardware and software for embedded systems, and the authors describe specific solutions to create security features. Case studies are used to present new techniques designed as industrial security solutions. Coverage includes development of tamper resistant hardware and firmware mechanisms for lightweight embedded devices, as well as those serving as security anchors for embedded platforms required by applications such as smart power grids, smart networked and home appliances, environmental and infrastructure sensor networks, etc. ·         Enables readers to address a variety of security threats to embedded hardware and software; ·         Describes design of secure wireless sensor networks, to address secure authen...

  3. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  4. A Matter of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Connolly, Christine; Lee, Abda; Fairley, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Educators at a turnaround school in Boston describe how they built a foundation for achievement gains by building and safeguarding relational trust among staff. The school, Henry Grew Elementary, focused in particular on fostering educators' readiness to trust, clarifying roles, and solidifying routines to support connection and risk-taking.

  5. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  6. Being pragmatic about trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickel, P.J.; Faulkner, P.; Simpson, T.

    2017-01-01

    Trust remains an ambiguous and contested concept. A way to help settle some of the disagreements about it is to appeal to an Explanatory Constraint, according to which trust should (a) be explained as the outcome of central concerns or interests of the relevant actors, and (b) explain the emergence

  7. Towards trusted tradelanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Yao-Hua; Scholl, H. J.; Glassey, O.; Janssen, M.

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  8. Neither Trust nor Distrust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the politicised notions of trust and social cohesion in urban spaces through a focus on practices of everyday relations in a mixed neighbourhood. Quantitative studies maintain that ethnically diverse neighbourhoods lack in trust and solidarity. However, the very meaning an...

  9. Trust and controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controlling and the teamwork in controlling were described. The role of controlling in process of trust-building to an organisation was presented. Establishing relations with the environment and systems of measurement of organisation’s achievements were presented, too.

  10. Trust, trustworthiness and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is an essential component of good healthcare. If patients trust their physicians, then the relationship between them can be a richer and more meaningful one. The patient is more likely to feel confident and able to disclose symptoms, helping diagnosis and future care. If public health and community workers are trusted, not only is it likely that their work will be easier, in that their actions will be respected and accepted, but their advice will also be sought spontaneously. Trust, can, therefore, be thought of as something that is of benefit to all: healthcare workers, individuals and communities. Trust is, generally, something to be prized and we need to do anything we can to strengthen it.

  11. The Determinants of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    , in particular emphasizing the role of social trust. This is in turn defined as the confidence people have that strangers, i.e. fellow citizens on whom they have no specific information, will not take advantage of them (Uslaner, 2002; Bjørnskov, 2006). Using the answers to the World Values Survey question “In...... general, do you think that most people can be trusted?”, the by now quite substantial literature has found that social trust is associated with a set of different macroeconomic outcomes: economic growth, the rule of law and overall quality of governance, corruption, education, the extent of violent crime...... and subjective well-being are all influenced by the propensity of people within any nation to trust each other. The questions are therefore where trust comes from and whether or not it can be affected by public policy. The answers to these questions seem to divide researchers into two camps: the optimists...

  12. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  13. Dynamical Trust and Reputation Computation Model for B2C E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Tian; Kecheng Liu; Yuanzhong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one of the most important factors that influence the successful application of network service environments, such as e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, and online social networks. Computation models associated with trust and reputation have been paid special attention in both computer societies and service science in recent years. In this paper, a dynamical computation model of reputation for B2C e-commerce is proposed. Firstly, conceptions associated with trust and reputation are...

  14. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  15. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. We Engage, Therefore They Trust? A Study of Social Media Engagement and Public Trust in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Our society relies heavily on the trust that the public places in science to work. Given science's importance, the growing distrust in science is a cause for concern. Thanks to their participatory nature, social media have been touted as the promising tool for public engagement to restore public trust in science. These digital platforms have transformed the landscape of science communication yet little is known about their impact on public trust in science. This study probed several aspects of public trust in science as expressed on Twitter, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning as our approach. Results indicated that the perceived contentiousness of a science issue has a significant impact on public trust. The level of distrust is higher in the climate change tweets than in the space science tweets, despite climate scientists being almost four times as active as space scientists in engaging with sceptics. However, people who engaged with scientists in the climate change network displayed a higher level of trust in science compared with those who did not. This effect was not observed in the space science network - in this network, there is no significant difference in trust levels between people who engaged with scientists and those who did not. Additionally, our machine learning study revealed that trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) can be predicted. The supervised learning algorithm that we developed was able to predict the trust labels of tweets in our sample with an accuracy of 84%. A further feature analysis indicated that similarity, presence of URL and authenticity are the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Based on these findings, we argue that social media science communication is not as straightforward as `we engage, therefore they trust'. Public attitude towards science is often

  17. Trust vs. Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable...... to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968), Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967), and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma...

  18. Trust vs. Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mogensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968, Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967, and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma & Collective Memory (1998.

  19. Trust and Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    The present paper is an answer to the question, how did trust and credit emerge. The systems of trust and credit reduce the environmental and contextual complexities in which trust and credit are embedded. The paper analyses the forms of this reduction in a number of stages in the evolution...... of history from the present risk of modern systems back to early modernity, the Reformation and the high medieval Revolutions in law, organization and theology. It is not a history of economics, but a history of the conditions of some communication codes used in economic systems....

  20. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  1. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  2. Trust and Estate Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    looks at the ways professionals participate in the creation of stratification regimes. Trust and estate planners do this by sheltering their clients' assets from taxation, thereby preserving private wealth for future generations. Using tools such as trusts, offshore banks, and shell corporations......, these professionals keep a significant portion of the world’s private wealth beyond the reach of the state. Trust and estate planning thus contributes to creating and maintaining socioeconomic inequality on a global scale. The significance of the profession has grown as wealth itself has become more fungible...

  3. Is the Web Marketing Mix Sustainable in China? The Mediation Effect of Dynamic Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays an important role between companies and customers in the online shopping environment because of the anonymous transaction environment and the advantage of virtual property. The most rapidly developing trend in Chinese e-business may come from Guanxi, a Chinese term for social trust. In this study, we define Guanxi as the dynamic trust process in the social decisions or activities of the Chinese. With increasing global attention on the outstanding development of Chinese e-business, it would be worthwhile to analyze the dynamic trust process of social e-commerce customers in close combination with the social network. The statistical results obtained using structural equation modeling (SEM show the importance of trust in a social e-commerce context. The direct positive relationship between the components of the web marketing mix and purchase intention is partially mediated by initial trust and ongoing trust, while initial trust only partially affects purchase intention through ongoing trust.

  4. Trusted Bytecode Virtual Machine Module: A Novel Method for Dynamic Remote Attestation in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songzhu Mei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing bring a tremendous complexity to information security. Remote attestation can be used to establish trust relationship in cloud. TBVMM is designed to extend the existing chain of trust into the software layers to support dynamic remote attestation for cloud computing. TBVMM uses Bayesian network and Kalman filter to solve the dynamicity of the trusted relationship. It is proposed to fill the trust gap between the infrastructure and upper software stacks.

  5. Education and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Sven; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Dawes, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    One of the clearest results in previous studies on social trust is the robust positive relationship with educational attainment. The most common interpretation is that education has a causal effect on social trust. The theoretical argument and empirical results in this article suggest a different...... interpretation. We argue that common preadult factors such as cognitive abilities and personality traits rooted in genes and early-life family environment may confound the relationship between educational attainment and social trust. We provide new evidence on this question by utilizing the quasi......-experiment of twinning. By looking at the relationship between education and social trust within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, we are able to avoid potential confounders rooted in genetic factors and common environmental influences because the monozygotic twins share both. The results suggest that when controlling...

  6. Balancing trust and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm-Jørgensen, Marie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how strategies of retaining patients are acted out by general practitioners (GPs) in the clinical encounter. With this study, we apply Grimens’ (2009) analytical connection between trust and power to explore how trust and power appear in preventive health checks...... of clinical encounters. Results: From the empirical data, we identified three dimensions of respect: respect for the patient’s autonomy, respect for professional authority and respect as a mutual exchange. A balance of respect influenced trust in the relationship between GP and patients and the transfer...... of power in the encounter. The GPs articulated that a balance was needed in preventive health checks in order to establish trust and thus retain the patient in the clinic. One way this balance of respect was carried out was with the use of humour. Conclusions: To retain patients without formal education...

  7. A formalization of computational trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven - Ozcelebi, C.; Holenderski, M.J.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Computational trust aims to quantify trust and is studied by many disciplines including computer science, social sciences and business science. We propose a formal computational trust model, including its parameters and operations on these parameters, as well as a step by step guide to compute trust

  8. Assess and enhance public trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Winter; James Absher; Alan Watson

    2007-01-01

    Trust is a form of social capital, facilitating effective land management, communication and collaboration. Although trust in the Forest Service is at least moderately high for most publics, evidence of a lack of trust and outright distrust has been found in some communities. However, the amount, types, and conditions of trust necessary for effective management to...

  9. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  10. Social relationships and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Binzel, Christine; Fehr, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    While social relationships play an important role for individuals to cope with missing market institutions, they also limit individuals' range of trading partners. This paper aims at understanding the determinants of trust at various social distances when information asymmetries are present. Among participants from an informal housing area in Cairo we find that the increase in trust following a reduction in social distance comes from the fact that trustors are much more inclined to follow the...

  11. Trust is other people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckner, Naemi; Werner, Katharina; Subasi, Özge

    concerning the interaction with strangers through the platform. Putting trust in an online sharing community seems to be the biggest obstacle that influences whether people draw away rather than move closer together and start collaborating in the sharing community. Here, we report on the main issues...... involving other participants in the hope to find appropriate ways to create trustful sharing environments that reassure potential participants rather than play into their fears....

  12. Computationally Modeling Interpersonal Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.

  13. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  14. A general definition of trust

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a definition and conceptual analysis of trust is given in terms of trustworthiness. Its focus will be as wide as possible, and will not be restricted to any particular type of trust. The aim is to show the key parameters that enable us to investigate and understand trust, thereby facilitating the development of systems, institutions and technologies to support, model or mimic trust. The paper will also show the strong connection between trust and trustworthiness, showing how the...

  15. Do you trust? Whom do you trust? When do you trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.C.P.; Keren, G.; Thye, S.R.; Lawler, E.J.; Macy, M.W.; Walker, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We try to provide a broader view on the factors that infiuence the decision to trust and honor trust. Using the "Trust Game" as our experimental paradigm, we consider three classes offactors that may he related to trust issues. The first one considers individual differences with regard to the

  16. African migrant patients' trust in Chinese physicians: a social ecological approach to understanding patient-physician trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Megan M; Simonson, Louis; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians. These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.

  17. African migrant patients' trust in Chinese physicians: a social ecological approach to understanding patient-physician trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.

  18. A Model of Trusted Measurement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhili; Wang Zhihao; Dai Liang; Zhu Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    A model of Trusted Measurement supporting behavior measurement based on trusted connection architecture (TCA) with three entities and three levels is proposed, and a frame to illustrate the model is given. The model synthesizes three trusted measurement dimensions including trusted identity, trusted status and trusted behavior, satisfies the essential requirements of trusted measurement, and unified the TCA with three entities and three levels.

  19. Research on Trust Propagation Models in Reputation Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback based reputation systems continue to gain popularity in eCommerce and social media systems today and reputation management in large social networks needs to manage cold start and sparseness in terms of feedback. Trust propagation has been widely recognized as an effective mechanism to handle these problems. In this paper we study the characterization of trust propagation models in the context of attack resilience. We characterize trust propagation models along three dimensions: (i uniform propagation and conditional propagation, (ii jump strategies for breaking unwanted cliques, and (iii decay factors for differentiating recent trust history from remote past history. We formally and experimentally show that feedback similarity is a critical measure for countering colluding attacks in reputation systems. Without feedback similarity guided control, trust propagations are vulnerable to different types of colluding attacks.

  20. Social Web Identity Established upon Trust and Reputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Goel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks have become a seamless and critical online communication platform for personal interactions. They are a powerful tool that businesses are using to expand among domestic markets. The increase in participation in online social networking can and has caused damage to individuals and organizations, and the issuance of trust has become a concern on the social web. The factors determining the reputation of persons (customers in the real world may relate to the factors of reputation on the social web, though relative to how trust is established in the physical world, establishing trust on the social web can be fairly difficult. Determining how to trust another individual’s online social profile becomes critical in initiating any interaction on the social web. Rather than focusing on content on the social network page, this research proposes and examines the application of user reputations to determine whether the trust should be issued on the social web. A top-level framework to establish trust in an identity on the Social Network Sites (SNS as a function of the users’ associations, usage patterns and reputation on the social web is presented.

  1. A Chinese sky trust?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Mark [Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: brenner@econs.umass.edu; Riddle, Matthew [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: mriddle@econs.umass.edu; Boyce, James K. [Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: boyce@econs.umass.edu

    2007-03-15

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality.

  2. Impact Through Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    of its rulings and legal mandates in national judiciaries and legal systems? This question is crucial if we understand that national courts are the key decentralised enforcers of the European Union (EU) law responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of EU law and the rulings and mandates imposed...... by the Court. EU scholars have already offered several legalist and institutionalist responses to why national courts participate in this process of legal integration in the EU and, most importantly, why the follow the mandates and rulings from the CJEU. This chapter innovates in this regard by introducing...... trust between judges as a new mechanism for enhancing the cooperation and compliance by national courts with the CJEU jurisprudence and EU legal mandates. The chapter describes the conditions under which national judges trust the CJEU to identify how the Court can promote trust in its role as a supreme...

  3. Trusts and Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive......This article identifies trusts as a legal structure associated with the global spread of financialization. Although trusts originated in Medieval England, they have acquired a new significance in contemporary finance by virtue of their advantages in terms of 10 profit maximization and capital...... and conceptual intent of Krippner’s work on financialization, but extends it in two ways: by comparing trusts to the better- known corporate form of organizing financial activity, and by showing how private 20 capital is implicated in the financialized economy alongside corporate wealth....

  4. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    , maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... and interviews with managers from the US, Europe, China and Japan. The study presents a conceptual framework - a ‘trust buffer’ – which enables analysis and exemplification of the dynamics and challenges of teams as drivers of change. Each team has strategically important tasks, unique capacities and deal...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...

  5. A Chinese sky trust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Mark; Riddle, Matthew; Boyce, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality

  6. Trust Models in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-01-01

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.......We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models....

  7. Trusted cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Krcmar, Helmut; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This book documents the scientific results of the projects related to the Trusted Cloud Program, covering fundamental aspects of trust, security, and quality of service for cloud-based services and applications. These results aim to allow trustworthy IT applications in the cloud by providing a reliable and secure technical and legal framework. In this domain, business models, legislative circumstances, technical possibilities, and realizable security are closely interwoven and thus are addressed jointly. The book is organized in four parts on "Security and Privacy", "Software Engineering and

  8. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  9. Trust - Essential Requirement and Basis for pHealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Trust is a social code and glue between persons and organizations in any business domain including health. pHealth is a complex concept that is built around health service providers, individuals and artefacts such as sensors, mobile devices, networks, computers, and software applications. It has many stakeholders such as organizations, persons, patients, customers, and tele-operators. pHealth services are increasingly offered in insecure information space, and used over organizational, geographical and jurisdictional borders. This all means that trust is an essential requirement for successful pHealth services. To make pHealth a successful business, organizations offering pHealth services should establish inter-organizational trust and trusted relationship between their customers. Before starting to use services, the pHealth user should have a possibility to define how much it trusts on the service provider and on the surrounding information infrastructure. The authors' analysis show that trust models used in today's health care and e-commerce are insufficient for networked pHealth. Calculated trust as proposed by the authors is stronger than the predefined dispositional trust model currently used in health care, other's recommendations used in e-commerce and risk assessment. Until now, caused by the lack of business incentive, lack of regulatory and political pressure, pHealth providers have not demonstrated meaningful interest in moving from the current unsatisfactory situation to trust calculation by making information necessary for this methodology available. To make pHealth successful, a combination of legal, political, organizational, technological and educational efforts is needed to initiate the paradigm change and start the era of trust-based pHealth services.

  10. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  11. A Trusted Smart Phone and Its Applications in Electronic Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the growing intelligence and popularity of mobile phones, and the trend of cellular network's convergence to IP based network, more and more mobile applications emerge on the market. For mission critical applications, like the electronic payment which will be discussed in this paper, the lack of trust in the underlying mobile infrastructure and secure interface to legacy systems (for this case, the banking systems) poses obstacles to their widespread presence in mobile services. Recently, the exposure of hacking of iPhone and other smart phones further emphasizes the criticality of establishing a trust platform for mobile applications. This paper analyzes the building blocks of the trusted smart phone, and proposes a framework to provide a trusted platform for mobile electronic payment. Such a proposed system may allow direct interface to the banking systems due to the banking industry recognized strong security, and hence, may enable its widespread use.

  12. Trusted computation through biologically inspired processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave W.

    2013-05-01

    Due to supply chain threats it is no longer a reasonable assumption that traditional protections alone will provide sufficient security for enterprise systems. The proposed cognitive trust model architecture extends the state-of-the-art in enterprise anti-exploitation technologies by providing collective immunity through backup and cross-checking, proactive health monitoring and adaptive/autonomic threat response, and network resource diversity.

  13. Fostering interpersonal trust on social media: physicians' perspectives and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-02-01

    The problem of developing and sustaining mutual trust is one of the main barriers to knowledge sharing on social media platforms such as blogs, wikis, micro-blogs and social networking websites. While many studies argue that mutual trust is necessary for online communication and knowledge sharing, few have actually explored and demonstrated how physicians can establish and sustain trusted relationships on social media. To identify approaches through which physicians establish interpersonal trust on social media. Twenty-four physicians, who were active users of social media, were interviewed using a semi-structured approach between 2013 and 2014. Snowball sampling was employed for participant recruitment. The data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Physicians trust their peers on social media in a slightly different way than in face-to-face communication. The study found that the majority of participants established trust on social media mainly through previous personal interaction, authenticity and relevancy of voice, professional standing, consistency of communication, peer recommendation, and non-anonymous and moderated sites. Healthcare professionals need to approach social media carefully when using it for knowledge sharing, networking and developing trusted relations with like-minded peers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Understanding Trust in Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Although the financial crisis has elevated the interest for factors such as consumer financial healthiness, broad-scope trust, financial knowledge, and consumer relationship satisfaction, no existing model describes how these factors may influence consumer financial relationship trust...... healthiness, broad-scope trust, knowledge, and satisfaction positively affect narrow-scope trust in financial services. Furthermore, it is found that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationships between financial healthiness and narrow-scope trust and between satisfaction and narrow-scope trust....... This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework explaining how these constructs affect consumers' trust in their financial service provider. Based on two surveys comprising 764 pension consumers and 892 mortgage consumers, respectively, the results of this study indicate that financial...

  15. The Process of Trust Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren; Højland, Jeppe

    in management among employees. Trust is found to be higher among employees interacting regularly with managers, as in the project coordination group. It is found that personal relations are very important for the development of trust. The success of the project may be explained by the involvement of an ‘elite...... and discuss with colleagues from other departments and develop personal knowledge of each other....... by high trust and co-operation? In this paper we explore the process of trust development during an organisational change project in a Danish SME by looking at two kinds of trust relations: employee trust in management and trust relations among employees. We find substantial differences in trust...

  16. Trust metrics in information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

  17. Trust on the Ratee: A Trust Management System for Social Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyu Gai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of social networking concepts with Internet of Vehicles (IoV has led to the novel paradigm “Social Internet of Vehicles (SIoV,” which enables vehicles to establish social relationships autonomously to improve traffic conditions and service discovery. There is a growing requirement for effective trust management in the SIoV, considering the critical consequences of acting on misleading information spread by malicious nodes. However, most existing trust models are rater-based, where the reputation information of each node is stored in other nodes it has interacted with. This is not suitable for vehicular environment due to the ephemeral nature of the network. To fill this gap, we propose a Ratee-based Trust Management (RTM system, where each node stores its own reputation information rated by others during past transactions, and a credible CA server is introduced to ensure the integrality and the undeniability of the trust information. RTM is built based on the concept of SIoV, so that the relationships established between nodes can be used to increase the accuracy of the trustworthiness. Experimental results demonstrate that our scheme achieves faster information propagation and higher transaction success rate than the rater-based method, and the time cost when calculating trustworthiness can meet the demand of vehicular networks.

  18. 76 FR 10627 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Trust Anchors Are Invulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... day-long workshop on the pros and cons of the use and implementation of trust anchors. The workshop... National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development... Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program on...

  19. Trust and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, John

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…

  20. Researching trust in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    As the use of collaborative online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia grows, so does the need for research on how users evaluate its credibility. In this paper we compare three experimental approaches to study trust in Wikipedia, namely think aloud, eye-tracking, and online questionnaires. The

  1. Know what you trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiessens, F.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Etalle, Sandro; Degano, P.; Guttman, J. D.; Martinelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    In Decentralized Trust Management (DTM) authorization decisions are made by multiple principals who can also delegate decisions to each other. Therefore, a policy change of one principal will often affect who gets authorized by another principal. In such a system of influenceable authorization a

  2. Initial Formation of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schärfe, Henrik; Dougerthery, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of how touch may be used as a way of inducing trust in the meeting with a teloperated android, the Geminoid-DK. The use of hapics with Gestalt-based 'Balance Theory' is used as a persuasive desing of the interaction between human and robot. Balance theory includes...

  3. Trust-distrust Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukka, Minna; Blomqvist, Kirsimarja; Li, Peter Ping

    2017-01-01

    notion of "guanxi" as personal ties. In contrast, the Finnish managers' view of trustworthiness was more associated with depersonalized organizational attributes. They emphasized the dimension of integrity, especially promise-keeping. In addition, tentative signs of trust ambivalence, as a balance...... opposites constitute a duality to be managed from the perspective of yin-yang balancing....

  4. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development...

  5. Trust Evolution Policies for Security in Collaborative Ad Hoc Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    The vision of pervasive computing has introduced the notion of a vast, networked infrastructure of heterogeneous entities interact through collaborative applications, e.g., playing a multi-player online game on the way to work. This will require interactions between users who may be marginally...... admission policies in a manner similar to what would be expected from human trust assessment. This indicates that trust evolution policies can replace explicit human intervention in application scenarios that are similar to the evaluated prototype....

  6. Framework for Monitoring and Evaluation of Users in Trusted Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer T. Mohammed Saeed; Sanjay T. Singh

    2013-01-01

    In the cloud computing, due to users directly use and operate the software and OS, and even basic programming environment and network infrastructure which provided by the cloud services providers(CSP), so the impact and destruction for the software and hardware cloud resources in cloud computing are worse than the current Internet users who use it to share resources. Therefore, that whether user behavior is trusted, how to evaluate user behavior trust is an important research content in cloud...

  7. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  8. Trust It or Trash It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool ... be true, it may be. (See the second “Trust it” statement above). Click on each element below ...

  9. Creating trust through narrative strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, SM; Leenders, RTAJ

    In the rational model of trust, an actor's level of trust is a function of the expected gain and loss involved. As a consequence, if A can influence the gain and loss perceived by B, A can influence B's level of trust. In this article we study how A can do this through the strategic use of

  10. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  11. Creating trust through narrative strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, SM; Leenders, RTAJ

    2003-01-01

    In the rational model of trust, an actor's level of trust is a function of the expected gain and loss involved. As a consequence, if A can influence the gain and loss perceived by B, A can influence B's level of trust. In this article we study how A can do this through the strategic use of

  12. Trusting Relationships in International Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Ruzicka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    How can trusting relationships be identified in international politics? The recent wave of scholarship on trust in International Relations answers this question by looking for one or the combination of three indicators – the incidence of cooperation; discourses expressing trust; or the calculated...

  13. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  14. Trust models in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukow, Karl; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-10-28

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.

  15. Modelling biased human trust dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sciences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorporate non-rational elements in the trust formation

  16. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  17. Elevating Prediction Accuracy in Trust-aware Collaborative Filtering Recommenders through T-index Metric and TopTrustee lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarghami, Alireza; Fazeli, Soude; Dokoohaki, Nima; Matskin, Mihhail

    2010-01-01

    The growing popularity of Social Networks raises the important issue of trust. Among many systems which have realized the impact of trust, Recommender Systems have been the most influential ones. Collaborative Filtering Recommenders take advantage of trust relations between users for generating more

  18. The Condition for Generous Trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obayashi Shinya

    Full Text Available Trust has been considered the "cement" of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another's failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as "generous trust" and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the "modified" trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner's intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous

  19. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  20. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  1. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic

  2. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  3. Trust and Sensemaking in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren; Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    The literature on trust and the literature on sensemaking constitute two separate streams of literature that are both seen as highly relevant to understanding organisational processes in modern complex high-trust organisations. However, though a few studies have argued for the relevance of linkin...... help furthering the understanding of trust processes in organizations. The variety of links between sensemaking and trust processes is illustrated by the intertwining of trust and four processes of sensemaking: arguing, expecting, committing and manipulation identified by Karl Weick....

  4. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  5. HMM-based Trust Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElSalamouny, Ehab; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic trust has been adopted as an approach to taking security sensitive decisions in modern global computing environments. Existing probabilistic trust frameworks either assume fixed behaviour for the principals or incorporate the notion of ‘decay' as an ad hoc approach to cope...... with their dynamic behaviour. Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for both modelling and approximating the behaviours of principals, we introduce the HMM-based trust model as a new approach to evaluating trust in systems exhibiting dynamic behaviour. This model avoids the fixed behaviour assumption which is considered...... the major limitation of existing Beta trust model. We show the consistency of the HMM-based trust model and contrast it against the well known Beta trust model with the decay principle in terms of the estimation precision....

  6. Problems of judiciary trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem of trust in judiciary as a most important part of legal system. For all empirical researches so far have shown very law degree of this trust many authors were searching for the causes of this phenomenon. Among multifold causes some are special worth while to be mentioned here: historical inheritance, political pressures, delaying of judiciary decisions, respect of the laws, transferring of responsibility from political power to the judiciary, public comments of judiciary decisions, media pressures, efficiency of judiciary and police. Among inner factors author pays attention to competency of judges, modes of penal policy, modes of judges’ entitlement, problems of communication, involvement into criminal and corruptional affairs, etc.

  7. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  8. Trust in Internet Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Ronquillo, Lorena; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Decryption and Counting Ceremony held in conjunction with the internet voting trial on election day in the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Norway in 2013. We examine the organizers' ambition of making the decryption and counting of electronic votes...... public in order to sustain trust in internet voting. We introduce a pragmatic approach to trust that emphasises the inseparability of truth from witnessing it. Based on this and on a description of how the event was made observable and how the complexities in the counting process were disclosed, we...... discuss what we term economy of truth from the perspective of the IT community involved in the ceremony. We claim that broadening the economy of truth by including more explicitly social and political perspectives in the ceremony, and in internet elections in general, and how witnessing is brought about...

  9. Free Riding or Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Nilsson, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that members have little interest in monitoring their cooperatives. One explanation is that the members are free-riders, hoping that others will perform the task. Another explanation is that the weak member interest is a consequence of members having trust in the leadership....... These competing explanations refer to the theory of collective action and the social capital paradigm, respectively, and may be linked to the classical Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft concepts. Hence, one may expect free-rider behavior when conditions of Gesellschaft exist and trustful behavior when Gemeinschaft...... conditions rule. These propositions get support from five studies of members’ readership of their cooperatives’ annual reports. In large and heterogeneous memberships there is free-riding behavior, which explains the members’ low interest in governing their cooperatives. To a limited extent a membership may...

  10. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  11. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  12. Methods for reliability evaluation of trust and reputation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Marek B.

    2016-09-01

    Trust and reputation systems are a systematic approach to build security on the basis of observations of node's behaviour. Exchange of node's opinions about other nodes is very useful to indicate nodes which act selfishly or maliciously. The idea behind trust and reputation systems gets significance because of the fact that conventional security measures (based on cryptography) are often not sufficient. Trust and reputation systems can be used in various types of networks such as WSN, MANET, P2P and also in e-commerce applications. Trust and reputation systems give not only benefits but also could be a thread itself. Many attacks aim at trust and reputation systems exist, but such attacks still have not gain enough attention of research teams. Moreover, joint effects of many of known attacks have been determined as a very interesting field of research. Lack of an acknowledged methodology of evaluation of trust and reputation systems is a serious problem. This paper aims at presenting various approaches of evaluation such systems. This work also contains a description of generalization of many trust and reputation systems which can be used to evaluate reliability of such systems in the context of preventing various attacks.

  13. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  14. On the Tradeoff Between Altruism and Selfishness in MANET Trust Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    network deployment, we assume that there is no predefined trust . Without prior interactions, the initial bootstrapping will establish a shallow level of...a challenge/response process (e.g., public key authentication). Over time, partic- ipating nodes will establish a stronger trust level with more...periodically. This will enable each node to compute trust values of other nodes considering the original recommen- dations from the 1-hop neighbors of

  15. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  16. Designing and implementing a trust-wide quality assurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Sally-Ann

    2018-04-02

    Derbyshire Community Health Services (DCHS) NHS Foundation Trust provides a wide range of community-based health services. After the Care Quality Commission (CQC) found gaps in the trust's assurance process, its board decided to develop a method of continuous quality improvements that could be used as a basis for the trust's quality assurance system. The trust adapted and built on an acute model so it was suitable for community services. The final assurance system, Quality Always, has four elements: the clinical assessment and accreditation scheme; leadership development; 'champions' within clinical teams to support and promote the scheme; and dashboards to record and monitor progress. A system to recognise and reward achievement was essential for success. Quality Always has resulted in better care quality, an improved CQC rating, a sense of achievement among staff, the development of support networks, learning (especially among support staff) and good practice being shared.

  17. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  18. Developing Trusting Relationships Through Communication

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOYAMA, Izumi; OBARA, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the formation of trusting relationships between people through communication. To foster trusting relationships, individuals should disclose private and personal information. However, disclosing such information has both costs and benefits; therefore, both parties must decide on the optimal level of self-disclosure based on a variety of factors, such as the existing level of relationship and the benefits of deepening the trust level. We construct an economics model th...

  19. Dynamical Trust and Reputation Computation Model for B2C E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trust is one of the most important factors that influence the successful application of network service environments, such as e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, and online social networks. Computation models associated with trust and reputation have been paid special attention in both computer societies and service science in recent years. In this paper, a dynamical computation model of reputation for B2C e-commerce is proposed. Firstly, conceptions associated with trust and reputation are introduced, and the mathematical formula of trust for B2C e-commerce is given. Then a dynamical computation model of reputation is further proposed based on the conception of trust and the relationship between trust and reputation. In the proposed model, classical varying processes of reputation of B2C e-commerce are discussed. Furthermore, the iterative trust and reputation computation models are formulated via a set of difference equations based on the closed-loop feedback mechanism. Finally, a group of numerical simulation experiments are performed to illustrate the proposed model of trust and reputation. Experimental results show that the proposed model is effective in simulating the dynamical processes of trust and reputation for B2C e-commerce.

  20. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  1. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  2. Trust and Social Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi , Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Extended Abstracts for Keynote Speakers; International audience; One of the strongest expression of generalized distrust – i.e., distrust of human nature in general – can be found in a Japanese proverb, “Its best to regard everyone as a thief” (hito wo mitara dorobo to omoe). An expression of the other extreme, generalized trust, can also be found in another Japanese proverb, “you will never meet a devil as you walk through the social world” (wataru seken ni oni ha nai). I asked about...

  3. Designing High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The specific problem considered in this paper is what are the key issues to consider for managers involved in designing high-trust organizations, a design problem still not properly explored. This paper intends to take the first step in filling this lacuna. In the paper, I first present...... the existing management and research literature on building high-trust organizations. Then I explore Alan Fox’s (1974) analysis of low-trust vs. high-trust dynamics which, I argue, may serve as a theoretically stronger basis for understanding the issues management have to consider when designing hightrust...... organizations...

  4. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  5. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  6. Trust as a Critical Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this articlei I will argue that trust is a fundamental and critical concept because trust is the direct or transcendental constitutive ground of most social phenomena, as well as applicable as an operational method in critical theory. There are two different but overlapping positions on trust I...... address in this article. One is the standpoint we find in business strategy, that trust is naïve to show, and control or contracts are presumed better. In the strategy game the idealistic good guys seems to lose (Arrow 1974), (Williamson 1975). The other position is the position taken by systems theory...

  7. Consumer Trust in Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Love

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential to understanding public reaction to innovative issues. This research focuses on trust in information sources by explicating the construct of trust and testing a comprehensive model on several information sources about genetically modified foods. Results from a survey of 369 participants reveal the significance of projecting competence and the role of the environment in which a target public receives information. Perceptions of regulatory, social, business, and technical environments affect how likely individuals are to follow advice from institutions like the Food and Drug Administration and the news media. Future research should incorporate knowledge levels and personal relevance as variables likely to influence trusting relationships.

  8. Forms, Sources and Processes of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key points in the analysis of trust, based on Nooteboom (2002)i.The following questions are addressed.What can we have trust in?What is the relation between trust and control?What are the sources of trust? And what are its limits?By what process is trust built up and broken

  9. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  10. TrustBuilder2: A Reconfigurable Framework for Trust Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam J.; Winslett, Marianne; Perano, Kenneth J.

    To date, research in trust negotiation has focused mainly on the theoretical aspects of the trust negotiation process, and the development of proof of concept implementations. These theoretical works and proofs of concept have been quite successful from a research perspective, and thus researchers must now begin to address the systems constraints that act as barriers to the deployment of these systems. To this end, we present TrustBuilder2, a fully-configurable and extensible framework for prototyping and evaluating trust negotiation systems. TrustBuilder2 leverages a plug-in based architecture, extensible data type hierarchy, and flexible communication protocol to provide a framework within which numerous trust negotiation protocols and system configurations can be quantitatively analyzed. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of TrustBuilder2, study its performance, examine the costs associated with flexible authorization systems, and leverage this knowledge to identify potential topics for future research, as well as a novel method for attacking trust negotiation systems.

  11. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... challenge for maintaining networks of trust within their own ... In order to gather evidence on the interpersonal development of trusting- .... of the populations of Ilema and Nyamanga Districts of Mwanza Region, which is where the city of Mwanza is located. ... Particularly, by engaging in a detailed case study,.

  12. 'Trust my doctor, trust my pancreas': trust as an emergent quality of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-06-11

    Growing attention is being paid to the importance of trust, and its corollaries such as mistrust and distrust, in health service and the central place they have in assessments of quality of care. Although initially focussing on doctor-patient relationships, more recent literature has broadened its remit to include trust held in more abstract entities, such as organisations and institutions. There has consequently been growing interest to develop rigorous and universal measures of trust. Drawing on illustrative ethnographic material from observational research in a UK diabetes clinic, this paper supports an approach that foregrounds social practice and resists conceiving trust as solely a psychological state that can be divorced from its context. Beyond exploring the less-than-conscious nature of trust, the interpretations attend to the extent to which trust practices are distributed across a range of actors. Data from clinical encounters reveal the extent to which matters of trust can emerge from the relationships between people, and sometimes people and things, as a result of a wide range of pragmatic concerns, and hence can usefully be conceived of as an extended property of a situation rather than a person. Trust is rarely explicitly articulated, but remains a subtle feature of experience that is frequently ineffable. A practice approach highlights some of the problems with adopting a general psychological or intellectualist conception of trust. In particular, assuming it is a sufficiently stable internal state that can be stored or measured not only transforms a diffuse and often ephemeral quality into a durable thing, but ultimately presents it as a generic state that has meaning independent of the specific relationships and context that achieve it. Emphasising the context-specific nature of trust practices does not dismiss the potential of matters of trust, when they emerge, to be transposed to other contexts. But it does highlight how, on each occasion

  13. The Role of Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Saonee; Ahuja, Manju; Sarker, Suprateek

    2011-01-01

    in prior research. Our results indicate that the "mediating" model best explains how communication and trust work together to influence performance. Overall, the study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on virtual teams by empirically reconciling conflicting views regarding...... to contribute some clarity to the understanding of the theoretical linkages among trust, communication, and member performance in virtual teams. To this end, we identify and test three proposed models (additive, interaction, and mediation) describing the role of trust in its relationship with communication...... the interrelationships between key constructs in the literature. Further, the study, through its adoption of the social network analysis approach, provides awareness within the IS research community of the strengths of applying network approaches in examining new organizational forms....

  14. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  15. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trusts under local law, treatment of a single trust as separate trusts under this paragraph (a)(1) does... applicable state law, then each resulting trust is treated as a separate trust for purposes of Chapter 13... Internal Revenue Code, if those portions are not treated as separate trusts under local law. Also...

  16. Social interactions, trust and risky alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2016-12-01

    The association of social capital and alcohol consumption is one of the most robust empirical findings in health economics of the past decade. However, the direction of the relationship between the two is heavily dependent on which dimension of social capital is studied and which alcohol measure is used. In this paper, we examine the effect of social interactions and generalised trust on drinking in the general Danish population survey. Participants (n = 2569) were recruited as part of a larger study. The double-hurdle model for the volume of alcohol consumption and the multivariate logistic model for heavy episodic drinking were estimated. We found evidence that social networking with male friends, membership in voluntary organisations, and generalised trust were significantly associated with the mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking. We also observed that social support at the community level had a buffering effect against heavy episodic drinking. The findings support previous findings in which social interactions and generalised trust were found to predict individuals' volume of drinking and heavy episodic drinking. However, the results varied across the indicators.

  17. Characterizing Economic and Social Properties of Trust and Reputation Systems in P2P Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Wang; Yoshiaki Hori; Kouichi Sakurai

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems are self-organized and autonomous, social-control mechanism (like trust and reputation) is essential to evaluate the trustworthiness of participating peers and to combat the selfish, dishonest and malicious peer behaviors. So, naturally, we advocate that P2P systems that gradually act as an important information infrastructure should be multi-disciplinary research topic, and reflect certain features of our society. So, from economic and social perspective, this paper designs the incentive-compatible reputation feedback scheme based on well-known economic model, and characterizes the social features of trust network in terms of efficiency and cost. Specifically, our framework has two distinctive purposes: first, from high-level perspective, we argue trust system is a special kind of social network, and an accurate characterization of the structural properties of the network can be of fundamental importance to understand the dynamics of the system. Thus, inspired by the concept of weighted small-world, this paper proposes new measurements to characterize the social properties of trust system, that is, highg lobal and local efficiency, and low cost; then, from relative low-level perspective, we argue that reputation feedback is a special kind of information, and it is not free. So, based on economic model, VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Grove)-like reputation remuneration mechanism is proposed to stimulate rational peers not only to provide reputation feedback, but truthfully offer feedback. Furthermore, considering that trust and reputation is subjective, we classify the trust into functional trust and referral trust, and extend the referral trust to include two factors: similarity and truthfulness, which can efficiently reduce the trust inference error. The preliminary simulation results show the benefits of our proposal and the emergence of certain social properties in trust network.

  18. International trust and public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    National leaders struggle to communicate in ways that are perceived as trustworthy by citizens of other nations because trust is linked to efficiency, business opportunities, and political influence. In this article, four recent public diplomacy activities are analyzed from a trust...

  19. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  20. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  1. Research of Trust Chain of Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjiao; Tian, Xiuxia

    Trust chain is one of the key technologies in designing secure operating system based on TC technology. Constructions of trust chain and trust models are analyzed. Future works in these directions are discussed.

  2. Organizational trust or beyond appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dromereschi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations to whom I am giving life to have an enormous need to trust and be trustworthy. Trust represents a fragile asset who needs to be invested in, which is difficult to obtain and takes time to obtain it, but which can be easily broken. Paradoxically, it is a universal trade currency, world-widely understood and appreciated. The relations based on trust are those which determine a company to grow and create a competitive advantage. Trust generates trust. It is the one that inspires and motivates, requires the preservation of a certain set of values, mainly sincerity, fairness, perseverance and a real preoccupation for meeting the needs of other people.

  3. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  4. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbal Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM. Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  5. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  6. Trust-Based Route Selection in Dynamic Source Routin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    in the mobile wireless network. However, blindly trusting all other nodes to respect the routing protocol exposes the local node to a wide variety of vulnerabilities. Traditional security mechanisms rely on either the authenticated identity of the requesting principal or some form of credentials that authorise...

  7. Trust and the sociology of the professions.

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of social capital is related to people's health and well-being. Trust within provider-patient relations is important for its non-specific treatment effects. Finally, trust is also important for the snooth functioning of societal institutions.(...

  8. Obtaining corporate information from NHS foundation trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Valerie; Endacott, Ruth; Sheaff, Rod; Jones, Ray

    Foundation trusts have boards of directors that are responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation, planning services and developing strategy. Unlike non-foundation trusts and primary care trusts (PCTs), foundation trusts are not obliged to hold directors' board meetings in public. This article describes the online availability and accessibility of the minutes of such meetings in a number of foundation trusts, non-foundation trusts and PCTs. The implications for transparency in the NHS are also discussed.

  9. Cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to unravel cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist. We investigated patients’ explanations of trust in-depth, and developed an oncology-specific questionnaire to assess trust. Using the resulting Trust in Oncologist Scale, we experimentally established the influence of oncologist communication on trust. Specifically, patients report stronger trust if the oncologist expresses medical competence, communicates in an open and honest manner, and conveys involvement and c...

  10. Never trust a croup…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickinson, Andrew; Minhas, Jatinder Singh; Bhalla, Minak; Anwuzia-Iwegbu, Charles; Chapman, John

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented to the James Paget University Hospitals Trust with croup-like symptoms and was later discharged with dexamethasone syrup. The patient re-presented 6 h later following maternal concern with signs of acute respiratory distress. After a period of clinical stability, she acutely decompensated without any prior signs of a life-threatening deterioration. She was managed using nebulised epinephrine and showed signs of clinical improvement. Although improvement persisted, the child showed signs of exhaustion following the preceding events and was later intubed with an endotracheal tube and transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit at Addenbrooke’s University Hospital, Cambridge. Endotracheal aspiration later grew parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus and the patient was diagnosed with the exceptionally rare life threatening complications of croup, bacterial tracheitis. The patient was discharged from intensive care 7 days later and has since made a full recovery. PMID:22689599

  11. A matter of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Kærgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    production are found not to have no significant causual effect on actual behaviour, whereas concern for artificial additives and low price sensitivity have. Even when differences in time varying attitudes have been controlled for there is still a rather large heterogeneity in the organic purchasing behaviour...... in 2002 and again in 2007. The results point towards that the most efficient way of increasing organic consumption seems to be to continuously increasing the trust in the organic label and/or to document the positive health effects of organic food by e.g. focussing on measurable things such as a lower...... frequency of findings of pesticide residues in organic foods compared to conventional foods....

  12. A Matter of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Wittchen, Maria Bendix

    ; Hindman, 2005), we find that the Danish news media tried to distance themselves from the journalists involved in the scandals and describe them as ‘bad apples’ (Cecil, 2002). But, in both scandals, we also find that the Danish news media went to great lengths to investigate the accusations, document......In 2015 two major journalistic scandals hit the Danish news media. One was a plagiarism scandal in which a freelance foreign correspondent was found to have plagiarized parts of the stories she had filed from other international news media. The other scandal involved a sports journalist who...... was found to have invented a large number of the sources that were quoted in his stories and had made up false co-bylines. In a time of diminishing trust in the news media (Blach-Ørsten & Burkal, 2013; Reuters, 2016) these scandals represented a significant and acute credibility problem for the news media...

  13. Towards Trust Engineering for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The systematic review methodology has been employed to review trust related studies in cloud computing. It was observed that trusted computing technologies and reputation based approaches are the main approaches to trust engineering in cloud computing. Also, trusted third party approaches...... and the deployment model play a significant role in enhancing trust between service providers and consumers. It was observed that the concept of trust is used loosely without any formal specification in cloud computing discussions and trust engineering in general. As a first step towards addressing this problem, we...... have contextualized the formal trust specification in multi-agent environments for cloud computing....

  14. XML Based Adaptive IPSEC Policy Management in a Trust Management Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan, R

    2002-01-01

    ... the level of security service "on-the-fly" to respond to changing network and operational conditions, The IPsec implementation in OpenESD works in conjunction with the Trust Management System, KeyNote...

  15. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents an embedded account of the social status and economic ... presenting a tough challenge for maintaining networks of trust within their own ... in order to make a sale ignites participation and cooperation with goods sellers, ...

  16. The issue of trust and modern information and communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tulchinsky G. L.; Lisenkova A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the problem of balance of trust and mistrust associated with the turbulence of modern society, redundancy, and heterogeneity of information and communication flows creating a contradictory picture of the world. Social networks are considered as one of the basic modern information resources creating previously unavailable opportunities for communication, interaction, information sharing, and commonality construction. Social networks users broadcast the experi...

  17. Consumer networks and firm reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....

  18. Trust management in cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Noor, Talal H; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design and implementation of Cloud Armor, a novel approach for credibility-based trust management and automatic discovery of cloud services in distributed and highly dynamic environments. This book also helps cloud users to understand the difficulties of establishing trust in cloud computing and the best criteria for selecting a service cloud. The techniques have been validated by a prototype system implementation and experimental studies using a collection of real world trust feedbacks on cloud services.The authors present the design and implementation of a novel pro

  19. Trust and New Communication Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2010-01-01

    I approach philosophical analyses of the phenomenon of trust vis-à-vis online communication, beginning with an overview from within the framework of computer-mediated communication (CMC) of concerns and paradigmatic failures of trust in the history of online communication. I turn to more directly...... the perspective of virtue ethics and phenomenological approaches to how we know and navigate the world as embodied beings - I then take up three major arguments in recent work in favor of the possibilities of trust online, followed by three vicious circles that run counter to more optimistic views. I close...

  20. In the CJEU Judges Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    . A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges' trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification and profile, to their attitudes towards the EU, and to their beliefs about the CJEU's ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance on European Union law, and 2......This article aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges' trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...

  1. Trusted counsellor retires

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    His astute counsel, knowing smile and distinguished eloquence will be missed by many. With a pang of regret, the man himself admits that 'CERN was like a drug for me'. Last week, Jean-Daniel Mandica retired, after 40 years of loyal service. He was the trusted counsellor of every Director of the Administration and Director-General for eighteen years, from 1986 to 2003. Head of the planning unit for the Directorate and the Administration from 1986 to 1996, he was then named Head of the Directorate Services Unit in 1996, a position he held until the end of 2003. Throughout that time, he conducted key tasks for the Organization, such as restructuring the Administration and carrying out audits. His role in the creation of Microcosm and his commitment to CERN's participation in the Universal Exposition at Seville in 1992 contributed in no small part to the spread of the Laboratory's fame. Jean-Daniel Mandica's incomparable knowledge of the Administration, sense of diplomacy and great ability to listen made him a v...

  2. TEE-Based Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    Today, it is safe to assume that any program or data can be compromised, if they are not protected by hardware within a secure area. Systems based on crypto-processors (e.g., a trusted platform module, a smart card or a hardware security module) rely on the properties of tamper resistant hardware...... to establish a tight security parameter around a reduced set of predefined functionalities. Such systems are very secure, but they impose strong constraints on the functionalities, the connectivity or the resources available within the secure area. They have not proven versatile enough to provide mainstream...... trusted storage for personal data. We believe that this role can be taken over by systems equipped with Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), such as ARM’s TrustZone. Indeed, even if TEEs provide weaker security guarantees than crypto-processors, they already provide a secure area on many personal devices...

  3. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  4. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  5. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  6. Trust and the sociology of the professions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of social capital is related to people's

  7. The Complex Relationship between Cyberbullying and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschl, Stephanie; Porsch, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Theoretically, there are strong arguments for a relationship between cyberbullying and trust. On the one hand, trust is built on experiences; thus, experiences of malevolence such as cyberbullying might contribute to low trust. On the other hand, high trust may lead to risky online behavior such as self-disclosures that could increase the risk of…

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... remediation trust if the organization is organized under state law as a trust; the primary purpose of the... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust...

  9. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and...

  10. Metadata trust in a personal video recorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Trust is the belief or confidence in someone that their recommendations will work for you, i.e. that you will like the TV-programs (or other content) that they recommend. Many systems incorporate some notion of trust. Trust is more than similarity in taste, which makes trust a broader concept than

  11. Cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to unravel cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist. We investigated patients’ explanations of trust in-depth, and developed an oncology-specific questionnaire to assess trust. Using the resulting Trust in Oncologist Scale, we experimentally established the influence of

  12. [Trust in the care relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    A relationship of trust is an expression often used by caregivers, to such an extent that it almost seems self-evident. It is nevertheless important to give some thought to this aspect in order to construct a reliable, authentic and ethical care relationship. Indeed, trust is not automatic. It requires reciprocity, a deliberate choice on the part of the caregiver and the patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  14. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a

  15. Online Consumer Trust: Trends in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Bauman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the literature review of studies published in 2004-2014 (Web 2.0 period in the area of consumer online trust. Based on the content analysis of 138 papers, this study highlights three major research themes: (1 trust models, (2 technological, and (3 social factors impacting online trust. It also explores topics in each major theme found in direct studies of online consumer trust. Since this literature review uses the concept-centric approach, it points out not only the major trends in research but also three understudied areas: (1 green trust, (2 trust recovery, and (3 the role of ethics in developing online trust.

  16. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  17. Influence of trust in the spreading of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongrun; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly. Here, we study an information-spreading model in which the decision to transmit or not is based on trust. We explore the interplay between the propagation of information and the trust dynamics happening on a two-layer multiplex network. Actors' trustable or untrustable states are defined as accumulated cooperation or defection behaviors, respectively, in a Prisoner's Dilemma setup, and they are controlled by a memory span. The propagation of information is abstracted as a threshold model on the information-spreading layer, where the threshold depends on the trustability of agents. The analysis of the model is performed using a tree approximation and validated on homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results show that the memory of previous actions has a significant effect on the spreading of information. For example, the less memory that is considered, the higher is the diffusion. Information is highly promoted by the emergence of trustable acquaintances. These results provide insight into the effect of plausible biases on spreading dynamics in a multilevel networked system.

  18. Trust is a must: What is involved in trusting those who manage forest fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Liljeblad; Bill Borrie; Alan Watson

    2010-01-01

    Trust is a complicated emotion. In the past, many social scientists have studied trust. They discovered that trust involves a number of beliefs and emotions. The scientists in this study were interested in learning more about trust. They believed that forest managers can do a better job if people trust them to do what is best for citizens and the environment (figure 1...

  19. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  20. Clustering recommenders in collaborative filtering using explicit trust information

    KAUST Repository

    Pitsilis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the benefits of combining clustering and social trust information for Recommender Systems. We demonstrate the performance advantages of traditional clustering algorithms like k-Means and we explore the use of new ones like Affinity Propagation (AP). Contrary to what has been used before, we investigate possible ways that social-oriented information like explicit trust could be exploited with AP for forming clusters of high quality. We conducted a series of evaluation tests using data from a real Recommender system Epinions.com from which we derived conclusions about the usefulness of trust information in forming clusters of Recommenders. Moreover, from our results we conclude that the potential advantages in using clustering can be enlarged by making use of the information that Social Networks can provide. © 2011 International Federation for Information Processing.

  1. Trust information-based privacy architecture for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka Sakari; Blobel, Bernd; Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko

    2013-10-08

    Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections were developed using system

  2. Inter-organizational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge. These...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....

  3. Research on Linux Trusted Boot Method Based on Reverse Integrity Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trusted computing aims to build a trusted computing environment for information systems with the help of secure hardware TPM, which has been proved to be an effective way against network security threats. However, the TPM chips are not yet widely deployed in most computing devices so far, thus limiting the applied scope of trusted computing technology. To solve the problem of lacking trusted hardware in existing computing platform, an alternative security hardware USBKey is introduced in this paper to simulate the basic functions of TPM and a new reverse USBKey-based integrity verification model is proposed to implement the reverse integrity verification of the operating system boot process, which can achieve the effect of trusted boot of the operating system in end systems without TPMs. A Linux operating system booting method based on reverse integrity verification is designed and implemented in this paper, with which the integrity of data and executable files in the operating system are verified and protected during the trusted boot process phase by phase. It implements the trusted boot of operation system without TPM and supports remote attestation of the platform. Enhanced by our method, the flexibility of the trusted computing technology is greatly improved and it is possible for trusted computing to be applied in large-scale computing environment.

  4. Young entrepreneurs’ trust during the recession: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of positive trust on business activities, entrepreneurship development, and economic growth. During the global recession, institutions make numerous decisions to find answers to the crisis that influence the behaviour of entrepreneurs. In such situations, significant stocks of trust are of great importance for economy stability and the motivation of future entrepreneurs. In the first section the terms, functions, and types of trust are defined. The second section presents the results of measuring the interpersonal and institutional trust of young entrepreneurs, representatives of future entrepreneurship and business and bearers of networking ideas in Serbia. The results show that young entrepreneurs have a serious trust deficit, which is worrying in people who are potential future business leaders. Only one fifth of the respondents intends to start their own firm when they have finished studying. The reasons most often given are that government economic policy and monopolies hamper starting a business. Most of the respondents thought that the government should be more involved in providing a better environment for medium and small business. Most respondents believed that the Serbian recession was caused foremost by wrong governmental economic policy, followed by corruption.

  5. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a trust evaluation? 1000.354 Section 1000.354... Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.354 What is a trust evaluation? A trust...

  6. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadd, E. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  7. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, E.

    2002-01-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  8. International Trust and Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    as described by Brewer, Gross, Aday and Willnat (2004). The paper is based on case studies of five Public Diplomacy activities: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s letter in The Washington Post (2013); Denmark’s trust-building effort in Pakistan following the so-called “Muhammad crisis” (from 2010); The British......-level (Iran) or has created a framework for people-to-people relations (Denmark, UK and USA). A backlash was experienced in the case where a foreign state leader patronized the national leader (Russia). In all cases, respect for people in other countries despite differences in culture seems fundamental...... Council’s strategy for trust-building in China (2012); Russian President Vladimir Putin’s letter in The New York Times (2013), and the USA’s trust-building effort in Turkey (from 2006). The best results have been obtained where Public Diplomacy has been linked to successful traditional diplomacy at state...

  9. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...... and trust management issues. This paper presents a trust management system for OCS platforms. It models the concept of trust and applies it to OCS platforms. The trust model and the trust management system are verified through the simulation of the computation of the trust values with Infrastructure...

  10. The fair factor in matters of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren L

    2006-01-01

    Communities are bound together by trust among their members. Trust thrives when a pervasive sense of fairness exists. Evidence suggests that trust has social, professional, and economic value for today's organizations, making it worthy of attention. Matters of trust and justice are important and timely for nurse leaders to consider given the challenge to improve practice settings in a manner that enhances nurse satisfaction. The aim of this article is to make explicit the value in building organizational justice and trust within an organization's nursing community. Nursing leadership strategies are integrated, thus offering practical guidance in creating a culture of justice, making trust explicit, and establishing trustworthiness.

  11. Do professional boundaries limit trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Hennessy, Julia; Abbott, Max; Hughes, Frances

    2018-02-01

    The present study uses stories of mental health support workers talking about their relationship with clients to wonder about how trust might be limited by the professional boundaries of nursing. The writing arose out of an appreciative inquiry study looking at the role of mental health support workers. Participants talked about how they worked with their clients. As researchers, we were struck by the depth of trust that was built between worker and client. We have brought a phenomenological lens to wonder about the nature of trust, as shown in the data. The original research sought to identify what was working well for mental health support workers. The present study brings a phenomenological interpretive approach to four stories from the discovery phase of the study, with our thinking informed by Heidegger and van Manen. Interviews were conducted with 26 mental health support workers and six stakeholders in 2012-2103. For this paper, we drew from those transcripts stories of three mental health support workers and one stakeholder. Through a process of talking together, writing, and rewriting, we wondered about the meaning within these stories, with a strong focus on how trust was enacted. We saw that mental health support workers in this study, by not carrying the boundaries of being 'professional', seemed free to grow a stronger relationship of trust which was therapeutic. We ask: Is it time to rethink how professional boundaries limit the level of trust achieved with clients to the detriment of impactful care? © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  13. Trust me, I am Robot!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoyanova, Angelina; Drefeld, Jonas; Tanev, Stoyan

    of the emerging trust relationship is a key component of the use value of the robotic system and of the value proposition of the robotic system producers. The study is based on a qualitative research approach combining the phenomenological research paradigm with a grounded theory building approach based......The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the issues regarding the emergence of trust within the context of the interaction between human patients and medical rehabilitation technology based on robot system solutions. The starting assumption of the analysis is that the articulation...

  14. Maintaining control while delegating trust: Integrity constraints in trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.; Winsborough, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust management-style authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then, we address the fact that not all participants in a

  15. Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public

  16. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fett, A.J.; Shergill, S.; Korver-Nieberg, N.; Yakub, F.; Gromann, P.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties

  17. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  18. Trust and Distrust in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Joo Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the key ingredient for sustainable transactions. In the concept of trust, the trustor trusts the trustees. In e-commerce, the trustor is the buyer and the trustees are the intermediaries and the seller. Intermediaries provide the web-based infrastructure that enables buyers and sellers to make transactions. Trust is the buyer’s judgment and comprises two distinct concepts; both trust and distrust reside in the trustor. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated effects of trust and distrust on a buyer’s purchase intentions. Previous studies have provided theoretical frameworks illustrating co-existent trust and distrust, trust transfers from one to another, and trust in buyer-intermediary-seller relationships. Based on these frameworks, this study (i presented a holistic model that contained the judgment of buyers resulting in trust or distrust in the intermediary and the seller; (ii investigated trust and distrust transfer from the intermediary to the seller, and (iii explored the effects of various antecedents that affect trust and distrust. To validate the proposed model, we employed Partial Least Squares (PLS. A summary of key findings are as follows. First, buyer’s trust in an intermediary positively affected his or her trust in the seller, positively influencing purchase intention. In other words, we found the trust transfer from an intermediary to its seller. Second, distrust in an intermediary directly impacted on the buyer’s perceived risk, negatively influencing his or her purchase intentions. Third, structural assurance and perceived website quality of an intermediary gave a positive impact on buyer’s trust in the intermediary. The results of this study shed light on the necessity of managing both trust and distrust to facilitate sales in e-commerce.

  19. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  20. A Survey on Security, Privacy and Trust in Mobile Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wei; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Hengrun; Zeng, Kai; Xiao, Yu; Hou, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    With the popularity of sensor-rich mobile devices (e.g., smart phones and wearable devices), Mobile Crowdsourcing (MCS) has emerged as an effective method for data collection and processing. Compared with traditional Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN), MCS holds many advantages such as mobility, scalability, cost-efficiency, and human intelligence. However, MCS still faces many challenges with regard to security, privacy and trust. This paper provides a survey of these challenges and discusses ...

  1. Consumer Generated Advertising and Brand Trust in The Consumer Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, C

    2010-01-01

    Increasing media clutter now exposes consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten, 2007). The advent of the internet and technology over the past twenty years now means consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites are a further source (Gritten, 2007). Building brand trust remains, now more than ever, crucial to corporate marketers, in a world where consumers are losing faith in traditional marketing strategies. Social media has give...

  2. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Online health information - what can you trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000869.htm Online health information - what can you trust? To use the sharing features on this page, ... the difference? To find health information you can trust, you have to know where and how to ...

  4. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  5. Trust and Dialogue in the Army Profession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, III, James M

    2008-01-01

    .... Trust involves the expectation that the object of trust will behave in a favorable manner, and includes the willingness of a person to be vulnerable to the actions of another based on this expectation...

  6. An Outline of Interpersonal Trust and Distrust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    The article is part of the dialogue "Intentional Trust in Uganda" with anthropologist Lotte Meinert......The article is part of the dialogue "Intentional Trust in Uganda" with anthropologist Lotte Meinert...

  7. Integrating a Trust Framework with a Distributed Certificate Validation Scheme for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marias Giannis F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many trust establishment solutions in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs rely on public key certificates. Therefore, they should be accompanied by an efficient mechanism for certificate revocation and validation. Ad hoc distributed OCSP for trust (ADOPT is a lightweight, distributed, on-demand scheme based on cached OCSP responses, which provides certificate status information to the nodes of a MANET. In this paper we discuss the ADOPT scheme and issues on its deployment over MANETs. We present some possible threats to ADOPT and suggest the use of a trust assessment and establishment framework, named ad hoc trust framework (ATF, to support ADOPT's robustness and efficiency. ADOPT is deployed as a trust-aware application that provides feedback to ATF, which calculates the trustworthiness of the peer nodes' functions and helps ADOPT to improve its performance by rapidly locating valid certificate status information. Moreover, we introduce the TrustSpan algorithm to reduce the overhead that ATF produces, and the TrustPath algorithm to identify and use trusted routes for propagating sensitive information, such as third parties' accusations. Simulation results show that ATF adds limited overhead compared to its efficiency in detecting and isolating malicious and selfish nodes. ADOPT's reliability is increased, since it can rapidly locate a legitimate response by using information provided by ATF.

  8. Mechanizing Social Trust-Aware Recommenders with T-index Augmented Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Zarghami, Alireza; Dokoohaki, Nima; Matskin, Mihhail; Katsikas, Sokratis; Lopez, Javier; Soriano, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Social Networks have dominated growth and popularity of the Web to an extent which has never been witnessed before. Such popularity puts forward issue of trust to the participants of Social Networks. Collaborative Filtering Recommenders have been among many systems which have begun taking full

  9. Does Trust Matter for Entrepreneurship: Evidence from a Cross-Section of Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oasis Kodila-Tedika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences in trust levels between countries explain the observed discrepancies in entrepreneurial spirit amongst them. We test this hypothesis with a cross-section of 60 countries in 2010. Our findings suggest that about half of the variation in entrepreneurial spirit across countries in the world is driven by trust considerations. This result is robust to regional clustering, outliers and alternative conditioning variables. The findings of the study indicate that while formal incentives to nurture entrepreneurship must be maintained, policy makers should also seek to pay attention to the role of trust cultivated through informal networks.

  10. A Calculus for Trust Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2004-01-01

    principals to policies. We elect to formalise policies using a Datalog-like logic, and to express protocols in the process algebra style. This yields an expressive calculus very suitable for the global computing scenarios, and provides a formalisation of notions such as trust evolution. For ctm we define...

  11. Afgivelse af formue til trusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Kravet om at en stifter skal have foretaget en "uigenkaldelig og effektiv udskillelse" for at dansk skatteret vil anerkende at der foreligger en trust vurderes. Kravet er senest lagt til grund i SKM 2009.249 SR. Forfatteren opfordrer til, at SKAT i stedet foretager en konkret vurdering af selve...

  12. Description of the Wellcome Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Wellcome Trust supports research of the highest quality with the aim of improving human and animal health, and our Strategic Plan provides the framework for how we intend to evolve our support to be even more effective in achieving this aim.

  13. INNOVATION - THE ROLE OF TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Lazányi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovations and constant change are inevitable parts of our everyday lives. It is not only because advanced technologies are more effective, but mostly because in the 21st century more and more realise that scarce resources – among them the safe and clean environment as such - necessitate a paradigm change and intense innovation. This revolution is easily trackable in the organisational and (supranational policies. However, innovation, and its necessary prerequisites are seldom investigated from the individuals’ point of view. It is easy to understand that inter-organisational trust is inevitable on both the consumers’ and the providers’ (innovators’ side, however, it has to be made clear that an innovative organisation has to create a trusting environment within the company, in order to foster collaboration, the generation of new ideas, creativity and finally innovation. The present paper endeavours to call attention to the notion of trust and its antecedents and consequences in relation to innovations. The aim is to provide assistance in understanding how to develop trust in each other and hence foster further innovations and development.

  14. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TITTENBRUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  15. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    TITTENBRUN Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  16. Ombud's Corner: tried and trusted

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Trust is an essential ingredient in all working relationships. When trust breaks down, conflicts may arise and teams may stop working in harmony. The Ombud is there to help you to find your way out before the point of no return is reached.   Reliability, integrity, expertise and good will: these are the four pillars on which trust is built. Trust between colleagues may break down for many different reasons, including misunderstandings, and the way to restoring the relationship is through working on these four pillars. For instance, if we assume that we do indeed have the expertise to deal with a particular task assigned to us, we may need to improve our reliability by making sure that we meet deadlines and expectations or demonstrate our integrity by acknowledging and accepting accountability for this, all the while showing that we are doing our best to do whatever it takes to achieve the common goals and restore our colleagues’ faith in us. All four of these pillars need to be in...

  17. Income trusts and limited partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toews, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs

  18. Perceived Usefulness and Trust towards Consumer Behaviors: A Perspective of Consumer Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Yi Jin; Abdullah Bin Osman; Mohd Suberi Bin AB.Halim

    2014-01-01

    In this globalization era, the Internet has become an important tool for web browsing, social networking and even making online purchases. In Malaysia, few studies have examined the influence of perceived usefulness and trust on the online shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, the current study intends to investigate whether perceived usefulness and trust influence the online shopping behavior of consumers in northern Malaysia which comprises Kedah, Perlis, Penang and Perak. The relationship ...

  19. Consumer Trust in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Malin; Johansson, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    An often mentioned reason for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors, is the lack of trust. The lack of physical clues and physical interaction in the online environment make it more difficult to establish trust with the consumers. So, it is important for companies to learn how to manage consumers’ trust in e-commerce. Although, building consumer trust on the Internet is a challenge for online vendors. The purpose with this dissertation was to get a better understanding of consumer t...

  20. Trust and School Life: The Role of Trust for Learning, Teaching, Leading, and Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele, Dimitri, Ed.; Forsyth, Patrick B., Ed.; Van Houtte, Miek, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book samples recent and emerging trust research in education including an array of conceptual approaches, measurement innovations, and explored determinants and outcomes of trust. The collection of pathways explores the phenomenon of trust and establishes the significance of trust relationships in school life. It emboldens the claim that…

  1. Racial and Religious Discrimination in Charitable Trusts: A Current Analysis of Constitutional and Trust Law Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Roy M.

    1976-01-01

    The process by which constitutional and trust law have blended together in the charitable trust field is examined. Focus is on whether a settlor can expect racial and religious restrictions in a charitable trust to be allowed, how to deal with them if they are, and what happens to the trust property if they are not. (LBH)

  2. The Trust Project - Symbiotic Human Machine Teams: Social Cueing for Trust and Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0096 THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE Susan Rivers, Monika Lohani, Marissa...30 JUN 2012 – 30 JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE 5a. CONTRACT

  3. Trust, accreditation and Philanthropy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public's trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public's trust by signaling their

  4. Trust, accreditation, and philanthropy in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Rene H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public’s trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public’s trust by signaling their

  5. The Role of Trust in Computer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    technologies and show how many of them concern the placement of trust on human or system agents. We argue that making such assumptions about trust explicit is an essential requirement for the future of system security and argue why the formalisation of computational trust is necessary when we wish to reason...

  6. Public trust: expectancies, beliefs, and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most people think of trust as the bonding force between people in romantic, professional, and family relationships. Of growing importance however is public trust: trust in organizations that are not represented by a single person, such as companies, non-profit organizations and governmental

  7. The edge of trust : An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, A.M.; Krueger, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of interpersonal trust are an essential part of understanding how people think and act in social interactions. Trust enables human beings to form meaningful personal relationships (Simpson, 2007) and engage in mutually profitable social and economic exchanges (Kohn, 2008). Yet, trust is

  8. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  9. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  10. Temperament Constructs Related to Betrayal of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    disintegrate. The interrelatedness between system trust and interpersonal trust has been noted by Durkheim (1933), who predicted a loss of trust in others...and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265-279. Durkheim , E. (1933). The division of labor in societ’. New York: Free Press of Glencoe

  11. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  12. Trust in initial encounters : a motivational, cognitive theory

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Svein Tvedt

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation I develop a theoretical model on the effects of risk on the formation of trust in the initial stages of a relationship. Risk is proposed to influence trust in two ways: First, risk exerts a direct influence on trust. Risk may decrease trust, increase trust, or increase trust under specific conditions. Second, risk may affect the level of trust indirectly by influencing the effect of social stimuli on the formation of trust. In this second indirect effect of risk, ri...

  13. The Effects of Trust Transference, Mobile Attributes and Enjoyment on Mobile Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Junqueira Giovannini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential in building relationships. In mobile commerce, as in electronic commerce, trust is even more valuable given the absence of human contact and direct observation of the service provider. Despite the importance of trust for mobile commerce, there has been little academic effort to study the relationships between mobile devices unique components of interactivity and customer trust, or the relationship between offline, online and mobile trust. This study proposes a trust-mediated model for customer attitude and transaction intentions in mobile commerce contexts that incorporates trust transference and unique factors present in mobile commerce. Data were collected in an online survey and analyzed via structural equations modeling. Results suggest that trust transferred from online contexts and ease of use have significant effects on mobile trust formation, while also indicating that mobile trust influences consumers’ attitudes and intentions to purchase using mobile devices.

  14. Factors influencing trust in media: exploring the association between media consumption and news about the 15M Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna Fernández-Planells

    2015-01-01

    Debate over consumer trust in traditional media has intensified due to theappearance of networked social movements, particularly considering media coverage ofthe protests, the emergence of alternative media and social media as informationsources. A survey was created for this study to provide insight into the associationbetween media exposure, trust and political participation in networked socialmovements, specifically among 15M Movement activists. Data is presented to show towhat extent do ...

  15. Trust Levels Definition On Virtual Learning Platforms Through Semantic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Montenegro-Marin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trust level concept is a topic that has opened a knowledge area about the profile evaluation and the people participation in Social Networks. These have presented a high knowledge profit, but at the same time it is necessary to analyze a group of variables to determine the trust participants’ degree.In addition, this is a topic that from some years ago has been presenting a big expectation to settle some alternatives to generate confidence in an activer community on internet. To establish these parameters it is important to define a model to abstract some variables that are involved in this process. For this, it is relevant to take into account the semantic languages as one of the alternatives that allow these kinds of activities. The purpose of this article is to analyze the Trust Levels definition in the contents that are shared on Open Source Virtual learning Platforms through the use of a model of representation of semantic languages. The last ones allow determining the trust in the use of learning objects that are shared in this kind of platforms

  16. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  17. Predators and the public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Adrian; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, Jose V; Shoemaker, Chase; Goeckner, Apollonia R; Bruskotter, Jeremy T

    2017-02-01

    Many democratic governments recognize a duty to conserve environmental resources, including wild animals, as a public trust for current and future citizens. These public trust principles have informed two centuries of U.S.A. Supreme Court decisions and environmental laws worldwide. Nevertheless numerous populations of large-bodied, mammalian carnivores (predators) were eradicated in the 20th century. Environmental movements and strict legal protections have fostered predator recoveries across the U.S.A. and Europe since the 1970s. Now subnational jurisdictions are regaining management authority from central governments for their predator subpopulations. Will the history of local eradication repeat or will these jurisdictions adopt public trust thinking and their obligation to broad public interests over narrower ones? We review the role of public trust principles in the restoration and preservation of controversial species. In so doing we argue for the essential roles of scientists from many disciplines concerned with biological diversity and its conservation. We look beyond species endangerment to future generations' interests in sustainability, particularly non-consumptive uses. Although our conclusions apply to all wild organisms, we focus on predators because of the particular challenges they pose for government trustees, trust managers, and society. Gray wolves Canis lupus L. deserve particular attention, because detailed information and abundant policy debates across regions have exposed four important challenges for preserving predators in the face of interest group hostility. One challenge is uncertainty and varied interpretations about public trustees' responsibilities for wildlife, which have created a mosaic of policies across jurisdictions. We explore how such mosaics have merits and drawbacks for biodiversity. The other three challenges to conserving wildlife as public trust assets are illuminated by the biology of predators and the interacting

  18. The Process Perspective on Trust in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Several trust researchers have pointed to the relevance of the process perspective for understanding trust in organizations. In this paper I review the attempts to apply the process perspective in trust research distinguishing between a soft and a strong process perspective. It appears that nearly......’s history? A few examples of studies applying a strong process perspective to trust in organizations is discussed.  Summarising, I argue that the process perspective, in general, may contribute furthering the understanding of the complexities of the development of trust over time and that the strong process...

  19. Analyzing Trust Perceptions in System Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    ' perceptions of trust relations influence future actions, and in this way have both negative and positive consequences. We also conclude that Giddens' theories of trust provide a promising insight into the dynamic aspects of trust relations in implementation projects, which go further than trust theories...... a framework based on Giddens´ theory of modernity. The framework theorizes dynamic elements of the evolution of trust, not previously investigated in this context. The data collection involves 4 actors interviewed twice in 2006 and 2007; and the data analysis strategy is content analysis using Nvivo software...

  20. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  1. Economic and Other Determinants of Political Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DiPietro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Political trust is important for the effective functioning of government. This paper uses cross country regression analysis to see whether three different measures of economic performance matter for political trust. The results lend support to the hypothesis that political trust is influenced by economic growth, the standard of living, and the appropriate use of government spending. In addition, the paper considers two institutional variables, perceived independence of the judiciary and the degree of democracy to assess their effect on political trust. It finds that perceived judicial independence has a positive effect on political trust, but democracy has a negative effect.

  2. Managerial Challenges Within Networks - Emphasizing the Paradox of Network Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... and thereby sort out the paradox of network participation. Trust and information are mechanisms employed to absorb uncertainty. The relationship between trust and the requirement for information depends on the maturity of the relationship. When trust becomes too important as uncertainty absorption mechanism...

  3. Managerial challenges within networks: emphasizing the paradox of network participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    Flexibility and access to numerous resources are essential benefits associated with network participation. An important aspect of managing the network participation of a company is to maintain a dynamic portfolio of partners, and thereby keep up the strategic opportunities for development. However......, maintaining the dynamics within a network seems to be a complex challenge. There is a risk that the network ends up in The Paradox of Network Participation. The desired renewal and flexibility are not utilised because the involved parties preserve the existing networks structure consisting of the same...... and thereby sort out the paradox of network participation. Trust and information are mechanisms employed to absorb uncertainty. The relationship between trust and the requirement for information depends on the maturity of the relationship. When trust becomes too important as uncertainty absorption mechanism...

  4. Peer influence on protest participation : Communication and trust between co-workers as inhibitors or facilitators of mobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, Marieke; Akkerman, Agnes; Thommes, Kirsten

    In this article, we investigate how communication and trust networks between employees affect participation in a strike. We analyze whether the strength of network relations is related to congruence in strike behavior using social network data on 59 Dutch workers. We find that private communication

  5. The social context of trust relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Milena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the widest sense, this paper focuses on the problematization (and operationalization of the concept of trust and its social context, with a special emphasis on its multiple meanings, the ways of establishing trust, as well as its functions. After pointing to the various definitions of trust that highlight its cognitive, behavioral, and relational groundings, we proceed to examine the aspects of 'social embeddedness' of trust. In this context, we highlight the structural aspect of trust relations, their institutional embeddedness, mediation through cultural meanings, as well as the wider context of social circumstances and limitations. We place a special emphasis on the concept of 'trust culture', its morphogenesis and functions, as well as the significance of trust culture in the context of diminishing the social uncertainty that arises in the situations when trust is demonstrated. Finally, we point to the social functions of trust on the macro level, the functional substitutes for trust, as well as the relationship between trust and social capital.

  6. Trusting the other or taking a chance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2016-01-01

    Theories of modernity and risk society argue that increasing levels of risk fundamentally alter or lower the level of trust in society. In this article we argue that this assumption is based in a fallacious theoretical link between trust and risk. Rather than calculative assessment of risk...... and specific events, trust directs anticipation towards process. First, we outline dominant approaches to trust as a question of actions and uncertainty of outcomes, arguing that these approaches treat trust and chance as interchangeable, conflating the different socio-temporalities within which risk and trust......, respectively, reside. Secondly, the issue of temporality is traced in Luhmann’s work on trust and it is demonstrated how his dichotomous treatment of social time conflates markedly different temporal experiences. As a solution to this, the article presents the notion of a third temporal mode of the process...

  7. Trust-Based Leadership in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Tina Øllgaard; Jagd, Søren

    I spite of the popularity of trust-based leadership in consultancy and popular management writings empirical research on the transformation from traditional top-down to trust-based leadership is still limited. In this paper we study the implementation of a trust-based leadership reform in the City...... of Copenhagen taking place since 2012. We focus on understanding the trust dynamics in this major transformation. We show that the implementation of trust-based leadership should be seen as an emergent process involving a variety of actors within the organization. The case study reveals that the Trust Reform...... indicates that the implementation of a radical management reform involves a complex interplay of trust relations between actors at multiple levels of the organization....

  8. Trust dynamics in a large system implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    outcomes, but largely ignored the dynamics of trust relations. Giddens, as part of his study of modernity, theorises trust dynamics in relation to abstract social systems, though without focusing on information systems. We use Giddens’ concepts to investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal......A large information systems implementation (such as Enterprise Resource Planning systems) relies on the trust of its stakeholders to succeed. Such projects impact diverse groups of stakeholders, each with their legitimate interests and expectations. Levels of stakeholder trust can be expected...... case analysis of a large Integrated Hospital System implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered a serious breakdown, but the project was able to recover and meet its goals. We develop six theoretical propositions theorising the relationship between trust and project outcomes...

  9. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical  methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  10. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  11. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  12. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Chip

    2002-01-01

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  13. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  14. BRI: Cyber Trust and Suspicion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    character modulate the neural systems of reward during the trust game.,” Nat. Neurosci., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1611–1618, 2005. [48] T. Baumgartner, M...experiments. The first experiment focused on collecting mouse data while subjects used an unmanned system simulator, and the second experiment allowed...insider, like any individual, possesses influences, motivations , abilities, beliefs, strengths, and weaknesses. Understanding what drives and

  15. TRUST MATTERS: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF NORTHERN GHANA AND OAXACA GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eAcedo-Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural analysis of trust and cooperation networks in Northern Ghana (NGHA and Oaxaca (OAX was carried out by means of ego networks and interviews. These regions were chosen because both are inhabited by several ethnic groups, thus providing a good opportunity to test the cultural group selection hypothesis. Against the predictions of this approach, we found that in both regions cooperation is grounded in personal trust groups, and that social cohesion depends on these emotional bonds. Moreover, in agreement with Fiske's notion of evolved proclivities, we also found two distinct kinds of trust networks, one for each region, which vary in terms of the degree of ethnic interrelation. This pattern suggests that social cohesion increases when environmental resources are scarce.

  16. Social Trust and Value Similarity: the Relationship between Social Trust and Human Values in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Beilmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to test whether value similarity may foster social trust in society and whether people have higher levels of social trust when they emphasise the same values that prevail in their country. The relationship between social trust and human values was examined in a sample of 51,308 people across 29 European countries using data from the European Social Survey round 6. Results suggest that value similarity is more important in generating individual level social trust in countries where the overall levels of social trust are higher. There is a stronger positive relationship between value similarity and social trust in Scandinavian countries, which have high social trust levels, while in countries with a low level of social trust, congruity of the personal value structure with the country level value structure tends to decrease the individuals trustfulness

  17. Trust-Enhanced Cloud Service Selection Model Based on QoS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuchen; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology plays a very important role in many areas, such as in the construction and development of the smart city. Meanwhile, numerous cloud services appear on the cloud-based platform. Therefore how to how to select trustworthy cloud services remains a significant problem in such platforms, and extensively investigated owing to the ever-growing needs of users. However, trust relationship in social network has not been taken into account in existing methods of cloud service selection and recommendation. In this paper, we propose a cloud service selection model based on the trust-enhanced similarity. Firstly, the direct, indirect, and hybrid trust degrees are measured based on the interaction frequencies among users. Secondly, we estimate the overall similarity by combining the experience usability measured based on Jaccard's Coefficient and the numerical distance computed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Then through using the trust degree to modify the basic similarity, we obtain a trust-enhanced similarity. Finally, we utilize the trust-enhanced similarity to find similar trusted neighbors and predict the missing QoS values as the basis of cloud service selection and recommendation. The experimental results show that our approach is able to obtain optimal results via adjusting parameters and exhibits high effectiveness. The cloud services ranking by our model also have better QoS properties than other methods in the comparison experiments.

  18. Trust and social capital in the design and evolution of institutions for collective action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Six

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an original account of trust in the framework of large scale, international collective action institutions. Our research question focuses on the desired structures and mechanisms that are necessary to sustain the trust needed to uphold the effective operation of institutions for collective action. Our theoretical framework for studying trust is based on the social capital theory. Social capital is defined as the features of social organization, such as trust, networks and norms that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. We claim that in different sectors and contexts stakeholders encounter difficulties in collaborating in setting up experimental institutions for collective action. In order to generate more collaboration, stakeholders need to create structures that incite actors to find the optimal way to sustain trust, to organizationally acknowledge and learn that process, and to nourish it with the precise normative idea behind the institutional apparatus. In the areas of plant genetic resources and biomedicine, stakeholders have encountered these difficulties while experimenting with different coordination mechanisms for dealing with the increased appropriation of knowledge through patents. Our two case studies in plant genetic resources and biomedicine reflect the idea that institutions must be understood as complex pragmatic connectors of trust, i.e. social matrices of collective action that sustain individual commitment, where routine and reflexivity drive trust-based coordination mechanisms in interaction with their environment. From this theoretical framework we derive some recommendations that could be useful in deciding on how to implement this idea.

  19. Exploring trust relationships during times of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Von der Ohe

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different variables such as demographics on trust relationships in South African organisations. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence and preliminary data collected for a national trust indicator seemed to suggest a shift in trust levels in organisations. Research design: A trust questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 307 respondents in all economic sectors. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were used to determine significant differences among economic sectors, job levels and sample periods. Main findings: No significant differences were found for job levels or the different sample periods. However, significant differences were found for the economic sectors and, specifically, between government participants and other sectors for the dimensions of change, team management, organisational trust, information sharing and credibility. Practical implications: In times of change, leadership in organisations need to be aware of the impact on trust levels. It is therefore important that leaders in government focus more on trust-enhancing behaviours needed to repair mistrust in organisations. Contribution: Although the effect of time on trust levels is inconclusive, the clearly differing levels of trust in various economic sectors point to the importance of appropriate and fitting approaches to building trust and not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ attitude.

  20. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Annabelle; Coveney, John; Henderson, Julie; Meyer, Samantha; Calnan, Michael; Caraher, Martin; Webb, Trevor; Elliott, Anthony; Ward, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food?who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit?has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food indu...

  1. Paradoxes in virtual team knowledge communication and trust building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposal presents paradoxes within current trust and knowledge management literatures as a lens for understanding challenges in virtual teams working across organisational and geographic boundaries. By exposing contradictions within current virtual team research, the author proposes...... a need for a different, multi-level, multi-theoretical approach to virtual team research in order to overcome the paradoxes. A moderate constructionist research position building on Critical Realism is proposed. To situate the project within current literatures, trust, knowledge management and virtual...... team literatures are reviewed. These are used to support the paradoxes used as a lens for understanding. A research design is presented building on interviews, documentary analysis and observations analysed using Social Network Analysis and James Gee’s framework for discourse analysis. Finally...

  2. Organizational Culture and Network Embeddedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Koen, C.I.; Beugelsdijk, S.

    2002-01-01

    A question that has been neglected in network research is where differences in network embeddedness come from.The network literature reveals that there are three key characteristics of embedded relationships: trust, open communication, and joint problem solving.On the basis of the sparse empirical

  3. Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Grid Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the key issues for wireless sensor network trust model and describes a method to build a wireless sensor network, such as the definition of trust for wireless sensor networks, computing and credibility of trust model application. And for the problem that nodes are vulnerable to attack, this paper proposed a grid-based trust algorithm by deep exploration trust model within the framework of credit management. Algorithm for node reliability screening and rotation schedule to cover parallel manner based on the implementation of the nodes within the area covered by trust. And analyze the results of the size of trust threshold has great influence on the safety and quality of coverage throughout the coverage area. The simulation tests the validity and correctness of the algorithm.

  4. A trust region interior point algorithm for optimal power flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Min [Hefei University of Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Automation; Liu Shengsong [Jiangsu Electric Power Dispatching and Telecommunication Company (China). Dept. of Automation

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm that uses the trust region interior point method to solve nonlinear optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The OPF problem is solved by a primal/dual interior point method with multiple centrality corrections as a sequence of linearized trust region sub-problems. It is the trust region that controls the linear step size and ensures the validity of the linear model. The convergence of the algorithm is improved through the modification of the trust region sub-problem. Numerical results of standard IEEE systems and two realistic networks ranging in size from 14 to 662 buses are presented. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective to optimal power flow applications, and favors the successive linear programming (SLP) method. Comparison with the predictor/corrector primal/dual interior point (PCPDIP) method is also made to demonstrate the superiority of the multiple centrality corrections technique. (author)

  5. A collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on weighted SimRank and social trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Butao

    2017-05-01

    Collaborative filtering is one of the most widely used recommendation technologies, but the data sparsity and cold start problem of collaborative filtering algorithms are difficult to solve effectively. In order to alleviate the problem of data sparsity in collaborative filtering algorithm, firstly, a weighted improved SimRank algorithm is proposed to compute the rating similarity between users in rating data set. The improved SimRank can find more nearest neighbors for target users according to the transmissibility of rating similarity. Then, we build trust network and introduce the calculation of trust degree in the trust relationship data set. Finally, we combine rating similarity and trust to build a comprehensive similarity in order to find more appropriate nearest neighbors for target user. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper improves the recommendation precision of the Collaborative algorithm effectively.

  6. Trust and Society: Suggestions for Further Development of Niklas Luhmann's Theory of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgner, Christian

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses an apparent gap in the work of Niklas Luhmann. While the issue of trust continues to receive widespread attention in the social sciences, Luhmann's interest in this topic declined following the development of his systems theory. It is argued that this decline does not reflect any diminished relevance of trust for systems theory, but rather that the architectural remodeling of theory cannot easily be applied to the issue of trust. Here, the issue of trust is reconceptualized as a connection medium. This entails a reconstruction of Luhmann's early theory of trust, especially with regard to function and social positioning. In this context, trust can in turn be linked to the concept of medium in Luhmann's late work. As a connection medium, trust mediates between the different levels of sociality-interaction, organization, and society. These theoretical considerations are employed to develop a more applied framework for empirical research, with a brief case study from southern Italy. From this perspective, the idea of trust as society's glue is seen to be overly simplistic. The common ethical understanding that more trust leads to a better society is also questioned on the grounds that social cooperation can also lead to social sclerosis. Finally, risk and trust are shown to accommodate the formation of different cultures of trust. The paper shows how Luhmann's updated version of trust can inspire current research and enhance our understanding of how trust operates in contemporary society. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  7. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social trust, interpersonal trust and self-rated health in China: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn

    2016-11-08

    Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational

  9. The multileveled division of trust labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    at the intersubjective and institutional levels. I argue that confidence in institutions define the playing field of uncertainty in intersubjective relations, thus underpinning both the possibility and scope of intersubjective trust. However, once confidence in the institutional setting is brought into question......The trust concept is inherently linked to institutional issues. Trust, according to contemporary research, may be directed at both people and institutions and the influence of institutions may affect both trust in other people and trust in other institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place...... at the expense of accuracy and may block our understanding of the intricacies of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This paper suggests a conceptual clarification of this issue by employing a phenomenological approach to the perspective of the trustor, differentiating the types of uncertainty involved...

  10. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  11. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.

  12. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  13. Explaining the emergence of social trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Tinggaard Svendsen, Gert; Graeff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably not destro......How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably...... not destroyed up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. In Germany, however, political instability since the first German state building hampered the emergence and maintenance of social trust, which is why social trust was never allowed to grow in this country....

  14. Trust, accreditation and Philanthropy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public’s trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public’s trust by signaling their trustworthiness. The example of the Netherlands shows how a system of accreditation can be an instrument for signaling trustworthiness to the public. Donors aware of the accreditation system have ...

  15. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  16. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a...

  17. Human Nature in the Adaptation of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter pleads for more inspiration from human nature, in agent-based modeling.As an illustration of an effort in that direction, it summarizes and discusses an agentbased model of the build-up and adaptation of trust between multiple producers and suppliers.The central question is whether, and under what conditions, trust and loyalty are viable in markets.While the model incorporates some well known behavioural phenomena from the trust literature, more extended modeling of human nature ...

  18. Trust conceptualized as a corporate knowledge asset

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Waymond; Gago Rodríguez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    To most individuals, "trust" can be viewed as a knowledge corporate asset that may add, or rest, value to the company. The role of knowledge in achieving a competitive advantage is becoming and increasingly important management issue in all business and non-business sectors. As such, our Throughput Modeling approach indicates how six different trust behaviors can be guided, how trust decision making can be improved and made defensible, and how special problems facing individuals can be dealt ...

  19. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  20. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  1. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  2. Exploring the Change from Low-Trust to High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    what the notion of high-trust organization actually means, and that the change process in the direction of high trust organizations involves not only a quantitative growth in trust, but may involve important qualitative changes in the organization, especially concerning the relations between management......A growing body of literature point to the increasing importance of trust for organizations and for the explicit use of trust as a management tool. The explicit or implicit message in both management literature and research literature on trust as a management tool is that managers should pursue...... projects of personal and organizational change leading to high-trust organizations. In this paper I explore how we may understand this change towards high-trust organizations: What does it mean, what is the content of such a change, and what may be the consequences. I show that it is still rather unclear...

  3. Trust matters: Patients' and providers' accounts of the role of trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kahabi Isangula

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that trust in patient-doctor relationship ... Improving trust in the patient - doctor relationship may be one of the important lenses ...... World Bank. (2015) Country and Lending Groups. (Internet). Available at.

  4. Review of Interorganizational Trust Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    mais les résultats de la recherche se sont avérés relativement maigres. Bien que nous ayons trouvé de nombreux modèles de confiance...rooted in common values, including a common concept of moral obligation. This type of trust typically takes a long time to develop, and is the type of...Perspectives on relationship repair and implications (Dirks et al., 2009, p. 72) Attributional theories propose that one party uses information about a

  5. Trust in Client-Vendor Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In an ever more globalized world we are faced with the challenges of collaborating across geographical distance. This article examines how trust is established in an offshore outsourcing engagement of IT operations between a leading Danish media company and an Indian IT-service provider. The find......, by imitating the way they communicate face-to-face, when collaborating virtually....... and organizational boundaries within the field of IT offshore outsourcing. The article concludes that trust is primarily established when the teams are meeting face-to-face and in order to establish trust at a distance they are dependent on technology being readily available and on engaging in active trust building...

  6. NGOs, Trust, and the Accountability Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Thrandardottir, Erla

    2017-01-01

    NGOs are undergoing an alleged crisis of trustworthiness. The past decades have seen an increase in both academic and practitioner skepticism, particularly given the transformations many NGOs have undergone in size, professionalism, and political importance. The accountability agenda, which...... on theoretical innovations in trust research to put forward three arguments. First, the proponents of the accountability agenda are implicitly working with a rational model of trust. Second, this model does not reflect important social characteristics of trust between donors and NGOs. Third, this mismatch means...... that the accountability agenda might do more to harm trust in NGOs than to help it....

  7. Playing Attack and Defense with Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is often convenient to assume in a data management platform that one or several computing devices are trusted, specially when the goal is to provide privacy guarantees over personal data. But what does it take for a computing device to be trusted? More specifically, how can a personal device...... provide trusted storage? This is the question we tackle in this demonstration. We describe how secure devices, equipped with a trusted execution environment, differ from general purpose devices. We illustrate with our demonstration scenario, that it is much more difficult to attack a storage service...... running on a secure device, than to attack the same service running on a general purpose device....

  8. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  9. Heuritic Trust in IoT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Bipjeet; Tange, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of Internet of things in diverse fields has demanding association in security and trust of such services. The trust on the services cannot exist independent. It is greatly depended on the security of system at each layer. In this paper we analyze different existing trust algorithms...... to develop a combined reputation and trust algorithm. This algorithm is developed in view of developing trustworthy services in the agriculture field where the end users are cautious about their sensitive data but keen in trustworthy services to improve the efficiency of the product....

  10. A mobile and portable trusted computing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepal Surya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanism of establishing trust in a computing platform is tightly coupled with the characteristics of a specific machine. This limits the portability and mobility of trust as demanded by many emerging applications that go beyond the organizational boundaries. In order to address this problem, we propose a mobile and portable trusted computing platform in a form of a USB device. First, we describe the design and implementation of the hardware and software architectures of the device. We then demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed device by developing a trusted application.

  11. Explaining the emergence of social trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Graeff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably...... not destroyed up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. In Germany, however, political instability since the first German state building hampered the emergence and maintenance of social trust, which is why social trust was never allowed to grow in this country....

  12. Trust in automation: integrating empirical evidence on factors that influence trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin Anthony; Bashir, Masooda

    2015-05-01

    We systematically review recent empirical research on factors that influence trust in automation to present a three-layered trust model that synthesizes existing knowledge. Much of the existing research on factors that guide human-automation interaction is centered around trust, a variable that often determines the willingness of human operators to rely on automation. Studies have utilized a variety of different automated systems in diverse experimental paradigms to identify factors that impact operators' trust. We performed a systematic review of empirical research on trust in automation from January 2002 to June 2013. Papers were deemed eligible only if they reported the results of a human-subjects experiment in which humans interacted with an automated system in order to achieve a goal. Additionally, a relationship between trust (or a trust-related behavior) and another variable had to be measured. All together, 101 total papers, containing 127 eligible studies, were included in the review. Our analysis revealed three layers of variability in human-automation trust (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust), which we organize into a model. We propose design recommendations for creating trustworthy automation and identify environmental conditions that can affect the strength of the relationship between trust and reliance. Future research directions are also discussed for each layer of trust. Our three-layered trust model provides a new lens for conceptualizing the variability of trust in automation. Its structure can be applied to help guide future research and develop training interventions and design procedures that encourage appropriate trust. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Dimensionality of trust: An analysis of the relations between propensity, trustworthiness and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Heyns

    2015-05-01

    Research purpose: This study examined the dynamic interplay between trust propensity, trustworthiness beliefs and the decision to trust, as perceived within dyadic workplace relationships. Motivation for the study: No studies, as far as the authors are aware, have ever attempted to use a combination of Mayer and Davis’s well-known assessment of trustworthiness and Gillespie’s measure of behavioural trust within the same study. By including measures of main antecedents and the actual decision to trust in the same study, the multidimensionality of trust can be established more concretely. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (N = 539 was used. The Behavioural Trust Inventory and the Organisational Trust Instrument were administered. Main findings: Results confirmed the distinctness of propensity, trustworthiness and trust as separate main constructs. Trust was strongly associated with trustworthiness beliefs. Trustworthiness beliefs fully mediated the relationship between propensity and trust. The observed relations between propensity and trustworthiness suggest that individuals with a natural predisposition to trust others will be more inclined to perceive a specific trust referent as trustworthy. Practical/managerial implications: Leaders should realise that their attitudes and behaviour have a decisive impact on trust formation processes: if they are being perceived as trustworthy, followers will be likely to respond by engaging in trusting behaviours towards them. Tools to assess followers’ perceptions of the trustworthiness of the leader may provide useful feedback that can guide leaders. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of propensity to trust and trustworthiness on trust of leaders.

  14. Viewpoint : Trust and the sociology of the professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, but also public or institutional trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of

  15. Trust matters: Patients' and providers' accounts of the role of trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, trust was considered as potentially contributing to trusted doctors' behaviour changes such as excessive self-pride, faking being busy and sluggishness in care provision as well as increasing their work load. Conclusion: The findings suggest that trust in patient-doctor relationship matters for hypertension care in rural ...

  16. A healthy dose of trust: the relationship between interpersonal trust and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, I.K.; Konijn, E.A.; Righetti, F.; Rusbult, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The positive effects of trust are manifold. Recent research has shown that trust levels may even influence physical health. The current work explores this issue and aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between trust and health in a 5-wave longitudinal data set. Results

  17. Trust and automation: the influence of automation malfunctions and system feedback on operator trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Stine

    2001-10-01

    Level of operator trust in an automatic system, which is not in accordance with the reliability of the system, might impose serious threats concerning issues of safety, productivity and the well being of the operator. Operator trust is therefore regarded as an important variable in man-machine interaction. The focus of this study was the influence of automatic malfunctions and amount of feedback provided by the automatic system on level of operator trust. The study was conducted in conjunction with the Human Centred Automation 2000-experiment. Two questionnaires attempting to measure operator trust were developed, designed to reflect the dimensions of predictability, dependability and faith. Analysis of the questionnaires demonstrated that they were reliable tools for measurement of operator trust. Factor analysis did not completely confirm the theoretical dimensions of trust, but indicated partial support. Operator trust correlated negatively with workload across situations, and positively with performance in complex situations. The results of the hypotheses tests demonstrated that operator trust gradually decreased after introduction of malfunctions. The effect of different malfunctions was however the opposite of what was expected, with obvious malfunctions reducing trust more than more camouflaged and safety critical malfunctions. Trust in the automatic system in general was lower than trust in specific malfunctioning components. Different interfaces providing different amount of feedback to the operator did not significantly influence level of operator trust. (Author)

  18. Trust and control interrelatedness: New perspectives on the trust-control nexus in organizational relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.C.; Bijlsma-Frankema, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue on New Perspectives on the Trust-Control Nexus in Organizational Relations. Trust and control are interlinked processes commonly seen as key to reach effectiveness in inter- and intraorganizational relations. The relation between trust and control is,

  19. Public trust: Struggle and regain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    The after-effect of Monju and Tokai accidents has been much larger than expected. It struck PNC a fierce blow and the damage did not stop there but extended to the nuclear community at large. As a result, PNC was reformed into a new corporate, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). JNC has been given a new body but its mind must be cultivated so as to be able to regain public trust. This presentation summarizes the struggle to regain public trust in case of Monju. After five and a half years of construction work, Monju began pre-operation tests in May 1991, achieved initial criticality in April 1994 and the first connection to the grid in August 1995, and the accident occurs in December 1995. Until then, there was confidence, perhaps overconfidence, and it was taken for granted that the public was always in favour of 'nuclear'. The struggle to regain the public confidence involved: (1) Improvement of safety measures and emergency management; (2) Cultivation of a new corporate culture; (3) Open information; (4) Public communication (i.e. 'Door-to-door visit', 'Public meeting', 'Come-and-see', Weekly press conference. The struggle may continue for some time

  20. DETERMINANTS OF NETWORK OUTCOMES: THE IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-09-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more influence on network dynamics than previously theorized.